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Health

  • Online health resources

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Bulletin of the World Health Organization (BLT) - The International Journal of Public Health
    Description/subject: Very rich seam of medical articles. This page presents the current issue, with all articles downloadable (pdf). For previous issues (back to 1947) click on "Past Issues" in the left hand column and browse the Volumes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2005


    Title: DrugWatch
    Description/subject: "DrugWatch.com is a comprehensive Web site database featuring extensive information about thousands of different medications and drugs currently on the market or previously available worldwide. DrugWatch.com includes up-to-date information about prescription and over-the-counter medications and includes details about associated side effects to aid in the protection of patients and consumers. The resources available on DrugWatch.com are provided to offer visitors free and accurate information to aid in the understanding of various medications and conditions. The content on the site may help consumers formulate questions for medical professionals and alert the public about important information regarding potentially dangerous side effects associated with certain medications. By providing FDA alerts, drug interactions, and potential side effects on the site, patients have access to valuable knowledge that could enhance their ability to voice concerns with their doctor and improve their quality of care..."...CAVEAT: a limited check reveals that not all brand names of drugs available in Asia are listed.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: DrugWatch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 January 2011


    Title: GANFYD - a medical Wiki
    Description/subject: The medical Wikipedia "Welcome to ganfyd.org - The free medical knowledge base that anyone can read and any registered medical practitioner may edit. Ganfyd is a collaborative medical reference by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts. The site is based around the wiki format, enabling true sharing of knowledge. Please join and help us to create a great source of information and experience! "
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: GANFYD
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 March 2008


    Title: GHAP -- Health Reports and Publications
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Planet Care:GHAP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Health Science Journals in Myanmar
    Description/subject: A digital portal of health science journals in Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Health Science Journals in Myanmar
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Healthwrights Publications and Products
    Description/subject: Several online books on village health care including "Questioning the Solution - The Politics of Primary Health Care and Child Survival"; "Nothing About Us Without Us - Developing Innovative Technologies For, By and With Disabled Persons"....
    Language: English, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Healthwrights
    Format/size: htm
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    Title: Hesperian Health Guides
    Description/subject: "Hesperian Health Guides are easy to use, medically accurate, and richly illustrated. We publish 20 titles, spanning women’s health, children, disabilities, dentistry, health education, HIV, and environmental health, and distribute many others. Buy, download, or read from this page, or view resources by language to explore materials in Spanish and over 80 other languages..."
    Language: English and other languages
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
    http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Library and Information Networks for Knowledge Database (WHOLIS)
    Description/subject: Type "Myanmar" (or whatever) into the Search box. Explore the full-text link at the right of some texts. Not much recent material.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 October 2010


    Title: Mahidol University Library Search
    Description/subject: Some public, some not.
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: Mahidol University Library
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    Title: Network Myanmar's Health page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


    Title: Pub Med
    Description/subject: Several hundred abstracts of health-related articles. Some full texts, but most have to be paid for. Search for "burma OR myanmar OR birma"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Library of Medicine (USA)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: UNFPA_Myanmar Publications
    Description/subject: Publications about various Health issue in Myanmar.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: UNFPA/Myanmar
    Alternate URLs: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/myanmar/
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: WHO Research tools
    Description/subject: Library database (WHOLIS): "WHOLIS is the World Health Organization library database available on the web. WHOLIS indexes all WHO publications from 1948 onwards and articles from WHO-produced journals and technical documents from 1985 to the present. An on-site card catalogue provides access to the pre-1986 technical documents"... A guide to statistical information at WHO (WHOSIS): A guide to epidemiological and statistical information available from WHO. Most WHO technical programmes develop health-related epidemiological and statistical information which they make available on the WHO website. The WHOSIS will help you to find it: - WHOSIS; - Burden of disease statistics; - WHO mortality database; - Statistical annexes of the World Health Report; - Statistics by disease or condition; - Health personnel; - External sources for health-related statistical information; WHO family of international classifications: - The international statistical classification of diseases; - International classification of functioning, disability and health; - Disability assessment schedule II (WHODAS II)... Geographical information tools: - Communicable disease surveillance and response: public health mapping; - Evidence and information for health policy: GIS; - Global health atlas; - PAHO/AMRO SIG-Epi... Media centre: - Multimedia Page: audio, video, photos... WHO collaborating centres: - WHO collaborating centres database.
    Language: English (available also in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish)
    Source/publisher: World Health Organization (WHO)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2005


    Title: Wikipedia (health)
    Description/subject: Full of health pages. From the alternate URL scroll down to "Burmese" (currently No. 107), and click on the Burmese script. Clicking on the Roman "Burmese" will take you to the Burmese language page. In the Burmese wiki, use Myanmar-3 font.
    Language: English (other languages available)
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_Wikipedias (scroll down and click on the Burmese script to access the Burmese language wiki)
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


    Title: Wikipedia AIDS page
    Description/subject: * 1 Infection by HIV * 2 Diagnosis o 2.1 WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease o 2.2 CDC Classification System for HIV Infection o 2.3 HIV test * 3 Symptoms and Complications o 3.1 The major pulmonary illnesses o 3.2 The major gastro-intestinal illnesses o 3.3 The major neurological illnesses o 3.4 The major HIV-associated malignancies o 3.5 Other opportunistic infections * 4 Transmission and prevention o 4.1 Sexual contact o 4.2 Exposure to infected body fluids o 4.3 Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) * 5 Treatment * 6 Epidemiology * 7 Economic impact * 8 Stigma * 9 Origin of HIV * 10 Alternative theories * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Wikipedia Cholera page
    Description/subject: * 1 Pathology o 1.1 Susceptibility o 1.2 Transmission o 1.3 Symptoms * 2 History o 2.1 Origin and Spread o 2.2 Research o 2.3 Other historical information * 3 Treatment o 3.1 Prevention * 4 References * 5 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Wikipedia Dengue Fever page
    Description/subject: * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 Epidemiology * 5 Prevention * 6 Potential antiviral approaches * 7 Recent outbreaks * 8 References * 9 External links * 10 See also
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Wikipedia Diarrhea page
    Description/subject: * 1 Causes * 2 Mechanism * 3 Acute diarrhea * 4 Chronic diarrhea o 4.1 Infective diarrhea o 4.2 Malabsorption o 4.3 Inflammatory bowel disease o 4.4 Irritable Bowel Syndrome o 4.5 Other important causes * 5 Treatment of diarrhea * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Wikipedia HIV page
    Description/subject: * 1 Introduction * 2 Transmission * 3 The clinical course of HIV-1 infection o 3.1 Primary Infection o 3.2 Clinical Latency o 3.3 The declaration of AIDS * 4 HIV structure and genome * 5 HIV tropism * 6 Replication cycle of HIV o 6.1 Viral entry to the cell o 6.2 Viral replication and transcription o 6.3 Viral assembly and release * 7 Genetic variability of HIV * 8 Treatment * 9 Epidemiology * 10 Alternative theories * 11 References * 12 External links * 13 AIDS News
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Wikipedia in Burmese
    Description/subject: About 10,000 items...Use Myanmar-3...A number of Health topics
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_Wikipedias
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


    Title: Wikipedia section on Diabetes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


    Title: Wikipedia section on reproductive health
    Description/subject: ""Sexual health" redirects here. For the journal, see International Journal of Sexual Health. Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.[1] Reproductive health, therefore, implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this are the right of men and women to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control of their choice; and the right of access to appropriate health care services of sexual and reproductive medicine that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. According to the WHO, "Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men."..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


    Title: Wikipedia tuberculosis pages
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 March 2008


    Title: World Health Reports
    Description/subject: All reports back to 1995 online. Statistics, specific themes... substantial publications.
    Language: English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish also available)
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: Where there is no Doctor - part 1 (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
    Date of publication: 23 July 2014
    Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems..."....N.B. the date of 23 July 2014 is presumably the date of the translation. The date of the original English was, I believe, 2011 - OBL Librarian
    Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides via UNICEF
    Format/size: pdf (4.8MB-reduced version; 11.9MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Where_there_is_no_doctor_Part_1.pdf
    http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
    http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


    Title: Where there is no Doctor - part 2 (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
    Date of publication: 23 July 2014
    Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems..."....N.B. the date of 23 July 2014 is presumably the date of the translation. The date of the original English was, I believe, 2011 - OBL Librarian.
    Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides via UNICEF
    Format/size: pdf (3.9MB-reduced version; 7MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Where_there_is_no_doctor_Part_2_inside_text.pdf
    http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
    http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


    Title: Where There Is No Dentist (English)
    Date of publication: July 2012
    Description/subject: "'Where There Is No Dentist' is a book about what people can do for themselves and each other to care for their gums and teeth. It is written for: • village and neighborhood health workers who want to learn more about dental care as part of a complete community-based approach to health; • school teachers, mothers, fathers, and anyone concerned with encouraging dental health in their children and their community; and • those dentists and dental technicians who are looking for ways to share their skills, to help people become more self-reliant at lower cost. Just as with the rest of health care, there is a strong need to ‘deprofessionalize’ dentistry—to provide ordinary people and community workers with more skills to prevent and cure problems in the mouth. After all, early care is what makes the dentist’s work unnecessary—and this is the care that each person gives to his or her own teeth, or what a mother does to protect her children’s teeth...".....Read online or download (3.7MB)...Originally published 1983; last revised 2011.
    Author/creator: Murray Dickson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Foundation
    Format/size: html, pdf (3.7MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_there_is_no_dentist-2011%28en%29-op175-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Where There Is No Doctor: a village health care handbook - 2011 revised edition (English)
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems...".....The Hesperian.org site provides links to the 23 individual chapters, for easy download."
    Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Where Women Have No Doctor - a health guide for women (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: Summarized and Translated by Women's Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE).... Foreword: "Health is a right; and like all other human rights it applies to everybody, particularly those person living in deplorable conditions. Quality health services must be based on poor people's particularly poor women's needs. Historically, women have been at a disadvantaged on account of neglect and discrimination in treatment by the state and societal institutions in most parts of the world. This leads to marginalization of women as attributed by the lack of opportunity and indignities perpetrated by discriminatory legal systems. We are very pleased to offer this new adapted Burmese version of the book entitled Where Women Have No Doctor which combines self-help medical information with an understanding of the way of poverty, discrimination and cultural beliefs that limit women's health and access to care. The book aims to empower women to improve their health and to support community health workers who continue to improve women's health. Our special thanks go to the women and men behind the publication of this book whose immeasurable contribution led to the completion work. Moreover, to the Hesperian Foundation, without the generous support of, this book will not come into fruition. Moreover, we dedicate this book to the Burmese women who continue to be marginalized. May this book offer relief and support to you.".....The Hesperian site provides the full text in high resolution and links to individual chapters... "An essential resource for any woman or health worker who wants to improve her health and the health of her community, and for anyone to learn about problems that affect women differently from men. Topics include reproductive health, concerns of girls and older women, violence, and mental health..."
    Author/creator: A. August Burns, Ronnie Lovich, Jane Maxwell, Katharine Shapiro...translated by Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: WEAVE/Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: pdf (3.7MB-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/resources-in-burmese/
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Where Women Have No Doctor - A health guide for women (English)
    Date of publication: 2010
    Description/subject: "This book was written to help women care for their own health, and to help community health workers or others meet women’s health needs. We have tried to include information that will be useful for those with no formal training in health care skills, and for those who do have some training. Although this book covers a wide range of women’s health problems, it does not cover many problems that commonly affect both women and men, such as malaria, parasites, intestinal problems, and other diseases. For information on these kinds of problems, see Where There Is No Doctor or another general medical book. Sometimes the information in this book will not be enough to enable you to solve a health problem. When this happens, get more help. Depending on the problem, we may suggest that you: • see a health worker. This means that a trained health worker should be able to help you solve the problem. • get medical help. This means you need to go to a clinic that has trained medical people or a doctor, or a laboratory where basic tests are done. • go to a hospital. This means you need to see a doctor at a hospital that is equipped for emergencies, for surgery, or for special tests..."......The Hesperian site provides the full text in high resolution and links to individual chapters. The OBL Alternate URLs are to the full text in low and medium resolution... See also the Burmese version on the OBL and Hesperian sites.
    Author/creator: A. August Burns, Ronnie Lovich, Jane Maxwell, Katharine Shapiro
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: pdf - 5.6MB (low resolution) ; 9.1MB (medium resolution)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_women_have_no_doctor(en)-red.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_Women_Have_No_Doctor(en)-op150-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Essential trauma management training: addressing service delivery needs in active conflict zones in eastern Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Access to governmental and international nongovernmental sources of health care within eastern Myanmar's conflict regions is virtually nonexistent. Historically, under these circumstances effective care for the victims of trauma, particularly landmine injuries, has been severely deficient. Recognizing this, community-based organizations (CBOs) providing health care in these regions sought to scale up the capacity of indigenous health workers to provide trauma care.
    Author/creator: Allison J Richard1, Catherine I Lee, Matthew G Richard, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Thomas Lee and Lawrence Stock
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Resources for Health
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Patients' Manual -- Burmese
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Short illustrated brochure in Burmese explaining basic medical terms relating to hygiene, disease vectors etc.
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
    Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


    Title: Patients' Manual -- Karen
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Short illustrated brochure in Karen explaining basic medical terms relating to hygiene, disease vectors etc.
    Language: Karen
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


    Title: A Community Guide to Environmental Health (English)
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: Summary: “Covers topics: community mobilization; water source protection, purification and borne diseases; sanitation; mosquito-borne diseases; deforestation and reforestation; farming; pesticides and toxics; solid waste and health care waste; harm from mining and oil extraction. Includes group activities and appropriate technology instructions.”..."...It is clear what it means to improve the health of a child or of a family. But how do you improve the health of the environment? When we talk about environmental health, we mean the way our health is affected by the world around us, and also how our activities affect the health of the world around us. If our food, water, and air are contaminated, they can make us sick. If we are not careful about how we use the air, water, and land, we can make ourselves and the world around us sick. By protecting our environment, we protect our health. Improving environmental health often begins when people notice that a health problem is affecting not just one person or group, but is a problem for the whole community. When a problem is shared, people are more likely to work together to bring about change..."...Includes bibliographical references and index.
    Author/creator: Jeff Conant and Pam Fadem
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: pdf (8MB - OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Community_guide_to_environmental_health2008(en)-op200-red.pdf
    http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


    Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - Burmese
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale
    Format/size: pdf (2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


    Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - English
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


    Title: Coverage and Skill Mix Balance of Human Resources for Health in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2005
    Description/subject: The township health system in Myanmar is regarded as means to achieve the end of an equitable, efficient and effective health system based on the principles of primary health care approach. A township hospital caters medical care at the second referral level. Under the leadership and management of a Township Medical Officer in each township, para-professionals deployed at Rural Health Centers (RHCs) and Sub-centers under each RHC’s jurisdiction play key roles for providing primary health care services for rural population. There had been an expansion of township hospital beds, RHCs and Sub-centers during the past 15 years. However, whether the current HRH skill mix is appropriate and cost-effective for primary health care services in Myanmar’s rural areas need a proper review. In this paper we attempted to explore current distribution and balance of skill mix of selected categories township level HRH for effective coverage of essential health care services in rural areas. [abstract]
    Author/creator: Dr. Than Tun Sein, Dr. Maung Maung Win, Dr Nilar Tin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia-Pacific Action Alliance on Human Resources for Health
    Format/size: pdf (207.17 K)
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS -- Burmese
    Date of publication: 2005
    Description/subject: This 63 page book collectively answers many of the questions young people want to ask about HIV/AIDS. [in Myanmar language] It explains AIDS origin in Africa and spread globally, its current prevalence in Myanmar, its modes of infection, and means for control. Yangon, 2005... For further information please contact: Jason Rush, Communication Officer, UNICEF in Myanmar Phone: (95 1) 212 086; Fax: (95 1) 212 063 ; Email: jrush@unicef.org
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: UNICEF
    Format/size: pdf (1.64MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


    Title: A STUDY ON COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES ON LEPROSY
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Introduction: 1.1 Leprosy 1.2 History of leprosy 1.3 Stigma of leprosy 1.4 Health education 1.5 The global situation 1.6 Global strategy for the elimination of leprosy 1.7 Global strategy beyond the elimination phase 1.8 Leprosy in Singapore, Chapter 2 Review of Literature: 2.1 Community knowledge of leprosy 2.2 Beliefs and misconceptions about leprosy 2.3 Community attitudes towards leprosy 2.4 Measuring leprosy stigma 2.5 Community health practices 2.6 Effectiveness of interventions targeting knowledge and attitudes 2.7 Concluding remarks 2.8 Rationale for the study 2.9 Objectives, Chapter 3 Methodology: 3.1 Study design 3.2 Place of study 3.3 Study population 3.4 Sampling 3.5 Data collection 3.6 Interviewers 3.7 Pilot study 3.8 Data processing and analysis 3.9 Study variables 3.10 Minimizing errors 3.11 Ethical issues, Chapter 4 Results: 4.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.1.1 Socio-demographic variables 4.1.2 General information 4.1.3 Knowledge of leprosy 4.1.4 Misconceptions regarding leprosy 4.1.5 Attitudes towards leprosy patients 4.2 Statistical Analysis for Associations 4.2.1 Knowledge of leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.2 Beliefs regarding leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.3 Overall knowledge scores 4.2.4 Beliefs regarding the cause of leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.5 Attitudes towards persons affected by leprosy 4.2.6 Overall attitudes scores 4.2.7 Median attitude scores 4.2.8 Relationship between overall knowledge, age, education and accommodation of the respondents with attitude score 4.2.9 Stigmatising attitudes towards leprosy.4.3. Stratified Analysis 4.3.1 Stratified analysis by age group 4.4. Multiple Regression Analysis, Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusions: 5.1 Main findings 5.2 Limitations of the present study 5.3 Interpretation of findings 5.4 Conclusions 5.5 Recommendations, Chapter 6 References Appendices: Annexe I Questionnaire, Annexe II Operational definitions
    Author/creator: PADMINI SUBRAMANIAM, MBBS.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Department of Community, Occupational & Family Medicine National University of Singapore
    Format/size: pdf (725.81 K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    Title: Disabled Village Children - A guide for community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "Disabled Village Children is a guide for community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families. With more than 4,000 line drawings and 200 photos, this is an exciting book of information and ideas for all who are concerned about the well-being of disabled children. It is especially for those who live in rural areas where resources are limited. But it is also for therapists and professionals who assist community-based programs or who want to share knowledge and skills with families and concerned members of the commnunity. The book gives a wealth of clear, simple, but detailed information about most common disabilities of children: many different physical disabilities, blindness, deafness, fits, behavior problems, and developmental delay. It gives suggestions for simplified rehabilitation, low-cost aids, and ways to help disabled children find a role and be accepted in the community. Above all, the book helps us to realize that most of the answers for meeting these children's needs can be found within the community, the family, and in the children themselves. It discusses ways of starting small community rehabilitation centers and workshops run by disabled persons or the families of disabled children..."... PART 1. WORKING WITH THE CHILD AND FAMILY: Information on Different Disabilities...PART 2. WORKING WITH THE COMMUNITY: Village Involvement in the Rehabilitation, Social Integration, and Rights of Disabled Children...PART 3. WORKING IN THE SHOP: Rehabilitation Aids and Procedures with the help of many friends Drawings by the author
    Author/creator: David Werner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    Title: The Ship Captain's Medical Guide
    Date of publication: 1996
    Description/subject: First aid - Chapter 1 Adobe Acrobat PDF (1.2Mb); Toxic hazards of chemicals including poisoning - Chapter 2 Adobe Acrobat PDF (24Kb); General Nursing - Chapter 3 Adobe Acrobat PDF (289Kb); Care of the injured - Chapter 4 Adobe Acrobat PDF (216Kb); Causes and prevention of disease - Chapter 5 Adobe Acrobat PDF (44Kb); Communicable diseases - Chapter 6 Adobe Acrobat PDF (90Kb); Sexually transmitted diseases - Chapter 6.1 Adobe Acrobat PDF (43Kb); Other diseases and medical problems - Chapter 7 Adobe Acrobat PDF (393Kb); Diseases of fishermen - Chapter 8 Adobe Acrobat PDF (45Kb); Female disorders and Pregnancy - Chapter 9 Adobe Acrobat PDF (22Kb); Childbirth - Chapter 10 Adobe Acrobat PDF (112Kb); Survivors - Chapter 11 Adobe Acrobat PDF (19Kb); The dying and the dead - Chapter 12 Adobe Acrobat PDF (17Kb); External assistance - Chapter 13 Adobe Acrobat PDF (59Kb); Annexes/Index Adobe Acrobat PDF (368Kb).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Maritime an Coastguard Service (UK Stationary Office)
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 August 2005


    Title: Helping Health Workers Learn (updated 1995)
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: Contents — INTRODUCTION — Warning — Why This Book is so Political... PART ONE: Approaches and Plans-- * Chapter 1: Looking at Learning and Teaching * Chapter 2: Selecting Health Workers, Instructors, and Advisors * Chapter 3: Planning a Training Program * Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start (Be Prepared) * Chapter 5: Planning a Class * Chapter 6: Learning and Working with the Community * Chapter 7: Helping People Look at Their Customs and Beliefs * Chapter 8: Practice in Attending the Sick * Chapter 9: Examinations and Evaluation as a Learning Proccess * Chapter 10: Follow-up, Support, and Continued Learning... PART TWO: Learning Through Seeing, Doing, and Thinking * Chapter 11: Making and Using Teaching Aids * Chapter 12: Learning to Make, Take, and Use Pictures * Chapter 13: Story Telling * Chapter 14: Role Playing * Chapter 15: Appropriate and Inappropriate Technology * Chapter 16: Homemade, Lo-cost Equipment and Written Materials * Chapter 17: Solving Problems Step by Step (Scientific Method) * Chapter 18: Learning to Use Medicines and Equipment Sensibly * Chapter 19: Aids for Learning to Use Medicines and Equipment... PART THREE: Learning To Use The Book, Where There Is No Doctor * Chapter 20: Using the Contents, Index, Page References, and Vocabulary * Chapter 21: Practice in Using Guides, Charts, and Record Sheets... PART FOUR: Activities With Mothers and Children * Chapter 22: Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Young Children * Chapter 23: The Politics of Family Planning * Chapter 24: Children as Health Workers... PART FIVE: Health In Relation To Food, Land, And Social Problems * Chapter 25: Food First * Chapter 26: Looking at How Human Resources Affect Health * Chapter 27: Ways to get People Thinking and Acting: Village Theater and Puppet Shows... A Call For Courage and Caution — Addresses For Teaching Materials — Index — About Project Piaxtla and The Authors.
    Author/creator: David Werner
    Language: English, Espanol
    Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    Title: Anatomy of the Human Body (Gray's Anatomy) - 18th edition
    Date of publication: 1918
    Description/subject: "The Bartleby.com edition of Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body features 1,247 vibrant engravings—many in color—from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index with 13,000 entries ranging from the Antrum of Highmore to the Zonule of Zinn..."
    Author/creator: Henry Gray
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bartleby.com
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    Title: Burma Medical Association
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Medical Association
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 December 2013


    Title: Interesting things about your body-[Anatomy] No.1 / စိတ္၀င္စားစရာ သင့္ခႏၶာ (အမွတ္-၁)
    Author/creator: Doctor Hla Pay
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


    Title: Medical Writings / ဆေးပညာစာများ
    Description/subject: Dr Tint Swe's Medical blog. ယမုန်နာဆေးခန်း လက်ထောက်များအတွက် သင်ခန်းစာများ နှင့် ဆေးပညာစာများ
    Language: Burmese, English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://dts-presentations.blogspot.com/
    http://yamuna-clinic-delhi.blogspot.com/
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


  • General studies on health in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: On the cusp of disease transition in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 29 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death and disability. Between and within countries, however, there is still a marked diversity in the causes and nature of this disease transition. In Myanmar, economic and political reforms, and the ways in which these intersect with health, have created a unique public health and development context with major ramifications for public health. Myanmar’s transition creates anl opportunity to learn from the public health and development mistakes made elsewhere, but signs are at present that the rush towards short term economic opportunities is taking precedence. This piece illustrates some of the local dynamics that drive NCDs in Myanmar, and potential entry points for the international community to help address Myanmar’s next major health challenge..."
    Author/creator: Sam Byfield and Maeve Kennedy, Guest Contributors
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Health - A Myanmar Times Special Feature, July 2012
    Date of publication: July 2012
    Description/subject: An overview of health care - By San Tun Aung...YGH needs greater attention of reforms - Kyaw Hsu Mon...List of government and private hospitals in Yangon...Secrets of old age - Yhoon Hnin...Reflections on a healthy life - Su Hlaing Htun...Liqour consumption on the rise - Pinky...How to care (sic) your bones - Naw Say Phaw Waa...Choosing healthy ways to lose weight - Lwin Mar Htun...Physical inactivity kills 5 million - "The Lancet"...Exercising help (sic) to keep mind and body active - Aung Si Hein...Sports as lifestyle choice for executive workers - Nuam Bawi...Drugs ‘arsenal’ could help end AIDS: WHO - Kerry Sheridan...Rainy season adds danger of water-borne diseases - Nyein Ei Ei Htwe...Save your skin, and money - Katherine Boyle...What to do when faced with a heat wave - Jason Samenow...For kids, viewing natural disasters can whip up worries - Dennis Thompson...
    Language: English (a little Burmese)
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (1.69MB)
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: "BurmaNet News" Health archive
    Description/subject: Health-related articles back to 2008
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


    Title: "BurmaNet News" Health/HIV archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: Center for Disease Control and Information (CDC)
    Description/subject: Health Information for Travelers to Burma (Myanmar) .... Also Search for "Myanmar" or "Myanmar Health"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Center for Disease Control and Information
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cdc.gov/search.do?queryText=myanmar&searchButton.x=0&searchButton.y=0&action=search
    http://www.cdc.gov/search.do?q=myanmar+health&btnG.x=0&btnG.y=0&oe=UTF-8&ie=UTF-8&sort=date%3AD%3AL%3Ad1&ud=1&site=default_collection
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Country Health System Profile - Myanmar
    Description/subject: Country Health System Profile... Mini profile -2007... 1. Trends in Policy Development... 2. Trends in Socio-Economic Development... 3. Health and Environment... 4. Health Resources... 5. Development of the Health System... 6. Health Services... 7. Trends in Health Status... 8. Outlook for The Future... 9. Basic Health indicators including the U.N. Millennium Development Goals.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


    Title: Health in Burma
    Description/subject: "The general state of health care in Burma is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment... Contents: 1 HIV/AIDS... 2 Maternal and child health care... 3 Health education... 4 See also... 5 References... 6 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: MD Travel Health: Myanmar page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: MD Travel health
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Myanmar Health Articles on MSF website
    Description/subject: Articles and activity reports on Myanmar health
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/ar/report.cfm?id=4447&cat=activity-report
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


    Title: World Health Organisation - Myanmar Country Office
    Description/subject: Public health and other articles: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Myanmar; Progress, Plans and Challenges... Report on National TB Prevalence Survey 2009-2010, Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of HIV infection in adults and adolescents in Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of HIV infection in children in Myanmar... Guidelines for the clinical management of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Myanmar... Review of the National Tuberculosis Programme, Myanmar, 7-15 November 2011... MARC advocacy fact sheet (English version)... MARC advocacy fact sheet (Myanmar version)... Strategic Framework for Artemisinin Resistance Containment in Myanmar (MARC) 2011 - 2015, April 2011... Report of the informal consultation on Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC), Nay Pyi Taw, 4 - 5 April 2011
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation - Myanmar Country Office
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


    Title: World Health Organisation -- Myanmar page
    Description/subject: OVERVIEW: - Country cooperation strategy - International travel and health PARTNERS: - Collaborating centres... OUTBREAKS AND CRISES: - Emergencies... - Disease outbreaks... MORTALITY AND BURDEN OF DISEASE: - Mortality profile... - HIV/AIDS treatment... - Malaria... - Tuberculosis... - TB prevalence and incidence... - HIV prevalence... - HIV/AIDS epidemiological fact sheet... HEALTH SERVICE COVERAGE: - Immunization profile... RISK FACTORS: - Chronic diseases... - Anaemia... - Child malnutrition... - Access to water, sanitation... - Alcohol, tobacco consumption... - Undernutrition and overweight... HEALTH SYSTEMS: - Health workforce... - Health financing.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


    Title: WWW Virtual Library: Public Health: Myanmar Page
    Description/subject: Links to NGO and UN agency pages
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The WWW Virtual Library: Public Health
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2013 (Burma/Myanmar section)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2013
    Description/subject: "State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2013" presents a global picture of the health inequalities experienced by minorities and indigenous communities. The report finds that minorities and indigenous peoples suffer more ill-health and receive poorer quality of care. - See more at: http://www.minorityrights.org/12071/state-of-the-worlds-minorities/state-of-the-worlds-minorities-and-indigenous-peoples-2013.html#sthash.4jaxgXrf.dpuf
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group (MRG)
    Format/size: pdf (153K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.minorityrights.org/12071/state-of-the-worlds-minorities/state-of-the-worlds-minorities-and-indigenous-peoples-2013.html
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2013


    Title: "Health" "က်န္းမာေရး"
    Date of publication: July 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar Times" special supplementary issue July 2012.... ျမန္မာတိုင္း (မ္) အထူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို - ဇူလိုင္ ၂၀၁၂
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (888K-OBL version; 966K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/579/health/MTM%20Health.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Title: Burma: health and transition
    Date of publication: 23 June 2012
    Description/subject: "...Despite signs of political reform in Burma, the military retains a strong presence in regions of ethnic tension, and health and human rights abuses are certain to continue without adequate monitoring. Other members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are complicit in their silence. Whether elements of the former military junta will eventually be brought to justice for crimes under international law remains to be seen. The government must begin to shift resources from the military back to the health of its people. As Aung San Suu Kyi completes her historic European visit this week, and the country opens to international investment, health and human rights must be protected for all of Burma's people."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Lancet"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


    Title: Groups Warn of Health Needs in Burma
    Date of publication: 10 April 2012
    Description/subject: This is the VOA Special English Health Report. In the past year, Burma has opened its political system and reached cease-fire agreements with some ethnic militias. The government has also eased media restrictions. But many aid groups say their jobs have not gotten any easier. Health workers are warning about the spread of a form of drug-resistant malaria. The malaria is resistant to treatment with artemisinin. It was first seen several years ago in Cambodia.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Voice of America (VOA)
    Format/size: pdf (83K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Burma: Rights Abuse Fuels Health Crisis
    Date of publication: 21 October 2010
    Description/subject: Dire heath crisis in Burma is driven by disinvestment in health, protracted conflict and widespread abuses of human rights. The health of civilians in the conflict-affected zones of eastern Burma, particularly women and children, is among the worst in the world, says a new report released in Bangkok on Tuesday, Oct. 19. Having surveyed 21 townships in conflict zones, researchers discovered that over 40 percent of children below 5 years of age are acutely malnourished and one in seven of them will die before reaching this age.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNPO/ Burma
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks
    Date of publication: 25 February 2010
    Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 25, 2010 (IPS) - When Aye Aye (not her real name) leaves her youngest son at home each night, she tells him that she has to work selling snacks. But what Aye actually sells is sex so that her 12-year-old son, a Grade 7 student, can finish his education.
    Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IPS
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    Title: Health Care ("Myanmar Times" special feature)
    Date of publication: June 2008
    Description/subject: Mandalay University developing traditional medicine industry; Pharmaceutical imports still on the rise; Exercise and optimism ingredients for long life » Greater public awareness of cervical cancer in urgent need » Lifestyle crucial for a happy, healthy heart » Exercise in Myanmar: Luxury or necessity? » Balanced diet needed for a centred mind » Fighting the ‘black dog’ of depression » Cyclone relief experience one that won’t be forgotten » Private hospital pain » Cataracts and glaucoma leading eye problems » Oral health standards increasing but room to improve, say dentists » Water - the beverage you need most » The pleasure and pain of reflexology » Women need to know about health issues » ‘Hospitel’ replaces hospital in modern medical treatment » Awareness of HIV/ AIDS increasing » Three major diseases in Myanmar » Type-2 diabetes linked to lifestyle.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Consolidated Media Co. Ltd
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mmtimes.com/feature/healthcare/health008.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2008


    Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 2008
    Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar Country Paper for Revisiting Primary Health Care
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: I. Background The foundation of Primary Health Care and its evolution The Thirtieth World Health Assembly in 1977 identified the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that would permit them to lead socially and economically productive lives as a main social target of governments, international organizations and communities. This was reaffirmed by the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 held in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in September, 1978.1 The declaration of Alma-Ata formally adopted primary health care as means for providing a comprehensive, universal, equitable and affordable healthcare service for all countries. It was unanimously adopted by all WHO member countries at the Primary Health Care Conference. The conference defined PHC as "essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford. The ideology behind Primary Health Care is based on the recognition that health promotion and protection are essential for sustained economic and social development and contribute to better quality of life. PHC is a cost-effective approach and its principles include social-justice, equity, human rights, and universal access to services, community involvement and priority to the most vulnerable and underprivileged.
    Author/creator: Dr. Nyo NYo Kyaing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Department of Health, Ministry of Health via WHO SEAR
    Format/size: pdf (362.44 K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar - Von der Kolonie zum Armenhaus
    Date of publication: 07 September 2007
    Description/subject: Die knapp 60 Jahre mit ständigem Wechsel von bewaffneten Konflikten, BürgerInnenkriegen und "sozialistischer" Militärdiktatur sind der Grund für die heutige Lage eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt. Der Artikel schildert die ethnischen KOnflikte, den Terror des Militärs und die Lage der Menschenrechte in Myanmar; Ethnic minorities; terror; human rights; education; Karen;
    Author/creator: Sebastian Nagel
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Grüne Jugend
    Format/size: Html (47kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.gruene-jugend.de/show/382223.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
    Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


    Title: Responding to AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
    Date of publication: 10 October 2006
    Description/subject: In 2004 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (“Global Fund”) awarded program grants to Burma (Myanmar) totaling US$98.4 million over five years—recognizing the severity of Burma’s HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics, and noting that malaria was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and the leading killer of children under five years old [1]. For those individuals working in health in Burma, these grants were welcome, indeed [2]. In that same year, Burma’s authoritarian military regime—the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)—was accused of severe and ongoing human rights violations, and United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan appointed a Special Rapportuer on Human Rights, signaling a high level of concern about the junta’s governance. Given these occurrences, the Global Fund imposed additional safeguards on their Burma grants—including additional monitoring of activities and expenditures—and requested and received written guarantees from the junta to respect the fund’s safeguards and performance-based grant system.
    Author/creator: Chris Beyrer*, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Luke C. Mullany, Adam K. Richards, Nicole Franck, Aaron Samuels, Thomas J. Lee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PLoS Medicine
    Format/size: html,pdf (293.64 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030393&representation=PDF
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Chronic Emergency - Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 07 September 2006
    Description/subject: This link leads to a document containing the Table of Contents of the report, with links to the English, Burmese and Thai versions... Executive Summary: "Disinvestment in health, coupled with widespread poverty, corruption, and the dearth of skilled personnel have resulted in the collapse of Burma’s health system. Today, Burma’s health indicators by official figures are among the worst in the region. However, information collected by the Back Pack Health Workers Team (BPHWT) on the eastern frontiers of the country, facing decades of civil war and widespread human rights abuses, indicate a far greater public health catastrophe in areas where official figures are not collected. In these eastern areas of Burma, standard public health indicators such as population pyramids, infant mortality rates, child mortality rates, and maternal mortality ratios more closely resemble other countries facing widespread humanitarian disasters, such as Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Angola, and Cambodia shortly after the ouster of the Khmer Rouge. The most common cause of death continues to be malaria, with over 12% of the population at any given time infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of malaria. One out of every twelve women in this area may lose her life around the time of childbirth, deaths that are largely preventable. Malnutrition is unacceptably common, with over 15% of children at any time with evidence of at least mild malnutrition, rates far higher than their counterparts who have fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Knowledge of sanitation and safe drinking water use remains low. Human rights violations are very common in this population. Within the year prior, almost a third of households had suffered from forced labor, almost 10% forced displacement, and a quarter had had their food confiscated or destroyed. Approximately one out of every fifty households had suffered violence at the hands of soldiers, and one out of 140 households had a member injured by a landmine within the prior year alone. There also appear to be some regional variations in the patterns of human rights abuses. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in areas most solidly controlled by the SPDC and its allies, such as Karenni State and Pa’an District, faced more forced labor while those living in more contested areas, such as Nyaunglebin and Toungoo Districts, faced more forced relocation. Most other areas fall in between these two extremes. However, such patterns should be interpreted with caution, given that the BPHW survey was not designed to or powered to reliably detect these differences. Using epidemiologic tools, several human rights abuses were found to be closely tied to adverse health outcomes. Families forced to flee within the preceding twelve months were 2.4 times more likely to have a child (under age 5) die than those who had not been forcibly displaced. Households forced to flee also were 3.1 times as likely to have malnourished children compared to those in more stable situations. Food destruction and theft were also very closely tied to several adverse health consequences. Families which had suffered this abuse in the preceding twelve months were almost 50% more likely to suffer a death in the household. These households also were 4.6 times as likely to have a member suffer from a landmine injury, and 1.7 times as likely to have an adult member suffer from malaria, both likely tied to the need to forage in the jungle. Children of these households were 4.4 times as likely to suffer from malnutrition compared to households whose food supply had not been compromised. For the most common abuse, forced labor, families that had suffered from this within the past year were 60% more likely to have a member suffer from diarrhea (within the two weeks prior to the survey), and more than twice as likely to have a member suffer from night blindness (a measure of vitamin A deficiency and thus malnutrition) compared to families free from this abuse. Not only are many abuses linked statistically from field observations to adverse health consequences, they are yet another obstacle to accessing health care services already out of reach for the majority of IDP populations in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. This is especially clear with women’s reproductive health: forced displacement within the past year was associated with a 6.1 fold lower use of contraception. Given the high fertility rate of this population and the high prevalence of conditions such as malaria and malnutrition, the lack of access often is fatal, as reflected by the high maternal mortality ratio—as many as one in 12 women will die from pregnancy-related complications. This report is the first to measure basic public health indicators and quantify the extent of human rights abuses at the population level amongst IDP communities living in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. These results indicate that the poor health status of these IDP communities is intricately and inexorably linked to the human rights context in which health outcomes are observed. Without addressing factors which drive ill health and excess morbidity and mortality in these populations, such as widespread human rights abuses and inability to access healthcare services, a long-term, sustainable improvement in the public health of these areas cannot occur..."
    Language: English, Burmese, Thai
    Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB, 2.2MB - English; 1,2MB - Burmese; 1.6MB - Thai)
    Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/ChronicEmergencyE-ocr.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(English%20ver).pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Burmese%20ver).pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Thai%20ver).pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Chronic_Emergency-links.html
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
    Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
    Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
    Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
    Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004: Rights to Education and Health
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: Situation of health; Access to Healthcare; Malnutrition; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004: Rights to Education and Health
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: Government Spending on Health and Education; Situation of Education: Adult Illiteracy; High School Education; University Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Universities Supported by the Military; Access to IT Education; Updates on Education...Situation of Health: Access to Health Care; Malnutrition; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid...Personal Accounts: Personal Accounts Related to Heath - High cost of medical care in Mon State... Personal Accouts Related to Education - Excessive fees for primary education; The miserable conditions of Mandalay university students;
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentaqtion Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-2003: Rights to Education and Health
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: Government Spending on Health and Education... Situation of Education: Adult Illiteracy; High School Education; University Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Universities Supported by the Military; Access to IT Education; Troops Shut Down Two Universities Following Gang Fighting; Military University Closed and 2 Students Arrested Following Strikes... Situation of Health: Access to Health Care; Access to Clean Water and Sanitation; Malaria; Tuberculosis; HIV/AIDS; Mental Health; International Humanitarian Aid...Personal Account (on education)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: Rights to Education and Health
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "...Burma has one of the poorest health records and lowest standards of living in the developing world. Health and education are given incredibly low priorities in the national budget, and lip-service to these issues often take the place of substantial reforms or programs. Because of political considerations the root causes of problems in these arenas, such as the affects of landmines and forced labor on health and the effect of school closings and censorship on education, are not dealt with in meaningful ways. Low salaries and lack of transparent and effective supervision has made it easy for corruption to flourish among medical personnel and educators. Patients more often than not have to pay a bribe to be seen by a doctor, get a bed in a hospital, or receive essential medicine. Primary school students can pay to receive better grades or get private tutoring from their teachers. Higher education in Burma is particularly substandard with students, during those times that the universities are actually open, being given rush degrees in order to prevent any political opposition to the military regime to spring up on college campuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights to Education and Health
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: Situation of Education: Partial Re-opening of Universities; Closure of Dagon and Rangoon Cultural University; No Housing for Students at Pa-an college; Technical Institute moved to remote areas and tuition too high for most students; Quality Higher Education Lost for a Generation of Students; Disparity Between Civilian and Military Education... Situation of Health: HIV/AIDS; SPDC Ministry of Health Data on HIV (also see chapter on Women); HIV Prevalence Rates Among Injecting Drug Users; Mental Health; Prisoners' Health; Health Related INGOs Working in Burma; Health Situation in Border/Conflict Areas; Health situation in relocation sites; Health situation for villagers in hiding villages; Health Situation in Toungoo District, Karen State; Epidemic Kills thousands in Maung Yawn; Villagers forced to pay for UNICEF provisions; Families forced to buy health care cards for mothers and children to support military fund; Bribes demanded to attend Nurse Training; Lack of medicine among SPDC soldiers; Shortage of Medicine and Importation of Counterfeit Medicine in Karenni State... Personal Account.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Ri9ghts Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005


    Title: FATAL SILENCE? Freedom of Expression and the Right to Health in Burma
    Date of publication: July 1996
    Description/subject: The Online Burma Library contains two versions of this 1996 report -- in html with added URLs of references not available online in 1996 and a Word version, without these additions, which keeps, so far as possible, the format of the hard copy. "Censorship has long concealed a multitude of grave issues in Burma (Myanmar. After decades of governmental secrecy and isolation, Burma was dramatically thrust into world headlines during the short-lived democracy uprising in the summer of 1988. But, while international concern and pressure has since continued to mount over the country's long-standing political crisis, the health and humanitar­ian consequences of over 40 years of political malaise and ethnic con­flict have largely been neglected. Indeed, in many parts of the country, they remain totally unaddressed. There are many elements involved in addressing the health cri­sis which now besets Burma's peoples. A fundamental aspect, in ARTICLE 19's view, is for the rights to freedom of expression and information, together with the right to democratic participation, to be ensured. In a context of censorship and secrecy, individuals cannot make informed decisions on important matters affecting their health. Without freedom of academic research and the ability to disseminate research findings, there can be no informed public debate. Denial of research and information also makes effective health planning and provision less likely at the national level. Without local participation, founded on freedom of expression and access to information, the health needs of many sections of society are likely to remain unaddressed. Likewise, secrecy and censorship have a negative impact on the work of international humanitarian agencies..."
    Author/creator: Martin Smith
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Article 19
    Format/size: html (1.1MB), Word (589K), pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/burma-fatal-silence-.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/FATAL-SILENCE.doc
    Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


    Title: WHO - Myanmar page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


  • Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) health issues/studies

    Individual Documents

    Title: Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Regional and Country Profiles
    Date of publication: 28 April 2010
    Description/subject: Acknowledgements ... Abbreviations ... Regional Profi le of Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion ... 1. Background and epidemiology 2. National Malaria Control Programmes 3. Key challenges facing malaria control in the Region 4. International partners in malaria control in the GMS ... Country Profiles: Cambodia 1. Epidemiological profi le 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... China–Yunnan province 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Lao PDR 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Myanmar 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Thailand 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Viet Nam 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Annex I: Approved GFATM Malaria Proposals for the Greater Mekong Subregion
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEAR, WPR
    Format/size: pdf (990.83 K- full text; 73K - Myanmar section)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Malaria_in_the_GMS-Myanmar.pdf (extract on Myanmar)
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


    Title: MOBILITY AND HIV/AIDS IN THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: A. Introduction: 1. Greater Mekong Subregion Overview 2. Population Mobility in the GMS 3. HIV/AIDS in the GMS Countries 3.1 A Region with Two HIV/AIDS Epidemics 3.2 Causes of the Epidemics 3.3 Regional Responses 4. Objectives and Methodology of the Study 4.1 Literature Review 4.2 National and Regional Consultations 4.3 Analysis and Draft Report 4.4 Terms and definitions ….. B. Country Report: Cambodia: 1. Country Profile 2. Population Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal and International Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Population Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 Characteristics of the HIV Epidemic 4.2 Geographical Distribution of HIV/AIDS 4.3 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Migration and Mobility 4.4 Hot Spots for Mobile Population and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusion ….. C. Country Report: Lao People’s Democratic Republic: 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 The Thai-Lao Border Provinces 2.2 Farming in the Lowland Border Provinces 2.3 Emigrant Workers 2.4 Trafficking 2.5 Corridors of Development 2.6 Specific Mobile Population Groups ….. 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in the Lao PDR 4.1 HIV/AIDS Country Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. D. Country Report: Myanmar 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The Two Epidemics – Intravenous Drug Use and Sexual Transmission 4.2 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. E. Country Report: Vietnam 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups … 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The ‘Two Epidemics’ – IDUs and Sex Workers 4.2 Drug Use and HIV Vulnerability 4.3 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.4 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Population Mobility 4.6 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusions ….. F. Country Report: Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China: 1. Province and Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Intra-Provincial Mobility 2.2 Inter-Provincial Mobility 2.3 International Cross-Border Mobility 2.4 Trafficking and Human Smuggling 2.5 Specific Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in Yunnan and PRC 4.1 HIV/AIDS Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk Situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. G. Conclusion and Discussion: 1. Migration and Mobility 2. Gender and Vulnerability 3. Poverty and Development as Driving Forces for Development 4. The Dynamics of HIV Spread and Implications for Mobility 5. The Responses ….. Annex: Map 1: Major Population Mobility Trends & Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 2: Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 3: Progression of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 4: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 5: Spread of HIV Over Time in ASIA 1984 to 1999 ….. Bibliography ….. Persons and Organisations Consulted ….. List of Tables, Figures and Maps A. Introduction Table 1: HIV/AIDS Situation in the GMS Countries B. Cambodia Table 2: Country Profile – Cambodia Table 3: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Cambodia Table 4: HIV Seroprevalence Among Sentinel Groups in 1999 Table 5: HIV Prevalence in Selected Sentinel Groups Table 6: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Cambodia C. Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Table 7: Country Profile – Lao PDR Table 8: Establishments that Provide Sexual Services, and their Customers Table 9: Trucks Departing and Entering Lao PDR Table 10: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their Risk Situation in Lao PDR Table 11: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Lao PDR D. Myanmar Table 12: Country Profile – Myanmar Table 13: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Myanmar Figure 1: HIV Prevalence Among Military Recruits Figure 2: HIV Prevalence Among Pregnant Women Table 14: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Myanmar E. Vietnam Table 15: Country Profile – Vietnam Table 16: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Vietnam Table 17: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Vietnam F. Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 18: Country Profile – Yunnan Province and People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 19: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Yunnan Table 20: HIV Prevalence Rates for Injecting Drug Users 1992-1999 Table 21: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Yunnan … Maps 1. Major Population Mobility Trend and Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2. Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion 3. Progression of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion 4. Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 5. Spread of HIV Over Time in Asia 1984-1999
    Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Allan Beesey and Shakti Paul
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (716.10 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-AIDSMekongregion-Myanmar.pdf
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/mobility.pdf
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/default.asp#contents
    http://www.adb.org/documents/books/hiv_aids/mobility/prelim.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2010


  • Cyclone Nargis - Health issues

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Cyclone Nargis - Health
    Description/subject: WHO, Health Cluster and humanitarian agency reports, articles etc. on the health dimensions of the aftermath of cyclone Nargis
    Language: English, German, Deutsch,
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: IMPLEMENTING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN MYANMAR
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: In the 16 months following the disaster, Merlin has implemented a Disaster Risk Reduction programme within areas where Water and Sanitation (WatSan) and Health programmes are implemented. Covering over 9000 households across 60 villages in Laputta Township, Merlin has worked with the communities to raise awareness about the risks they face, promote a culture of preparedness and build community resilience. The programme has five main components: RISK AWARENESS RAISING, HAZARD ANALYSIS AND PLANNING, BUILDING COMMUNITY RESILIENCE, DRR INTEGRATION, ACCOUNTABILITY TO BENEFICIARIES
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Merlin Medical Relief Lasting Health Care
    Format/size: pdf (737.90 K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


    Title: Cyclone Nargis Response - Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: Recent Cash Infusion Supports Clinics and Grassroots Recovery (July 28, 2008)... Direct Relief Airlifts $1.4 Million in Emergency Medical Supplies, Supports Healthcare Training (June 23, 2008) ... Direct Relief Boosts Assistance for Medical Teams, Clinics Serving Affected Areas(June 7, 2008) ... Direct Relief International Plans More Aid As Experts Fear Widespread Disease Outbreaks (May 27, 2008) ... Emergency Cash Infusion Bringing Immediate Aid for Cyclone-Affected Populations (May 16, 2008) ... Direct Relief Commits $500,000 In Cash To Relief Effort – Airlifts Essential Medical Supplies (May 12, 2008) ... Direct Relief Still Pursuing Routes For Aid, Mapping Myanmar’s Healthcare Network (May 9, 2008) ... Humanitarian Aid Blocked – Cash Investment to Boost Health Services in Border Area (May 8, 2008) ... Direct Relief to Support Medical Team Headed for Myanmar (May 6, 2008) ... Direct Relief Offers Assistance to Myanmar In Wake of Cyclone (May 5, 2008) ...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Direct Relief International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


    Title: MSF material on Burma/Myanmar (2008)
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: Collection of MSF public documents, 2008, largely on the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis: "A Preventable Fate: The Failure of ART Scale-Up in Myanmar"..."Myanmar: Urgent Lack of HIV/AIDS Treatment Threatens Thousands"..."Myanmar: Three Months after Cyclone Nargis, MSF Still Providing Assistance"..."Irrawaddy Delta, Myanmar: Survivors Living in Dire Conditions"..."Myanmar: Two Months After Cyclone Nargis, Needs Remain Critical"..."Myanmar: Critical Needs Remain for a Traumatized People"..."One Month After Cyclone Nargis Struck Myanmar, Survivors Still Living in Dire Conditions"..."After Cyclone Enormous Needs Unmet in Myanmar"..."Myanmar: MSF Operations in Cyclone-Hit Areas"..."Doctors Without Borders Calls For Immediate and Unobstructed Escalation of Myanmar Relief Operations"..."First MSF Relief Plane Arrives in Myanmar (Burma)"..."Doctors Without Borders Cargo Plane Arrives in Myanmar"..."MSF Dispatches Three Cargo Planes with 110 Tons of Relief Materials to Myanmar (Burma)"..."Cyclone in Myanmar (Burma): MSF teams intensify emergency response, a first relief plane is due to land in Yangon"..."Emergency Update: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Activities in Myanmar"... "People tell stories of spending the night of the cyclone hanging onto trees all night long"..."Myanmar Cyclone: MSF Teams Bring Immediate Assistance While Additional Staff and Relief Materials are Ready to be Sent ...MSF Response to Aid Myanmar Cyclone Victims"..."Doctors Without Borders Releases Tenth Annual "Top Ten" Most Underreported Humanitarian Stories of 2007"..."Top Ten" Most Underreported Humanitarian Stories of 2007"..."People in Southeast Asia Needlessly Becoming Blind Due to a Neglected Virus"..."Myanmar Refugees in Bangladesh: Nowhere to Go"..."Dr. Hervé Isambert, MSF program manager Prevented from working, the French Section of MSF leaves Myanmar"..."Prevented From Working, the French Section of MSF Leaves Myanmar (Burma)"..."EMERGENCY UPDATE: Aid Operations to Disaster Areas in South Asia"..."Frank Smithuis, MD: "Impatience is the most important thing""
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medicins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Withour Borders)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


  • Public Health

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: On the cusp of disease transition in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 29 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death and disability. Between and within countries, however, there is still a marked diversity in the causes and nature of this disease transition. In Myanmar, economic and political reforms, and the ways in which these intersect with health, have created a unique public health and development context with major ramifications for public health. Myanmar’s transition creates anl opportunity to learn from the public health and development mistakes made elsewhere, but signs are at present that the rush towards short term economic opportunities is taking precedence. This piece illustrates some of the local dynamics that drive NCDs in Myanmar, and potential entry points for the international community to help address Myanmar’s next major health challenge..."
    Author/creator: Sam Byfield and Maeve Kennedy, Guest Contributors
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Public Health
    Description/subject: "Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow).[1] It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", as defined by the United Nations' World Health Organization.[2] Public health incorporates the interdisciplinary approaches of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, insurance medicine and occupational health (respectively occupational medicine) are other important subfields..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


    Title: Public Health in Myanmar
    Description/subject: "About this blog: This blog is jointly written by a group of Myanmar Public Health Professionals. Our objectives are: To disseminate public health concepts and practices, To present contemporary international public health issues, To present and discuss public health problems of Myanmar "..." မွ်ေ၀လိုသူမ်ားအတြက္ ဒီဘေလာ့ဂ္က စာေရးသူအမ်ား စုေပါင္းေရးတဲ့ ဘေလာဂ္ျဖစ္ၿပီး ပို႔စ္ေတြကို ျပန္လည္ ကူးယူေဖၚျပလိုပါက ဘေလာ့ဂ္လိပ္စာနဲ႔ စာေရးသူ နာမည္ကို အညြန္းထည့္ေပးၿပီး ဘယ္သူမဆို ျပန္လည္ကူးယူ ေဖၚျပႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ထပ္ဆင့္ျပန္ေဖၚျပသူအားလံုးကို ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္။ Blog Admins"
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Public Health in Myanmar
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 July 2012


  • Health Promotion, Education, Research and Training

    • Medical handbooks and manuals

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Hesperian Health Guides
      Description/subject: "Hesperian Health Guides are easy to use, medically accurate, and richly illustrated. We publish 20 titles, spanning women’s health, children, disabilities, dentistry, health education, HIV, and environmental health, and distribute many others. Buy, download, or read from this page, or view resources by language to explore materials in Spanish and over 80 other languages..."
      Language: English and other languages
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://en.hesperian.org/hhg/Healthwiki
      http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/?book=download_where_there_is_no_doctor#tabs-downloads
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Wikipedia (health)
      Description/subject: Full of health pages. From the alternate URL scroll down to "Burmese" (currently No. 107), and click on the Burmese script. Clicking on the Roman "Burmese" will take you to the Burmese language page. In the Burmese wiki, use Myanmar-3 font.
      Language: English (other languages available)
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_Wikipedias (scroll down and click on the Burmese script to access the Burmese language wiki)
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


      Title: Wikipedia HIV page
      Description/subject: * 1 Introduction * 2 Transmission * 3 The clinical course of HIV-1 infection o 3.1 Primary Infection o 3.2 Clinical Latency o 3.3 The declaration of AIDS * 4 HIV structure and genome * 5 HIV tropism * 6 Replication cycle of HIV o 6.1 Viral entry to the cell o 6.2 Viral replication and transcription o 6.3 Viral assembly and release * 7 Genetic variability of HIV * 8 Treatment * 9 Epidemiology * 10 Alternative theories * 11 References * 12 External links * 13 AIDS News
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


      Title: Wikipedia in Burmese
      Description/subject: About 10,000 items...Use Myanmar-3...A number of Health topics
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_Wikipedias
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Where There Is No Dentist (English)
      Date of publication: July 2012
      Description/subject: "'Where There Is No Dentist' is a book about what people can do for themselves and each other to care for their gums and teeth. It is written for: • village and neighborhood health workers who want to learn more about dental care as part of a complete community-based approach to health; • school teachers, mothers, fathers, and anyone concerned with encouraging dental health in their children and their community; and • those dentists and dental technicians who are looking for ways to share their skills, to help people become more self-reliant at lower cost. Just as with the rest of health care, there is a strong need to ‘deprofessionalize’ dentistry—to provide ordinary people and community workers with more skills to prevent and cure problems in the mouth. After all, early care is what makes the dentist’s work unnecessary—and this is the care that each person gives to his or her own teeth, or what a mother does to protect her children’s teeth...".....Read online or download (3.7MB)...Originally published 1983; last revised 2011.
      Author/creator: Murray Dickson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Foundation
      Format/size: html, pdf (3.7MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_there_is_no_dentist-2011%28en%29-op175-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Where There Is No Doctor: a village health care handbook - 2011 revised edition (English)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Description/subject: "This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. It has been written in the belief that: 1. Health care is not only everyone’s right, but everyone’s responsibility... 2. Informed self-care should be the main goal of any health program or activity... 3. Ordinary people provided with clear, simple information can prevent and treat most common health problems in their own homes—earlier, cheaper, and often better than can doctors... 4. Medical knowledge should not be the guarded secret of a select few, but should be freely shared by everyone... 5. People with little formal education can be trusted as much as those with a lot. And they are just as smart... 6. Basic health care should not be delivered, but encouraged..... Clearly, a part of informed self-care is knowing one’s own limits. Therefore guidelines are included not only for what to do, but for when to seek help. The book points out those cases when it is important to see or get advice from a health worker or doctor. But because doctors or health workers are not always nearby, the book also suggests what to do in the meantime—even for very serious problems...".....The Hesperian.org site provides links to the 23 individual chapters, for easy download."
      Author/creator: David Werner; with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Where Women Have No Doctor - a health guide for women (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Description/subject: Summarized and Translated by Women's Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE).... Foreword: "Health is a right; and like all other human rights it applies to everybody, particularly those person living in deplorable conditions. Quality health services must be based on poor people's particularly poor women's needs. Historically, women have been at a disadvantaged on account of neglect and discrimination in treatment by the state and societal institutions in most parts of the world. This leads to marginalization of women as attributed by the lack of opportunity and indignities perpetrated by discriminatory legal systems. We are very pleased to offer this new adapted Burmese version of the book entitled Where Women Have No Doctor which combines self-help medical information with an understanding of the way of poverty, discrimination and cultural beliefs that limit women's health and access to care. The book aims to empower women to improve their health and to support community health workers who continue to improve women's health. Our special thanks go to the women and men behind the publication of this book whose immeasurable contribution led to the completion work. Moreover, to the Hesperian Foundation, without the generous support of, this book will not come into fruition. Moreover, we dedicate this book to the Burmese women who continue to be marginalized. May this book offer relief and support to you.".....The Hesperian site provides the full text in high resolution and links to individual chapters... "An essential resource for any woman or health worker who wants to improve her health and the health of her community, and for anyone to learn about problems that affect women differently from men. Topics include reproductive health, concerns of girls and older women, violence, and mental health..."
      Author/creator: A. August Burns, Ronnie Lovich, Jane Maxwell, Katharine Shapiro...translated by Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: WEAVE/Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: pdf (3.7MB-OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/resources-in-burmese/
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Where Women Have No Doctor - A health guide for women (English)
      Date of publication: 2010
      Description/subject: "This book was written to help women care for their own health, and to help community health workers or others meet women’s health needs. We have tried to include information that will be useful for those with no formal training in health care skills, and for those who do have some training. Although this book covers a wide range of women’s health problems, it does not cover many problems that commonly affect both women and men, such as malaria, parasites, intestinal problems, and other diseases. For information on these kinds of problems, see Where There Is No Doctor or another general medical book. Sometimes the information in this book will not be enough to enable you to solve a health problem. When this happens, get more help. Depending on the problem, we may suggest that you: • see a health worker. This means that a trained health worker should be able to help you solve the problem. • get medical help. This means you need to go to a clinic that has trained medical people or a doctor, or a laboratory where basic tests are done. • go to a hospital. This means you need to see a doctor at a hospital that is equipped for emergencies, for surgery, or for special tests..."......The Hesperian site provides the full text in high resolution and links to individual chapters. The OBL Alternate URLs are to the full text in low and medium resolution... See also the Burmese version on the OBL and Hesperian sites.
      Author/creator: A. August Burns, Ronnie Lovich, Jane Maxwell, Katharine Shapiro
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: pdf - 5.6MB (low resolution) ; 9.1MB (medium resolution)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_women_have_no_doctor(en)-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Where_Women_Have_No_Doctor(en)-op150-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Patients' Manual -- Burmese
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Short illustrated brochure in Burmese explaining basic medical terms relating to hygiene, disease vectors etc.
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


      Title: Patients' Manual -- Karen
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Short illustrated brochure in Karen explaining basic medical terms relating to hygiene, disease vectors etc.
      Language: Karen
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


      Title: A Community Guide to Environmental Health (English)
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: Summary: “Covers topics: community mobilization; water source protection, purification and borne diseases; sanitation; mosquito-borne diseases; deforestation and reforestation; farming; pesticides and toxics; solid waste and health care waste; harm from mining and oil extraction. Includes group activities and appropriate technology instructions.”..."...It is clear what it means to improve the health of a child or of a family. But how do you improve the health of the environment? When we talk about environmental health, we mean the way our health is affected by the world around us, and also how our activities affect the health of the world around us. If our food, water, and air are contaminated, they can make us sick. If we are not careful about how we use the air, water, and land, we can make ourselves and the world around us sick. By protecting our environment, we protect our health. Improving environmental health often begins when people notice that a health problem is affecting not just one person or group, but is a problem for the whole community. When a problem is shared, people are more likely to work together to bring about change..."...Includes bibliographical references and index.
      Author/creator: Jeff Conant and Pam Fadem
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: pdf (8MB - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Community_guide_to_environmental_health2008(en)-op200-red.pdf
      http://hesperian.org/books-and-resources/
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2011


      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - Burmese
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale
      Format/size: pdf (2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - English
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS -- Burmese
      Date of publication: 2005
      Description/subject: This 63 page book collectively answers many of the questions young people want to ask about HIV/AIDS. [in Myanmar language] It explains AIDS origin in Africa and spread globally, its current prevalence in Myanmar, its modes of infection, and means for control. Yangon, 2005... For further information please contact: Jason Rush, Communication Officer, UNICEF in Myanmar Phone: (95 1) 212 086; Fax: (95 1) 212 063 ; Email: jrush@unicef.org
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: UNICEF
      Format/size: pdf (1.64MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


      Title: Disabled Village Children - A guide for community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: "Disabled Village Children is a guide for community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families. With more than 4,000 line drawings and 200 photos, this is an exciting book of information and ideas for all who are concerned about the well-being of disabled children. It is especially for those who live in rural areas where resources are limited. But it is also for therapists and professionals who assist community-based programs or who want to share knowledge and skills with families and concerned members of the commnunity. The book gives a wealth of clear, simple, but detailed information about most common disabilities of children: many different physical disabilities, blindness, deafness, fits, behavior problems, and developmental delay. It gives suggestions for simplified rehabilitation, low-cost aids, and ways to help disabled children find a role and be accepted in the community. Above all, the book helps us to realize that most of the answers for meeting these children's needs can be found within the community, the family, and in the children themselves. It discusses ways of starting small community rehabilitation centers and workshops run by disabled persons or the families of disabled children..."... PART 1. WORKING WITH THE CHILD AND FAMILY: Information on Different Disabilities...PART 2. WORKING WITH THE COMMUNITY: Village Involvement in the Rehabilitation, Social Integration, and Rights of Disabled Children...PART 3. WORKING IN THE SHOP: Rehabilitation Aids and Procedures with the help of many friends Drawings by the author
      Author/creator: David Werner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Foundation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


      Title: The Ship Captain's Medical Guide
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: First aid - Chapter 1 Adobe Acrobat PDF (1.2Mb); Toxic hazards of chemicals including poisoning - Chapter 2 Adobe Acrobat PDF (24Kb); General Nursing - Chapter 3 Adobe Acrobat PDF (289Kb); Care of the injured - Chapter 4 Adobe Acrobat PDF (216Kb); Causes and prevention of disease - Chapter 5 Adobe Acrobat PDF (44Kb); Communicable diseases - Chapter 6 Adobe Acrobat PDF (90Kb); Sexually transmitted diseases - Chapter 6.1 Adobe Acrobat PDF (43Kb); Other diseases and medical problems - Chapter 7 Adobe Acrobat PDF (393Kb); Diseases of fishermen - Chapter 8 Adobe Acrobat PDF (45Kb); Female disorders and Pregnancy - Chapter 9 Adobe Acrobat PDF (22Kb); Childbirth - Chapter 10 Adobe Acrobat PDF (112Kb); Survivors - Chapter 11 Adobe Acrobat PDF (19Kb); The dying and the dead - Chapter 12 Adobe Acrobat PDF (17Kb); External assistance - Chapter 13 Adobe Acrobat PDF (59Kb); Annexes/Index Adobe Acrobat PDF (368Kb).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Maritime an Coastguard Service (UK Stationary Office)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 August 2005


      Title: Helping Health Workers Learn (updated 1995)
      Date of publication: 1995
      Description/subject: Contents — INTRODUCTION — Warning — Why This Book is so Political... PART ONE: Approaches and Plans-- * Chapter 1: Looking at Learning and Teaching * Chapter 2: Selecting Health Workers, Instructors, and Advisors * Chapter 3: Planning a Training Program * Chapter 4: Getting Off to a Good Start (Be Prepared) * Chapter 5: Planning a Class * Chapter 6: Learning and Working with the Community * Chapter 7: Helping People Look at Their Customs and Beliefs * Chapter 8: Practice in Attending the Sick * Chapter 9: Examinations and Evaluation as a Learning Proccess * Chapter 10: Follow-up, Support, and Continued Learning... PART TWO: Learning Through Seeing, Doing, and Thinking * Chapter 11: Making and Using Teaching Aids * Chapter 12: Learning to Make, Take, and Use Pictures * Chapter 13: Story Telling * Chapter 14: Role Playing * Chapter 15: Appropriate and Inappropriate Technology * Chapter 16: Homemade, Lo-cost Equipment and Written Materials * Chapter 17: Solving Problems Step by Step (Scientific Method) * Chapter 18: Learning to Use Medicines and Equipment Sensibly * Chapter 19: Aids for Learning to Use Medicines and Equipment... PART THREE: Learning To Use The Book, Where There Is No Doctor * Chapter 20: Using the Contents, Index, Page References, and Vocabulary * Chapter 21: Practice in Using Guides, Charts, and Record Sheets... PART FOUR: Activities With Mothers and Children * Chapter 22: Pregnant Women, Mothers, and Young Children * Chapter 23: The Politics of Family Planning * Chapter 24: Children as Health Workers... PART FIVE: Health In Relation To Food, Land, And Social Problems * Chapter 25: Food First * Chapter 26: Looking at How Human Resources Affect Health * Chapter 27: Ways to get People Thinking and Acting: Village Theater and Puppet Shows... A Call For Courage and Caution — Addresses For Teaching Materials — Index — About Project Piaxtla and The Authors.
      Author/creator: David Werner
      Language: English, Espanol
      Source/publisher: Hesperian Health Guides
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


      Title: Anatomy of the Human Body (Gray's Anatomy) - 18th edition
      Date of publication: 1918
      Description/subject: "The Bartleby.com edition of Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body features 1,247 vibrant engravings—many in color—from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index with 13,000 entries ranging from the Antrum of Highmore to the Zonule of Zinn..."
      Author/creator: Henry Gray
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Bartleby.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2005


    • Burmese Border Guidelines
      "The Burmese Border Guidelines are clinical guidelines designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thai-Burmese border. They are adapted from the medical literature and treatment guidelines of WHO and some NGOs to specifically address the pathologies and constraints of the Burmese Border context. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of local medics and the medical providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last 15 years..."

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - Burmese
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale
      Format/size: pdf (2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - English
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


    • "Health Messenger" etc.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: TOC of "Health Messenger" Magazine, Thailand (issues 0-37); HM Juniors; Burmese Border Guidelines; Saytaman Magazine
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: xls (213K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Thailand -- Juniors
      Description/subject: Articles on themes such as nutrition, reproductive health, mental health, drugs and alcohol are mixed with "fun stuff". Separate English and Burmese issues. From 2005:
      Language: Buemese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Thailand page
      Description/subject: This page has links to "Health Messenger" magazine -- "HM Adultes", "HM Juniors" and "HM Kids"... "HM Adultes" contains very useful guides to diagnosis, treatment etc., of various health issues in Burmese and English -- Malaria, HIV/AIDS, Dengue fever, Nutrition and many more. Some of the files are extremely large.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


      Individual Documents

      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
      Date of publication: September 2010
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


      Title: Substance Abuse, Drugs and Addictions: Guidebook
      Date of publication: September 2009
      Description/subject: "Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. It can also be simply defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Generally, when most people talk about substance abuse, they are referring to the use of illegal drugs. But illegal drugs are not the only substances that can be abused. Alcohol, prescribed medications, inhalants and even coffee and cigarettes, can be used to harmful excess. Substance abuse can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated use including a strong desire to take the drug, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal state. In this guidebook, based upon the situation in our community, we present the most common substances that are often abused, how they are used, their street names, and their intoxicating and health effects.".....CONTENTS:- Part I: Alcohol... Amphetamine, Yaba, Ecstasy... Benzodiazepines... Betel Nut and Betal Leaf (Kwan-ya)... Cannabis... Cocaine - (Crack)... Codeine... Heroin... Volatile Substance or Inhalants ... Methadone... Opium... Tobacco..... PART II:- General Views of Substance Abuse... Chronic Effects of Alcoholism... Management in Substance Abuse Overdose... Psycho-Counselling for Substance Abuse.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Médicale Internationale, UNHCR
      Format/size: pdf (13MB - reduced version; 15 MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/DrugGuidebook-LowReso-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue No. 39 (2) -- Technical cards (Vol. 2)
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: A technical card is practical course intended to assist a medical or paramedical personnel to operate a basic, specific and clearly identified type of health care. We already received much positive feedbacks from our readers, and as a result, we have been much enthusiastic to continue working on the similar medico- technical procedures as an additional volume to our previous health messenger issue. But this time, we have introduced some more specific clinical procedures on dental, orthopaedic, obstetric and gynaecological fields. In each and every article, our article countributors present step by step instruction for those common procedures and documentations, with many clear and easy-tounderstand illustrations to enhance comprehension of our readers. Some procedures may be unfamiliar with our medic readers, but we would like to keep them in this issue as our aim is to alleviate the medical knowledge as well as to widen the scope of our camp-based medical personnel. We hope this issue will help our medical personnel fulfill their responsible duties properly and systmatically. Moreover, we would like to thank all our contributors and readers for these two consecutive volumes.......I Medical Part: General Physical Examination... Management in Airway Obstruction... Supra-pubic catheterisation... Digital Per rectal Examination...... II - Obstetric and Gynaecological Part: Vaginal or Pelvic Examination... Management in Breech Presentation... Instrumental Delivery- forceps and vacuum... Suture of Perineal tears and Episiotomies...... III - Dental Part: Tooth Extraction... Scaling Teeth... Cement filling for tooth cavities...... IV - Orthopaedic Part: Management in Shoulder joint dislocation... Management in Temporo-Mandibular joint dislocation...... Quizz...... Quizz Answer...... Glossary.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 39 (1) -- Technical cards (Vol. 1)
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: A technical card is a practical course intended to assist medical or paramedical personnel to operate a basic, specific and clearly identified type of care. Medico-technical procedures are potentially high-risk situations, particularly when physicians are novice/inexperienced or if they have not performed the procedure recently. The objectives of this HM issue 39 are:- • For medical practitioners to master the technical skills in basic medical procedures • To minimize the risk of medical errors and clinical complications • To educate and support practitioner about how to prepare and infrom the patient before each procedure. In this issue, indications, contraindications, and complications are explained in an easy-to-understand fashion. Patient positioning, anatomical landmarks and procedural techniques are demonstrated in a systematic approach, for better understanding both for the medical personnel conducting the procedure as well as the patient. We believe that our technical cards will make positive contributions to the quality of health care inside the camps....... Part I - Nursing Part: Injection Techniques... Infusion Care... Administration of Drugs by Spacer Inhaler... Basic Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (Adult and Child)... Burns Management... Naso-Gastric Tube Insertion... Catheterisation...... Part II - Medic Part: Fracture Management... Minor Injuries/Wound Care... Incision and Drainage of Abscess... Thoracocentesis (Pleural fluid Aspiration)... Peritoneal Paracentesis or Ascitic Tab... Lumbar Puncture...... Quizz...... Quizz Answer...... Glossary.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 38 -- special issue on child health
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: Part I - Health: Journey of the Foetus - Health Messenger; Immunisation - Judith Leblanc, Nurse officer (AMI); Developmental Milestones and Factors Influencing Childhood Development - Damarice Ager (ARC); Caring for your Child - Damarice Ager (ARC)... Part II - Medical: Immediate Care of the Newborn Infant - Dr. Claudia Turner & Dr. Verena Carrara (SMRU); Acute Respiratory Tract Infections (Children <5) - Dr. Claudia Turner (SMRU); Differential Diagnosis of Diarrhoea Diseases in Children - Dr. Zaw (World Vision) and HM; Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) - Andrea Menefee, MPH, RDFood Security Programme Coordinator (TBBC); Child Growth Monitoring - Erika Garrity Pied, MS, RDNutrition Technical Officer, (TBBC); Intestinal Worms in Children - Dr. Marcus Rijken (SMRU); Quiz.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 29 February 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 37 -- special issue on maternal health
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: I. Health:- 1. Female reproductive system (HM); 2. Lifestyle consideration during antenatal and postnatal period - Erika Garrity Pied (TBBC); 3. Breast-feeding - Erika Garrity Pied (TBBC); 4. Family planning (HM)... II. Medical:- 5. Pregnancy changes and management of symptoms - Dr. Htwe (AMI); 6. Antenatal care (SMRU); 7. Genital Haemorrhage: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment - Dr. Bertrand Martinez-Aussel (AMI); 8. Vaginal Discharge - Dr. Bertrand Martinez-Aussel (AMI); 9. Intra-natal and Post-natal care (SMRU)... Focus: "I don't have enough breast-milk!"; 10. Interview with ARC staff in Umpiem; Quiz.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 36 -- special issue on skin diseases
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Part I - Health: The skin and its functions, Yann Santin (AMI); Causes of Skin Problems, Dr. Min (AMI); Important habits to keep skin healthy, Judith Leblanc (AMI); Two common Skin Diseases: Scabies and Head lice, Dr. Min (AMI)... Part II - Medical: Basic skin lesions, Dr. Julie Vanden Bulcke (AMI) & Dr. Marcus Rijken (SMRU); Clinical Approach to a Patient with Skin Lesions, Dr. Marcus Rijken (SMRU); Bacterial Skin Infections, Dr. Htwe (AMI); Fungal Skin Infections, Dr. SST (MSF France); Viral skin infections with a focus on HIV patients, Dr. Zaw Win (Chiang Mai); Eczema and allergic skin reactions, Dr. Janne (MSF France); Systemic diseases with skin manifestations, Dr. Aung (SMRU)... Quiz.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 35 -- special issue on anaemia
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction: Compositions and functions of blood (Dr. Janne, MSF France)... Diagnosis: Clinical presentations of Anaemia (Dr. Eric, AMI); Thalassaemia (Definition, types, signs and symptoms, investigation) (Dr. Zin Min, MAP foundation); Leukaemia (definition, causes, types, signs and symptoms, complications) (Dr. Thaw, AMI); Laboratory investigation for different types of Anaemia (HM team, AMI)... Management: Role of blood transfusion in Anaemia (Dr. Julie, AMI); Nutritional Anaemia in children (Dr. Min, MAP foundation); Anaemia in pregnancy (complications, treatment, prevention) (Dr. Marcus, SMRU); Anaemia in Malaria (Dr. Aung, SMRU)... Case study: Approach to a patient with anaemia (Dr. SST, MSF France).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (4.2MB - low resolution; 36MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM35-Anaemia-2007-03-orig.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 34 - special issue on Cardiovascular Diseases
      Date of publication: December 2006
      Description/subject: General: Anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system (HM team, AMI); Overview of Atherosclerosis (Dr. Jean Louis, AMI)... Diagnosis: Clinical diagnosis and complications of high blood pressure (Dr. SST, MSF France); When and how to suspect an ischemic heart attack? (Dr.Thomas, AMI); Heart failure (Definition, common causes, signs and symptoms) (Dr. Julie, AMI); Congenital heart diseases and their clinical presentations (HM team, AMI)... Management: How to manage a newly diagnosed patient with high blood pressure? (HM team, AMI); Rheumatic fever (HM team, AMI); Role of aspirin in cardiovascular diseases (HM team, AMI); Management of heart failure in the camps (Dr. Eric, AMI)... Prevention: Lifestyle and heart disease (HM team, AMI); Smoking and cardiovascular diseases (HM team, AMI).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (4.1MB, 37.1MB (original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amifrance.org/IMG/pdf_HM_Mag_34.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 33 -- special issue on Communicable Disease Control
      Date of publication: September 2006
      Description/subject: Introduction: Overview of Communicable Diseases; Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; Principles of Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases... Disease Control Tools: Basic Concepts of Health Measurement/Disease Frequency in Epidemiology... Different Approaches: 4Role in Prevention, One Example of Immunization: Measles; Outline of Surveillance and Response Plans: Bird flu in Thailand; How to Break the Chain of Transmission: Tuberculosis; Steps in Outbreak Management: Meningitis; Dealing with Drug Resistance: Malaria; Fighting Against Vectors: An Example of Mosquito Control... From the Field: 100 HIV/AIDS Control: A Comprehensive Approach; Highly Active Anti Retro Viral Therapy (HAART): Adherence and Influencing Factors; Community Education on Birdflu: A Method of Participatory Learning and Action.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (6MB - low res; 50MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.sylvainsilleran.com/index_ngo4.html
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 31 -- special issue on Acute Respiratory Infections
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Structures and functions of respiratory tract; Bird flu at a glance� DIAGNOSIS: Clinical approach to children with cough and/or difficulty breathing Clinical features of acute upper respiratory tract infections; Acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs� MANAGEMENT: Treatment of acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs; How to deal with an acute asthma patient? Coping with common cold and flu� FROM THE FIELD: Pneumonia case study; Recurrent respiratory infections in children� PREVENTION: Prophylaxis of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in HIV-AIDS; Glossary... Obese file in course of treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (36.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 30 -- special issue on Diarrhoea
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Natural history of diarrhea; General measures for controlling acute diarrhoea and epidemics; Important facts of diarrhoea in children; DIAGNOSIS: Clinical aspects of common diarrhoeal diseases and laboratory confirmation... MANAGEMENT: Practical guidelines of diarrhoeal diseases; Oral rehydration salt: How to prepare correctly and make it at home?... FROM THE FIELD: Maela camp experiences of cholera outbreak... PREVENTION: Role of environmental sanitation and key measures in prevention and control of diarrhea; Common methods and technologies used to treat water at a household level; A closer look at chlorination; How to deliver effective health education for acute diarrhea... INTERVIEWS... Glossary and annual quiz.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (12MB, 46MB))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amifrance.org/IMG/pdf_HM_Mag_30.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 29 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: Clinical stages of HIV/AIDS for adults; UNHCR point of view on HIV/AIDS; The right to access to care... DIAGNOSIS: Voluntary Counselling and Testing: Are we doing it correctly or p with words?... MANAGEMENT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART); Nutrient requirements for people living with HIV/AIDS; Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection in HIV/AIDS... SOCIAL: Responding to bad news including HIV/AIDS result; Stigmatization and discrimination; Home based care: A day as a home visitor and interview; Testimonial of people living with HIV/AIDS... PREVENTION: PMCT activities in Maela refugee camp; How to increase condom use? Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and Glossary.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (4MB, 9.7MB, 49MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-mr.pdf (medium resolution)
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-hr.pdf (high resolution
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger Magazine" No. 28, special issue on Mental Health
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Living as a refugee. By Charles Kemp; What is Mental Health? Mental Health and Addictions. By Pam Rogers... MOTHER AND CHILD HEALTH: Mental Health of Refugee Children;. Causes and Consequences of violence. By Karine Le Roch, Clara; Barilani A protective Network for Victims of Violence... MANAGEMENT: What Health Workers can do? Coping with Stress; Management of Mental Health at Community Level; Happy Saturday Group. By Karine Le Roch.; Counseling for Mental health. By Claudia Pedraglio Martinez... SOCIAL: The Psycho-Social Approach. By Elsa Laurin... INTERVIEW: Interviews with Mental Health Helpers... TEST ;Test your Psycho Potential; How Vulnerable are you to Stress? LACKS COVER PAGES
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 27 -- special issue on health education
      Date of publication: March 2005
      Description/subject: Introduction: Better to prevent than to treat - By Health Messenger... Techniques of health education: Helping people look at their customs and belief - Werner and Bower; Role and Skills of community Health Educators - By Health Messenger; Interviews with Educators Involving the community: The Participatory Methodology - By Health Messenger; Clowns without border: Laughter for gifts; Hygiene Drama Program In Myanmar, - By Jean Christopher Barbiche, Water and Sanitation Program Manager, Action Contre la Faim – Myanmar; Individual Health Education - By Health Messenger; PSI, Social Marketing and WaterGuard - By Amy Mclinnis, Project Coordinator, PSI/Myanmar... Different Targets, different approaches: Involving the children in the health education process By Daw Hnin Hnin Kyaw, Watsan Education Officer for AMI Myanmar; Peer education - By Health Messenger; Interviews with peer educators; Peer Educators, MDM's main actors in Prevention - By MDM Myanmar... Test yourelf: The game of 9 mistakes - By Health Messenger; What kind of educator are you?... From the field: AMI Health Education and Water and Sanitation project in Dala Township; An example of community's participation. - By Health Messenger; Promoting good nutrition - By SC-Japan, Myanmar; Involving community volunteers in personal hygiene promotion activities - By Save the Children UK, Myanmar.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (low resolution, 4.4MB; medium resolution 10MB; high resolution, 41MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM27-Health_Education-2005-03-mr.pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM27-Health_Education-2005-03-hr.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 26 -- special issue on Nutrition
      Date of publication: December 2004
      Description/subject: General Health: Underlying causes of malnutrition -- Why health workers should feel concerned by nutritional issues? Misconceptions Concerning Nutrition: Voices of Community Health Educators and TBAs along the Thai-Burmese Border; Micronutrients: The Hidden Hunger; Iron Deficiency Anaemia; The Vicious Circle of Malnutrition and Infection; Treatment: IDENTIFYING MALNUTRITION; MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SEVERE MALNUTRITION; GROWTH MONITORING: THE BEST PREVENTION; Fortified Flour for Refugees living in the camp; Making Blended Flour at Local Level; The example of MISOLA Flour in Africa. Health Education: Pregnancy and Nutrition; Breastfeeding; WHEN RICE SOUP IS NOT ENOUGH: First Foods - the Key to Optimal Growth and Development; BUILDING A BALANCED DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH; From the Field: How Sanetun became a malnourished child?
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


      Title: "Health Messenger" No. 25 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
      Date of publication: September 2004
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: What is AIDS? A Short Introduction (Health Messenger Team); Clinical Aspects of HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Transmission of HIV (Health Messenger Team); Empowering Community Change - HIV/AIDS Prevention (Mary Yetter, OXFAM UK)... FROM THE FIELD: The HIV/AIDS Situation in Burma (Zaw Winn, Chiang Mai); Women Empowerment and HIV/AIDS (Dr Padma, AMI Myanmar); Community Care for People with HIV/AIDS World Vision HIV/AIDS Programme in Ranong (Dr Win Maung, World Vision Ranong)... TREATMENT: Treatments for people with HIV/AIDS (Nicolas Durier, MSF France)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counselling for HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team); Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with Maw Maw Zaw); Thai Youth Action Programs (Owen Elias, Thai Youth Action Programmes); Non-transmission routes of HIV... SOCIAL: Alcohol Abuse and HIV/AIDS (Pam Rogers, CARE Project); Social Impact and Underlying Causes of HIV/AIDS Epidemics (Julia Matthews, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children); CASE STUDY: IDUs and HIV: A Case study (Greg Manning)... INTERVIEW: An Interview with Honeymoon from KEWG (Health Messenger Team).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 24 - Special Issue on Water and Sanitation
      Date of publication: June 2004
      Description/subject: SANITATION: Water Supply (Health Messenger Team); Appropriate Disposal of Excreta (Elisabeth Emerson,WHO); Disposal of Solid Waste, including Medical Waste (Elisabeth Emerson,WHO)... GENERAL HEALTH: Common Water-Related Diseases (Health Messenger Team)... TREATMENT: Practical Guidelines for Diarrhoea (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Rodent Control (Health Messenger Team)... FROM THE FIELD: AMI Water and Sanitation Activities in Dala (Health Messenger Team in Collaboration with AMI-Myanmar); INTERVIEW: Interview with Water Users (Health Messenger Team in Collaboration with AMI-Myanmar)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Water Disinfection By Sun (Health Messenger Team); The Prince of Dirty (Health Messenger Team in Collaboration with Partners).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 23 -- Special Issue on Family Planning
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: HEALTH EDUCATION: Why is Family Planning Important? (Elisabeth Emerson, WHO); What are the Different Contraceptive Methods? (Health Messenger Team)... INTERVIEW: Helping Clients to Make the Right Choice (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with PPAT)... TREATMENT: Advantages & Disadvantages of the Main Contraception Methods (Health Messenger Team); Norplant (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with PPAT)... SOCIAL: Misconceptions (Health Messenger Team); Mental Trauma (Health Messenger Team); Child Soldiers - A Global Overview (Health Messenger Team); Mental Trauma (Health Messenger Team); Chlld Soldiers - A Global Overview (Health Messenger Team)... GENERAL HEALTH: The Suitable Family Planning Methods According to Women’s Health (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: The Situation of Male Involvement in Family Planning (Health Messenger Team).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 22 -- Special Issue on Drug-related problems
      Date of publication: December 2003
      Description/subject: TREATMENT: Drugs used Along The Thai-Burma Border (Health Messenger Team in Collaboration with Willy De Maere, Free Clinic, Antwerp, Belgium); Methadone As Drug Substitution Therapy (Dr. Zaw Win, Yangon, Myanmar)... SOCIAL: Why do People use Drugs? (Health Messenger Team); Understanding Addiction (Pam Rogers, CARE Project)... GENERAL HEALTH: Drug Related Health Problems (Health Messenger Team in Collaboration with Willy De Maere, Free Clinic, Antwerp, Belgium)... HEALTH EDUCATION: HIV Volunteer Counselling and Testing (Kristian Olson, ARC International, Thomas S Durant Fellow in Refugee Medicine); The 5 Steps of Counselling for Drug Rehabilitation (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Harm Reduction Strategies For Injecting Drug Users (Willy De Maere, Free Clinic, Antwerp, Belgium) INTERVIEW: A Drug Demand Reduction Centre in a Remote Region of Shan State (Health Messager Team in collaboration with Dr. Sai Seng Tip, Drug Demand Reduction Specialist)... FROM THE FIELD: CARE (Community Addiction Recovery & Education) Project (Ko Lo Htoo and Law La Say, CARE Project).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 21
      Date of publication: September 2003
      Description/subject: HEALTH EDUCATION: The Nervous System (Health Messenger); Meningitis (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: A Meningitis Epidemic in Nu Poh Camp (Health Messenger Magazine Team in Collaboration with AMI Thailand)... INTERVIEW: Interviews at Nu Poh Camp (Health Messenger)... CASE STUDY: A Case Study on Emergency Contraceptive (Health Provider, Reproductive Health Project, CARE/ Raks Thai Foundation)... SOCIAL: Teachers, Protect your Pupils Against Child Abuse! (Health Messenger).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (792K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 20 -- Special Issue on Emergency Preparedness and Response
      Date of publication: June 2003
      Description/subject: FROM THE FIELD: Flash flood in Mae Khong Kha camp... INTERVIEW: Interviews at Mae Khong Kha camp... SOCIAL: Floods and Landslides... PREVENTION: Community Contingency Plan; The role of the health workers in case of emergency; Fire Precautions ... TREATMENT: First Aid and Emergency... DIAGNOSIS: Rapid Health Assessment... SANITATION: Water improvements and diseases in emergencies... HEALTH EDUCATION: Mar Ni and Fire Out-Break.... Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (27.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 19 -- Special Issue on Reproductive Health
      Date of publication: March 2003
      Description/subject: SOCIAL: Sexual and Gender-based violence (SGBV) (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with Ruth Margerison, Consultant with UNHCR)... FROM THE FIELD: Frequently Asked Questions About Domestic Violence. (Domestic Violence, Peggy Bacon, Ph.D. and Jack McCarthy, Ph.D. Burma Border Projects); A story of Sexual and Gender-based Violence (Baik Lay, Karen Women Organization-Health Messenger)... TREATMENT: Medical Treatment of Rape (Health Messenger Team, Based on the BBG 2003 by Dr. Ann Burton, IRC); Medical Treatment of Unsafe Abortion (Julie Price, Cynthia Maung, Naw Sophia, Tara Sullivan, and Naw Dah, Mae Tao Clinic)... CASE STUDY: Unsafe Abortion and its Prevention: Who cares? (Suzanne Belton, PhD Candidate, B Soc Sc [Hons])... MATERNITY & CHILD HEALTH: Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (MTCT) (Health Messenger); Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby (Andrea Menefee, Nutritionist, Burmese Border Consortium)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Let's Raise our Children for a Better Future (Health Messenger).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 18
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: The Endocrine System (Health Messenger); Diseases of the Thyroid Gland (Health Messenger); Congenital Malaria (Rose McGready, SMRU)... CASE STUDY: Chronic Diseases: A Case of Hyperthyroidism (Dr. Cecile Barbou Des Courieres, AMI)... FROM THE FIELD: Nutrition Survey in Mae La Camp & Camp # 2 (Andrea Menefee, BBC); Filariasis Screening in Mae Khong Kha Camp (Kyi Htwe & Marie-Theres Benner, Malteser Germany (MHD)); Measles Epidemic in Mae La Camp (MSF Team, Mae La 1)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Balanced Nutrition for Proper Growth of Children (Health Messenger).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (811K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 17 -- Special Issue on Landmines
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Overview of Landmine Problems in Myanmar (Michiyo Kato &Yeshua Moser-Puangswan, NIV SEA); Basic Information about Landmines (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Trauma Care Foundation Burma (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Chain of Survival (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB); Mine Injuries and Their Management (Htun Htun Oo, TCFB)... FROM THE FIELD: Orthopaedic Programme of the ICRC-Myanmar (Marco Emery, ICRC, Myanmar); Data Collection on Mine Victims and the Impact of Landmines (Christophe Tiers, HI); Mental Health Assessment among Refugees in Three Camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand (Dr. Ann Burton, IRC)...HEALTH EDUCATION: Mine Awareness (Christophe Tiers, HI); Eight Reasons to Ban Landmines (Christophe Tiers, HI)... SOCIAL: Real life stories (Christophe Tiers, HI).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (963K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 16 -- Special Issue on Malaria
      Date of publication: May 2002
      Description/subject: FROM THE FIELD: Participatory Learning and Action for Community-Based Malaria Control (James Hopkins, Kenan Institute Asia)... GENERAL HEALTH: Population Movement and Malaria (Dr. Naw Nhai. M, SMRU); Fake Artesunate in Southeast Asia : A Murderous Trade (Stephane Proux, S.M.R.U)...MATRERNITH & CHILD HEALTH: Malaria in Pregnancy : Important Issues (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); Diagnosis of Malaria (Sarika Pattanasin. Lab technician, S.M.R.U.)... CASE STUDY: The Problem of Presumptive Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria (Lucy Phaipun, SMRU); Important Issues Regarding Treatment of Malaria in Small Children (Lucy Phaiphun, SMRU)...HEALTH EDUCATION: The Importance of Completing Anti-malarial Treatment (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU); Daw Shwe Mi's Lessons (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 15 -- Special Issue on Rabies, Typhoid Fever
      Date of publication: February 2002
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Typhoid Fever (Health Messenger); Rabies (Health Messenger); Management of dog bites (Dr. Liz Ashley, SMRU)... FROM THE FIELD: Typhoid epidemic in Tham Hin camp (Dr. Danielle Stewart, MSF); Death of Naw Wa Wa (Health Messenger); Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding HIV infection among Burmese Migrant Workers in Mae Sot (Dr. Thein Myint (Member of BMA), Health Program Director, NHEC); From the Field (Nipaporn Intong, ARC International)...PREVENTION: Prevention of Rabies (Contribution by Elisabeth Emerson, WHO)... INTERVIEW: Community Agriculture and Nutrition Workers’ Project: An Interview with David Saw Wah (Health Messenger); Agriculture training in Nu Po Camp (Health Messenger)...SOCIAL: World AIDS Day in the Camps (From KEWG, IRC and ARC); The winning poem: Prevention is the best way to deter AIDS...HEALTH EDUCATION: Mo Mo and Bubu (Health Messenger).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 14 -- Special Issue on Dengue
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Dengue in The South East Asia Region : Focus on Thailand and Myanmar (With contribution by Elisabeth Emerson, WHO); Overview of Dengue Fever (Health Messenger); Aedes: the vector of Dengue (Health Messenger)...PREVENTION: Prevention of Dengue Fever (Nipaporn Intong, ARC and Christine Harmston, BRC)...FROM THE FIELD: First International Conference on Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Chiang Mai, Thailand (With contribution by Elisabeth Emerson, WHO); DHF Epidemic in Tham Hin Camp (Dr. Danielle Stewart, MSF)...SANITATION: Anti-Vectorial Response in Case of Dengue Fever Outbreak (René Collard, MSF)... INTERVIEW: Interviews at Tham Hin Camp (Health Messenger)... CASE STUDY: The case of Maung Maung Soe (Dr. Danielle Stewart, MSF)... HEALTH EDUCATION: The Wise Rabbit (Health Messenger).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2014


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 13
      Date of publication: June 2001
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Lymphatic System (Health Messenger); Lymphatic Filariasis (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: Workshop in the Camps (Health Messenger); The Dangers of Self-medication (Dr. Arnaud Jeannie, MSF, Mae Sot); SANITATION: Sanitation and Waste Management in Nu Po Camp (Nipaporn Intong, ARC)... PREVENTION: Nutrition Education for a Healthy Community - Preventing Nutrient Deficiencies (Andrea Menefee, BBC); MATERNITY AND CHILD CARE: Care of the Mother after Delivery: Normal Postnatal Care (Dr. Rose Mc Gready, SMRU)... PREVENTION: Nutrition Education for a Healthy Community - Preventing Nutrient Deficiencies (Andrea Menefee, BBC)... SANITATION: Sanitation and Waste Management in Nu Po Camp (Nipaporn Intong, ARC)... FROM THE FIELD: Workshop in the Camps (Health Messenger); The Dangers of Self-medication (Dr. Arnaud Jeannie, MSF, Mae Sot).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (680K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 12 -- Special Issue on Dental Health
      Date of publication: March 2001
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: The Tooth: Structure & Development (Health Messenger); Common Dental Problems (Health Messenger); Scrub Typhus (Health Messenger)...HEALTH EDUCATION: Dental Care and Children (Health Messenger); The Tale of Thaung's Teeth (Health Messenger)... PREVENTION: Dental Health Promotion (Andrea Menefee, BBC); Prevention of Difficult Pregnancies (Health Messenger)... SOCIAL: Global Gathering to Achieve Health for All (Christine Harmston, BRC); CASE STUDY: The Case of Mi Pakow Son (Saikamer Non, MSF)... FROM THE FIELD: Dental Activity Report (Tham La Sey & Marie-Therese Benner, Malteser Hilfsdienst Germany, MHD).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 11 -- Special Issue on Alcoholism
      Date of publication: December 2000
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Alcohol and Alcoholism (Health Messenger); Physical Effects of Alcohol (Dr. Jonathan Nield, MSF); Psychological Effects Of Alcohol Consumption (Philip Galvin, BBC); Liver (Health Messenger); Alcoholic Liver Disease (Health Messenger); Drink, Drank, Drunk (Pam Rogers, Addiction Therapist, Canada)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Alcohol Catches You (Melanie Meardi, WEAVE)... FROM THE FIELD: Alcohol Drinking in Nu Poh Camp (Win Win Yi, ARC, Nu Poh Camp)...TREATMENT: Managing Alcohol Poisoning (Health Messenger)... INTERVIEW: People and Alcohol (Nipaporn Intong, ARC).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (987K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 10
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Cancer (Health Messenger); High Blood Pressure (Health Messenger)... PREVENTION: Preventing Cancer (Andrea Menefee, IRC Mae Hong Son)... MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: Menopause (Health Messenger); Contraception:Giving The Oral Contraceptive Pill (Suzanne Belton)... CASE STUDY: Brave Little Moe Moe (Dr. Seerat Nasir, Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: Condom Promotion In Nu Poh Camp (Nipaporn Intong, ARC)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Little Cat A Daung (Gordon Sharmars, WEAVE).
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 9 -- Special Issue on STDs and HIV
      Date of publication: June 2000
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: STD and HIV/AIDS in Thailand and Myanmar (Dr. Ying-Ru Lo, WHO, Mrs. Laksami Suebsaeng, WHO); Syndromic Management Appoach : An Effective Way to STD Case Management (Health Messenger); Neonatal Conjunctivitis (Dr. Jerry Vincent, IRC); An introduction to HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger); HIV/AIDS Transmission and Non-Transmission Routes (Andrea Menefee, IRC); AIDS NEWS (Health Messenger)... SOCIAL: The link between STDs and HIV/AIDS: the medical and social causes (Health Messenger); Health and Human Rights (Christine Harmston, BRC)... DIAGNOSIS: Syndromic approach to identifying common STDs (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counseling, Information and Partner notification for STD patients (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); SawPaing and Nan Wai (Gordon Sharmar, WEAVE)... MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: Children and HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: The Karen Education Working Group (Ms. Honey Moon, KEWG)... PREVENTION: Prevention (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU).
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 8
      Date of publication: March 2000
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (13.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 7 -- Special Issue on Tuberculosis
      Date of publication: December 1999
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (15.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 6
      Date of publication: September 1999
      Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Fever; The Skeletal System; Fractures... DIAGNOSIS: Physical Examinations... MATERNITY & CHILD HEALTH: Naw Mu’s Case.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (693K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 5
      Date of publication: June 1999
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (10.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 4
      Date of publication: February 1999
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (6.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 3
      Date of publication: January 1999
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (10.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 2
      Date of publication: December 1998
      Description/subject: Medical Dictionary (F-H); How About Worms?; Soil-transmitted worms; Blood; ABO blood groups; Blood Constituents and their functions; The Male Reproductive Organs; The female reproductive 0rgans; Menstrual Cycle; Case study.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (784K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 January 2005


      Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 1
      Date of publication: November 1998
      Description/subject: Distance Learning Health Magazine...Drug Administration; Medical Dictionary (A-E); Medicine Within Reach of Everyone; The Body's Absorption of Alcohol and Oxidation; Alcoholism; Basic Examination of the Mouth; Lower Jaw Joint Disease; Furuncle of the Nasal Vestibule; Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever - (D.H.F.); Classical Dengue; Differentiation of Classical Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever; Platelet and Thrombocytopenia; Auscultation of the Heart; The Mother's Health Care After Childbirth; Nursing and Caring For Those Who are Dying.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (315K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 January 2005


    • "Saytaman" (predecessor to "Health Messenger")

      Individual Documents

      Title: "Saytaman" Issue 7/8, July-August 1997 -- Special Issue on Diarrhea
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (9.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman" Issue 6, May-June 1997 -- Special Issue on Malaria
      Date of publication: June 1997
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (10.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman" Issue No. 5, March-April 1997
      Date of publication: April 1997
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (10.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman" Issue 4, January-February 1997
      Date of publication: February 1997
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (12.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman" Health Magazine No. 3, November 1996
      Date of publication: November 1996
      Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (16MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman" Issue No. 1, February 1996 (Burmese)
      Date of publication: February 1996
      Description/subject: MEDICINE AND SURGERY: Paralysis of sciatic nerve in children (Philippe Blasco)... PUBLIC HEALTH: AIDS: introduction (Martin Woodtli and Peter Metzger); Malaria: introduction (Francois Nosten)... CLINICAL CASE: Tuberculosis (Quentin Descours).
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Title: "Saytaman", Issue No. 1, February 1996 (English)
      Date of publication: February 1996
      Description/subject: MEDICINE AND SURGERY: Paralysis of sciatic nerve in children (Philippe Blasco)... PUBLIC HEALTH: AIDS: introduction (Martin Woodtli and Peter Metzger); Malaria: introduction (Francois Nosten)... CLINICAL CASE: Tuberculosis (Quentin Descours).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


    • "Health Messenger" Junior

      Individual Documents

      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 9: "Safe Love" - special issue on reproductive health
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: Edito; The Youth; Puberty; Body and mind Pregnancy; Contraception; STIs; HIV & AIDS; History of HIV; Stigma; The HPC; Love; Be ready; Q & A.
      Language: English, Burmese, Karen
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (6.2MB - English), (7.4MB - Burmese) (7.3MB - Karen)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HMJ-Safe%20Love-bu.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-Safe_Love-ka.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 February 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 8 - A day in the hospital
      Date of publication: May 2007
      Description/subject: Most of you have already been to the hospital, for a simple consultation because you were sick and needed to see a doctor, or for hospitalization if you needed more care. The hospital might look familiar to you: you know you will get helped by nurses, medics and doctors, and that you will receive medicine. But this is only the visible part. We would like to take you backstage, and show you what people usually do not see. We will show you the pharmacy, and explain the history of tablets. We will present you the different people that make the hospital work, the medics and nurses of course, but also the director, the midwives, the lab technicians, the cooks, the logisticians You will discover in this magazine the Umpiem Hospital, in all its detail. However, most of it will be the same as in the hospitals of other camps, or in the migrant clinics such as the one of Dr. Cynthia. This overview of the hospital-world will help you understand which services you can access: the dental or the eye care, the mental health, the HIV counseling. You will learn more about blood analysis, X-Rays and operating rooms. Let's go for a day in the hospital, and enjoy the discovery.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 6.4MB, Burmese, 6.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-8-Day_in_the_hospital-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 7 - Nutrition
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 8.5MB, Burmese, 8.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-7-nutrition-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 6 - Reproductive Health
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Puberty, reproductive systems, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, are all topics related to reproductive health, boys and girls really want to be informed about. The origins of human life, as well as the physiological and psychological changes you experience as teenagers, are mysterious matters your editorial team decides to introduce you in this HM Junior issue, emphasizing on the health aspect that you really have to consider! Other entertaining topics are developed in this magazine, such as amazing facts on the land of the rising sun Could you guess which fascinating country it's all about? Enjoy your reading!
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 5MB; Burmese, 5.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-6-reproductive-health-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 5 - Mental Health
      Date of publication: June 2006
      Description/subject: Did you know that in North America, Europe, and increasingly around the world, mental illness is the main cause of disability? In the United States, serious mental illness affects three to five million children, from age five to seventeen! Mental Health is an important and fascinating subject. In this issue of HM Junior, we will focus on mental health: how to deal with mental health problems, how you can help others, and how the human brain works. This month, we'll travel to the United States, where we'll discover a treasure of wonders. Hurry to p.16 to read about this huge country! Come discover its bald eagles, its love of baseball, and the complexities of its oceans. Enjoy your trip!
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 5.7MB) (Burmese, 5.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-5-mental_health-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 4 - Early Childhood
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: In this issue, we want to go back in time and speak about a special period of life - childhood. As teenagers and adults, we can't remember it clearly. Yet, it's one of the most important steps in our development. It's a time of discovery: the first images, the first smells, the first shapes... Being part of a family allows you to live with people of different ages. What a challenge and a constant benefit! This issue is about sharing our knowledge and memory about childhood. Let's use this knowledge to understand our brothers and sisters better. Enjoy your reading!
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English - 7.3MB; Burmese, 7.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-4-early_childhood-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 3 - Drugs, Tobacco, Alcohol
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: Alcohol, Tobacco and Drugs; Important Facts; Addiction; Different Drugs; Comics Strip; Pleasure and Pain...The invention of electricity; Animal: The Panda. The Burma Page; Ta’ah Poetry; Drawings from migrant school; Teens’ Interviews; Tale: Theseus and the Minotaur; Country: Brazil; Sports page: Handicap Sports; The Magic Candleholder; Children’s Rights; Technique: Brazilian Bracelet; Hurricanes; Games: Awele; Reader’s Mail.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (English - 3MB; Burmese - 7.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HMJ-3-drugs_tobacco_alcohol-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 2, The Five Senses
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: The great discoveries: The invention of cinema... 4 - 5 Animal: the owl; 6 Teens’ drawings: The 5 senses. 7 Japanese poetry : Haiku; 8 Burma : Kho Kho visits Mandalay; 9 Karen dance; 10 - 16 Let’s go in the search for the 5 senses; 17 Teens’ interviews; 18 - 19 Country : Egypt; 20 Sport: Olympic Games; 21 The magic candleholder; 22 Children’s rights: Right not to be separated from your family; 23 The piano. How does it work? 24 - 25 Games; 26 Readers’ mail; 27 Drawing competition.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (7.2MB - English), (5.8MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HMJ-2-the_5_senses-bu.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


      Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 1 - The Infinitesimal World
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: AideMedicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


    • "Nightingale Journal" ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ ဂ်ာနယ္
      Published in Burmese by the Mao Tao Clinic, Mae Sot, Thailand, "The Nightingale Journal provides information on health, education and other important issues relating to the displaced Burmese population living on the border."

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "Nightingale Journal" Index 2 ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ ဂ်ာနယ္
      Description/subject: Issues online from December 2005 (၂၀၀၅) ဒီဇင္ဘာမွ (၂၀၁၀) ၾသဂုတ္ အထိ ထုတ္ေ၀ခဲ့ေသာ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ ဂ်ာနယ္မ်ား
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale" Health Journal (Index) ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ ဂ်ာနယ္
      Description/subject: Issues online from December 2005
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Maetao Clinic via BMA
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: "Nightingale Journal", December 2012
      Date of publication: December 2012
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2013


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", August 2012/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ၾသဂုတ္၊ ၂၀၁၂
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", January 2012/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇန္န၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၁၂
      Date of publication: January 2012
      Description/subject: အူအတက္ေရာင္ရမ္း ေသလမ္းနီးတဲ့ ေရာဂါ... ေဒါက္တာ စင္သီယာေမာင္ (၅၂)ႏွစ္ျပည့္ ေမြးေန႔ပြဲ ပံုရိပ္မ်ား (၆ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၂၀၁၁)... ကခ်င္ဒုကၡသည္ အေရး ၀ိုင္း၀န္းကူညီေစာင့္ေရွာက္ေပး... မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႕၌ က်င္းပသည့္ ကမၻာ့ေအအိုင္ဒီ အက္စ္ေန႔ အခမ္းအနား (၁-၁၂-၂ဝ၁၁)... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ားအသင္းမွ ႀကီးမွဴးသည့္ မိုင္းအႏၲရာယ္ပညာေပးႏွင့္ ေရွးဦးသူနာျပဳသင္တန္းဆင္းပြဲ (၂၃-၁၁-၂ဝ၁၁)... က်န္းမာေရးရာ ျပႆနာအေျဖရွာ... ေလွ်ာ့မယ္ေလ .. ေလွ်ာ့မယ္... ၀က္သက္ေရာဂါႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ ဗီတာမင္မ်ား... က်ားေၾကာက္လို႔ ရွင္ႀကီးကိုး ရွင္ႀကီး က်ားထက္ဆိုး (သို႔မဟုတ္) ပိုးသတ္ေဆးႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရး... ေက်ာင္းက်န္းမာေရး၊ ဗီတာမင္ေအးႏွင့္ သံခ်ေဆး... ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ က်န္းမာေရး ဂ်ာနယ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္... က်နး္ မာေရးေကာငး္ ေအာင္ အိပ္တတ္ၾကဖ႔ုိ... ဂုဏ္ယူ၀မ္းသာ ခ်င္တဲ့ သတင္း... အဲယား ခ်မ္းစင္... လူအမ်ား သတိ မျပဳမိေသာ စိတ္က်န္းမာေရး... သက္ႀကီး ရြယ္အိုတို႔ မွတ္ဥာဏ္ မခ်ဳိ႔ေစဖို႔... ကေလး ေတြ အတြက္ ပါရာစီတေမာ... ေဆးတင္း အတိုအထြာ(အိဒ္စ္ ေရာဂါ ကုသေရး ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္သစ္... ေဆးမတိုးတဲ့ ကာလသားေရာဂါ... အရက္ကို အသိရွိရွိေသာက္ဖို႔...လက္ေတာ့ ကြန္ျပဴတာသမားေတြ သတိထား)... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ ဖုန္းေျပာပါ... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ ေကာ္ဖီေသာက္ပါ... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ ဆံပင္ေျဖာင့္ပါ... ဆားေပါ့ေပါ့ စားတိုင္းေကာင္းတာ မဟုတ္... တေစၦလက္ကို အယားေဖ်ာက္ဖုိ႔
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (956K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", November 2011/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ႏို၀င္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၁၁
      Date of publication: November 2011
      Description/subject: ေရကာတာႀကီးမ်ား၊ လူထုက်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ျပႆနာမ်ား... နယ္လွည့္ေက်ာပိုးအိတ္ က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားအဖြဲ႔ အေၾကာင္း တေစ့တေစာင္း... ေရကာတာ တည္ေဆာက္မႈႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရးအႏၱရာယ္... က်န္းမာေရးရာ ျပႆနာ အေျဖရွာ... ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္... ကင္ဆာႏိုင္ေဆးဖက္၀င္ သေဘၤာပင္... ဒီလိုေနမွ၊ ဒီလို စားပါမွ ဂလိုက်န္းမာမယ္... လိပ္ေခါင္းေရာဂါ... ဆရာ၀န္ႏွင့္ သူ၏ မ်က္ႏွာဖံုးတပ္လူနာမ်ား... သဘာ၀ေကာက္ပဲ သီးႏွံအေစ့အဆံ သစ္သီး သစ္ဥမ်ားစားသံုးျခင္းျဖင့္... ထူးထူးျခားျခားႏွင့္ ရုိးရုိးသားသား... သားအိမ္ျခစ္ျခင္းႏွင့္ သေႏၶတားေဆးအသံုးျပဳျခင္း... အရက္ေကာင္းက်ဳိးဆိုးက်ဳိး... ငွက္ဖ်ားကာကြယ္ေဆးေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္... ကင္ဆာေဆး သတင္းေကာင္း... ရဲရဲသာရင္ဆုိင္ပါ၊ ေရွာင္ေျပးရင္ ေသဖို႔မ်ားတယ္... အမ်ဳိးသား လိင္တူခ်င္သူကင္ဆာပိုျဖစ္... အေကာင္းဆံုး ကိုယ္လက္ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ ဂ်င္းေဘာင္းဘီ၀ယ္ပါ... သြားကိုက္ေရာဂါ မေပါ့ပါနဲ႔... ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ ကာတြန္း... ရယ္ေမာျခင္းသည္ အေကာင္းဆံုး ေဆး...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Format/size: pdf (1.61MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", September 2011/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- စက္တင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၁၁
      Date of publication: September 2011
      Description/subject: လွေစ ၀ေစ ေသေစ မရွိမျဖစ္တဲ့ အဆီဓါတ္... ကရင္နီ ဒုကၡသည္စခန္း (၁)တြင္ လူ ၅၀၀ ေက်ာ္ တုပ္ေကြးႏွင့္ မ်က္စိနာ ေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားေန... က်န္းမာ၀ၿဖိဳး အလွတိုးၾကေစဖို႔... ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းျမန္မာ အလုပ္သမားမ်ား၏ ကေလးငယ္မ်ား အေရျပားေရာဂါ ကူးစက္ခံစားေနၾကရ... ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး အာရွမွာ ျပန္ျဖစ္ႏိုင္... ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ က်န္းမာေရး ဂ်ာနယ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ား အသင္းမွ ႀကီးမွဴး စီစဥ္သည့္ Medic Refresher Training ဖြင့္ပြဲ အခမ္း အနား (၁၅- ၈- ၂၀၁၁) ... က်န္းမာေရး စနစ္ေကာင္းရန္ က်ပ္သန္း ၈၀၀၀ ႏွစ္စဥ္လိုအပ္ေနဟု ဆို... လူထုက်န္းမာေရး အစီအစဥ္ စီမံကိန္း ေရးဆြဲျခင္း ဆိုင္ရာ ဆရာျဖစ္သင္တန္း ဆင္းပြဲအခမ္းအနား (၂၈- ၇- ၂၀၁၁) ... ဟားခါးၿမိဳ႔ တုပ္ေကြး အႏၱရာယ္ ထိပ္ဆံုးေရာက္ေန... က်န္းမာေရး ရာ ျပႆနာအေျဖရွာ... ေသြးလြန္ တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါတားဆီးေရး... ေႁမြအႏၱရာယ္ မႀကံဳရေလေအာင္... ကိုယ္ခႏၶာ အဆီေလ်ာ့က် ကန္းမာေပါ့ပါးဖုိ႔... ဆရာ၀န္နဲ႔ ႏိုင္ငံေရး... က်မသားေလး ဆာေနလို႔ ငိုတဲ့ အခ်ိန္... သီးႏွံ ၉ မ်ဳိးကိုစားၿပီးက်န္းမာေရး ေသာ့ ၁၂ ေခ်ာင္းကို ဖြင့္ၾကစို႔ ... ၁၅ မိနစ္ပဲကစား၊ အသက္ရွည္မယ္... ဆီးခ်ဳိေရာဂါသတင္းေကာင္း၊ သတင္းဆိုး... ကိုယ္၀န္ဆိပ္တက္ ကာကြယ္ေရး... ကိုယ္ခံအားက်ေရာဂါ ကုေဆးနဲ႔ ကာကြယ္ေရး... ကုမၸဏီေဆး၊ ဓာတုေဆး... ညစ္ညမ္းစာေပ၊ ရုပ္ရွင္နဲ႔ လူ႔စိတ္... အျပာကားအၾကည့္မ်ားရင္ ပန္းေသမယ္... အိတ္ေဆာင္ဓါတ္ခြဲခန္း... စက္ဘီး အစီးမ်ားရင္ ေယာက္်ား အားေလ်ာ့မယ္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (900K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 July 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", July 2011/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇူလိုင္၊ ၂၀၁၁
      Date of publication: July 2011
      Description/subject: အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ စိတ္က်န္းမာေရး... စစ္ေဘး စစ္ဒဏ္ကုစားေရး... က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ အစားအေသာက္ ICRC အကူအညီေပးေစလို... ၀က္နားရြက္ျပာ ကာကြယ္ေဆးႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး တိက်ေသခ်ာသည့္ သတင္းထုတ္သင့္ ... ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္ က်န္းမာေရး ဂ်ာနယ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္... တိုင္းရင္းသား ဒုကၡသည္အေရး ဂၽြန္မက္ကိန္း စိုးရိမ္... ကေနဒါမွာ စက္ဘီးနင္းကာ ရန္ပံုေငြရွာ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ားအသင္း မွ မ်ဳိးဆက္ပြားႏွင့္ ကေလး က်န္းမာေရး မြမ္းမံသင္တန္းဆင္းပြဲက်င္းပ (၁၇- ၇- ၂၀၁၁)... ေဆး၀ါး အကူအညီေတာင္း သူ HIV ေ၀ဒါနာရွင္ပိုမ်ားလာ... က်န္းမာေရး ဌာန ႏွင့္ IOM ပူးေပါင္းၿပီး ငွက္ဖ်ားေဒသမွာ ျခင္ေထာင္ေ၀ငွ... အာသီးေရာင္ျခင္း... ခ်စ္စိတ္ရဲ႔ ေနာက္ကြယ္မွ ဇီ၀ဓာတု ျဖစ္စဥ္မ်ား... ညစဥ္ (၇) နာရီျပည့္ေအာင္ အိပ္ ရမယ္နဲ႔ မေဟာက္ရေအာင္ ဘာေတြ ေဆာင္ရမလဲ... ေလသင္တုန္း ျဖတ္ျခင္း... ေတြးရယ္- ရယ္ေတြး... ျမင့္ျမတ္ႏွလံုးသား... မီးေတာက္မွ ေသာက္သူ... အိမ္မွာ ကေလး ေမြးမယ့္ ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္... ငါေျပာသလိုလုပ္ ငါေတာ့ တမ်ဳိးလုပ္မယ္... ပိုေသျခာေစဖို႔ အိမ္မွာ ေသြးတိုင္းစို႔... ဟန္ေဆာင္အၿပံဳးေတြ... ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ေဆးသတင္းအတုိအထြာ (ေသာက္ေသာသူ အသက္ရွည္၏... လက္ကိုင္ဖုန္းရဲ႔ ဓါတ္ေရာင္ျခည္... အခ်ဳိရည္ႀကိဳက္လူမိုက္... ေဒါသႀကီးတဲ့ အေဖ... ထြားခ်င္ၾကသူမ်ား... ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား အတြက္ ပံုမွန္ ဇီ၀ႏႈန္းထား ဇယားသစ္... ေသြးသြင္းဖို႔ အတြက္ လူလုပ္ေသြးအစစ္... ဥာဏ္ေကာင္းေဆး)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (868K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 July 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", March 2011/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- မတ္၊ ၂၀၁၁
      Date of publication: March 2011
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ေရနက္ဆိပ္ကမ္းႏွင့္ ပါတ္၀န္းက်င္ က်န္းမာေရး (ေဒါက္တာတင့္ေဇာ္) ... ထားဝယ္ေရနက္ဆိပ္ကမ္းႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရးျပႆနာ... လူထုက်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သား မြမ္းမံသင္တန္းဆင္းပြဲ... ကေလးေမးြ လာၿပီးရင ္အာဟာရ မခ်ဳိတ ့ဲေစဖ႔ုိ ... ဖန္ျပြန္္သေႏၶသား... ဗီတာမင္ B1 ခ်ဳိ႔တဲ့ေသာေရာဂါ... GUASA ကုထံုး... ေဂး(သို႔မဟုတ္) လိင္တူခ်စ္သူ... တေဝါ့ေဝါ့ခရီး... ဆရာဝန္ႏွစ္ဦးႏွင့္ ေတာပုန္းႀကီး... ျမင္းခြာရြက္ ေထာပတ္သီးနဲ႔ နႏြင္းကို ဒီလို ေန႔စဥ္စားသံုးၾကမလား... က်နး္ မာေရးႏွင့္တရားထိုင္ျခင္း... အပ္စိုက္ကုနဲ႔ေရာဂါပိုး ... ေဆးျပားကို စိတ္ခြဲစားျခင္း ျပႆနာ... နာရင္နာတာကို မွတ္... အေအးမိေရာဂါအတြက္ ဇင့္... အားသြင္းမွန္... တီဘီကာကြယ္ေဆးသစ္... သားဖြားဆရာမမ်ားအေရး... ေသြးတိုးကုထံုး... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးေကာင္းက်ဳိး...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (968K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", December 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဒီဇင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: December 2010
      Description/subject: ေမြးကင္းစကေလး အသား၀ါေရာဂါ... အဆင့္မီကၽြမ္းက်င္သည့္ လူထုက်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားေကာင္း HIV ေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ားကို အလွဴရွင္မ်ားပိုမို အာရံုစိုက္လာ... မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔ စီဒီစီေက်ာင္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္သည့္ ကရင္ႏွစ္သစ္ကူးေန႔ အခမ္းအနား (၅-၁- ၂၀၁၁) ... ေဆးအတိအက် မေပၚေသးတဲ့ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး... အာရွေဒသ အစုိးရမ်ား၏ လူထုက်န္း မာေရးေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈအေပၚေျပာင္းလဲလာေသာ သေဘာ ထားႏွင့္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ စစ္အစုိးရ၏ ... ႏိုင္တင္ေဂးလ္ က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္... ဖန္ျပြန္သေႏၶသား... ႏွစ္သစ္၊ စနစ္သစ္၊ သင္တန္းအသစ္မွ သည္... ျမန္မာအစားအစာ လွ်ာလည္စရာနဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရးရႈေထာင့္... ေတြးရယ္ ရယ္ေတြး(ေဒါက္တာ ဂ်ဳိကာ) ... ဆရာ အိမ္သာႏွင့္ အိမ္သာျပႆနာ... ကာကြယ္တိုက္ဖ်က္ျခင္း ျဖင့္ အနာဂတ္တြင္ အၿပံဳးပန္းမ်ား ေဝပါေစ... အလြမ္းေျပဖိုးထူး... ဥေရာပမီးဖြားခြင့္... အေရးေပၚ အသက္ကယ္နည္း... ဘိန္းျဖဴထက္ ပိုဆိုးတဲ့အရက္... ငွက္ဖ်ား ကာကြယ္ေဆး ေနာက္ဆံုး အေျခအေန... ကာကြယ္ေဆးပလာစတာ... အိပ္မက္ဖမ္းကိရိယာ... ဆင့္ပြားေေဆးလိပ္ အႏၱရာယ္... ေၾကာက္ရြ႔ံမႈရဲ႔ ဇစ္ျမစ္... ေသြးတိုးေရာဂါအတြက္ ၾကက္သြန္ျဖဴ... အားႏြဲ႔သူေယာက်္ားသား...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", November 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ႏို၀င္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: November 2010
      Description/subject: အသက္အႏၱရာယ္ကို ဒုကၡေပးသည့္ သန္ေကာင္... ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲလြန္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ ပဋိပကၡႏွင့္ စစ္ေျပးဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအေရး... ေျပာင္းေရႊ႔လွ်င္ အခက္အခဲရွိဟု HIV/ AIDS ေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ား ေျပာ ... တူညီစြာေဖးမ လွပမယ့္ ဘ၀... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းေရာက္ လူနားမ်ား၏ ရင္ဖြင့္သံ... ဖိုးဘီးယား... လုပ္ငန္းခြင္ အႏၱရာယ္ကင္းရွင္းေရးနဲ႔ ကယ္ဆယ္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား... လူထုက်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သား သင္ရိုးညႊန္းတမ္းေရးဆြဲျခင္း... စစ္ေျပးဒုကၡသည္မ်ားနဲ႔ လွ်ပ္တျပက္က်န္းမာေရး... အက်င့္ဆိုးေတြေၾကာင့္ တိုသြားႏိုင္တဲ့ သက္တမ္း... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းအပ္စိုက္ဌာန တာ၀န္ခံ ေစာလယ္၀ါးေစးႏွင့္ ေတြ႔ဆံုေမးျမန္းခန္း... ေသျခင္း ေကာင္းႏွင့္ ေသျခင္းဆိုး... လက္ညွိဳး၏ အရွည္က ဆီးႀကိတ္ကင္ဆာ သဲလြန္စ... ကေလးငယ္ေတြကို ေဆးတိုက္တဲ့ အခါ... ကိုယ္၀န္ ပ်က္က် မႈေၾကာင့္ ႏွလံုး ထိခိုက္မႈ အႏၱရာယ္ ပိုျဖစ္ႏိုင္... စီဒီစီ အထက္တန္းေက်ာင္းတြင္ က်င္းပျပဳလုပ္သည့္ ေဒါက္တာစင္သီယာေမာင္၏ (၅၁) ႏွစ္ျပည့္ ေမြးေန႔ အခမ္းအနား....
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (836K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", September 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- စက္တင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: September 2010
      Description/subject: ခ်စ္စိတ္တည္ရာ အသည္းႏွလံုးလား ဦးေႏွာ က္လား... A(H1N1) သတိမျပတ္ေစာင့္ၾကည့္... မယ္လ ဒုကၡသည္စခန္းတြင္ ကေလးငယ္ (၂) ဦး ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးျဖစ္... တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါေၾကာင့္ မယ္လအူး စခန္းတြင္ စာသင္ေက်ာင္း အားလံုးပိတ္ထားရ... ခင္ဗ်ားတို႔ နားမွာ ႂကြက္ေတြ ရွိရင္ သတိထား... ကိုယ္၀န္အဆိပ္တက္နာႏွင့္ ေဘးမသန္းဘဲေအးခ်မ္းေစခ်င္... ဟုတ္ကဲ့ --ဟုတ္ကဲ့... စိတ္ကူးယဥ္လွ်င္... အရက္ရဲ႔ ဆိုးက်ဳိး (၃) ... ဖန္ႁပြန္သေႏၶသားတီထြင္သူ ႏို္ဘယ္ဆုရ... ဦးေႏွာက္ အေျမႇးပါးေရာင္ေရာဂါ... ကိုယ္လက္လႈပ္ရွား ကစားမႈႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရး အက်ဳိးေက်းဇူးမ်ား... အရက္ေၾကာင္...အားနည္းသူတို႔ အားထားရာ... ေက်ာက္ပန္းေတာင္းတြင္ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါေၾကာင့္ ေသဆံုးမႈမ်ားရွိၿပီး ေက်ာင္းမ်ားပိတ္ထားရ... ကေလးအေမနဲ႔ ကေလး အေဖ... ကင္ဆာလကၡဏာ (၈)ခု ... မ်က္မွန္ေခတ္ကုန္ေတာ့မလား... ပရုပ္ဆီမဟုတ္တဲ့ အကိုက္အခဲ ေပ်ာက္လိမ္းေဆး... ေနာက္ဆုံးေပၚမီးဖြားသတင္းမ်ား... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး ကမာၻ႔ကပ္ေဘးၿပီးဆံုး... ကားစီးရင္းေဆးလိပ္ေသာက္တာ ကေလး ညႇဥ္းပန္းမႈ... အရက္သည္ေဆး... ပိန္ခ်င္ရင္ေရေသာက္... အနာတျခား ေဆးတျခား ဗိုင္ယာဂရာ... ႂကြပ္ႂကြပ္အိတ္ၿပီးေတာ့ေရသန္႔ဘူး...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", August 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ၾသဂုတ္၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: August 2010
      Description/subject: ထား၀ယ္ခရိုင္မွာ တုပ္ေကြးျဖစ္ပြားသူမ်ားေန... ကခ်င္ေဒသ၌ HIV ကူးစက္မႈ ျမင့္မား... ထိုင္း- ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္မွာ မိုင္းနင္မိတဲ့ ဆင္မႀကီး... အေရျပားေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြား၍ ကေလးငယ္မ်ားအတြက္ စိုးရိမ္ရ... လုပ္သက္ရင့္ေဆး၀န္ထမ္းမ်ားမြမ္းမံ သင္တန္းဆင္ပြဲ က်င္းပၿပီးစီး... က်န္းမာေရး ေပၚလစီႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရးစနစ္ ဖြ႔ံၿဖဳိးတိုးတက္ေရး... အလုပ္သမားမ်ားအၾကား HIV/ AIDS ကူးစက္ႏႈန္း(၃) ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းရွိဟု ပတ္ထနာရပ္ေျပာ... အမ်ဳိးသမီးေတြ HIV ေရာဂါပိုး မကူးစက္ေအာင္ ကာကြယ္ႏိုင္မယ့္ ေဆး... HIV ေရာဂါပိုးရွိသူမိခင္ ARV ေဆးပံုမွန္စားသင့္ ... ေျပး ေျပး ေျပး ... မိခင္ကေလး က်န္းမာေရး ႏို႔ခ်ဳိတိုက္ေကၽြး အေလးေပး... အသံေတြၾကားေနရတယ္နဲ႔ ဘာလဲ ဟဲ့ကမာၻ႔ဖလားက ေပးတဲ့ေရာဂါ(ေဘာလံုးေရာဂါႏွင့္ လူထုက်န္းမာေရး... ေမးခိုင္ေရာဂါ ႀကိဳတင္ကာကြယ္ပါ... ပို၍သာေသာ ေက်းဇူး... အႏၱရယ္ႀကီးမားေသာ တိရိစာၦေရာဂါမ်ား လူသားတို႔အားကူးစက္မႈ... ကင္ဆာေရာဂါ ကူထံုးသစ္ ကင္ဆာကာကြယ္ေဆး... အရက္ရဲ႔ ဆိုးက်ဳိး( ၂) ... နဂိုအတိုင္းပဲ ေကာင္းပါတယ္... မုသာ၀ါဒ... ကမာၻ႔က်န္းမာေရးအဖြဲ႔ ႀကီးအတြင္းက ျခစားမႈ ... အေရးေပၚေသြးတိတ္ေဆး... သိပ္မနမ္နဲ႔ နားေလးသြားမယ္... တေန႔ ႏွစ္ခါသြားတိုက္ပါ က်န္းမာသန္႔ရွင္းႏွလံုးေရာဂါကင္း... ရင္သားကင္ဆာ ကာကြယ္ေရး... သေႏၶသားေလာင္း အသက္၀င္ခ်ိန္... ဘီယာသမားမ်ား ၀မ္းေျမာက္ဖြယ္ ... လက္ကိုင္ဖုန္း အႏၱရာယ္... လကၡဏာပညာကို ေထာက္ခံတဲ့ ေဆးပညာ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (790K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/aug10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", May 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေမ၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: May 2010
      Description/subject: ငွက္ဖ်ားမွ သည္ ခ်ီခြန္ဂန္ယား (သို႔မ ဟုတ္) ျခင္ေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္ တဲ့ ေရာဂါမ်ား... ျမန္မာျပည္သူမ်ား၏ ေသာက္သံုးေရ အခက္အခဲကို ကူညီေျဖရွင္းေရး... ေမာင္ေတာၿမိဳ႔တြင္ တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါဆန္းတမ်ဳိးက်ယ္ျပန္႔စာ ျဖစ္ပြားေန အပူရွိန္ျမင့္မားမႈေၾကာင့္ ေခြးမ်ားလည္း ေသဆံုးမႈရွိ... ေရးၿမိဳနယ္အတြင္ ၀မ္းပ်က္ ၀မ္းေလွ်ာေရာဂါေၾကာင့္ ေသဆံုးမႈရွိ... ဒလ ေရျပတ္လပ္မႈ ဆိုးရြား... ျပည္သူမ်ား ေရခက္ခဲမႈ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ စုိးရိမ္... ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံမွာ ငွက္ဖ်ားေရာဂါ ကာကြယ္တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး ေဒၚလာသန္း (၂၀) လိုအပ္... ေရသိုးေလွာင္ ေသာက္ရသည့္ရြာတရြာ ေသာက္ေရ ျပတ္လပ္ေန... ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္ စဥ္ အရင္လို ေနလို႔ ရသလား... ၀ိပါက္ ၾကမၼာရွိခဲ့ပါလွ်င္ ... ပူတယ္- ပန္းတယ္ ျပင္ၾကမယ္(ပသံုးလံုးႏွင့္ လူထု က်န္းမာေရး)... အလုပ္မ်ားသူေတြနဲ႔ ေဂါ့ဒ္ေရာဂါ... တိုက္ (ေဒါက္တာေရမီးရွား)... ျပတ္ေတာက္သြားေသာ အိပ္မက္မ်ား... စိတ္အပန္းေျဖျခင္း... အရက္ရဲ႔ ဆိုးက်ဳိး (၁)... အပူလိႈင္း ဒဏ္ေၾကာင့္ လူအေသအေပ်ာက္မ်ား... အသက္(၅) ႏွစ္ေအာက္ ကေလးမ်ား ၀က္သက္ေရာဂါ အျဖစ္မ်ား... သြားႀကိတ္အက်င့္ ေပ်ာက္ကင္းဖို႔ ... စိတ္မခ်ရတဲ့ ဓါတ္မွန္... တတိယ ဆင့္ပြားေဆးလိပ္ အႏၱရာယ္... အိုဗာတိုင္၊ အိပ္ခ်ိန္နဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး... ေသြးတိုးကုထံုးသစ္နဲ႔ ဆရာ၀န္ျပႆနာ... သိဂၤါရေဟာ္မုန္း... ကေလးနဲ႔ ကာကြယ္ေဆး... ဆယ္ေျခာက္ႏွစ္မေတြ အရက္ေသာက္ေတာ့... မီးခိုးမဲ့ ေဆးလိပ္... ၾကက္တုပ္ေကြး၊ ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးၿပီးေတာ့ ဆင္တုပ္ေကြး (ခ်ီခြန္ဂန္ယားေရာဂါ သတိျပဳစရာ) ... အိမ္တြင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ေျပာင္းျပန္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (776K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/may10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", March 2010/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- မတ္၊ ၂၀၁၀
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ား အသင္း(လြတ္ေျမာက္နယ္ေျမ)၏ ပၪၥမအႀကိမ္ ညီလာခံကို လြတ္ ေျမာက္နယ္ေျမတေနရာတြင္ က်င္းပ... ပၪၥမအႀကိမ္ ညီလာ ခံႏွင့္ ေရွ႕လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေရး... အရည္အေသြးရွိတဲ့ က်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈေတြ ေပၚေပါက္လာဖို႔... ေမြးကင္းစ အသား၀ါေရာဂါ... စစ္ကိုင္းတိုင္းတြင္ ၾကက္တုပ္ေကြးျဖစ္ ၾကက္ ေသာင္းခ်ီ ဖ်က္ဆီး... လူမႈေရးအကူအညီ ယူ႐ို (၁၇)သန္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံကို အီးယူ က ေပးမည္... မယ္လစခန္းအတြင္း ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားမႈ ပိုတိုးလာ... မူးယစ္တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရးႏိုင္ငံတကာ ဥပေဒကို ျမန္မာ လိုက္နာမႈ မရွိ... သတင္းစာဆရာႀကီး ဦးဝင္းတင္၏ 'ဘာလဲဟဲ့ လူ႕ငရဲ' စာအုပ္ ျဖန္႔ခ်ိ... ဇိုယာဖန္း ကမၻာ့လူငယ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေရြးခ်ယ္ခံရ... ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ဒုကၡသစ္ မရွာၾကပါနဲ႔ ... ဒီလမ္း ဒီစခန္း ပန္းတိုင္အေရာက္ လမ္းဆက္ေလွ်ာက္မယ္ဗ်ိဳ႔ ... တူညီေသာ အခြင့္အေရး တူညီေသာ အခြင့္အလမ္း (သို႔မဟုတ္) အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ားရဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး တိုက္ပြဲ ... ေရထဲခုန္ခ်ျခင္းႏွင့္ ေရထဲရိုက္ခ်ျခင္း... မဇၽိၥ မပဋိပဒါ ေနထိုင္မႈနဲ႔ ေသာကကင္းေဝး က်န္းမာေရး... ရင္သားကင္ဆာအေၾကာင္း သိေကာင္းစရာ... သားေကာင္မ်ား... ကိုအ၀ွာနဲ႔ ပ်ဳိကညာတို႔ရဲ႔ တိုနာ ... မွန္မွန္စားပါ... လိင္တူ ဆက္ဆံသူ၊ မူးယစ္ေဆးသံုးသူႏွင့္ ျပည့္တန္ဆာမ်ားအၾကား HIV ပိုး ကူးစက္မႈ ႏႈန္း ျမင့္မား... ငွက္ေပ်ာသီးတြင္ ပါ၀င္သည့္ ဓာထုပစၥည္းတမ်ဳိးက အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ပိုး ကူးစက္ျခင္းကို တားဆီးႏိုင္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (895K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/mar10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", December 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဒီဇင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: အဆုတ္နာ တီဘီေဘး ကာကြယ္ပါ မေႏွး... ျမန္မာ မိခင္ေလာင္း (၃၂) ရာခို္င္ႏႈန္း အကူ အညီမဲ့ေမြးဖြား... အေလးထားရမည ့္က်နး္ မာေရးျပႆနာ တီဘီေရာဂါ... ခြဲစိတ္ေသဆံုးမႈသတင္းမ်ားကို ျပည္တြင္း၌ပိတ္ပင္... အက်ဥ္းသား (ရဝဝဝ) အတြက္ ဆရာဝန္တဦးသာရွိ... ႏို႔ဖိုးဒုကၡသည္စခန္းတြင္ တတိယႏိုင္ငံ ထြက္ခြာရန္ ေစာင့္ဆုိင္းရသူမ်ား ဆႏၵျပ... မသန္မစြမ္းသူမ်ားအတြက္ ဂ်ပန္အဖြဲ႔ အစည္း ကူညီမည္... လူနာ အခြင့္အေရး... ဒုကၡသည္ အမ်ိဳးသမီး မ်ား အေပၚ ႏွိပ္စက္မႈမ်ား ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ဥပေဒအရ အေရးယူႏိုင္ရန္ အိုင္အာစီ ကူညီ... ေဟာဒီ ေဆာင္းတြင္းခါမွာဒါေတြ ဒါေတြ ဒါေတြ သတိျပဳ ပါ ေရာင္း ရင္းရာ... ဆုမ်ားမ်ား ဒဏ္နည္းနည္း(သုိ႔မဟုတ္) ရုိက္ႏွက္ ဆူ ပူ ႀကိမ္းေမာင္း မႈမဲ့ ကေလးသူငယ္ ျပဳစုပ်ဳိးေထာင္ျခင္း... ေၾကာ္ျငာဒါ႐ိုက္တာမင္းမိုက္စိုးစံရဲ႕ ေဆးေက်ာ္ညာမ်ား... လူနာႏွင့္ ေဆး၊ ေဆးႏွင့္ လူနာ... ဖ်က္ဆီးတတ္ေသာမန္... လူတုပ္ေကြး ကာကြယ္ေဆး အေရြးခက္ေနျခင္း... က်န္းမာေရး ၀န္ထမ္းမ်ား လိုက္နာဖို႔ က်င့္၀တ္... ႏိုင္ငံတကာမွ က်န္းမာေရးစနစ္မ်ား... ဖခင္ေလာင္းေတြ ေမြးခန္းထဲ ဝင္သင့္ မဝင္သင့္... နားနဲ႔ မနာ ဖ၀ါးနဲ႔ နာဆိုတာ ... ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ေဆးသတင္း အတုိအထြာ... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗြီ/ ေအ အိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ကုသေရးလမ္းညႊန္သစ္... ခပ္ေပ်ာ့ေပ်ာ့ ဝက္တုပ္ေကြး... ဆယ္ေက်ာ္သက္ မိန္းကေလးေတြ 'ကဲ'ရင္ သားအိမ္ေခါင္း ကင္ဆာနဲ႔ ေတြ႔မယ္... ဆီစားမ်ားရင္ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ႏိုင္... လူပ်ဳိဘ၀မွာ 'ကဲ' ရင္ ပေရစတိတ္ကင္ဆာနဲ႔ ေတြ႔မယ္ လူအိုဘ၀မွာ ကဲ ရင္ ကင္ဆာနဲ႔ေ၀းမယ္... အႏၱရာယ္ ႀကီးဆဲ ေဆးလိပ္၊ အိပ္ရာ ႏိုးႏိုးခ်င္း ေဆးလိပ္ မေသာက္နဲ႔ ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (906K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", November 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ႏို၀င္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: တတိယေျမာက္ အိုေအစစ္ ... ျပန္လည္ထူေထာင္ေရးအတြက္ အဓိက က်ေသာ ေသြးစည္းညီညြတ္မႈ ... မတူကြဲျပား မႈမ်ား ေပါင္းစည္း ရန္ေမြးေန႔ တြင္ ေဒါက္တာစင္သီယာေမာင္ တိုက္တြန္း...အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗြီ ေဝဒနာရွင္မ်ားအတြက္ ARV ေဆးလိုအပ္ဆဲ... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗြီ၊ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေဝဒနာရွင္မ်ား မဲေဆာက္ တြင္ ႏွီးေႏွာ ပြဲ ျပဳလုပ္မည္... ဂလိုဘယ္ဖန္း အဖြဲ႕ က ျမန္မာ ကို ျပန္လည္ အကူအ ညီေပးမည္... မကူးစက္တတ္တဲ့ ကမာၻ႔ကပ္ေရာဂါ (သို႔မဟုတ္) အျဖစ္မ်ားလာတဲ့ ဆီးခ်ဳိ/ ေသြးခ်ဳိ... ေရႊရတုေဘာလံုးၿပိဳင္ပြဲလား-- ေဆာရီး... ဒီမယ္ မိတ္ေဆြတို႔ အေဖၚေဆာင္ရင္ ေညႇာ္ေတာင္ ေရွာင္စရာ မလိုဘူးမွတ္ပါ... ရန္ကုတ္တြင္ ေသြး လြန္တုပ္ေကြးေၾကာင့္ ေသဆံုးသူမ်ား.... ေဆးပညာ သူေတသန က်င့္၀တ္နဲ႔ လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး... A(H1N1) တုပ္ေကြးေၾကာင့္ တရုပ္-ျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္ေက်ာင္းမ်ား ပိတ္လိုက္ရၿပီ... ေရႊတံခါးႀကီးဖြင့္ပါဦး ေငြတံခါးႀကီးဖြင့္ပါဦး... ကေလး ကစားျခင္း (သို႔မဟုတ္) ... အနီးမီးယား (ေခၚ) ဒုကၡသည္ ေရာဂါ တမ်ဳိး... ကုစရာနတိၴ ေဆးမရွိတဲ့ နအဖလက္ေအာက္က ေဆး႐ံုေတြ ... အိဒိစ္ေရာဂါ ျဖစ္မလာတဲ့ အိပ္ခ်ိအိုင္ဗီြ သမား... ကမာၻလံုးဆိုင္ရာ ေအ့စ္ေရာဂါ တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး... ႏွလံုးေရာဂါနဲ႔ တရာ ဘာ၀နာ... အရက္- အဆုိးနဲ႔ အက်ိဳး ... ေသြးအတြင္ အဆီဓါတ္စစ္ရာမွာ အစာငတ္ခံစရာ မလိုပါ... ၿဗိတိန္မွာ ေဆးမတိုး ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး ပ်ံ႔ႏွ႔ံ... ပလပ္စတစ္ေၾကာင့္ ကေလး "ေျခာက္" သြားႏိုင္တယ္... အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ား ၀မ္းေျမာက္ဖြယ္... အလိုလိုေပ်ာက္တဲ့ ကင္ဆာ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (880K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2009_nov.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", October 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေအာက္တိုဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: ေယာ္က်္ား ေဖာင္စီး မိန္းမမီးေန... ရြာပုန္းရြာေရွာင္ မ်ား၊ ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္း ေန ထိုင္လုပ္ကိုင္သူမ်ားႏ်င့္ တေက်ာ့ျပန္၀က္တုပ္ေကြး အႏၱရာယ္... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး ကာကြယ္ေဆးထုိးျခင္း အေကာင္းဆံုး... ကိုယ္အေလးခ်ိန္ ေလွ်ာ့လိုသူမ်ားအတြက္ ေျမပဲဆံ... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး ျဖစ္ပြားသူ (၆၃) ဦးရွိၿပီလို႔ က်န္းမာေရး ညႊန္ခ်ဳပ္ အတည္ျပဳ ေျပာဆို... ကိုယ္၀န္သည္မ်ားငါးစားပါ... ငွက္ေပ်ာသီးတလံုးစားလွ်င္... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ား အတြက္ ေဆးခက္ခဲ... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းေရွ႔ႏွစ္ အတြက္ ရန္ပံုေငြ ႏွစ္ဆတိုးလိုအပ္... အေလးထားရမည့္ သြားက်န္းမာေရး ... ငွက္ဖ်ားေရာဂါ ကိုယ္ခ်င္းစာ... ဒီမယ္ဗ်ဳိ႔---ဆီးခ်ဳိခ်ဳိ၊ ေသြားခ်ဳိခ်ဳိ ဘာပဲ ခ်ဳိခ်ဳိ ဒါကို သတိျပဳၾကေနာ္... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္ပါ... ဆႏြင္းရဲ႔ အစြမ္း... ဆုေတာင္းျခင္းနဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး... ေျမာက္ဥကၠလာပ၊ ကန္ဘဲ့မွ သည္ ၂၇ လမ္းသို႔ ... ငရဲျပည္ေရာက္ဆရာ၀န္တေယာက္... အသက္(၅) ႏွစ္ေအာက္ ကေလးမ်ား အဆုတ္ေရာင္ေရာဂါ အျဖစ္မ်ား... ကြန္ျပဴတာ အျမင္အာရံု ေရာဂါ... ဆင္ေထာက္ေရာဂါကာကြယ္ေရး... အိမ္တြင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ဘက္ ႏွစ္ဘက္... ကေလးကို ဘယ္အရြယ္မွာ ေက်ာင္းစထားမလဲ... ဖေယာင္းတိုင္ အႏၱရာယ္... ဤအရာကား ထားဆီး၍ မရပါ... အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံ မွာ ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးကို အေရးေပၚ အေျခအေနေၾကညာ... လင္မယားေတြ တအိပ္ယာထဲ အတူတူ မအိပ္နဲ႔ ... ႏိုင္ငံတကာက်န္းမာေရး စနစ္မ်ား... သာယာတဲ့ အိမ္ေထာင္ေရးအတြက္ လွ်ိဳ႔၀ွက္ခ်က္... ငွက္ဖ်ား ပိုးသစ္... ၀မ္းပ်က္၀မ္းေလွ်ာေရာဂါ ကုထံုးသစ္... ေသြးတိုးဘယ္ေလာက္အထိခ်မလဲ... အလားအလာေကာင္းတဲ့ အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ကာကြယ္ေဆး... ပါရာစီတေမာနဲ႔ ကေလးကာကြယ္ေဆး...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (926K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2009_oct.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", August 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ၾသဂုတ္၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: August 2009
      Description/subject: လက္စင္စြာေဆး သင့္အတြက္ က်န္းမာေရး... နယ္စပ္ေဒသ က်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ဖြ႔ံ ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေစေရး ၀ုိင္း၀န္ႀကိဳးပမ္းၾကေစလို... ေက်ာင္းသား (၅) ဦး ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးျဖစ္ပြား... မြန္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါတမ်ဳိးပ်ံ႔ႏွံ႔... HIV ပိုးကူးခံရၿပီး AIDS ေ၀ဒနာရွင္ အဆင့္ေရာက္ရန္ လိုအပ္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္ ကာလ... ႏုိက္ တင္ေဂးလ္ ေပးစာက႑... မေလးရွားရွိ အခ်ဳပ္က ျမန္မာ မ်ား က်န္းမာေရး စိုးရိမ္ရ... ျမန္မာ အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ားအား လိင္ကုန္ကူးမႈ ႀကီးထားလာေၾကာင္း အစီရင္ခံစာ တေစာင္ ထြက္ေပၚ... HIV မိခင္ႏို႔ တိုက္ေကၽြးမႈ သုေတသန... မယ္လ စခန္းတြင္ A(H1N1) သံသမယရွိသူမ်ားကို စစ္ေဆး... အင္နာဂ်က္ဆင္ေဆး၀ါး အတုမ်ား ေစ်းကြက္တြင္ ေတြ႔ရွိ... ေပြး၊ ၀ဲ၊ ယားနာေရာဂါ ထိေရာက္စြာက ကုသပါ... လူထုက သေဘာေပါက္ၿပီးသား ရိုးရိုးလားရွယ္လား ၀မ္းပ်က္၀မ္းေလွ်ာေရာဂါ... ဒါဖတ္ၿပီးမွ အိမ္ေထာင္ျပဳပါ... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး လွ်ိဳ႔၀ွက္ခ်က္မ်ား... က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး... အေလးထားရမည့္ သြားက်န္းမာေရး... ေက်နပ္ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ျခင္း အႏုပညာ... သတိရမိေသာ လူနာမ်ား... အရြယ္သံုးပါး မိန္းမသား၏ မူဟန္အဆင့္... စြန္႔စားလိုေသာ အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ား လိင္စိတ္ျပင္းထန္... က်ေနာ္က်မတို႔ အားလံုးတာ၀န္ရွိပါသည္ ၀ိုင္း၀န္းကာကူညီ... အိဒ္စ္ ကာကကြယ္ေဆး အေျခအေန... ဆရာ၀န္တခ်ဳိ႔ေတာင္ယံုေနတဲ့ က်န္းမာေရး အသိလြဲမ်ား... ပါရာစီတေမာျပႆနာ... သည္းေျခေက်ာက္ကာကြယ္ေရး... နည္းနည္းေလာက္ေသာက္ေပး... ကေလးလိုခ်င္ရင္ ေန႔တိုင္းႀကိဳးစားပါ... အားရပါးရ ဆဲပစ္လိုက္စမ္းပါ... အဆစ္လြဲတာ အပူနဲ႔ကုမလား၊ အေအးနဲ႔ ကုမလား...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (967K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2009_aug.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", May 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေမ၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: May 2009
      Description/subject: ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ... တ႐ုတ္ငွက္ဖ်ားေဆး အတုေၾကာင့္ နယ္စပ္လူထု ဒုကၡေရာက္... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး သတိရွိၾကေစဖို႔ ... ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံေရာက္ ျမန္မာ ကေလးမ်ား ကေလးအခြင့္အေရးဆံုး႐ႈံးမႈႏွင့္ ႀကံဳေတြ႕ေနရ... မယ္လဒုကၡသည္ စခန္းတြင္ ျမန္မာျပည္မွထုတ္သည့္ ကုန္ပစၥည္းအခ်ိဳ႕ မသုံးစဲြရန္ တားျမစ္ခ်က္ ထုတ္ျပန္... ေျပာင္းလဲမႈ တခု၏ ရာဇ၀င္... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ ယခုႏွစ္အတြင္း ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ေၾကာင့္ လူ ၂၅,ဝဝဝ အထိ ေသဖြယ္႐ွိ... စီးပြားေရး အက်ပ္အတည္းၾကား ယာဘသုံးစြဲမႈ က်ယ္ျပန္႔တုိးပြားလာ... ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံမွာ ဝက္တုပ္ေကြးအႏၱရာယ္ တပ္လွန္႔ထား... AH1N1 တုပ္ေကြး ကာကြယ္ေရး အာရွႏိုင္ငံမ်ား ေဆြးေႏြး... ကေလးသူငယ္မ်ားၾကား ေပြး၀ဲယားနာ ေရာဂါ အျဖစ္မ်ား... တိုးခ်ဲ႔ကာကြယ္ေဆးထိုး စီမံခ်က္၏ ပစ္မွတ္ေရာဂါမ်ားအေၾကာင္း (မိတ္ဆက္) ... ေႏြရာသီပူျပင္းသမို႔ အိုအခ်င္းတို႔ေရ... က်န္းမာေရးအတြက္ အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ ေဆးတလက္... ဆိုးေဆးပါ လက္ဖက္၊ အစားအစာႏွင့္ ခဲဆိပ္ပါတိုင္းရင္းေဆး... ေပါ့ေစလို၍ ေၾကာင္ရုပ္ထိုး ေဆးအတြက္ေလးၾကသူမ်ား... က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး... ဧရာဝတီတိုင္းတြင္ ကန္ေရေၾကာင့္ ဝမ္းေရာဂါျဖစ္ပြားသူမ်ား... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ေရာဂါျဖစ္တာ လူ႔ ဂုဏ္သိကၡာကို ထိခိုက္ေစသလား... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးကို ဂရုစိုက္ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ဖို႔ WHO သတိေပး... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြးကာကြယ္ေဆး ေဖာ္စပ္ႏိုင္ေရး သိပၸံပညာရွင္ေတြ ႀကိဳးပမ္း... ဝက္တုပ္ေကြး အဆင့္ ၅ အထိ ေရာက္ၿပီ... ဝက္တုပ္ေကြး လူကတဆင့္ ဝက္ကိုျပန္ကူး... မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔၌ ကေလးမ်ားဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး စင္တာ (CDC) ေက်ာင္း ေဆာင္သစ္ ဖြင့္ပြဲက်င္းပ... ၀က္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါ ကာကြယ္ေရး အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲကို ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ားအသင္း ၌ က်င္းပ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (867K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2009_may.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2011


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", February 2009/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၀၉
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းႏွစ္ (၂၀) ျပည့္အခမ္းအနားက်င္းပ... ႏွစ္ (၂၀) မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းႏွင့္ လူမႈ အေျချပဳ အဖြဲ႔ အစည္းမ်ား၏ အေရးပါမႈ... ေဒါက္တာ စင္သီယာေမာင္အား မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း အႏွစ္ ၂၀ ျပည့္ႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ေမးျမန္းျခင္း... လူေပ်ာက္ေၾကာ္ျငာ (ကဗ်ာ) ... က်န္းမာေရး ျပဳစုေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ အိုဘားမားအတြက္ အႀကီးဆံုး အကဲစမ္းမႈ... ထိုင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္ၿမိဳ႔တြင္ ျမန္မာ အလုပ္သမားမ်ားအား ပထမဆံုးအႀကိမ္ ထိုင္းဆရာ၀န္ေရာဂါစစ္ေဆး... အသက္ရွဴၾကပ္ေသဆံုးသူျမန္မာမ်ားအတြက္ ထိုင္းကုမၸဏီ ကေလ်ာ္ေၾကးေပး... ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး မရွိ၊ လည္လိမ္ေရာဂါသာရွိဟု FAO ေျပာ... သားဆက္ျခားမွ မ်ဳိးပြားဂုဏ္တင့္မည္... နာဂစ္ အလြန္လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ဳိးေဖာက္မႈမ်ားကို အေရးယူရန္ေတာင္းဆို... ဆရာ၀န္ေကာင္း ဆရာ၀န္ဆိုးနဲ႔ ဟစ္ပိုကေရးတီး... အၾကမ္းေရဟာ အႏြမ္းေျဖစရာပါဗ်ာႏွင့္ ဘေလာ့ဂ္ ေရာဂါ... စရိတ္မွ်ေပးက်န္းမာေရးႏ်င့္ ဗူးေလးရာ ဖရံုဆင့္တဲံ ျပည္သူ႔ ေဆးရံု... နယ္စပ္ျဖတ္ေက်ာ္ ေဆးရွာပံုေတာ္ ဖြင့္သူမ်ား (သို႔မဟုတ္) နယ္စပ္သို႔ေရာက္ရွိလာေသာ တီဘီေရာဂါသည္မ်ားအေၾကာင္း တေစံတေစာင္း... မယ္လမင္းအႏၱရာယ္ကင္းေ၀းေရး မိခင္ႏို႔ကို ဦးစားေပး... က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ လူ႔ အခြင့္ အေရး ေဆြးေႏြးခန္း... အကန္းအိပ္မက္... အထင္နဲ႔ အျမင္္... သြားႏွင့္ ခံတြင္ ကင္ဆာေရာဂါ... ေနာ္နီ (သို႔မဟုတ္) ေဆးဖက္၀င္ရဲယိုပင္... တတိယ ဆင့္ပြားေဆးလိပ္ အႏၱရာယ္... အမာရြတ္မဲ့ ခြဲစိတ္ကုသမႈ... ေဆးၿမီးတိုယံုတမ္းစကားမ်ား... ကာကြယ္ေဆးလိမ္ တိုင္းျပည္မ်ား.... ငွက္ဖ်ားျပႆနာ... သဘာ၀မဟုတ္တဲ့ လိင္ဆက္ဆံမႈနဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရးအႏၱရာယ္... လူ၀မ်ား သတိထားစရာ... ေဆးသတင္း အတိုအထြာ... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း ႏွစ္ (၂၀) ျပည့္ အထိမ္းအမွတ္ မွတ္တမ္း ဓါတ္ပံုျပပြဲ ဖြင့္ပြဲ အခမ္းအနား က်င္းပ... ငါးမ်ဳိးေပါင္း ကာကြယ္ေဆး... အရက္ျဖတ္ေဆးသစ္... ပိုလီယိုတိုင္းျပည္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2009_feb.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", October 2008/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေအာက္တိုဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၈
      Date of publication: October 2008
      Description/subject: အေမရိကန္ သမၼတကေတာ္ေလာရာဘုရွ္၏ မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းေလ့ လာေရး ခရီးစဥ္... အေမရိကန္သမၼတ ကေတာ္ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာ့အေရး အားေပး ကူညီမႈမ်ား... အေမရိကန္သမၼတ ကေတာ္ ေလာ္ရာဘုရွ္ ခရီးစဥ္ႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔၊ မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းမွ ေဒါက္တာ စင္သီယာေမာင္ ႏွင့္ ေတြ႔ ဆံု ေမးျမန္းခန္း... မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ယခုႏွစ္ မ်က္စိကု ေ၀ဒနာရွင္ပိုမိုမ်ားျပားလာ... ေမြးရာပါ ႏႈတ္ခမ္းကြဲေနသူကေလးငယ္မ်ားကို ထိုင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္တြင္ ခြဲစိတ္ကုသေပး... တရုတ္ျပည္ ႏို႔ မႈန္႔ သံုးစြဲမႈေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာ ကေလးငယ္တဦး အသက္ေသဆံုး... မိခင္ႏို႔ကိုအားကိုးဖို႔ ယူနီဆက္ဖ္တိုက္တြန္း... ျမန္မာေကာ္ဖီထုပ္မ်ားတြင္ အႏၱရာယ္ျဖစ္ေစေသာ မယ္လမင္းဓတ္ေတြ႔ရွိ... တရုတ္ႏို႔မႈန္႔ အတုအႏၱရာယ္ ကင္းေ၀းေရး မိခင္ႏို႔ကိုသာ ဦးစားေပး... စိတ္ဖိစီးမႈ ဆက္ႏြယ္ေရာဂါမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဆးခ်က္မ်ား... ေရွာင္ေလေ၀းေ၀း အရက္နဲ႔ မူးယစ္ေဆး... ေခ်ာက္ ကမ္းပါး ႏႈတ္ခမ္း ေပၚမွ အေၾကြပန္းတို႔ရဲ႔ ဘ၀... အေမ႔သမီး ေဆးမွဴးကေတာ္ႏွင့္ ဗိုက္တာမင္စီ ... ကြမ္း၀ါး၊ ကြမ္းစား ေဆးရြက္ႀကီး ငံုျခင္း အႏၱရာယ္ မ်ား... ေဆး သိပၸံ နဲ႔ ႏိုင္ငံေရး... ေသတၱာထဲမွာပဲ ေနမယ္... က်ေနာ္၏သြားမ်ား... ထိုင္ရာမထေလ့က်င့္ခန္း... ေသြးထုတ္ရင္လက္သီးမဆုပ္နဲ႔... ေဆးသတင္းအတိုအထြာ... ကေလး ပါရာစီတေမာနဲ႔ ပန္းနာ ေရာဂါ... ငွက္ဖ်ားကာကြယ္ေဆး... ခြဲစိတ္ကုေလာကမွ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးမ်ား... လိင္က်င့္ခန္းမွန္မွန္လုပ္ပါ စိတ္ဖိစီးမႈ သက္သာ... ကင္ဆာေပ်ာက္ၿပီ... ၂၀၀၈ ခုႏွစ္ အတြက္ ဖဲျပားနီဆုကို Social Action for Women (SAW) အဖြဲ႔ လက္ခံရယူ... ကေလးက်န္းမာေရး ျပင္ပလူနာ ဌာန မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္၊ မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔ ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2008_oct.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", July 2008/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇူလိုင္၊ ၂၀၀၈
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: ကိုယ္ေတြ႔ရန္ကုန္နာဂစ္... မြန္ျမတ္ေသာ စိတ္ေစတနာေကာင္းမ်ားျဖင့္... မုန္တိုင္းသင့္လူထု (၇၀) ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းေက်ာ္ ေသာက္သံုးေရသန္႔ လိုအပ္ေနဆဲ.... မုန္တိုင္း ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအား ထိေရာက္စြာမကူညီလွ်င္ ငတ္ျပတ္ေသႏိုင္... အသဲေရာင္ အသား၀ါေရာဂါ ကင္းစင္ပါေစ... အသက္မေသ က်န္ခဲ့သူကေလးအမ်ား စိတ္ဒဏ္ရာ ရေန... ႏိုဘဲလ္ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ဆုရွင္ ဂ်ိဳဒီ၀ီလ်ံႏွင့္ အဖြ႔ဲကို မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းမွ အခမ္းအနားျဖင့္ ႀကိဳဆို... မီးအိမ္ရွင္အေမ.... ေခြးရူးျပန္ေရာဂါအား အစဥ္သတိထား... တီဘီဟုတ္လား ေဆးမွန္မွန္ေသာက္ရင္ေပ်ာက္တယ္ဗ်ဳိ႔... အစားအေသာက္အျပင္အဆင္၊ အေရာင္းအခ်ႏွင့္ ေဘးဥပါဒ္ အႏၱရာယ္မ်ား... ျငဳပ္သီးမႈိတက္ ပဲ မႈိတက္ အသည္းကို ဖ်က္... အားလံုးေၾကာက္သည္... ေဆးမလိုက္ႏိုင္ေသာ စိတ္မ်ား... အိပ္ရင္းေဟာက္သူမ်ားနဲ႔ ေန႔ခင္း တေရး အိပ္သူမ်ား သတိထား... လိင္က်င့္ခန္းမွန္မွန္လုပ္ပါ သက္ရွည္က်န္းမာ... ဗီတာမင္အီးအက်ဳိးအျပစ္... အရက္သမားမ်ား ၀မ္းေျမာက္ဖြယ္... ေသြးတိုးကာကြယ္ေဆး... လက္ပ္ေတာ့ကြန္ျပဴတာနဲ႔ ဖိုသတၱ၀ါ... ခ်စ္ျခင္း၏ ဇီ၀ေဗဒ... ငွက္ဖ်ားနဲ႔ လူသားတိုက္ပြဲ... ေဆးဘက္ဆိုင္ရာ အယူမွားမ်ား... နာဂစ္အလြန္ စစ္ဖိနပ္ေအာက္ က ဒုကၡသည္ျပည္သူေတြ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2008_jul.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", February 2008/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၀၈
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး အႏၱရာယ္ ႀကိဳတင္ကာကြယ္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2008_feb.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", June 2007/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇြန္၊ ၂၀၀၇
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: ညႇိဳးႏြမ္းပန္းတို႔လန္းရာေျမ.... သူနာျပဳသင္တန္းႏွင့္ လူထုက်န္း မာေရး ေစတနာ့၀န္ထမ္း သင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္... ျပည္သူေတြ အတြက္ တိုးတက္ေလ့လာ က်န္းမာေရး အသိပညာ... လြဲမွားေနေသာ က်န္းမာေရး အသိမ်ား... လူထုက်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားနည္းျပသင္တန္း ထိုင္း- ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္တေနရာတြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္ၿပီးစီး... အာေရာဂ်ံကိစၥ (ကဗ်ာ) ... ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ ၆၂ ႏွစ္ေျမာက္ ေမြးေန႔ အထိမ္းအမွတ္ စုေပါင္း ေသြးလွဴဒါန္းပြဲကို မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း တြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... ဟင္နရီဒူးနန္႔... ေသြးတိုးဆိုတာ ေဘးဆိုးတမ်ဳိးပါ အရပ္ကတို႔ ... ဆယ္ေက်ာ္သက္ႏွင့္ မူးယစ္ေဆး... မိခင္ႏို႔ရည္သည္သာ ရင္ေသြးအတြက္ အေကာင္းဆံုးျဖစ္သည္... တိတ္ဆိတ္တဲ့ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါ... ကမ္းလင့္ လက္ကို ေမွ်ာ္ေနသူမ်ားအတြက္... ၾကက္ဆူေတြ မင္းမမူႏိုင္တဲ့ေန႔ ... ခုခံအားက်ဆင္းမႈ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါကို ကုသျခင္း... အပ်င္းထူ၍ အစားပုတ္သူမ်ားႏွင့္ ဆီးခ်ဳိေရာဂါ... လက္ဖက္ရည္နဲ႔ ေကာ္ဖီေထာက္ခံခ်က္မ်ား... ေလမႈတ္တူရိယာပညာရွင္မ်ား လည္ေခ်ာင္း ကင္ဆာ သတိထား... သက္ႀကီးအရိုးကၽြတ္ဆတ္ေရာဂါ အတြက္ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္... အစားေလွ်ာ့စားရင္အသက္ရွည္... ပါးစပ္ခ်င္း ေတ့ အသက္ရွဴကူတာေမ့လိုက္ပါ... သံလိုက္နဲ႔က်န္းမာေရး... လိုတရ အက္စ္ပရင္... ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္ႏွင့္ အရက္... တေက်ာ့ျပန္ ပိုလီယို အေၾကာေသေရာဂါအား ၀ုိင္း၀န္းကာကြယ္တိုက္ဖ်က္ၾကစို႔ ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Cllinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (765K)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2007_jun.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", March 2007/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- မတ္၊ ၂၀၀၇
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: ေရႊဟသၤာပ်ံမွာစိုး ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ လူေတြမွာတိုး... ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးႏွင့္ က်န္းမာေရး သတိ... နယ္လွည့္ေက်ာ္ပိုးအိတ္ က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားအဖြဲ႔ ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္ အစည္းအေ၀းႏွင့္ (၁၇) ႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ (၆) လပတ္ညႇိႏႈိင္း အစည္းအေ၀းက်င္းပ... အမ်ဳိးသမီး ကြန္ဒံုးသင္တန္း ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... က်ိန္စာ (ကဗ်ာ)... လူမ်ဳိးစုေဒသမ်ားတြင္ ရုိးရာ လက္သည္ သင္တန္မ်ားပို႔ခ်... အေရးေပၚသားဖြားျခင္းဆိုင္ရာ ျပဳစုေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ မြမ္းမံသင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... ကမာၻ႔ သက္တမ္း အရင့္ဆံုးလူသားရန္သူ... ခုခံအားက်ဆင္းမႈ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါကို ကုသျခင္း... ႏွပ္လို႔ ဖီးလ္ မလာတဲ့ အ ကာလ အခါေတြမွာ... ရွင္ကြဲ သႀကၤန္(ကဗ်ာ) ... ဘတ္ေငြ စစ္စစ္ ... အညတရတို႔ရဲ႔ အလြမ္းဇာတ္... ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ျခင္း ေကာင္းကင္... အဆိပ္သင့္ပန္း... တုႏႈိင္းမမီတဲ့ ကရုဏာရွင္.... ကင္ဆာေပ်ာက္ေဆးရွိသည္။ သို႔ေသာ္... ဆီးႀကိတ္ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ရင္ ဗီတာမင္-ဒီစား... အသည္းေရာင္ ဘီပိုးသမား ခြဲျခားဆက္ဆံခံရ... ေဆးရံုေဘးက ကေလး အရိုးေတြ... ပရဟိတ ဦးေႏွာက္... မတ္မတ္ ထိုင္ရင္ခါးနာမယ္... ဂူဂယ္လ္နဲ႔ ေဆးကုျခင္း ... ပဲစားၿပီးေလမလည္ေစဖို႔... ငွက္ဖ်ားနဲ႔ အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ... အယ္လ္ဇိုင္းမား ကာကြယ္ေဆးအလားအလာ... သားအိမ္ႏွစ္ခုနဲ႔ မိန္းကေလး သံုးႁမႊာပူးေမြး... ဗီတာမင္ အားေဆးစားရင္ အသက္တိုမည္... အသည္းေရာင္ အသား၀ါ ဘီ အားကစားမွ ပ်ံ႔ႏိုင္သည္... ၾကက္သြန္ျဖဴ စားလုိ႔ အဆီမက်...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", January 2007/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇႏၷ၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၀၇
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: ႏုိင္ငံတကာ ကေလးမ်ားေန႔... လူသားတို႔ ၏ လံုၿခံဳေရးကို ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္ေနသည့္ ကပ္ဆိုးမ်ားကို ပူးေပါင္း ေက်ာ္လႊားေရး... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းေရာက္ က်န္းမာေရး ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား၏ ရင္ဖြင့္သံ... တရုတ္အပ္စိုက္ပညာႏွင့္ တရုတ္တိုင္းရင္းေဆးပညာ မိတ္ဆက္ေဟာေျပာပြဲႏွင့္ ရက္တို သင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ားအေပၚ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ပေပ်ာက္ေရး ေန႔ အခမ္းအနား မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ က်င္းပ... အိမ္ ငတ္သူ (ကဗ်ာ) ... မ်က္စိေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ား အတြက္ ကုသိုလ္ျဖစ္ခြဲစိတ္ ကုသသူ မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... မညႇိဳးပန္း၊ ဖန္မီးအိမ္(ကဗ်ာ) ... တုႏႈိင္းမမီတဲ့ ကရုဏာရွင္... အမ်ဳိးသမီးကြန္ဒံုးသင္တန္း ဦးေဆာင္ဖြင့္လွစ္သူ ဆရာမ ေနာ္ဒါးႏွင့္ ေတြ႔ဆံုေမးျမန္းျခင္း... လူငယ္+ ျပႆနာ = အေျဖ... စုေပါင္းတိုက္ဖ်က္ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္္စ္... ဒီဇင္ဘာရဲ႔ အဓိပၸါယ္ရွိေသာ ည... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ပညာရွင္မ်ား၏ ကာကြယ္ေရး အႀကံႀကီးမ်ားႏွင့္ ခရီးလမ္းေၾကာင္း... အေကာင္းဆံုးေက်ာင္းႏွင့္ ေဆး၀ါး ကုသေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ လိုအပ္ေနသည့္ ပေလာင္ေဒသ... အရက္သမားအမွားတခါ... ၀ဋ္လိုက္တတ္ပါတယ္... ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး ကာကြယ္ေဆး ေမွာင္ခိုကုန္ကူးသူ (၃) ဦးကို ထုိင္းရဲက လက္ရဖမ္းဆီး... သားအိမ္ေခါင္း ကင္ဆာေဆးသည္ အမ်ဳိးသားမ်ားအတြက္ လည္း အက်ဳိးရွိႏိုင္... ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါႏွင့္ ေနာက္ထပ္ ေသဆံုးမႈကို အင္ဒိုနီးရွား သတင္းထုတ္ျပန္... တတိယ အႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားဟု ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံ အတည္ျပဳ ေျပာၾကား... အျပာ ရုပ္ပံု ၾကည့္ရႈျခင္း အတြက္ ဖုန္းခ ေဒၚလာ (၄၀၀၀) ေတာင္းခံလႊာ ေရာက္ရွိလာမႈေၾကာင့္ ကိုယ့္ကိုယ္ကိုယ္ကိုယ္ သတ္ေသမႈ ျဖစ္ပြား... အစၥေရး တရားေရး၀န္ႀကီး ေဟာင္း လိင္ကိစၥက်ဴးလြန္မႈ အတြက္ အျပစ္ရွိေၾကာင္း ေတြ႔ရွိ... ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါ တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး အတြက္ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ၏ ပူးေပါင္း ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈ ကို ဒဗလ်ဴ အိပ္ခ်္အို ခ်ီးက်ဴး ... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ပိုးကူးစက္မႈကို တားဆီးရန္ အက်ဥ္းေထာင္ မ်ားတြင္ ကြန္ဒုံုးမ်ားလိုအပ္... ကမာၻ႔ေအအိုင္ ဒီအက္စ္ေန႔ အထိမ္အမွတ္ အခမ္းအနား မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ က်င္းပ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2007_jan.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", November 2006/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ႏို၀င္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၆
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: ဖင္းမ္က်ဳိင္ (သို႔မဟုတ္) အေမွာင္ကိုထြန္းညႇိတဲ့ မီးအိမ္ရွင္... သုေတသန ဆိုင္ရာ နည္းပညာမ်ား ပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္ရြက္ေရး... က်န္းမာေရး အစီရင္ခံစာ အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္... လူထုက်န္းမာေရး ေစတနာ႔၀န္ထမ္း သင္တန္းႏွင့္ ေရွးဦး သူနာျပဳ သင္တန္း ဆင္းပြဲ အခမ္းအနားျပဳလုပ္... အလုပ့္ရွင္မဟုတ္သည့္ သူေဌးေပးေသာ ဟင္းကိုစားမိၿပီး ၀မ္းေလွ်ာမႈ ျဖစ္ပြား... မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းတြင္ မ်က္စိခြဲစိတ္ကုသမႈ ျပဳလုပ္... ဆယ္ေက်ာ္သက္မ်ဳိးပြားမႈ ဆိုင္ရ သင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းတြင္ျပဳလုပ္... အရည္အေသြး ျမႇင္တင္ေရး ဆိုင္ရာ သုေတသန သင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းတြင္ ျပဳလုပ္... ၿမိဳင္ၿမိဳင္ဆိုင္ဆိုင္ မဲေဆာက္ တန္ေဆာင္တိုင္... ေမာ္လၿမိဳင္ေဆးရံုမွ ေပးေသာ ေဆးကို ထည့္ရာမွ ကေလး မ်က္စိ အျပင္သို႔ ထြက္လာျခင္း... သြားမထိနဲ႔ ၿငိသြားမယ္ (ကဗ်ာ) ... သက္ရွည္ က်န္းမာ လက္ဖက္ရည္ၾကမ္းေသာက္ပါ... အသည္းေလးလို႔ မေခၚေတာ့ဘူးမသင္းေမ... ေဆးပညာေလာက၏ ယံုၾကည္ခ်က္ အက်ပ္ဆိုက္မႈ ... ဆင္ျခင္ေစ့ခ်င္ ေထာင္ဆရာ၀န္... အားသစ္တဖန္ေမြးဖြားျခင္း... ႏံြနစ္တဲ့ပန္း... ခ်စ္တယ္ ဆိုလွ်င္... ေဆးသတင္း အတုိ အထြာ - ၾဆာဂါတင္ဆက္သည္... ၀မ္းတြင္းပါ ပရဟိတစိတ္... အမ်ဳိးသားတားနည္းသစ္... က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သား အမွားတေထာင္... ငွက္ဖ်ားကုနည္းသစ္... အမ်ဳိးသမီးတို႔ အတြက္ ကင္ဆာ ကာကြယ္ေဆးလာၿပီ... ကိုယ္၀န္ဆိပ္တက္ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္... မိုဘိုင္းလ္ ဖုန္းသံုးတဲ့အမ်ဳိးသားမ်ားသတိထား... ပုရိသတို႔ အတြက္ စြမ္းအားျမႇင့္ ေဆး လာဦးမည္... လံုး၀နီးပါး ကုမရတဲ့ တီဘီ... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္၊ ကင္ဆာေရာဂါမ်ားႏွင့္ ေရရွည္စစ္ခင္းၿပီးေနာက္ ဂ်က္ဖ္ဂက္တီကြယ္လြန္... ျမန္မာ့ ဒီမုိကေရစီေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္း စုၾကည္ကို သူမ၏ ကိုယ္ေရး ဆရာ၀န္ ေတြ႔ခြင့္မရ... ထိုင္းက်န္းမာေရး၀န္ႀကီးဌာနက ေရနစ္ေသဆံုးမႈမ်ားအတြက္ အရက္ကိုအျပစ္ဖို႔.... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ/ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ပညာေပးအဖြဲ႔ကို တရုတ္အာဏာပိုင္မ်ားက ပိတ္ပင္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2006_nov.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", September 2006/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- စက္တင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၆
      Date of publication: September 2006
      Description/subject: တြယ္ရာမဲ့မ်ား၏ ပဲ့တင္သံ (သို႔မဟုတ္) မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းေရာက္ က်န္းမာေရး ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား၏ ရင္တြင္း စကား... လူသားဆိုင္ရာ လံုၿခံဳေရးႏွင့္ လူသားအားလံုး၏ တာ၀န္... နာတာရွည္ကပ္ဆိုး( သို႔မဟုတ္) ျမန္မာျပည္အေရွ႔ပိုင္း က်န္းမာေရးႏွင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး စစ္တမ္း အစီရင္ခံစာထုတ္ျပန္... နယ္လွည့္ ေက်ာပိုးအိတ္ က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားအဖြဲ႔၏ နယ္စပ္ေဒသ က်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ သတင္း ဓါတ္ပံုမ်ား... စတုတၳအႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ လူထုက်န္းမာေရး ေစတနာ့ ၀န္ထမ္း သင္တန္းကို မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္... ရင္ခ်င္း စကား(ကဗ်ာ)... ကရင့္ရိုးရာ ၀ါေခါင္ခ်ည္ျဖဴဖြဲ႔ မဂၤလာ အခမ္းအနားက်င္းပျပဳလုပ္... ငွက္ဖ်ားေဆး အတုမ်ားေၾကာင့္ အသက္အႏၱရာယ္ အႀကီးအက်ယ္ရွိႏိုင္... ေအအိုင္ဒီက္စ္ ေရာဂါ တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး သည္ လြတ္လပ္ပြင့္လင္းၿပီး လူထု ပူးေပါင္းပါ၀င္မႈရွိမွသာ ေအာင္ျမင္ႏိုင္မည္... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္သတိ လိင္ဆက္ဆံသည့္အခါတိုင္း ကြန္ဒံုးသံုးပါ... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေရာဂါ ခံစားေနရသူမ်ားအေပၚ ခြဲျခားဆက္ဆံမႈေတြကို တိုက္ဖ်က္ရန္ အခ်ိန္တန္ၿပီဟု ကမာၻ႔ အသိုင္း အ၀ိုင္းအားတိုက္တြန္း.... မူးယစ္ေဆးစြဲလန္းမႈအား ကိုယ္တိုင္ကုသျခင္း... တိုင္းရင္းသား စာေပမ်ားျဖင့္ ကမာၻ႔ေျမပံု... ခ်စ္ေတာ့ခ်စ္ ဆစ္ဖလစ္ မျဖစ္ေစနဲ႔... မရဏတံခါးက ႀကိဳမဲ့သူ... လြင့္ေမ်ာေနေသာ တိမ္စမ်ား... ေသာင္ရင္းႏွလံုးသားေပၚက မ်က္ရည္စက္မ်ား... မက္စိအဆံုး နားအရႈံုး... ကေမာၻဒီးယား အယူသည္းမႈႏွင့္ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး... အခ်စ္ေၾကာင့္... ညဥ့္ငွက္မေလးမ်ားရဲ႔ ဆည္းဆာလြန္ခ်ိန္... လူတြင္ ျဖစ္ပြားသည့္ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါကာကြယ္တားဆီးေရးကို ဗီယက္နမ္ႏွင့္ လာအိုႏိုင္ငံ တို႔ ပူးေပါင္း ေဆာင္ရြက္မည္... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေ၀ဒနာရွင္မ်ားအတြက္ ဘီလ္ဂိတ္ ၏ အလွဴဒါန... ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရးအတြက္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံကိုရန္ပံုုေငြ ေပးမည္ဟု ၾသစေတးလ် ကတိျပဳ... လူတြင္ျဖစ္ပြားသည့္ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါျဖစ္စဥ္ကို ေနာက္ထပ္ေတြ႔ရွိေၾကာင္း အင္ဒိုနီးရွား အတည္ျပဳေျပာၾကား... ရဲအရာရွိေတြမွာ အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြပိုးေတြ႔ရွိ... တရုတ္ျပည္တြင္ ကေလးမ်ားအတြက္ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေဆး၀ါးမ်ား ဆိုးဆိုး ၀ါး၀ါး လိုအပ္ေန... ၂၀၁၀ ခုႏွစ္ တြင္ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ေရာဂါေၾကာင့္ ကေလး ၂၅ သန္းခန္႔ မိဘမဲ့ ျဖစ္ဖြယ္ရွိ... ေယာက္်ားမ်ားတြင္ လိင္တံထိပ္အေရျပား ျဖတ္ျခင္းသည္ အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြပိုး ကူးစက္မႈ တားဆီးေရးကို အေထာက္အကူျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္... ေငြေၾကးႏွင့္ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးအတြက္ ဆယ္ေက်ာ္သက္မ်ား လိင္ကို ေပးဆပ္ေနၾကရ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2006_sep.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", July 2006/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇူလိုင္၊ ၂၀၀၆
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: စစ္အာဏာရွင္စနစ္ဆိုးရဲ႔ သားေကာင္မ်ား(သို႔မဟုတ္) တ၀မ္းတခါးအတြက္ အမႈိက္ပံုကို မွီခိုေနၾကရတဲ့ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံေရာက္ျမန္မာျပည္သားမ်ား... သင္တန္းပို႔ခ်မႈ စြမ္းရည္ ထက္ျမက္ေရး သင္တန္း မယ္ေဟာင္ေဆာင္တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္သင္ၾကား... ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားမ်ား၏ က်န္းမာေရး တိုးျမင့္လာေစရန္ ၀ိုင္း၀န္းပူးေပါင္း ေဆာင္ရြက္... ထိုင္းတိုက္ၾကေတြ ပတ္စ္ပို႔လုပ္ရၿပီ... ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားမ်ားက်န္းမာေရး ညီလာခံ ဘန္ေကာက္တြင္ က်င္းပ ... ေ၀ဒနာမတူတဲ့ ကေလးလူနာႏွစ္ဦး... သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ထိန္သိမ္းေရး ေန႔ အထိမ္းအမွတ္ လႈပ္ရွားမႈမ်ား မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း၌ က်င္းပ... ကမာၻ႔ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးတိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး ေန႔ အခမ္းအနား မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္း၌ က်င္းပ... ေအအိုင္ဒီက္စ္ သတိ လိင္ဆက္ဆံ သည့္အခါတိုင္း ကြန္ဒံုးသံုးပါ... အႏႈိင္းမဲ့ အနတၱ... ျပည္သူ႔က်နး္မာေရးဟာ လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး တဲ့ (၃) ... မယ္ေတာ္ေဆးခန္းေရာက္က်န္းမာေရ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား၏ ရင္ဖြင့္သံ... အေဖာ္... အေပ်ာ္တခ်က္ သတိခ်ပ္... မင္းဘယ္ေျပးမလဲ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး... ဆင္းရဲလို႔ မက်န္းမာ၊ မက်န္းမာလို႔ ဆင္းရဲ... မူးယစ္ေဆး အႏၱရာယ္ ကိုယ္တိုင္ကာကြယ္... စကား၀ုိင္းတြင္ တခဏ... တခ်က္ေလာက္ေတာ့္ ငဲ့ၾကည့္သင့္ပါတယ္... ေျမဇာပင္ေလးရဲ႔ မနက္ျဖန္ အတြက္ လက္ေဆာင္... ခ်စ္ျခင္း တရားေၾကာင့္ လွေနေသာကမာၻငယ္ေလး... သဘာ၀ ပိန္ေဆးသစ္... အေမာဆီလင္ေဆးမတိုးေတာ့... တိုင္းရင္းသားစာေပမ်ားျဖင့္ ကမာၻ႔ေျမပံု ... ေသြးတိုး- ႏွလံုးေရာဂါသမားေတြ ၀က္သား၀၀ စားႏိုင္ဖို႔ျပင္... နမိုးနီးယားကိုရက္ေလွ်ာ့ကုႏိုင္... ကေလးကာကြယ္ေဆးေမြးၿပီးၿပီးခ်င္း ထိုးႏိုင္မလား... ေသြးမထြက္တဲ့ ခြဲစိတ္မႈ... ပဋိဇီ၀ ေဆးသစ္... အေမာ္ဆီလင္နဲ႔ သြားျပႆနာ... ပိန္ေစမယ့္ ေဟာ္မုန္းမ်ား... ဂ်င္တာမိုင္စင္ေၾကာင့္ နားမေလးေစဖို႔.... ေဆး၀န္ထမ္းတို႔ရဲ႔ ေဆးေပးခ်က္ အမွားမ်ား... ေယာက္်ားေတြ အတြက္ တားေဆး...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2006_jul.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", February 2006/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၀၆
      Date of publication: February 2006
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာ့ ဒီမိုကေရစီ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ကို ဆီြဒင္ႏိုင္ငံမွ အိုေလာ့ပမ္း ဆုခ်ီးျမႇင့္... ျမန္မာေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းအလုပ္သမားေတြရဲ႔ သားသမီးေတြ အတြက္ ဆာသူးေလ အထက္တန္းေက် ာင္းသစ္ထပ္မံ ဖြင့္လွစ္... နယ္လွည့္ေက်ာပိုးအိတ္ က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သားအဖြဲ႔ရဲ႔ ဒုတိယ အႀကိမ္ညီလာခံ သက္တမ္း ပထမအႀကိမ္ ႏွစ္ပတ္လည္ အစည္းအေ၀းနဲ႔ (၁၅) ႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ လုပ္ငန္း ညႇိႏႈိင္း အစည္းအေ၀း... စိတ္ဓါတ္ ျမႇင့္ တင္မႈ ဆိုင္ရာ လႈပ္ရွားမႈ မ်ားအခ်ိတ္အဆက္ရွိရွိ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေရး... မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔မွာ အလုပ္သမားအာမခံေၾကး ကိစၥ ဂယက္ရိုက္...ေဆးလိပ္နဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး သင္ဘာကိုေရြးမလဲ... ပိေတာက္ေတြခုူးခြင္မရတဲ့ ေႏြဦး(ကဗ်ာ) ... ထုိင္းျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္မွာ က်င္းပတဲ့ ပညာေရး ႏွီးေႏွာ ဖလွယ္ပြဲ... စစ္အစိုးရရဲ႔ ကန္႔ သတ္ခ်ဳပ္ခ်ယ္မႈ ေတြကို လက္မခံတဲ့ အိုင္စီအာစီ... အာဆီယံပါလီမန္ျမန္မာေကာ့ကပ္ အဖြဲ႔ (AIPMC) ကရင္နီဒုကၡသည္စခန္းကို သြားေရာက္ေလ့လာ... ႏွစ္လအတြင္ ကရင္ဒုကၡသည္ (၃၇၄) ဦး ထုိင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိလာ... အႏိႈင္းမဲ့ စြတ္လႊတ္သူ.... ခ်မ္းသာမွ အသက္ရွည္မည္... ပ်င္းရိျခင္းဟာ ေဆးလိပ္ထက္ ပိုဆိုးတယ္... မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္းနဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး... ရာသီလာစဥ္နာက်င္ကိုက္ခဲျခင္း... မာသာ ထရီဆာ... ေစာင့္ၾကည့္... မွားပါတယ္... ၀မ္းပ်က္၀မ္းေလွ်ာ ေရာဂါ (သို႔မဟုတ္) အထက္လွန္ေအာက္ေလွ်ာေရာဂါ... ခုခံအားက်ဆင္းမႈေရာဂါ အျမစ္ျပတ္ေပ်ာက္ကင္းေရးလမ္းစသစ္... မိဘမ်ားကြာရွင္းျခင္းႏွင့္ ကေလးငယ္မ်ား ဘ၀... မွာခဲ့ပါရေစ... တီဘီေရာဂါ အျမစ္ျပတ္တိုက္ဖ်က္ေရး အတြက္ ကမာၻ႔ အခ်မ္းသာဆံုးသူေဌးႀကီ ဘီလ္ဂိတ္ ေဒၚလာသန္း (၉၀၀) လွဴဒါန္း... လူထု က်န္းမာေရး ပညာေပး ဆရာ၀န္႔ တာ၀န္... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ဗိုင္းရပ္စ္ အမ်ဳိးအစားေပၚမူတည္ၿပီး အခ်ိန္ဘယ္ေလာက္ၾကာၾကာ အသက္ဆက္ရွင္ႏိုင္မလဲ သိႏိုင္... တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံရဲပ ကူးစက္ေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားမႈႏႈန္းအမ်ားဆံုး ထဲမွာ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ေရာဂါက တတိယေနရာလိုက္ေန... အိႏၵိယနဲ႔ မေလးရွားႏိုင္ငံေတြမွာ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး ေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားမႈ ေၾကာင့္ အာရွ အိမ္နီးခ်င္း (၅) ႏိုင္ငံမွာ ၾကက္ငွက္တင္သြင္းခြင့္ ပိတ္ပင္... သံုးႏွစ္ အတြင္ အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ကူးစက္မႈႏႈန္း ထက္၀က္ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ႏိုင္ဖို႔ ထုိင္းႏိုင္ငံက စီစဥ္ေန... ႏွလံုးေရာဂါသည္ မိခင္ေလာင္းေတြ အသက္အႏၱရာယ္ သတိထားဖို႔ လို... ကမာၻေက်ာရုပ္ရွင္မင္းသားႀကီး ဂ်က္ကီခ်န္း ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေ၀ဒနာ ရွင္ေတြကို အားေပးကူညီ... ၾကငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေၾကာင့္ လူဦးေရ(၁၄၂) သန္းခန္႔ ေသဆံုးႏိုင္... ေဆးလိပ္ေသာက္သံုးမႈေၾကာင့္ ၂၀၂၀ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ကမာၻတ၀န္း ေသဆံုးမႈ ႏွစ္ဆျမင့္တက္လာႏိုင္...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2006_feb.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", January 2006/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဇႏၷ၀ါရီ၊ ၂၀၀၆
      Date of publication: January 2006
      Description/subject: တတိယ အႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ေဆးပညာရွင္မ်ား အသင္း ညီလာခံကို ထိုင္း ျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္ တေနရာမွာ က်င္းပ... ေဒါက္တာ ေရွာလူး(ပထမဆရာ၀န္)... ခ်စ္ျခင္း လြန္(ကဗ်ာ) ... အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ ကေလးမ်ားေန႔ အခမ္းအနား မဲေဆာက္ၿမိဳ႔မွာက်င္းပ... ကရင္ႏွစ္သစ္ကူးေန႔ကို ထိုင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္မွာ စည္ကားသုိက္ၿမိဳက္စြာက်င္းပ... ျမန္မာဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအတြက္ ပညာေရး အစီအစဥ္ကို ထုိင္းအစိုးရမွ ေရးဆြဲ ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ လြတ္လပ္ေရးေန႔ အခမ္းအနား ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံမွာက်င္းပ.. ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံေရာက္ျမန္မာမ်ား ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္း အလုပ္သမားေန႔က်င္းပ... ျမန္မာကေလးငယ္မ်ား တရား၀င္မွတ္ပံုတင္ႏိုင္ေရး ယူနီဆက္တိုက္တြန္း... ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံရွိ ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းအလုပ္သမားမ်ားၾကား ၀မ္းေရာဂါ အျဖစ္မ်ား... ကိုရီးယား လူမႈေရး အသင္းက မယ္ေတာ္ အထက္တန္းေက်ာင္း သို႔ အေမရိကန္ ေဒၚလာ (၂) သိန္း (၆) ေသာင္း လွဴဒါန္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေရး ဒုကၡသည္သစ္မ်ားကို ထိုင္းမဟာမင္းႀကီးရံုးက လက္မခံေတာ့ ... ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းမွာ ကေလးေတြကို ကာကြယ္ေဆးမထုိးၾကဖို႔ တားျမစ္ ... ဆူနာမိငလွ်င္ ေရလႈိင္း ဒဏ္မွာ ေသဆံုးခဲ့တဲ့ ျမန္မာ အေလာင္းမ်ားကို ထိုင္းက လႊဲေျပာင္းေပး... ဆူနာမီငလွ်င္ေဘးသင့္သူမ်ားအတါက္ ျပန္လည္ထူေထာင္ေရး လိုအပ္ေနေသးေၾကာင္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ၾကက္ေျခနီ အသင္းမွ ေျပာၾကား... (၅၇) ႏွစ္ေျမာက္ကရင္ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေန႔ အခမ္းအနားမ်ား တပ္မဟာ ေဒသ အသီးသီးမွာ က်င္းပ... လူထု ေဒၚ အမာ (၉၀) ျပည့္ေမြးေန႔ ဂါရ၀ အခမ္းအနားနဲ႔ သမိုင္း အလြန္ ဗီြစီဒီျဖန္႔ ခိ်ပြဲကို ထုိင္းျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္ တေနရာမွာ က်င္းပ... အိုင္စီအာစီ ခရီးစဥ္ကို ႀကံ့ဖြ႔႔ံေႏွာက္ယွက္တဲ့ အတြက္ ဖ်က္သိမ္းခဲ့ရ... ရခိုင္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအေရးကို ယူအန္ အိပ္ခ်္စီအာမွ တိုက္ရိုက္ကိုင္တြယ္မယ္... ေျပာပါရေစ... ျပည္သူ႔က်န္းမာေရးဟာ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးတဲ့(၂) ... မာသာ ထရီဆာ... အလကားကံတရား... နယ္စပ္မ်ဥ္းေၾကာင္းေပၚက အႏၱရာယ္ႀကီး... ဘ၀ရြက္ေႁကြ... အပူေလာင္ျခင္းကို ျပဳစုဖို႔ ... က်မကိုယ္စားေျပာေပးပါ... ေမြးကင္းစကေလး က်န္းမာေရး ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ ဆိုင္ရာ ရက္တိုသင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းမွာ သင္ၾကား... ေမြးကင္းစ အသား၀ါ ေရာဂါ... က်န္းမာေရးနဲ႔ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ဆုိင္ရာ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ ထိုင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္တေနရာမွာ က်င္းပ... တို္င္းရင္းသားလူမ်ဳိးမ်ား က်န္းမာေရး လုပ္သား သမဂၢက်န္မာေရး ဆိုင္ရာ ႏွီးေႏွာ ဖလွယ္ပြဲ က်င္းပ... ရယ္စရာ ရုပ္ရွင္ကားၾကည့္ပါက ႏွလံုးအားပိုေကာင္းလာ... ကာမ အားတိုးေဆး သံုးစြဲသူမ်ား မ်က္လံုကြယ္ဖုိ႔ အခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား... ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံမွာ ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ျဖစ္ပြားမႈႏႈန္းျမင့္တက္... အက္စပရင္ ေဆးျပား ဟာ ေလ မျဖတ္ ေအာင္ ကာကြယ္ ေပးႏိုင္... ၀မ္းေလွ်ာေရာဂါ ကာကြယ္ႏုိင္တဲ့ စမ္းသပ္ေဆး (၂) မ်ဳိး ထိေရာက္တဲ့ ရလဒ္ထါက္ေပၚလာ... ခုခံအားက်ဆင္းမႈ ေရာဂါ ေၾကာင့္ ဖိတ္စင္မႈ ၂၀၀၅ ခုႏွစ္ အတြင္းထုိင္းမ်ား သိသာစြာက်ဆင္း... ကို္ယ္၀န္ရဖို႔ အခိ်န္ၾကာျမင့္စြာ ေစာင့္စားရတဲ့ စံုတြဲေတြမွာ သားေယာက်္ားေလးရႏိုင္ေျခ ပိုရွိ... လူမွာ ကူးစက္တဲ့ ၾကက္ငွက္တုပ္ေကြး အန္ကာရာ သို႔ပ်ံ႔ႏွံ႔ေရာက္ရွိ... အနက္ေရာင္ေခ်ာကလက္စားသံုးျခင္းက ႏွလံုးေရာဂါကို ဟန္႔တားႏိုင္... က်နး္မာေရး စနစ္ ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္ေရးဆိုင္ရာ ႏီွီးေႏွာဖလွယ္ပြဲကို ထိုင္းျမန္မာနယ္စပ္တေနရာမွာ က်င္းပ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2006_jan.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


      Title: "Nightingale Journal", December 2005/ ႏိုက္တင္ေဂးလ္- က်န္းမာေရးဂ်ာနယ္- ဒီဇင္ဘာ၊ ၂၀၀၅
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: ကမာၻ႔ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စေန႔ မဲေဆာက္မွာ က်င္းပ... လူသားျခင္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈ အကူအညီေပးမဲ့ အီးယူ အဖြဲ႔ ဒီမိုကေရစီေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားနဲ႔ ေတြ႔ ဆံုညႇိႏႈိင္း... UNSUNG HERO OF COMPASSION ဆုရ ေဒါက္တာစင္သီယာေမာင္နဲ႔ ေတြ႔ဆံုျခင္း... ျမန္မာ့ဒီမိုကေရစီေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ကို နအဖ အစိုးရကေနအိမ္ အက်ယ္ခ်ဳပ္သက္တမ္း (၆) လ ထပ္မံ တိုးျမႇင့္ ... ထိုင္းျမန္မာ ခ်စ္ၾကည္ေရး တန္ေဆာင္တုိင္ မီးေမွ်ာပြဲ (လြိဳင္းကထံုးပြဲ) မဲေဆာက္မွာ က်င္းပ... သတင္းစာဆရာမႀကီး လူထုေဒၚအမာရဲ႔ အသက္ (၉၀) ျပည့္ေမြးေန႔ အထိမ္အမွတ္ အခမ္အနားမ်ား စည္ကားသိုက္ၿမိဳက္စြာ က်င္းပ... အိပ္ခ်္အိုင္ဗီြ ေ၀ဒနာသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသားမ်ားေဆးရဖို႔ လမ္းစပြင့္... ျမန္မာ အလုပ္သမားအတြက္ လုပ္ငန္း ခြင္ထိခိုက္မႈ နစ္နာေၾကးေပးရန္ ထိုင္းရံုးက ဆံုးျဖတ္ ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္မိခင္မ်ားအတြက္ အေရးေပၚ ေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈ သင္တန္း မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္မွာ ဖြင့္လွစ္သင္ၾကား... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ ေရာဂါ ျဖစ္ပြားမႈ အေျခအေနဆိုး၀ါး... ေဒါက္တာ စင္သီယာေမာင္ရဲ႔ (၄၆) ႏွစ္ ေျမာက္ ေမြးေန႔ အခမ္းအနား မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္းမွာ က်င္းပ... အိမ္တြင္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ပေပ်ာက္ေရး သင္တန္း ဆင္းပြဲ က်င္းပ... အိုင္အိုဒင္း အလြန္ေ၀ဒနာ... သန္႔ (၄) သန္႔ ... ျပည္သူ႔က်န္းမာေရးဟာ လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရးတဲ့... မာသာ ထရီဆာ... နင္လားဟဲ့ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္... လူနာကုတင္အမွတ္ (၁၃) ... ေသြးလြန္တုပ္ေကြး ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲနဲ႔ ေသတဲ့ကေလး... မိခင္ႏို႔ခ်ဳိတိုက္ေကၽြးျခင္းဟာ မိခင္အတြက္ လည္းေကာင္းက်ဳိးရွိေန.... ေမ်ာလြင့္ေနတဲ့ ဆႏၵမ်ားရဲ႔ ပဲတင္သံ(သို႔မဟုတ္) ႀကိဳးမညွိရေသးတဲ့ ဘ၀မ်ားရဲ႔ ဂီတသံစဥ္... ဆက္ေလွ်ာက္... ကိုယ္၀န္ေဆာင္နဲ႔ သားဖြားၿပီးစ အမ်ဳိးသမီးမ်ားေသြးခဲျခင္းအႏၱရာယ္ နဲ႔ ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရ... ငွက္ဖ်ား ေဆးအတုေၾကာင့္ ငွက္ဖ်ား ေရာဂါ ထိန္ခ်ဳပ္မႈ က်ဆင္းႏိုင္... တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ ကလူကိုကူးစက္ေစတဲ့ ၾကက္၊ ငွက္တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါ ေဆး၀ါးတမ်ဳိးကို ထုတ္လုပ္ႏိုင္ၿပီျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းေျပာၾကား... တီဘီေရာဂါရွိ/မရွိ စစ္ေဆးမႈ လ႔ အသက္မ်ားစြာကို ကယ္တင္ႏုိင္... ေလ့က်င့္ခန္းျပဳလုပ္ျခင္းဟာ ဘ၀သက္တမ္းကိုိ (၃) ႏွစ္ပိုရွည္ေစႏိုင္... တုပ္ေကြးေရာဂါကို အိမ္ေထာင္ေရ အဆင္ေျပသူမ်ားပိုခံႏိုင္ရည္ရွိ... ဘလိတ္ဓားမွ တဆင့္အိပ္ခ်ပ္ အိုင္ဗီြ/ ေအအိုင္ဒီအက္စ္ေရာဂါ ပိုး ကူးစက္မႈႏႈန္းနည္းပါး... ျမန္မာကေလးငယ္မ်ားရဲ႔ က်န္းမာေရး အတြက္ ဂ်ပန္အစိုးရက ေဒၚလာ ၃၈ သိန္း လွဴဒါန္း... သၾကားဓါတ္ ဟာ ကင္ဆာ ေရာဂါကို ခုခံရာမွာ အေထာက္အကူျဖစ္ေန... အေမရိကန္အေျခစိုက္ တိဗက္ အဖြဲ႔ အစည္းျဖစ္တဲ့ Wisdom in Action က ေဒါက္တာ စင္သီယာေမာင္ ကို Unsung Her of Compassion ဆုခ်ီးျမွင့္... အိပ္ခ်္ အိုင္ ဗီြ ပိုးရွိတယ္ လို႔ ေဆးစစ္ခ်က္ထြက္ထားတဲ့ ၿဗိတိန္အမ်ဳိးသားတဦး အံ့ၾသစရာေကာင္း စြာ ေရာဂါပိုး မရွိေတာ့ ဟု ဆို... အိႏၵိယႏိုင္ငံမွာ ေဆးရံုတက္တဲ့အမ်ဳိးသမီး လူနာ မ်က္လံုးကို ပုရြက္ဆိတ္အစားခံရ... ငွက္ဖ်ားေရာဂါကို တိုက္ဖ်က္ရာမွာ မႈိဟာ လက္နက္တခုျဖစ္လာ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Mae Tao Clinic မယ္ေတာ္ ေဆးခန္း
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://maetaoclinic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2005_dec.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2007


    • Medical training

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Medical Universities (Burma)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 October 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: IMPLEMENTING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN MYANMAR
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: In the 16 months following the disaster, Merlin has implemented a Disaster Risk Reduction programme within areas where Water and Sanitation (WatSan) and Health programmes are implemented. Covering over 9000 households across 60 villages in Laputta Township, Merlin has worked with the communities to raise awareness about the risks they face, promote a culture of preparedness and build community resilience. The programme has five main components: RISK AWARENESS RAISING, HAZARD ANALYSIS AND PLANNING, BUILDING COMMUNITY RESILIENCE, DRR INTEGRATION, ACCOUNTABILITY TO BENEFICIARIES
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Merlin Medical Relief Lasting Health Care
      Format/size: pdf (737.90 K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


      Title: Standard Operating Procedures in Blood Centres: Report of a Workshop Yangon, Myanmar, 14-17 September 2004
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. INTRODUCTION 2. OBJECTIVES 3. INAUGURAL SESSION 4. WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY 5. RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 For WHO 5.2 For Member States 5.3 For Participants..... Annexes: 1. List of Participants 2. Programme
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Health Organization _Regional Office for South-East Asia
      Format/size: pdf (52.65 K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


      Title: Clinical Use of Blood: Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop Yangon, Myanmar, 8-11 April 2003
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION 2. OBJECTIVES 3. INAUGURAL SESSION 4. PROCEEDINGS 5.RECOMMENDATIONS ..... Annexes 1.Programme 2. List of Participants
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Health Organization _Regional Office for South-East Asia
      Format/size: pdf (627 KB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


      Title: When Universities Close
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: The repeated closure of universities in Burma has left the country without much-needed medical expertise. How much can NGOs do to make up for lost time?..." "Now that Burma had had no doctors graduating for two years (except possibly military doctors from their own school) the government encouraged training of lay village health workers. Because we had done similar teaching in rural Thailand for another group, the organization had invited my wife and me to join the team. We came once in 1996 when they began their project, and again in 1998 to see how well the students could remember and use such teaching. By that time there were 500 who had taken the three-week training course; some of them were quite competent as far as their training went, each working with about thirty families in her home village. Others were woefully inadequate at making decisions, even though they could remember facts." ... "In Burma, elementary school itself is free, but many can't afford all the fees the teachers must charge. Children have to buy textbooks, uniforms, paper and pencils; they must often pay athletic fees, examination fees, buy cleaning supplies for the classroom - the expenses can go on and on. The government has invested very little in the education system. Most children drop out before middle school." He shrugged. "If you want an education, join the army."
      Author/creator: Keith Dahlberg
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 9, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2010


  • Threats to Health

    • Conflict and health, including violations of humanitarian and human rights standards as threats to health
      These include violations of economic, social and cultural rights as well as civil and political rights

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Health and Human Rights
      Description/subject: "Many of CPI's local partners serve ethnic communities located in Myanmar's conflict-affected zones that are not adequately served by governmental organizations or large humanitarian agencies — areas that also often suffer from chronic human rights abuses. See links at rights for peer-reviewed articles and reports documenting the connection between systemic abuses and poor health in Myanmar's border regions....Diagnosis Critical (CPI Partners, Oct. 2010)... After the Storm (CPI Partners, March 2009)... Chronic Emergency (CPI partners, Sep. 2006)... Displacement and Disease (Conflict and Health, March 2008)... Health and human rights and political transition (Intl Health & Human Rights, May 2014)... Maternal health and human rights violations (PLoS Medicine, Dec. 2008)... Quantifying associations between human rights violations and health (Epidemiology & Community Health, Sep. 2007)... The Gathering Storm (CPI partners, July 2007)... Community-based Assessment of Human Rights (Conflict and Health, April 2010).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Community Partners International
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Jungle Surgeon of Myanmar - One medic finds that moves towards political reform have not benefited his patients in Burma's remote border areas. (video)
      Date of publication: 13 January 2014
      Description/subject: "One medic finds that moves towards political reform have not benefited his patients in Burma's remote border areas. "Nyunt Win is a surgeon and medical trainer working with a mobile clinic in the East Burma jungle. He is also a former soldier of the Karen National Liberation Army. Nyunt Win's patients are the displaced Karen people who as well as suffering the effects of years of civil war are without any healthcare whatsoever. With moves towards political reform and international aid going directly to the government under the guise of development projects, there is an increase in resource exploitation, human rights abuses and displacement of ethnic populations. The plight of Nyunt Win's patients seems to be more acute than ever...The Jungle Surgeon of Myanmar exposes what life is like in the remote areas of Myanmar. It shows this marginalised community's fight for survival and thoughts on longterm peace, providing an alternative perspective on the ceasefire."
      Author/creator: Gigi Berardi
      Language: Karen (voice), English (sub-titles)
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (Witness)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 14 January 2014


      Title: Bitter Wounds and Lost Dreams: Human Rights Under Assault in Karen State, Burma
      Date of publication: 27 August 2012
      Description/subject: Findings: "Out of all 665 households surveyed, 30% reported a human rights violation. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation reported; 25% of households reported experiencing some form of forced labor in the past year, including being porters for the military, growing crops, and sweeping for landmines. Physical attacks were less common; about 1.3% of households reported kidnapping, torture, or sexual assault. Human rights violations were significantly worse in the area surveyed in Tavoy, Tenasserim Division, which is completely controlled by the Burmese government and is also the site of the Dawei port and economic development project. Our research shows that more people who lived in Tavoy experienced human rights violations than people who lived elsewhere in our sampling area. Specifically, the odds of having a family member forced to be a porter were 4.4 times higher than for families living elsewhere. The same odds for having to do other forms of forced labor, including building roads and bridges, were 7.9 times higher; for being blocked from accessing land, 6.2 times higher; and for restricted movement, 7.4 times higher for families in Tavoy than for families living elsewhere. The research indicates a correlation between development projects and human rights violations, especially those relating to land and displacement. PHR’s research indicated that 17.4% of households in Karen State reported moderate or severe household hunger, according to the FANTA-2 Household Hunger Scale, a measure of food insecurity. We found that 3.7% of children under 5 were moderately or severely malnourished, and 9.8% were mildly malnourished, as determined by measurements of middle-upper arm circumference. PHR conducted the survey immediately following the rice harvest in Karen State, and the results may therefore reflect the lowest malnutrition rates of the year.....Conclusion: PHR’s survey of human rights violations and humanitarian indicators in Karen State shows that human rights violations persist in Karen State, despite recent reforms on the part of President Thein Sein. Of particular concern is the prevalence of human rights violations even in areas where there is no active armed conflict, as well as the correlation between economic development projects and human rights violations. Our research found that human rights violations were up to 10 times higher around an economic development project than in other areas surveyed. Systemic reforms that establish accountability for perpetrators of human rights violations, full political participation by Karen people and other ethnic minorities, and access to essential services are necessary to support a successful transition to a fully functioning democracy..."
      Author/creator: Bill Davis ,MA, MPH; Andrea Gittleman, JD, PHR; Richard Sollom, MA, MPH, PHR; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Forword by Óscar Arias Sánchez
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights (PHR)
      Format/size: pdf (749K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 August 2012


      Title: Thaton Interview: Daw Ny---, April 2011
      Date of publication: 27 January 2012
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during April 2011 in Pa’an Township, Thaton District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Daw Ny---, who described an incident which occurred in November 2010, during which Tatmadaw Border Guard soldiers fired small-arms at her husband without warning and without attempting to hail him, seriously injuring his leg and necessitating 3,800,000 kyat [US $4,935.06] in medical expenses, which has had a deleterious effect on her family’s financial situation. Daw Ny--- told the villager who conducted this interview that her husband was visited in hospital by government officials investigating the incident but that no compensation or redress was offered. Daw Ny--- also described arbitrary demands for food and money, and the illegal logging of teak trees from A--- village by Border Guard soldiers; she mentioned that the imbalance in local power dynamics between armed soldiers and unarmed villagers deters villagers from attempting to engage and negotiate with perpetrators. Daw Ny--- raised concerns about the lack of livelihoods opportunities, and corresponding food insecurity, for villagers who do not own farmland; she notes that, in spite of these challenges, villagers offer voluntary material support to schoolteachers and often attempt to support their livelihoods by selling firewood or cutting bamboo. Daw Ny--- notes that some villagers choose to seek employment opportunities in larger towns but strongly expresses her unwillingness to move to an urban area, believing that food insecurity would only be exacerbated by a lack of money and an absence of alternative livelihood opportunities."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (267K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b8.html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


      Title: Attacks on Health and Education: Trends and incidents from eastern Burma, 2010-2011
      Date of publication: 06 December 2011
      Description/subject: "This report presents primary evidence of attacks on education and health in eastern Burma collected by KHRG during the period February 2010 to May 2011. Section I of this report details KHRG research methodology; Section II analyses general trends in armed conflict and details a loose typology of attacks identified during the reporting period. Section III applies this typology to 16 particularly illustrative incidents, and analyses them in light of relevant international humanitarian law and UN Security Council resolutions 1612, 1882 and 1998. These incidents were selected from a database detailing 59 attacks on civilians documented by KHRG between February 2010 and May 2011."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html. pdf (166K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1105.html
      Date of entry/update: 19 January 2012


      Title: Definitional ambiguity and UNSCR 1998: Impeding UN-led responses to attacks on health and education in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 06 December 2011
      Description/subject: "This paper highlights impediments to effective international responses to attacks on health and education in eastern Burma presented by lack of clarity regarding the meaning of “attacks” within the monitoring and reporting framework established by UN Security Council resolutions 1612 and 1998. In order to address this definitional ambiguity and enable recent developments in the UN Security Council to potentially provide support to communities facing attacks in eastern Burma, this paper argues for interpreting “attacks” in a fashion that is consistent with applicable international humanitarian law. The analysis below concludes that UN-led monitoring, reporting and response pursuant to UNSCRs 1612 and 1998 should include acts by parties to armed conflict that both: a) violate relevant international law; and b) attack or threaten to attack personnel related to schools or medical facilities and/ or destroy, damage or force the closure of a school or medical facility."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (62K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


      Title: Diagnosis: Critical – Health And Human Rights in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 19 October 2010
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report reveals that the health of populations in conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma, particularly women and children, is amongst the worst in the world, a result of official disinvestment in health, protracted conflict and the abuse of civilians..."Diagnosis: Critical" demonstrates that a vast area of eastern Burma remains in a chronic health emergency, a continuing legacy of longstanding official disinvestment in health, coupled with protracted civil war and the abuse of civilians. This has left ethnic rural populations in the east with 41.2% of children under five acutely malnourished. 60.0% of deaths in children under the age of 5 are from preventable and treatable diseases, including acute respiratory infection, malaria, and diarrhea. These losses of life would be even greater if it were not for local community-based health organizations, which provide the only available preventive and curative care in these conflict-affected areas. The report summarizes the results of a large scale population-based health and human rights survey which covered 21 townships and 5,754 households in conflict-affected zones of eastern Burma. The survey was jointly conducted by the Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team and ethnic health organizations serving the Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, and Palaung communities. These areas have been burdened by decades of civil conflict and attendant human rights abuses against the indigenous populations. Eastern Burma demographics are characterized by high birth rates, high death rates and the significant absence of men under the age of 45, patterns more comparable to recent war zones such as Sierra Leone than to Burma’s national demographics. Health indicators for these communities, particularly for women and children, are worse than Burma’s official national figures, which are already amongst the worst in the world. Child mortality rates are nearly twice as high in eastern Burma and the maternal mortality ratio is triple the official national figure. While violence is endemic in these conflict zones, direct losses of life from violence account for only 2.3% of deaths. The indirect health impacts of the conflict are much graver, with preventable losses of life accounting for 59.1% of all deaths and malaria alone accounting for 24.7%. At the time of the survey, one in 14 women was infected with Pf malaria, amongst the highest rates of infection in the world. This reality casts serious doubts over official claims of progress towards reaching the country’s Millennium Development Goals related to the health of women, children, and infectious diseases, particularly malaria. The survey findings also reveal widespread human rights abuses against ethnic civilians. Among surveyed households, 30.6% had experienced human rights violations in the prior year, including forced labor, forced displacement, and the destruction and seizure of food. The frequency and pattern with which these abuses occur against indigenous peoples provide further evidence of the need for a Commission of Inquiry into Crimes against Humanity. The upcoming election will do little to alleviate the situation, as the military forces responsible for these abuses will continue to operate outside civilian control according to the new constitution. The findings also indicate that these abuses are linked to adverse population-level health outcomes, particularly for the most vulnerable members of the community—mothers and children. Survey results reveal that members of households who suffer from human rights violations have worse health outcomes, as summarized in the table above. Children in households that were internally displaced in the prior year were 3.3 times more likely to suffer from moderate or severe acute malnutrition. The odds of dying before age one was increased 2.5 times among infants from households in which at least one person was forced to provide labor. The ongoing widespread human rights abuses committed against ethnic civilians and the blockade of international humanitarian access to rural conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma by the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), mean that premature death and disability, particularly as a result of treatable and preventable diseases like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections, will continue. This will not only further devastate the health of communities of eastern Burma but also poses a direct health security threat to Burma’s neighbors, especially Thailand, where the highest rates of malaria occur on the Burma border. Multi-drug resistant malaria, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are growing concerns. The spread of malaria resistant to artemisinin, the most important anti-malarial drug, would be a regional and global disaster. In the absence of state-supported health infrastructure, local community-based organizations are working to improve access to health services in their own communities. These programs currently have a target population of over 376,000 people in eastern Burma and in 2009 treated nearly 40,000 cases of malaria and have vastly increased access to key maternal and child health interventions. However, they continue to be constrained by a lack of resources and ongoing human rights abuses by the Burmese military regime against civilians. In order to fully address the urgent health needs of eastern Burma, the underlying abuses fueling the health crisis need to end."
      Language: Burmese, English, Thai
      Source/publisher: The Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (OBL versions: 5.3MB - English; 4.4MB Thai; 3.5MB-Burmese) . Larger, original versions on BPHWT site
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(th)-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(bu)-red.pdf
      http://www.backpackteam.org/?page_id=208
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: MYANMAR: Health crisis amid conflict - new report
      Date of publication: 19 October 2010
      Description/subject: A new report by NGOs indicates health conditions in conflict-affected eastern Myanmar are dire, with women and children suffering most. According to "Diagnosis: Critical", a survey of 5,754 households by health organizations working in the Thai border town of Mae Sot and others from neighbouring Myanmar, health conditions in eastern Myanmar have deteriorated due to constant conflict and persistent state neglect.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IRIN_ humanitarian news and analysis
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 11: Right to Health
      Date of publication: 23 November 2009
      Description/subject: "For the people of Burma, 2008 has been another difficult year. The difficulties related to lack of healthcare facilities continued, while other factors relating to poverty remained key influences on the health of the nation. The enduring story from Burma from 2008 was the humanitarian consequences of Tropical Cyclone Nargis, which hit the country on 2-3 May 2008. However, even at the beginning of the year, there were worrying reports and statistics emerging from Burma regarding the health status of the population. In January 2008, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released figures which showed Burma had the second highest child mortality rate in the world, with between 270 and 400 children dying on a daily basis, many from preventable causes. By year end, the combination of the estimated 130,000 deaths due to Cyclone Nargis and the increasing HIV/AIDS crisis lead Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to describe the current situation in Burma as “critical”, and also contributed to Burma being included in MSF’s list of the ten worse humanitarian situations in the world. While it has been estimated that approximately half of Burma's annual budgetary allocation goes towards military expenditure, less than half a percent of Burma’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is allocated to healthcare. Burma’s per capita spending on healthcare has been reported to be "the lowest in the world". As a direct result, deaths arising from easily preventable and readily treatable diseases are common. Burma also has the second highest child mortality rate in all of Asia, with ten percent of children dying before their fifth birthday; only Afghanistan’s child mortality rate is higher. While the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military regime makes little to no effort to actively promote good health or to provide adequate healthcare, in some areas it actively prevents the population’s access to healthcare through restrictions on movement and other human rights abuses. For example, in August 2008, it was reported that medical students were to be forced to take an exam on the current political situation in the country before being allowed to take up medical placements in hospitals. Presumably, those students who failed to toe the SPDC line would not have been permitted to commence their placements. Although this was denied by the SPDC, it was confirmed by lecturers at Rangoon’s Medical Institute..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (217K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


      Title: Burma's Prisons and Labour Camps: Silent Killing Fields
      Date of publication: 11 May 2009
      Description/subject: "In October 2008, reports emerged from Burma that the military junta had ordered its courts to expedite the trials of political activists. Since then, 357 activists have been handed down harsh punishments, including sentences of up to 104 years. Shortly after sentencing, the regime began to systematically transfer political prisoners to prisons all around Burma, far from their families. This has a serious detrimental impact on both their physical and mental health. Medical supplies in prisons are wholly inadequate, and often only obtained through bribes to prison officials. It is left to the families to provide medicines, but prison transfers make it very difficult for them to visit their loved ones in jail. Prison transfers are also another form of psychological torture by the regime, aimed at both the prisoners and their families. Since November 2008, at least 228 political prisoners have been transferred to jails away from their families. The long-term consequences for the health of political prisoners recently transferred will be very serious. At least 127 political prisoners are currently in poor health. At least 19 of them are in urgent need of proper medical treatment. Political prisonersâ' right to healthcare is systematically denied by the regime. Burma's healthcare system in prisons is completely inadequate, especially in jails in remote areas. There are 44 prisons across Burma, and at least 50 labour camps. Some of them do not have a prison hospital, and at least 12 of the prisons do not even have a prison doctor. The regime's treatment of political prisoners directly contravenes the 1957 UN standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out its last prison visit in Burma in November 2005. In January 2006 the ICRC suspended prison visits in the country, as it was not allowed to fulfil its independent, impartial mandate. Since 1988 at least 139 political prisoners have died in detention, as a direct result of severe torture, denial of medical treatment, and inadequate medical care. Many, like Htay Lwin Oo, were suffering from curable diseases such as tuberculosis. He died in Mandalay Prison in December 2008. He had been due for release in December this year... 1. Political Prisoners In Poor Health There are currently at least 127 political prisoners known to be in poor health..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (681K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 May 2009


      Title: After the Storm: Voices from the Delta
      Date of publication: 27 February 2009
      Description/subject: An independent, community-based assessment of health and human rights in the Cyclone Nargis response...DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: "To date, this report is the only community-based independent assessment of the Nargis response conducted by relief workers operating free of SPDC control. Using participatory methods and operating without the knowledge or consent of the Burmese junta or its affiliated institutions, this report brings forward the voices of those working “on the ground” and of survivors in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas of Burma. The data reveal systematic obstruction of relief aid, willful acts of theft and sale of relief supplies, forced relocation, and the use of forced labor for reconstruction projects, including forced child labor. The slow distribution of aid, the push to hold the referendum vote, and the early refusal to accept foreign assistance are evidence of the junta’s primary concerns for regime survival and political control over the well-being of the Burmese people. These EAT findings are evidence of multiple human rights violations and the abrogation of international humanitarian relief norms and international legal frameworks for disaster relief. They may constitute crimes against humanity, violating in particular article 7(1)(k) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and a referral for investigation by the International Criminal Court should be made by the United Nations Security Council".
      Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Mahn Mahn, Cynthia Maung, Brock Daniels, Noriyuki Murakami, Andrea Wirtz, Chris Beyrer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Emergency Assistance Team (EAT BURMA), Center for Public Health and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Format/size: pdf (1.57MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2009.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/ASAZ-7PRKLM-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Burma’s Man-Made Suffering
      Date of publication: 09 February 2009
      Description/subject: "...Chronic divestment in health, alongside draconian restrictions, harassment and the incarceration of relief workers, remain the root drivers of the health and humanitarian crises in Burma. These are the real human rights violations that affect health—not sanctions...official restrictions governing the work of international aid agencies have been tightened, particularly the rules covering domestic travel and data collection. Their priorities are clear: until the global community has the moral fortitude to address this underlying reality, the humanitarian crises of Burma will continue, especially for the 70 Burmese HIV patients who will die today from lack of care"
      Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij and Chris Beyrer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/_pdf/Vit_Man-MadeCrisis_Irrawaddy_9Feb09.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 10 February 2009


      Title: Beyond the International Spotlight, Critical Health Needs in Myanmar Remain Unmet
      Date of publication: 22 December 2008
      Description/subject: "...The people of Myanmar cannot wait until the next big disaster for their critical health needs to be recognized; both the government of Myanmar and the international community urgently need to act in order prevent thousands of unnecessary deaths..."...contains a 6-minute podcast: "MSF Frontline Reports - Myanmar Cyclone Emergency II May 2008" and a slide show: "A Preventable Fate: The Failure of HIV/AIDS Treatment in Myanmar... Thousands of people are needlessly dying due to a severe lack of lifesaving HIV/AIDS treatment in Myanmar. Unable to continue shouldering the primary responsibility for responding to one of Asia’s worst HIV crises, MSF insists that the government of Myanmar and international organizations urgently and rapidly scale-up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART)."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Top ten humanitarian crises of 2008" Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/news/allcontent.cfm?id=52
      Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


      Title: An unnatural disaster in Burma
      Date of publication: 02 December 2008
      Description/subject: "IN THE FIELD of disaster relief studies it is a truism that the first responders, whether in an earthquake or a cyclone, are generally ordinary people in the affected area who have survived. They are the first to start digging out the rubble or tending the wounded. Civilian volunteers are the backbone of the later phases of emergency responses too - people who bring food and water, volunteer at shelters, give what they can. Only in a system as profoundly inhumane as Burma would such good Samaritans be punished for their compassion. But that is precisely what happened last week..."
      Author/creator: Chris Beyrer and Frank Donaghue
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Boston Globe"
      Format/size: pdf (24K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2009


      Title: A preventable fate: The failure of ART scale-up in Myanmar
      Date of publication: November 2008
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: The situation for many people living with HIV in Myanmar is critical due to a severe lack of lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART). MSF currently provides ART to more than 11,000 people. That is the majority of all available treatment countrywide but only a small fraction of what is urgently needed. For five years MSF has continually developed its HIV/AIDS programme to respond to the extensive needs, whilst the response of both the Government of Myanmar and the international community has remained minimal. MSF should not bear the main responsibility for one of Asia’s most serious HIV/AIDS epidemics. Pushed to its limit by the lack of other services providing ART, MSF has had to make the painful decision to restrict the number of new patients it can treat. With few options to refer new patients for treatment elsewhere, the situation is dire. An estimated 240,000 people are currently infected with HIV in Myanmar. 76,000 of these people are in urgent need of ART, yet less than 20 % of them receive it through the combined efforts of MSF, other international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Government of Myanmar. For the remaining people the private market offers little assistance as the most commonly used first-line treatment costs the equivalent of a month’s average wage. The lack of accessible treatment resulted in 25,000 AIDS related deaths in 2007 and a similar number of people are expected to suffer the same fate this year, unless HIV/AIDS services - most importantly the provision of ART - are urgently scaled-up. The Government of Myanmar and the International Community need to mobilize quickly in order to address this situation. Currently, the Government spends a mere 0.3% of the gross domestic product on health, the lowest amount worldwide4, a small portion of which goes to HIV/AIDS. Likewise, overseas development aid for Myanmar is the second lowest per capita worldwide and few of the big international donors provide any resources to the country. Yet, 189 member states of the United Nations, including Myanmar, endorsed the Millennium Development Goals, including the aim to “Achieve universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it, by 2010”. As it stands, this remains a far cry from becoming a reality in Myanmar. As an MSF ART patient in Myanmar stated, “All people must have a spirit of humanity in helping HIV patients regardless of nation, organization or government. We are all human beings so we must help each other”. Unable to continue shouldering the primary responsibility for responding to one of Asia’s worst HIV crises, MSF insists that the Government of Myanmar and international organizations urgently and rapidly scale-up ART provision. A vast gulf exists between the needs related to HIV/AIDS and the services provided. Unless ART provision is rapidly scaled-up many more people will needlessly suffer and die.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
      Format/size: pdf (735K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


      Title: Exploitative governance under SPDC and DKBA authorities in Dooplaya District
      Date of publication: 11 July 2008
      Description/subject: "With largely consolidated control over Dooplaya District in southern Karen State the SPDC and DKBA, as the two dominant (and allied) military forces, operate under a system of coexistence. The local civilian population, in turn, faces exploitative governance on two fronts as both SPDC and DKBA soldiers seek to extract money, labour, food and other supplies from them. Enforcing heavy movement restrictions on top of persistent exploitative demands, local communities are facing deteriorating livelihood opportunities, increasing poverty, and a constriction of educational and health care opportunities. Persistent human rights abuses thus foster the economic pressures fuelling the continuing migration of rural communities in Dooplaya District to refugee camps in Thailand and towards livelihood opportunities at urban centres in Burma and Thailand. This report examines the situation of abuse in Dooplaya District from January to June 2008..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F8)
      Format/size: pdf (666 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f8.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


      Title: Health security among internally displaced and vulnerable populations in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "Continued conflict and consistent human rights violations have increased mortality rates and worsened the health status of IDPs and other vulnerable populations in Burma. Collaboration with and partnerships among border-based health organisations have proved to be viable solutions towards providing primary health care to these vulnerable populations, and should be a focus for the international public health community. Without an end to human rights violations in Burma, however, any improvements in health status are unlikely to be sustained".
      Author/creator: Mahn Mahn, Katherine C. Teela, Catherine I. Lee and Cara O’Connor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (229K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: Borderline Health
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: As a "slow-motion genocide" envelops ethnic minorities in eastern Burma, health workers rely on innovative strategies and raw courage to save the lives of mothers and infants.
      Author/creator: Cathy Shufro
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Johns Hopkins Public Health" Online Edition, FAll 2008
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2008


      Title: MSF material on Burma/Myanmar (2008)
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: Collection of MSF public documents, 2008, largely on the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis: "A Preventable Fate: The Failure of ART Scale-Up in Myanmar"..."Myanmar: Urgent Lack of HIV/AIDS Treatment Threatens Thousands"..."Myanmar: Three Months after Cyclone Nargis, MSF Still Providing Assistance"..."Irrawaddy Delta, Myanmar: Survivors Living in Dire Conditions"..."Myanmar: Two Months After Cyclone Nargis, Needs Remain Critical"..."Myanmar: Critical Needs Remain for a Traumatized People"..."One Month After Cyclone Nargis Struck Myanmar, Survivors Still Living in Dire Conditions"..."After Cyclone Enormous Needs Unmet in Myanmar"..."Myanmar: MSF Operations in Cyclone-Hit Areas"..."Doctors Without Borders Calls For Immediate and Unobstructed Escalation of Myanmar Relief Operations"..."First MSF Relief Plane Arrives in Myanmar (Burma)"..."Doctors Without Borders Cargo Plane Arrives in Myanmar"..."MSF Dispatches Three Cargo Planes with 110 Tons of Relief Materials to Myanmar (Burma)"..."Cyclone in Myanmar (Burma): MSF teams intensify emergency response, a first relief plane is due to land in Yangon"..."Emergency Update: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Activities in Myanmar"... "People tell stories of spending the night of the cyclone hanging onto trees all night long"..."Myanmar Cyclone: MSF Teams Bring Immediate Assistance While Additional Staff and Relief Materials are Ready to be Sent ...MSF Response to Aid Myanmar Cyclone Victims"..."Doctors Without Borders Releases Tenth Annual "Top Ten" Most Underreported Humanitarian Stories of 2007"..."Top Ten" Most Underreported Humanitarian Stories of 2007"..."People in Southeast Asia Needlessly Becoming Blind Due to a Neglected Virus"..."Myanmar Refugees in Bangladesh: Nowhere to Go"..."Dr. Hervé Isambert, MSF program manager Prevented from working, the French Section of MSF leaves Myanmar"..."Prevented From Working, the French Section of MSF Leaves Myanmar (Burma)"..."EMERGENCY UPDATE: Aid Operations to Disaster Areas in South Asia"..."Frank Smithuis, MD: "Impatience is the most important thing""
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Medicins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Withour Borders)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


      Title: Population-based survey methods to quantify associations between human rights violations and health outcomes among internally displaced persons in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: Background: Case reports of human rights violations have focused on individuals’ experiences. Populationbased quantification of associations between rights indicators and health outcomes is rare and has not been documented in eastern Burma... Objective: We describe the association between mortality and morbidity and the household-level experience of human rights violations among internally displaced persons in eastern Burma... Methods: Mobile health workers in conflict zones of eastern Burma conducted 1834 retrospective household surveys in 2004. Workers recorded data on vital events, mid-upper arm circumference of young children, malaria parasitaemia status of respondents and household experience of various human rights violations during the previous 12 months... Results: Under-5 mortality was 218 (95% confidence interval 135 to 301) per 1000 live births. Almost onethird of households reported forced labour (32.6%). Forced displacement (8.9% of households) was associated with increased child mortality (odds ratio = 2.80), child malnutrition (odds ratio = 3.22) and landmine injury (odds ratio = 3.89). Theft or destruction of the food supply (reported by 25.2% of households) was associated with increased crude mortality (odds ratio = 1.58), malaria parasitaemia (odds ratio = 1.82), child malnutrition (odds ratio = 1.94) and landmine injury (odds ratio = 4.55). Multiple rights violations (14.4% of households) increased the risk of child (incidence rate ratio = 2.18) and crude (incidence rate ratio = 1.75) mortality and the odds of landmine injury (odds ratio = 19.8). Child mortality risk was increased more than fivefold (incidence rate ratio = 5.23) among families reporting three or more rights violations... Conclusions: Widespread human rights violations in conflict zones in eastern Burma are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Population-level associations can be quantified using standard epidemiological methods. This approach requires further validation and refinement elsewhere.
      Author/creator: Luke C Mullany, Adam K Richards, Catherine I Lee, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Cynthia Maung, Mahn Mahn, Chris Beyrer and Thomas J Lee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: J. Epidemiol. Community Health 2007;61;908-914
      Format/size: pdf (370K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2008


      Title: Chronic Emergency - Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 07 September 2006
      Description/subject: This link leads to a document containing the Table of Contents of the report, with links to the English, Burmese and Thai versions... Executive Summary: "Disinvestment in health, coupled with widespread poverty, corruption, and the dearth of skilled personnel have resulted in the collapse of Burma’s health system. Today, Burma’s health indicators by official figures are among the worst in the region. However, information collected by the Back Pack Health Workers Team (BPHWT) on the eastern frontiers of the country, facing decades of civil war and widespread human rights abuses, indicate a far greater public health catastrophe in areas where official figures are not collected. In these eastern areas of Burma, standard public health indicators such as population pyramids, infant mortality rates, child mortality rates, and maternal mortality ratios more closely resemble other countries facing widespread humanitarian disasters, such as Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Angola, and Cambodia shortly after the ouster of the Khmer Rouge. The most common cause of death continues to be malaria, with over 12% of the population at any given time infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of malaria. One out of every twelve women in this area may lose her life around the time of childbirth, deaths that are largely preventable. Malnutrition is unacceptably common, with over 15% of children at any time with evidence of at least mild malnutrition, rates far higher than their counterparts who have fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Knowledge of sanitation and safe drinking water use remains low. Human rights violations are very common in this population. Within the year prior, almost a third of households had suffered from forced labor, almost 10% forced displacement, and a quarter had had their food confiscated or destroyed. Approximately one out of every fifty households had suffered violence at the hands of soldiers, and one out of 140 households had a member injured by a landmine within the prior year alone. There also appear to be some regional variations in the patterns of human rights abuses. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in areas most solidly controlled by the SPDC and its allies, such as Karenni State and Pa’an District, faced more forced labor while those living in more contested areas, such as Nyaunglebin and Toungoo Districts, faced more forced relocation. Most other areas fall in between these two extremes. However, such patterns should be interpreted with caution, given that the BPHW survey was not designed to or powered to reliably detect these differences. Using epidemiologic tools, several human rights abuses were found to be closely tied to adverse health outcomes. Families forced to flee within the preceding twelve months were 2.4 times more likely to have a child (under age 5) die than those who had not been forcibly displaced. Households forced to flee also were 3.1 times as likely to have malnourished children compared to those in more stable situations. Food destruction and theft were also very closely tied to several adverse health consequences. Families which had suffered this abuse in the preceding twelve months were almost 50% more likely to suffer a death in the household. These households also were 4.6 times as likely to have a member suffer from a landmine injury, and 1.7 times as likely to have an adult member suffer from malaria, both likely tied to the need to forage in the jungle. Children of these households were 4.4 times as likely to suffer from malnutrition compared to households whose food supply had not been compromised. For the most common abuse, forced labor, families that had suffered from this within the past year were 60% more likely to have a member suffer from diarrhea (within the two weeks prior to the survey), and more than twice as likely to have a member suffer from night blindness (a measure of vitamin A deficiency and thus malnutrition) compared to families free from this abuse. Not only are many abuses linked statistically from field observations to adverse health consequences, they are yet another obstacle to accessing health care services already out of reach for the majority of IDP populations in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. This is especially clear with women’s reproductive health: forced displacement within the past year was associated with a 6.1 fold lower use of contraception. Given the high fertility rate of this population and the high prevalence of conditions such as malaria and malnutrition, the lack of access often is fatal, as reflected by the high maternal mortality ratio—as many as one in 12 women will die from pregnancy-related complications. This report is the first to measure basic public health indicators and quantify the extent of human rights abuses at the population level amongst IDP communities living in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. These results indicate that the poor health status of these IDP communities is intricately and inexorably linked to the human rights context in which health outcomes are observed. Without addressing factors which drive ill health and excess morbidity and mortality in these populations, such as widespread human rights abuses and inability to access healthcare services, a long-term, sustainable improvement in the public health of these areas cannot occur..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB, 2.2MB - English; 1,2MB - Burmese; 1.6MB - Thai)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/ChronicEmergencyE-ocr.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(English%20ver).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Burmese%20ver).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Thai%20ver).pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Chronic_Emergency-links.html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Mortality rates in conflict zones in Karen, Karenni, and Mon states in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: Objectives: To estimate mortality rates for populations living in civil war zones in Karen, Karenni, and Mon states of eastern Burma.... Methods: Indigenous mobile health workers providing care in conflict zones in Karen, Karenni, and Mon areas of eastern Burma conducted cluster sample surveys interviewing heads of households during 3-month time periods in 2002 and 2003 to collect demographic and mortality data.... Results: In 2002 health workers completed 1290 household surveys comprising 7496 individuals. In 2003, 1609 households with 9083 members were surveyed. Estimates of vital statistics were as follows: infant mortality rate: 135 (95% CI: 96–181) and 122 (95% CI: 70–175) per 1000 live births; under-five mortality rate: 291 (95% CI: 238–348) and 276 (95% CI: 190–361) per 1000 live births; crude mortality rate: 25 (95% CI: 21–29) and 21 (95% CI: 15–27) per 1000 persons per year.... Conclusions: Populations living in conflict zones in eastern Burma experience high mortality rates. The use of indigenous mobile health workers provides one means of measuring health status among populations that would normally be inaccessible due to ongoing conflict..... Keywords: Burma, mortality, internally displaced persons, malaria, landmines, civil conflict
      Author/creator: Thomas J. Lee, Luke C. Mullany, Adam K. Richards, Heather K. Kuiper, Cynthia Maung and Chris Beyrer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Tropical Medicine and International Health" Volume 11 no 7 pp 1119–1127 July 2006
      Format/size: pdf (230K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2008


    • Diseases

      • Communicable (infectious) diseases

        • Communicable (infectious) diseases - several diseases

          Individual Documents

          Title: Communicable disease risk assessment and interventions
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: Cyclone Nargis: Myanmar (May 2008): Contents_ Acknowledgements ... 1. Background and risk factors ... 2. Priority communicable diseases ... 3. Immediate interventions for communicable disease control ... 4. Relevant publications … 5. WHO-recommended case definitions ...
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 27 October 2010


          Title: Responding to AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
          Date of publication: 10 October 2006
          Description/subject: In 2004 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (“Global Fund”) awarded program grants to Burma (Myanmar) totaling US$98.4 million over five years—recognizing the severity of Burma’s HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics, and noting that malaria was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and the leading killer of children under five years old [1]. For those individuals working in health in Burma, these grants were welcome, indeed [2].
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: PLoS Medicine
          Format/size: html,pdf (293.64 KB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592343/
          http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=BBE6B472713F9A20EA127508485397DB.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030393&representation=PDF
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
          Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
          Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
          Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: Response of falciparum malaria to different antimalarials in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 1999
          Description/subject: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the therapeutic efficacy of different treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the hospitals in Sagaing, northern and eastern Shan, to facilitate updating the existing national antimalarial drug policy. The proposed 14-day trial for monitoring the efficacy of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria is an efficient method for identifying treatment failure patterns at the intermediate level (township hospital) in the Union of Myanmar. Minimal clinical and parasitological data for days 0±14 were required to classify treatment failure and success. Clinical and parasitological responses on day 3 and days 4±14 were used as clear examples of early and late treatment failure, respectively. Mefloquine is five times more likely to be effective than chloroquine and sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (S-P), whereas chloroquine and S-P treatments have nearly identical failure patterns. The alarming frequency of clinical and parasitological failure (failure rate >50%) following chloroquine treatment was reported in Sagaing and following S-P treatment in Sagaing and eastern Shan.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:EesOglB2a_cJ:scholar.google.com/+myanmar+health&hl=en&as_sdt=2000
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Burma Major infectious diseases
          Description/subject: Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high ... food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever ... vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria ... water contact disease: leptospirosis ... animal contact disease: rabies ... note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009) ... Definition: This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
          Source/publisher: Index Mundi
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 29 October 2010


        • Cross-border health issues

          Individual Documents

          Title: An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Conclusion: "Boatmen in Teknaf are an integral part of a high-risk sexual behaviour network between Myanmar and Bangladesh. They are at risk of obtaining HIV infection due to cross border mobility and unsafe sexual practices. There is an urgent need for designing interventions targeting boatmen in Teknaf to combat an impending epidemic of HIV among this group. They could be included in the serological surveillance as a vulnerable group. Interventions need to address issues on both sides of the border, other vulnerable groups, and refugees. Strong political will and cross border collaboration is mandatory for such interventions."
          Author/creator: Rukhsana Gazi, Alec Mercer, Tanyaporn Wansom, Humayun Kabir, Nirod Chandra Saha, Tasnim Azim
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:5
          Format/size: pdf (154K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/5
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
          Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
          Format/size: pdf (170K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Responding to infectious diseases in Burma and her border regions
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Overview of the January 2007 conference, “Responding to Infectious Diseases in the Border Regions of South and Southeast Asia” hosted by the Faculty of Tropical Medicine of Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand.
          Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, Thomas J Lee
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:2
          Format/size: pdf (91K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/2
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Thailand Under Threat
          Date of publication: June 2005
          Description/subject: How Burma’s dams project could spread disease... "When Nang A Cha, a Shan migrant, consulted a doctor in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, complaining of a fever and a swollen leg, the physician initially suspected malaria. A blood test ruled that out, but the young laboratory technician was still puzzled by what he saw under the microscope and sent the blood smear to his supervisor, a semi-retired man who had been trained in parasitology about 40 years previously. He was astounded by what he saw: for the first time in 30 years, he gazed at an old nemesis, an entity believed eradicated from urban Thailand. There was no mistaking the threadlike shadows in the blood smear: Wuchereria bancrofti, the parasite responsible for lymphatic filariasis, more colloquially known as elephantiasis, a term conjuring up images of grotesquely swollen limbs and severe disability. Lymphatic filariasis is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. Once inside the human host, the parasite resides in the lymphatic system, producing larvae which then migrate back to the blood and are subsequently picked up by mosquitoes to continue the infection cycle. Over time, progressive damage to the lymphatics causes obstructions and subsequent swelling from accumulation of lymph..."
          Author/creator: Withaya Huanok, MD
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


          Title: Border Health (Thailand - Myanmar)
          Date of publication: 19 March 2004
          Description/subject: The Meeting on Development of Health Collaboration along Thailand-Myanmar Border areas: Five Presentations on Situation on Migrants and Six Report on Selected Health Problems/Activities along the border
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization /Thailand
          Format/size: MS Office
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Karenni refugees living in Thai–Burmese border camps: traumatic experiences, mental health outcomes, and social functioning
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: Abstract In June 2001, we assessed mental health problems among Karenni refugees residing in camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand, to determine the prevalence of mental illness, identify risk factors, and develop a culturally appropriate intervention program. A systematic random sample was used with stratification for the three camps; 495 people aged 15 years or older from 317 households participated. We constructed a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, culture-specific symptoms of mental illness, the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and selected questions from the SF-36 Health Survey. Mental health outcome scores indicated elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores were comparable to scores in other communities affected by war and persecution. Psychosocial risk factors for poorer mental health and social functioning outcomes were insufficient food, higher number of trauma events, previous mental illness, and landmine injuries. Modifications in refugee policy may improve social functioning, and innovative mental health and psychosocial programs need to be implemented, monitored, and evaluated for efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
          Author/creator: Barbara Lopes Cardozoa, Leisel Talleya, Ann Burtonb, Carol Crawford
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Social Science & Medicine _58 (2004) 2637–2644
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Meeting at the crossroads: Myanmar migrants and their use of Thai health care services
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: This study assesses the use of health services among cross-border migrants from Myanmar who are now living in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The migrants comprise three main ethnic groups, namely the Burmese, Karen and Mon, most of whom have no formal education and are agricultural workers. Results indicate that although the migrants can access government health facilities, they are still more likely to buy drugs or use herbal medicines for treating themselves when they have minor illnesses, while the Thais are more likely to seek medical care from government facilities. The main difficulties for migrants in accessing health services are their legal status, financial constraints, and an inability to speak Thai. Moreover, health beliefs also determine the health-seeking behaviors of migrants, particularly among the Karen who believe in spirits and herbal medicine, while very few of the Burmese and the Mon do so. This leads to the conclusion that ethnicity is an important determinant of the utilization of health services by migrants from Myanmar in Kanchanaburi.
          Author/creator: Pimonpan Isarabhakdi
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian and Pacific migration journal via Mahidol University, THAILANDE
          Format/size: pdf (2.44 MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16017346
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar to antimalarial drugs
          Date of publication: 2001
          Description/subject: In vitro drug susceptibility profiles were assessed in 75 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 4 sites in Myanmar. Except at Mawlamyine, the site closest to the Thai border, prevalence and degree of resistance to mefloquine were lower among the Myanmar isolates as compared with those from Thailand. Geometric mean concentration that inhibits 50% (IC50) and 90% (IC90) of Mawlamyine isolates were 51 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 40-65) and 124 nM (95% CI, 104-149), respectively. At the nearest Thai site, Maesod, known for high-level multidrug resistance, the corresponding values for mefloquine IC50 and IC90 were 92 nM (95% CI, 71-121) and 172 nM (95% CI, 140-211). Mefloquine susceptibility of P. falciparum in Myanmar, except for Mawlamyine, was consistent with clinical-parasitological efficacy in semi-immune people. High sensitivity to artemisinin compounds was observed in this geographical region. The data suggest that highly mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum is concentrated in a part of the Thai-Myanmar border region.
          Author/creator: C Wongsrichanalai, K Lin, LW Pang, MA Faiz, H Noedl, T Wimonwattrawatee, A Laoboonchai, and F Kawamoto
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/5/450
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Report of Cases and Deaths in CampsAreas of Work Border Health (Thailand-Myanmar)
          Description/subject: Border Health Information, Border Health Meeting 2004 * Border Health Meeting 2005 * Overview of Thai/Myanmar Border Health Situation 2005 with map of Population of the Provinces in Thailand Bordering Myanmar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization /Thailand
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


        • Dengue

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Wikipedia Dengue Fever page
          Description/subject: * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 Epidemiology * 5 Prevention * 6 Potential antiviral approaches * 7 Recent outbreaks * 8 References * 9 External links * 10 See also
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 14 -- Special Issue on Dengue
          Date of publication: December 2001
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Dengue in The South East Asia Region : Focus on Thailand and Myanmar (With contribution by Elisabeth Emerson, WHO); Overview of Dengue Fever (Health Messenger); Aedes: the vector of Dengue (Health Messenger)...PREVENTION: Prevention of Dengue Fever (Nipaporn Intong, ARC and Christine Harmston, BRC)...FROM THE FIELD: First International Conference on Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF), Chiang Mai, Thailand (With contribution by Elisabeth Emerson, WHO); DHF Epidemic in Tham Hin Camp (Dr. Danielle Stewart, MSF)...SANITATION: Anti-Vectorial Response in Case of Dengue Fever Outbreak (René Collard, MSF)... INTERVIEW: Interviews at Tham Hin Camp (Health Messenger)... CASE STUDY: The case of Maung Maung Soe (Dr. Danielle Stewart, MSF)... HEALTH EDUCATION: The Wise Rabbit (Health Messenger).
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 02 July 2014


        • Diarrhoa, cholera etc.

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: GANFYD's Cholera page
          Description/subject: Not much there at the moment...Includes list of web resources on cholera
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: GANFYD
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: GANFYD's Diarrhoea page
          Description/subject: Includes a list of Web Resources for Diarrhoea
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: GANFYD
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Wikipedia Cholera page
          Description/subject: * 1 Pathology o 1.1 Susceptibility o 1.2 Transmission o 1.3 Symptoms * 2 History o 2.1 Origin and Spread o 2.2 Research o 2.3 Other historical information * 3 Treatment o 3.1 Prevention * 4 References * 5 External links
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: Wikipedia Diarrhea page
          Description/subject: * 1 Causes * 2 Mechanism * 3 Acute diarrhea * 4 Chronic diarrhea o 4.1 Infective diarrhea o 4.2 Malabsorption o 4.3 Inflammatory bowel disease o 4.4 Irritable Bowel Syndrome o 4.5 Other important causes * 5 Treatment of diarrhea * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea in Myanmar Children: A Randomized Controlled Study
          Date of publication: 2008
          Description/subject: Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii in acute diarrhea. One hundred hospitalized children in Myanmar (age range  3 months to 10 years) were included. Fifty were treated with S. boulardii for five days in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and 50 were given ORS alone (control group) in an alternating order. The mean duration of diarrhea was 3.08 days in the S. boulardii group and 4.68 days (P < 0.05) in the control group. Stools had a normal consistency on day 3 in 38 (76%) of 50 patients in the S. boulardii group compared with only 12 (24%) of 50 in the control group (P0.019). On day 2, 27 (54%) of 50 had less than three stools per day in the S. boulardii group compared with only 15 (30%) of 50 in the control group (P  0.019). Saccharomyces boulardii shortens the duration of diarrhea and normalizes stool consistency and frequency. The shortening of the duration of diarrhea results in a social and economic benefits.
          Author/creator: Khin Htwe, Khin Saw Yee, Marlar Tin, and Yvan Vandenpla
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/78/2/214.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 30 -- special issue on Diarrhoea
          Date of publication: December 2005
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Natural history of diarrhea; General measures for controlling acute diarrhoea and epidemics; Important facts of diarrhoea in children; DIAGNOSIS: Clinical aspects of common diarrhoeal diseases and laboratory confirmation... MANAGEMENT: Practical guidelines of diarrhoeal diseases; Oral rehydration salt: How to prepare correctly and make it at home?... FROM THE FIELD: Maela camp experiences of cholera outbreak... PREVENTION: Role of environmental sanitation and key measures in prevention and control of diarrhea; Common methods and technologies used to treat water at a household level; A closer look at chlorination; How to deliver effective health education for acute diarrhea... INTERVIEWS... Glossary and annual quiz.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (12MB, 46MB))
          Alternate URLs: http://www.amifrance.org/IMG/pdf_HM_Mag_30.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


        • HIV/AIDS - Burma/Myanmar
          Also contains general material in Burmese or other languages of Burma

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: "BurmaNet News" Health/HIV archive
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


          Title: AIDSdatahub - Myanmar profile
          Description/subject: Well-organised page, links to many important documents
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: AIDSdatahub
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://aidsdatahub.org
          Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012


          Title: Asian Harm Reduction Network
          Description/subject: Lots of useful material on HIV/AIDS in Burma/Myanmar and the region, but you need to register (free)...On the AHRN site, search for "Myanmar" in "library" (45 results, mainly substantial reports and articles) or "site" (610 results)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Harm Reduction Network
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: Country and regional responses to AIDS -- Myanmar
          Description/subject: HIV AND AIDS ESTIMATES... Number of people living with HIV: 240 000 [160 000 - 370 000]... Adults aged 15 to 49 prevalence rate: 0.7% [0.4% - 1.1%] Adults aged 15 and up living with HIV: 240 000 [150 000 - 360 000]... Women aged 15 and up living with HIV: 100 000 [63 000 - 150 000]... Children aged 0 to 14 living with HIV: N/A... Deaths due to AIDS: 24 000 [18 000 - 32 000]... Orphans due to AIDS aged 0 to 17: N/A... * Summary Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS... * Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS... * Country Profile on Tuberculosis... * Myanmar - Country Situation 41k (Dec 2008)... * Myanmar - Progress towards Universal Access 36k (Sep 2008)... * Myanmar - National Composite Policy Index (NCPI) report 2008 38k (Aug 2008) ... Links to 17 full-text documents on AIDS and Myanmar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


          Title: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific -- Myanmar page
          Description/subject: Tables, maps, statistics, links
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-PACIFIC
          Format/size: html, pdf etc.
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: HIV Information for Myanmar (him)
          Description/subject: "HIV Information for Myanmar [him] is published in memory of Hla Htut Lwin - activist, coworker, and friend. There is a free email list service for anyone with email access and an interest in the response to HIV in Myanmar. Send an email to himhimhim at csloxinfo dot com if you want to become a new subscriber. You will receive one to three postings a day."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: him
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: HIV Policy.org: Online Database of HIV/AIDS Policies for the Asia-pacific region -- Myanmar page
          Description/subject: Very useful page, with links to:- Agencies: * Myanmar Business Coalition on AIDS (2002 - )... Organisations: * Asian Development Bank (1966 - ) * Association of South-East Asian Nations (1967 - ) * Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (1965 - )... Related Government Agencies: * National AIDS Committee, Myanmar (1989 - )... Related Inter-Governmental Organisations: * Regional Office for South-East Asia, World Health Organization (1948 - )... Related Regions: * Asia-Pacific * Greater Mekong Subregion * South-East Asia..... as well as links to 50 or so online documents (full text) -- reports, agreements, plans, articles etc. from academics, institutes, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations...Most links work, but, as always, where a link is dead, copy the title and paste it into a Google search.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: HIV Policy.org
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: Search results for "Myanmar" on the UNAIDS site.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: UNAIDS Myanmar page
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryResponses/Countries/myanmar.asp
          Date of entry/update: 19 June 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: Cash-strapped Myanmar clinics turn HIV patients away
          Date of publication: 30 May 2012
          Description/subject: "...Some 215,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Myanmar in 2011, of whom around 120,000 need lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART), which can also prevent the spread of HIV, according to the U.N. agency UNAIDS. But only 40,000 are receiving ART. The World Health Organization (WHO) says anyone with a CD4 count lower than 350 should get ART. Yet a severe lack of resources means MSF only treats those with a CD4 count below 150 in Myanmar. The aid group has close to 20 clinics around the country, and provides the lion’s share of ART in the southeast Asian nation. Nafis Sadik, the U.N. special envoy on HIV/AIDS for Asia Pacific, underlined the fact that only a third of people who need ART in Myanmar are getting it at a time when there is a new global push to treat all HIV-positive patients regardless of their CD4 count. “The evidence is that the earlier you start, the more protected they are, the less infectious they are,” Dr Sadik told AlertNet during her recent visit to Myanmar. “And like other diseases, if you give treatment early, the survival rates are much higher.” “There are still 18,000 people who die every year of AIDS-related diseases in Myanmar,” she added..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Reuters AlertNet
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 30 May 2012


          Title: HIV/AIDS - Myanmar Country Review, December 2011
          Date of publication: December 2011
          Description/subject: Key charts and summaries
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: HIV & AIDS Data Hub for Asia and the Pacific
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012


          Title: National Strategic Plan for HIV & AIDS in Myanmar -- Progress Report 2009
          Date of publication: November 2010
          Description/subject: OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS: Table 1: Priority setting of the National Strategic Plan on AIDS – Myanmar 2006‐2010 - Priority Strategic Directions - Highest priority: 1. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients; 2. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among men who have sex with men; 3. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among drug users; 4. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among partners and families of people living with HIV... High priority: 5. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among institutionalized populations; 6. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among mobile populations; 7. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among uniformed services personnel; 8. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among young people...Priority: 9. Enhancing prevention, care, treatment and support in the workplace... 10. Enhancing HIV prevention among men and women of reproductive age...Fundamental overarching issues: 11. Meeting the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment 12. Enhancing the capacity of health systems, coordination and capacity of local NGOs & community based organizations 13. Monitoring and Evaluating
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme
          Format/size: pdf (2.8MB- full; 1MB - pt 1; 353MB - pt 2; 1.3MB - pt3)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-1-red.pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-2-red.pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-3-red.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 November 2010


          Title: HIV Estimates and Projections, Myanmar 2008-2015
          Date of publication: September 2010
          Description/subject: "... * Modelling of HIV data show that HIV prevalence in Myanmar peaked in 2001-2002 and has been slowly declining since then. The HIV incidence peaked a few years earlier and is also showing a slow decline. * Like in other Asian countries, there are three distinct waves of the epidemic. The first group to be affected was the injecting drug users. Next, the sex workers and their male clients were most affected. Finally, transmission from male clients to their wives/other female partners resulted in lower-risk female population being increasingly infected. Although a large number of low-risk female have become infected, IDUs, MSM and sex workers continue to have the highest incidence rate of HIV infection. * In 2009, an estimated 238,000 people are living with HIV/AIDS. The adult HIV prevalence is 0.61%. * Currently, there are approximately 17,000 new HIV infections each year. Nearly 60% of all new infections are among sex workers and their clients, MSMs and IDUs. * The number of AIDS deaths is showing a downward trend since 2005. Currently, there are approximately 17,500 AIDS deaths per year. * Roughly 74,000 (including old and new persons needing treatment) people in Myanmar are currently in need of antiretroviral care and this number will continue to increase over the next years as more people are put under ART. * Roughly 4,300 HIV-positive women will give birth annually. As PMCT programme expand, fewer number of children will be born with HIV. Approximately 1,900 children are in need of ART in 2009..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme, Myanmar
          Format/size: pdf (667K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 September 2010


          Title: MYANMAR: Producing drugs for the region, fuelling addiction at home
          Date of publication: 25 June 2010
          Description/subject: "...In the 1990s, Min Thura regularly shared needles with other drug users in Mandalay. "About 50 drug users were queuing up and giving their arms to inject heroin with only one needle. Many of my friends with whom I shared needles to inject drugs have already died," said Min Thura, who has been clean for four years. Now, he said, there is more awareness about HIV and clean needles..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN)
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportId=89622
          Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


          Title: Risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar: a case control study
          Date of publication: 02 June 2010
          Description/subject: Abstract (provisional): Background: The severity of HIV/AIDS pandemic linked to injecting drug use is one of the most worrying medical and social problems throughout the world in recent years. Myanmar has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV among the IDUs in the region. Aim The objective of the study was to determine the risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar... Methods: A non matched case control study was conducted among 217 respondents registered with a non governmental organization's harm reduction center. 78 HIV positive IDUs were used as cases and 139 non HIV positive IDUs as controls. The study was conducted between April-May 2009. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15 and the study was ethically conducted... Results: Factors like age, marital status, age first used drugs, drug use expenditure, reason for drug use, age first used injection were found to be significant. Other risk factors found significantly associated with HIV among IDU were education (OR 2.3), location of respondent (OR 2.4) type of syringe first used (OR 5.1), sharing syringe at the first injection (OR 4.5) and failure of drug detoxification programme (OR 4.9). More HIV positive IDUs were returning used syringes in the centre (OR 3.3)... Conclusions: Prudent measures such as access to sterile syringes and continuous health education programmes among IDUs and their sexual partners are required to reduce high risk behaviours of IDUs in Myanmar.
          Author/creator: Lin A Swe, Kay K Nyo, A K Rashid
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Harm Reduction Journal 2010, 7:12
          Format/size: pdf (122K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


          Title: Results of HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillance 2009 Myanmar
          Date of publication: May 2010
          Description/subject: Table of contents: 1. Background 2. Methodology 3. HIV Antibody Testing 4. Data analysis 5. Findings 5.1. Sample collection 5.2. HIV prevalence by sentinel population 5.3. HIV prevalence by sex and age 5.4. HIV prevalence by place of residence and marital status 5.5. Results of syphilis screening 6. HIV trends over time 6.1. HIV prevalence among low risk population 1992-2009 6.2. HIV prevalence among young population 7. Decentralization of HIV testing 8. Limitations 9. Recommendations 9.1. Recommendations for programme implementation 9.2. Recommendations for surveillance 9.3. Recommendations for research... Annexes
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme Department of Health Ministry of Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 19 May 2012


          Title: An analysis of the Myanmar 2010 UNGASS report
          Date of publication: 21 April 2010
          Description/subject: "...The Union of Myanmar UNGASS 2010 Report has been posted on HIV Information for Myanmar http://him.civiblog.org/blog/_archives/2010/4/6/4498792.html and was posted in [him] 1166. The [him] moderator has not heard that a shadow report will be produced. Who would risk writing one? In the absence of a shadow report the [him] moderator would like to offer these observations on the only official report on HIV that will come from the Government of Myanmar this year. The following comments are not meant to be a criticism of those who did all the hard work in producing the report. But publication of the report offers an opportunity for us all to get closer to truth..."
          Author/creator: HIV Information for Myanmar [him] moderator.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: HIV Information for Myanmar [him]
          Format/size: pdf (59K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


          Title: UNGASS Country Progress Report Myanmar
          Date of publication: 31 March 2010
          Description/subject: "The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated, with HIV transmission primarily occurring in high risk sexual contacts between sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men and the sexual partners of these sub-populations. In addition, there is a high level of HIV transmission among injecting drug users through use of contaminated injecting equipment, with transmission to sexual partners. Latest modelling estimated the HIV prevalence in the adult population (aged 15-49) at 0.61% in 2009. For key populations most-at-risk, surveillance data from 2008 showed HIV prevalence in the sentinel groups at 18.1% in female sex workers, 28.8% in men who have sex with men, and 36.3% in male injecting drug users. It is estimated that around 238,000 people are living with HIV in Myanmar in 2009, of whom 74,000 are in need of antiretroviral therapy. In the same year, an estimated 17,000 people died of AIDS-related illness. Incidence is estimated at well above 10,000 new infections per year, confirming the continuing need for effective prevention efforts, with increased emphasis on reaching long term female sexual partners of male most at risk populations..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme
          Format/size: pdf (541K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


          Title: Women and HIV in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 08 March 2010
          Description/subject: Power-point presentation at a Round Table Discussion on the Occasion of International Women’s Day 2010
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: ppt (493K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2010


          Title: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks
          Date of publication: 25 February 2010
          Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 25, 2010 (IPS) - When Aye Aye (not her real name) leaves her youngest son at home each night, she tells him that she has to work selling snacks. But what Aye actually sells is sex so that her 12-year-old son, a Grade 7 student, can finish his education.
          Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IPS
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: Myanmar Country Advocacy Brief Injecting Drug Use and HIV
          Date of publication: 04 February 2010
          Description/subject: Myanmar is one of the few countries in East Asia that has reported a decrease in the overall prevalence of HIV in recent years. Estimates indicate that HIV prevalence peaked at about 0.9% (15-49%). By 2007, the estimated prevalence was 0.7% (range: 0.4-1.1%)..... Myanmar remains the second largest opium poppy growing country after Afghanistan, contributing 20% of opium poppy cultivation in major cultivating countries in 2008.3 Heroin use has become widespread and is the primary drug of choice among people who inject drugs. While the use of heroin and opium has been observed to be declining in recent years, the use of methamphetamine has been increasing since 2003. Injecting of amphetamine type stimulants has also been reported to occur, as well as injecting of a mixture of opiates and pharmaceutical drugs.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS, UNODC
          Format/size: pdf (255.94 K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


          Title: A Town of Widows
          Date of publication: February 2010
          Description/subject: In a country where the government provides minimal general health care, citizens must take up the fight against HIV infection themselves... "A relatively prosperous transport hub for family-run trucking businesses, Kyaukpadaung’s high incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) among its population is a major downside to the township’s heavy dependence on the transportation industry. HIV/AIDS activist Phyu Phyu Thin with patients and volunteers at the National League for Democracy offce in Rangoon on World AIDS Day. (Photo: AFP) With the 1,500-meter peak of Mt Popa nearby bringing cooler breezes and water to an otherwise arid region of eastern Mandalay Division, Kyaukpadang’s location at a major crossroads near the geographical center of Burma favored the town’s development as a trucking center. With larger businesses operating up to 100 trucks, many of the town’s residents are employed in the industry, spending weeks at a time on the road. On Burma’s roads at night, teenage students are known to flag down trucks with flashlights, hitching rides and lifting skirts, passing from truck to truck, leaving sordid memories and sexually transmitted diseases. Even if the drivers are aware of the problem and want to protect themselves, condoms are often unavailable in rural stores dimly lit by oil-lamps, where snacks, tobacco and liquor are sold along with the services of garishly made-up teenagers in a tin hut out back. As a result, when men return to their families in Kyaukpadaung, they often take HIV/AIDS with them..."
          Author/creator: Phyu Phyu Thin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17693
          Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


          Title: Myanmar: Delivering Care to Isolated Rohingya
          Date of publication: 24 July 2009
          Description/subject: Kaci Hickox, a nurse from Texas, worked as the primary health care manager for Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) programs in northern Rakhine state, Myanmar, from May 2007 to March 2009. The majority of MSF patients in this area, on the border of Bangladesh, are part of an ethnic and Muslim group called the Rohingya. They have great difficulty receiving any health care, as travel restrictions or fees for travel permission keep them confined to their own villages. Even if they can reach health care facilities, often members of this group cannot afford to pay and are subjected to discrimination at government- run hospitals or health centers. During the two years she worked in northern Rakhine state, Hickox’s primary responsibility was managing three rural clinics that serve approximately 110,000 Rohingya people.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


          Title: Report of the HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillence Survey 2008, Myanmar
          Date of publication: March 2009
          Description/subject: Contents: 1. Background... 2. Methodology... 3. Findings: 3.1 HSS(2008) results; 3.1.1 Sample collection; 3.1.2 HIV prevalence by sentinel population; 3.1.3 HIV prevalence by sex and age; 3.1.4 HIV prevalence by place of residence and marital status; 3.2. Results of syphilis screening... 4. Trends over time: 4.1. HIV prevalence among low risk population 1992-2008; 4.2. HIV prevalence among most at risk population 1992-2008; 4.3. HIV prevalence among young population aged 15-24 years... 5. Decentralization of testing... 6. Limitations... 7. Recommendations... Annexes: Annex 1: Total number of blood samples collected during HSS 2008 round... Annex 2: Results of 2008 HIV prevalence (%) per sentinel population and per sites... Annex 3: HIV prevalence by age group... Annex 4: Site specific sero-positive rates(%) and sample size (n) for each sentinel group HSS-2008... Annex 5: Prevalence of syphilis (VDRL+) per sentinel population and per site.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar, World Health Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (805K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 May 2009


          Title: Myanmar: Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS -- Core data on epidemiology and response
          Date of publication: 18 February 2009
          Description/subject: Indicators, estimates (disaggregated), demographic and socio-economic data, HIV sentinel surveillance prevalence tables and maps, Health services and care indicators, ARV data, prevention indicators, HIV surveillance prevalence by site (1990-2006)...
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf (916K)
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


          Title: Operational Plan, 2008-2010 [Costed] of the Myanmar National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS
          Date of publication: January 2009
          Description/subject: "The Costed Operational Plan for the National Strategic Plan is now available. It is a vital reference document" (HIM)..."The National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010 provides the strategic framework of action including priority setting for resource allocation. The associated operational plan specifies the agreed targets and the costs for each of the 13 strategic directions of the National Strategic Plan. The plan intends to guide the implementation of all HIV related activities and services in the country. It addresses all stakeholders from all constituencies. The Operational Plan 2008-2010 is composed of the following elements: 1. detailed strategic directions 1 to 13 including the following elements: a. indicators with targets b. summary of progress, resource needs and future priorities c. costed package of services, costs per year and cost component as well as total costs d. geographical priorities where available 2. a summary budget including expected funding available and gaps in funding 3. the complete monitoring framework, including baseline data, and targets by year. This Operational Plan is in an achievement of the Technical and Strategy Group for HIV and AIDS (TSG) and its associated Working Groups: 1. Care, treatment and support working group 2. Drug users working group 3. Executive working group 4. Mobile populations working group 5. Orphans and vulnerable children working group 6. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission working group 7. Sexual transmission working group (Sex workers and men who have sex with men) 8. Youth working group Furthermore, a peer review of the Operational Plan by the AIDS Strategy and Action Plan (ASAP – hosted by the World Bank on behalf of UNAIDS) provided useful comments for improvement of the structure and content of the plan. The reviewers found the operational plan among the best they had seen. Some of the shortcomings that have been communicated and subsequently addressed are: • the governance structure is explained • the monitoring and evaluation framework and the costing parts have been aligned • the business plan has been reviewed and inconsistencies addressed • the targets have been reviewed and adapted in the context of past achievements, continuing constraints and arising opportunities • costing has been reviewed extensively by the working groups The operational plan does not include specific activities, since it is intended to provide broad guidance to the implementers. Likewise, the national, annual targets express approximately the cumulative national implementation capacity. These fall in many cases short of targets that would be set under an Universal Access scenario. This reflects the particular funding situation of Myanmar where funding constraints are an overwhelming challenge to scale up..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar
          Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/mm%20operational%20plan%202008-2010%20final.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


          Title: Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) : The Impact Survey 2008
          Date of publication: 2009
          Description/subject: "Thailand has experienced some degree of success in preventing uncontrolled spread of HIV, and in providing effective care for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Nevertheless, HIV transmission is still occurring, especially among those less fortunate who migrate to seek economic opportunity. A prime example of this are the lower-income populations of some of Thailand’s neighbors who come to work on fishing boats or in the fishery industry of Thailand. The vulnerability of these populations comes from their relative lack of knowledge and understanding of HIV prevention and tendency to engage in higher risk sexual behavior than when in their home communities of origin. To address these vulnerabilities, the Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) was conceived and implemented by the Raks Thai Foundation in collaboration with six NGO partners including: Empower Foundation, the Foundation for AIDS Rights (FAR), World Vision Foundation/Thailand, the Stella Maris Seafarers Center, the MAP Foundation, and the Pattanarak Foundation. Funding for the Project was provided by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with the goal to lower the incidence of HIV among foreign migrant workers in Thailand through communication strategies to reduce risk behaviors and support access from migrants to general health and reproductive health services. The Project was implemented during 2003-2008. In order to independently assess the performance of the PHAMIT Project compared to its targets and objectives, the Raks Thai Foundation contracted with the Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) of Mahidol University to conduct a final Project evaluation in 2008. IPSR would like to express its gratitude to Mr. Promboon Panitchapakdi, Executive Director of the Raks Thai Foundation for entrusting this important evaluation to the researchers of IPSR. It is our hope that the findings of this evaluation will be of benefit to the Project implementers, the PHAMIT partners in the field who will continue to deliver the interventions, and to any persons interested in conducting evaluation research of this type."
          Author/creator: Aphichat Chamratrithirong Wathinee Boonchalaksi
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University
          Format/size: pdf (9.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


          Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Burmese
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (7.6 and 9.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Burmese-HighDef.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Karen
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
          Language: Karen
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (7.2 and 8.7MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Karen-HighDef.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: Drugs and HIV/AIDS Country Programme [Myanmar] (2009-2010)
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: Explanatory notes... Introduction... 1. Overview: 1.1. Background; 1.2. Institutionalized Population; 1.3. Human Trafficking; 1.4. UNODC Strategy; 1.5. United Nations Division of Labour; 1.6. UNODC Drugs and HIV/AIDS Policy; 1.7. HIV/AIDS Situation in Myanmar; 1.8. IDU and DU Situation in the Country; 1.9. Legal Environment; 1.10. Myanmar National Drugs and HIV/AIDS Strategy; 1.11. UNODC Country Office Myanmar Strategy... 2. Drugs and HIV/AIDS Country Programme: 2.1. Scope of the Programme; 2.2. Mission Statement; 2.3. Guiding Principles; 2.4. How We Work; 2.5. What Has to Be Achieved?; 2.6. Objectives and Strategies of the Country Programme; 2.6.1. Coverage; 2.6.2. Strategic Information; 2.6.3. Mainstreaming; 2.7. The Work Plan for 2009-2010; 2.8. Coordination and Partnership; 2.9. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation; 2.9.1. Planning and Reporting; 2.9.2. Monitoring and Evaluation; 2.9.2.1. Monitoring; 2.9.2.2. Evaluation... Bibliography... Tables: Table 1. Programme Portfolio
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Drug Demand Reduction, Drugs and HIV/AIDS Unit , United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Country Office Myanmar
          Format/size: pdf (1.42MB)
          Date of entry/update: 28 June 2009


          Title: HIV programming in Myanmar
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: Myanmar has one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia. Contrary to many perceptions, the response to the epidemic is expanding. Funding for the response has gradually increased over recent years. However, coverage remains unacceptably low, donors seem largely unwilling to inject the resources needed to meet health needs and the government itself significantly under-invests in health. The National Strategic Plan on AIDS 2006–2010 issued by the Ministry of Health provides the reference framework for the response. Despite what might be expected given the environment, the Plan was developed in a participatory fashion, is multi-sectoral and up to date and prioritises service provision for the most at-risk populations. It is supported by a government-led, inclusive technical coordination group. However, significant barriers to service provision exist. These include constraining administrative procedures, controlled access, limited research and a highly politicised context. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that persistent negotiation can yield agreements resulting in increased services for those in need. Nearly 40 international and national NGOs are implementing successful activities in Myanmar, alongside government efforts and with UN support.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Humanitarian Practice Network (HPT)
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.odihpn.org/documents/humanitarianexchange041.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


          Title: A preventable fate: The failure of ART scale-up in Myanmar
          Date of publication: November 2008
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: The situation for many people living with HIV in Myanmar is critical due to a severe lack of lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART). MSF currently provides ART to more than 11,000 people. That is the majority of all available treatment countrywide but only a small fraction of what is urgently needed. For five years MSF has continually developed its HIV/AIDS programme to respond to the extensive needs, whilst the response of both the Government of Myanmar and the international community has remained minimal. MSF should not bear the main responsibility for one of Asia’s most serious HIV/AIDS epidemics. Pushed to its limit by the lack of other services providing ART, MSF has had to make the painful decision to restrict the number of new patients it can treat. With few options to refer new patients for treatment elsewhere, the situation is dire. An estimated 240,000 people are currently infected with HIV in Myanmar. 76,000 of these people are in urgent need of ART, yet less than 20 % of them receive it through the combined efforts of MSF, other international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Government of Myanmar. For the remaining people the private market offers little assistance as the most commonly used first-line treatment costs the equivalent of a month’s average wage. The lack of accessible treatment resulted in 25,000 AIDS related deaths in 2007 and a similar number of people are expected to suffer the same fate this year, unless HIV/AIDS services - most importantly the provision of ART - are urgently scaled-up. The Government of Myanmar and the International Community need to mobilize quickly in order to address this situation. Currently, the Government spends a mere 0.3% of the gross domestic product on health, the lowest amount worldwide4, a small portion of which goes to HIV/AIDS. Likewise, overseas development aid for Myanmar is the second lowest per capita worldwide and few of the big international donors provide any resources to the country. Yet, 189 member states of the United Nations, including Myanmar, endorsed the Millennium Development Goals, including the aim to “Achieve universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it, by 2010”. As it stands, this remains a far cry from becoming a reality in Myanmar. As an MSF ART patient in Myanmar stated, “All people must have a spirit of humanity in helping HIV patients regardless of nation, organization or government. We are all human beings so we must help each other”. Unable to continue shouldering the primary responsibility for responding to one of Asia’s worst HIV crises, MSF insists that the Government of Myanmar and international organizations urgently and rapidly scale-up ART provision. A vast gulf exists between the needs related to HIV/AIDS and the services provided. Unless ART provision is rapidly scaled-up many more people will needlessly suffer and die.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
          Format/size: pdf (735K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


          Title: National Strategic Plan for HIV & AIDS in Myanmar - Progress Report 2006
          Date of publication: October 2008
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION 11... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 1 : SEX WORKERS AND7 THEIR CLIENTS 13... STRATEGIC DRIECTION 2 : MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN (MSM) 19... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 3 : DRUG USERS 23... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 4 : PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV, THEIR PARTNERS AND FAMILIES 29... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 5 : INSTITUTIONALIZED POPULATIONS 31... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 6 : MOBILE POPULATION 33... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 7 : UNIFORMED SERVICES 35... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 8 : YOUNG PEOPLE 37... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 9 : WORKPLACE 41... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 10 : PREVENTION FOR WOMEN AND MEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE 43... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 11 : COMPREHENSIVE CARE, SUPPORT AND TREATMENT 47... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 12 : ENHANCING THE CAPACITY OF THE HEALTH SYSTEM 55... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 13 : MONITORING AND EVALUATION 57... FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND EXPENDITURES 61... ANNEX – Achievements in states and divisions.....FIGURES: Figure 1 Number of townships covered by 100% Targeted Condom Promotion programme (n=324) 16; Figure 2 Male condom distribution (free and social marketing) 1999-2006 - Myanmar 17; Figure 3 Number of Injecting Drug Users reached by Drop in Centre and outreach program 25; Figure 4 Number of drug users reached in 2006 25; Figure 5 Number of needles and syringes distributed to IDUs in 2006 26; Figure 6 Number of mobile population reported by prevention activities in different states and divisions 34; Figure 7 People received test results and post-test counselling 45; Figure 8 Syphilis prevalence from ANC data – 1997-2006 45; Figure 9 Service Delivery Points run and supported by partners 46; Figure 10 Total number of people receiving ART – 2002-2006 48; Figure 11 Number of people receiving ART by age and gender - 2006 48; Figure 12 PMCT implementing areas in 2006 51; Figure 13 Number of pregnant women accessing VCCT 2003-2006 51; Figure 14 Number of mother-baby pairs receiving Nevirapine 2000-2006 52; Figure 15 Number of people receiving home based care – 2000-2006 53; Figure 16 HIV prevalence trends for injecting drug users, male patients with sexually transmitted infections, female sex workers and tuberculosis patients 57; Figure 17 HIV prevalence trends for pregnant women attending antenatal care, blood donors and military recruits 58; Figure 18 Percentage and number reported AIDS cases – 1993-2006 59; Figure 19 Estimated resource needs and availability – 2004-2008 61..... TABLES: Table 1 Priority ranking of the Strategic Directions of the National Strategic Plan 12; Table 2 Condoms distributed by partners 17; Table 3 Men who have sex with men reached in top 10; townships - 2006 20; Table 4 Number of persons in institutions reached by health education programmes 32; Table 5 Number of mobile population reached by organisation - 2006 34; Table 6 Out of school youth reached by all partners by state and division – 200638 Table 7 Number of people reached through workplace interventions by partner – 2006 42; Table 8 People reached through workplace interventions by state and division – 2006 42; Table 9 Number of PLHIV receiving ARV 49; Table 10 Treatment and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections – 2006 50; Table 11 People receiving home based care 53; Table 12 Orphans and vulnerable children supported by state and division - 2006 54.....MAPS: Map 1 Sex workers reached by township (total n=36,000 reached as reported by NGOs) 15; Map 2 Condoms distributed through 18; Map 3 Condoms for free distributed by 18 Map 4 Men who have sex with men reached by township (n=28,566) - 2006 21; Map 5 Location of Drop-in Centres for drug users - 2006 26; Map 6 Location of ART sites 49; Map 7 Geographical location of PMCT sites - 2006 52...... COVERAGE ON NATIONAL RESPONSE - State and Division: Myanmar 66; Ayeyarwady Division 67; Bago Division 68; Chin State 69; Kachin State 70; Kayar State 71; Kayin State 72; Magway Division 73; Mandalay Division 74; Mon State 75; Rakhine State 76; Sagaing Division 77; Shan State 78; Tanintharyi Diision 79; Yangon Division 80.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National AIDS Control Programme, Myanmar Dept. of Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2008


          Title: “First, What is Harm?” The Political Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid to Burma (Myanmar)
          Date of publication: September 2008
          Description/subject: "Reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence in Burma1 (Myanmar) presents a significant challenge for international aid agencies and donors. Ruled by a succession of military regimes since 1962, Myanmar faces a growing humanitarian crisis with the second worst health system in the world (World Health Organization). Weak state capacity exacerbates the country!s health dilemmas. However, the government!s lack of domestic and international legitimacy makes harmonizing projects to improve state capacity politically sensitive and logistically arduous. Burma!s difficult operating environment has even made it the only country from which the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria has withdrawn its programs.2 Yet the extent of the AIDS epidemic in the country underlies the need to structure aid programs to work within the restrictive context and mitigate further disaster. Given the country!s intractable political situation, what lessons can be learned from international HIV/AIDS programs that have not only sustained but also expanded their efforts in Burma? This paper draws from over ten months of ethnographical interviews with aid workers, field visits to project sites in Yangon and its surrounding villages, and a literature review on humanitarian aid to fragile states. The problems of corruption, weak bureaucratic structure, restrictions on aid flows, inability to appropriately monitor programs, and capricious governmental policies have been well documented in Burma. However, there is little mention in the existing literature of how programs have managed to deliver aid in the face of the various constraints. Particularly missing from the standard analysis is how the national staff of aid organizations interact with local governmental authorities to expand the humanitarian space in which to operate. By focusing on the perceptions of field staff and the practical methods of aid delivery, this paper presents an embedded view of HIV/AIDS programs in Burma..."
          Author/creator: Ohnmar Khin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative - ASCI Research Report No. 14, September 2008
          Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
          Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


          Title: NOT MUCH BANG FOR THE AID BUCK -- FUND for HIV/AIDS IN MYANMAR (FHAM)
          Date of publication: 11 July 2008
          Description/subject: The handing over of money to the international NGOs, UN agencies, Burma's government (I use the term loosely) and the Burmese NGOs does not mean that the resources are used effectively and efficiently for the people of Burma. Uncovering the performance of aid - that is its cost effectiveness and its impact on the intended recipients is not necessarily an easy task. It is also a task made more difficult by the poor quality of the information generally provided by the donors and the recipient organisations.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch blog
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 29 November 2008


          Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
          Date of publication: June 2008
          Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


          Title: An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Conclusion: "Boatmen in Teknaf are an integral part of a high-risk sexual behaviour network between Myanmar and Bangladesh. They are at risk of obtaining HIV infection due to cross border mobility and unsafe sexual practices. There is an urgent need for designing interventions targeting boatmen in Teknaf to combat an impending epidemic of HIV among this group. They could be included in the serological surveillance as a vulnerable group. Interventions need to address issues on both sides of the border, other vulnerable groups, and refugees. Strong political will and cross border collaboration is mandatory for such interventions."
          Author/creator: Rukhsana Gazi, Alec Mercer, Tanyaporn Wansom, Humayun Kabir, Nirod Chandra Saha, Tasnim Azim
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:5
          Format/size: pdf (154K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/5
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
          Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
          Format/size: pdf (170K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Increase coverage of HIV and AIDS services in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is experiencing an HIV epidemic documented since the late 1980s. The National AIDS Programme national surveillance ante-natal clinics had already estimated in 1993 that 1.4% of pregnant women were HIV positive, and UNAIDS estimates that at end 2005 1.3% (range 0.7-2.0%) of the adult population was living with HIV. While a HIV surveillance system has been in place since 1992, the programmatic response to the epidemic has been slower to emerge although short- and medium-terms plans have been formulated since 1990. These early plans focused on the health sector, omitted key population groups at risk of HIV transmission and have not been adequately funded. The public health system more generally is severely under-funded. By the beginning of the new decade, a number of organisations had begun working on HIV and AIDS, though not yet in a formally coordinated manner. The Joint Programme on AIDS in Myanmar 2003- 2005 was an attempt to deliver HIV services through a planned and agreed strategic framework. Donors established the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM), providing a pooled mechanism for funding and 2 significantly increasing the resources available in Myanmar. By 2006 substantial advances had been made in terms of scope and diversity of service delivery, including outreach to most at risk populations to HIV. More organisations provided more services to an increased number of people. Services ranged from the provision of HIV prevention messages via mass media and through peers from high-risk groups, to the provision of care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. However, the data also show that this scaling up has not been sufficient to reach the vast majority of people in need of HIV and AIDS services. The operating environment constrains activities, but does not, in general, prohibit them. The slow rate of service expansion can be attributed to the burdens imposed by administrative measures, broader constraints on research, debate and organizing, and insufficient resources. Nevertheless, evidence of recent years illustrates that increased investment leads to more services provided to people in need, helping them to obtain their right to health care. But service expansion, policy improvement and capacity building cannot occur without more resources."
          Author/creator: Brian Williams, Daniel Baker, Markus Bühler, Charles Petrie.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:3
          Format/size: pdf (238K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: Selling Safer Sex in Conservative Burma
          Date of publication: September 2007
          Description/subject: HIV/AIDS education efforts face many obstacles... "Gasps rippled through the group of young people gathered for a workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention and education in the former capital Rangoon. The girls covered their eyes, and the boys sent nervous glances anywhere but at the front of the room, where an instructor stood before an upright model penis. Condoms on sale at a market stall in Rangoon [Photo: Pat Brown] “Look at it, please,” the workshop leader urged. “How can you learn to protect yourself against HIV if you are too shy to watch a demonstration about how to use a condom?” This kind of response to condom education is typical in Burma, where an estimated 360,000 people currently live with HIV, according to a UNAIDS report in 2006. Today, condoms can be easily obtained in retail shops in Rangoon and other major cities in Burma. But the country’s predominantly conservative culture can make them a difficult sell. “I don’t sell condoms in my store any more because many of my staff are young girls who find it difficult to sell them,” said a shop owner in Kyeemyindaing..."
          Author/creator: Htet Aung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


          Title: Myanmar 2007 EPI Fact Sheet
          Date of publication: 12 August 2007
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization, SEARO, IVD
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
          Date of publication: July 2007
          Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
          Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
          Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


          Title: From “Public Hot Air” to “Public Strength”
          Date of publication: 02 April 2007
          Description/subject: A call for reform of UN agencies, including UNAIDS.
          Author/creator: Dr. Saw Lwin
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
          Format/size: pdf (50K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


          Title: Drug Demand Reduction and HIV Prevention in Myanmar
          Date of publication: April 2007
          Description/subject: "Opium poppy has been cultivated in Myanmar for more than a century. Farmers have traditionally relied on its cultivation to offset rice deficits and to purchase basic goods. Opium has also been used as a painkiller and to alleviate the symptoms associated with diarrhoea, cough and other ailments. Additionally, the use of opium as medicine is often exacerbated by the lack of access to health care services. As the production and consumption of drugs are often linked, opiates remain the most widely used illicit drug within the country, with approximately an even split between heroin and opium use. In recent years, however, there appears to be a trend away from the traditional smoking of opium to injecting heroin. Moreover, the use of Amphetamine- Type Stimulants (ATS), especially by young people, is rapidly increasing. Drug use is considered in many countries as a criminal offence, often driving it underground, where users remain hidden and unmonitored. The stigma and marginalisation frequently experienced by drug users often means that they are excluded from access to medical services. The consequences of drug use on society are numerous and include, adverse effects on health; crime, violence and corruption; draining of human, natural and financial resources that might otherwise be used for social and economic development; erosion of individual, family and community ties; and undermining of political, cultural, social and economic structures. The situation is made even more critical by the economic hardships many drug users experience. This is certainly the case in Myanmar. In addition, injecting drug use and the sharing of equipment is an extremely high-risk behaviour in relation to HIV transmission..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - Myanmar Country Office
          Format/size: pdf (676K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 June 2010


          Title: Article on academic research universities
          Date of publication: 12 March 2007
          Author/creator: Dr., Saw Lwin
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


          Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010
          Date of publication: 23 February 2007
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The HIV epidemics in Myanmar remain largely concentrated among people identified with high-risk behaviours, in particular sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and men having sex with men; and populations identified as highly vulnerable on the basis of their young age, gender, mobility and social or occupational characteristics. This focus of the epidemics calls for the urgent strengthening of prevention, care and treatment programmes addressing primarily the needs of these populations. The responses to the HIV epidemic to date have been diverse and great sources of learning, and demonstrated the capacity to respond to the HIV epidemic successfully in Myanmar, but are not being implemented to a scale sufficiently enough to slow down the epidemic or mitigate its impact. Confronting an unabated HIV epidemic, the Government of Myanmar decided to embark on a comprehensive prevention, care and treatment strategy which would build on the experience and enrol the participation of all actors committed to this goal. Accordingly, this National Strategic Plan was the first in Myanmar developed using participator y processes, with direct involvement of all sectors involved in the national response to the HIV epidemic. Contributions were made by the Ministry of Health, several other government ministries, United Nations entities, local non-government organizations, international non-government organizations, people living with HIV and people from vulnerable groups. The National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010 was prepared following a series of reviews which looked at the progress and experiences of activities during the first half of the decade. These included a midterm review of the Joint Programme for HIV/ AIDS in 2005 and a review of the National AIDS Programme in 2006, as well as many diverse studies and reviews of particular programmes and projects. The National Strategic Plan identifies what is now required to improve national and local responses, bring partners together to reinforce the effectiveness of all responses, and build more effective management, coordination, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. It builds on current responses, identifies initiatives which are working and need to be scaled up to have maximum impact, builds on key principles which will underline the national response, outlines broadly the approaches to be used for prevention, treatment, care and support, and delineates strategic directions and activity areas to be further developed in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic. Ambitious service delivery targets have been set, aiming towards ' to prevention and care services. The National Strategic Plan is composed of two parts: Part One, presenting background information, aim, objectives, key principles, strategic directions, approaches and information on roles of participating entities and coordinating mechanisms; and Part Two, presenting, for each strategic direction activity area, outcomes, outputs, indicators and targets. The subsequent formulation of a Plan of Operations and accompanying budgets will translate key principles and broad directions set out in the strategic plan into a directly actionable and costed plan relevant to all aspects of the national response to HIV and to all partners in this unprecedented effort. Building on previous experiences and lessons learned by all partners about what works best in the specific context of Myanmar, the National Strategic Plan identifies the key principles underpinning both the plan itself and its future implementation. Among these are: the adherence to the "Three Ones" principles – One HIV and AIDS Action Framework; one National Coordinating Authority; and one Monitoring and Evaluation System – the participation of people living with HIV in every aspect and at every stage of the strategy, a primary emphasis on outcomes, defined as targeted behaviour changes and use of services; and a focus on the Township level with selected "Accelerated Townships" receiving support towards accelerated programme implementation. Key principles bring into focus populations at higher risk and vulnerability and with the greatest needs, ensuring that their needs are met to the maximum extent possible and that their participation in activities concerning them is secured. The development and implementation of an enabling environment is central to this approach, recognizing the negative effects that lack of information, inequality, discrimination and non-participation have on the reduction of HIV related risk and vulnerability. The strategy will strive to scale up programme coverage and use of services to the maximum achievable levels of resource availability and implementing capacity. It will build on evidence as strategic information guides decision and action and will achieve value for money as financial and other resources are incrementally mobilized and efficiently used. Working across sectors of government will gradually expand as capacity is built. The strategy will rely on collaboration between government and other public, private and non-government entities while mechanisms for coordination at the central and peripheral levels are enhanced. The National Strategic Plan for Myanmar aims at reducing HIV transmission and HIV related morbidity, mortality, disability and social and economic impact. Its objectives are to: reduce HIV transmission and vulnerability, particularly among people at highest risk; improve the quality and length of life of people living with HIV through treatment, care and support; and mitigate the social, cultural and economic impacts of the epidemic. Strategic directions are primarily defined on the basis of beneficiary populations. They include the reduction of HIV-related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, drug users, partners and families of people living with HIV, institutionalized populations, mobile populations, uniformed services personnel, young people, individuals in the workplace and, more generally, men and women of reproductive age. They strive to meet the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment through the scaling up of services and use of a participatory approach. In order to expand the ability of all actors to engage fully in this collaborative effort, strategic directions also include the enhancement of the capacity of health systems and the strengthening of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. This National Strategic Plan is a living document: it lends itself to adjustments and revisions as further experience is gained, resources are mobilized and evidence of success and shortcomings is generated through monitoring, special studies and mid-term and end-of-term evaluations."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar
          Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Article on International NGOs
          Date of publication: 05 February 2007
          Author/creator: Dr. Saw Lwin
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
          Format/size: pdf (717K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


          Title: Assessment of Mobility and HIV Vulnerability among Myanmar Migrant Sex Workers and Factory Workers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "...[T]his assessment examines mobility and HIV vulnerability among Myanmar migrants in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Environmental and social factors, service access, knowledge, and behavioural vulnerabilities, along with gender issues, stigma and discrimination, are addressed. Undertaken from December 2005 through April 2006, this assessment aims to assist the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and partners to develop more effective policies and programmes for preventing HIV transmission, and to improve access to HIV and AIDS treatment and care among selected Myanmar migrants. The assessment team employed a collaborative qualitative and quantitative research approach to assess HIV vulnerability among migrant sex workers and migrant factory workers. A total of six focus group discussions were conducted with both direct and indirect sex workers, while six and four focus group discussions were conducted with male and female factory workers respectively. Eight individual interviews with direct and indirect sex workers were completed. Key informants and gatekeepers were consulted and snowball sampling was used to establish the appropriate groups or individuals for interview. The quantitative component of the assessment was designed using probability proportionate to size (PPS) sampling methodology, and a pre-tested questionnaire was consequently administered to 819 migrant factory workers between the ages of 15 and 49 in 12 factories in Mae Sot District. There were 312 male and 507 female respondents, all of Myanmar origin. Through the research, the assessment team learned that migrants arrive in Thailand with little or no knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual health, and in some cases basic knowledge of reproductive health. Though training and outreach programmes have reached some of the factory worker and sex worker populations, knowledge remains at a very basic level and is predominantly disseminated by friends and siblings who attended various trainings. The qualitative and quantitative findings show that most of those demonstrating some knowledge of HIV/AIDS were merely reiterating what was disseminated during the outreach. Important knowledge and some behavioural gaps persist. From as far as Sagaing in central Myanmar to just across the bridge in Myawaddy, migrants working at the factories of Mae Sot District are from diverse areas within Myanmar. The largest numbers, however, are from Mawlamyaing and Bago in Kayin State, in the eastern region of Myanmar. The driving forces behind the migration of the predominantly rural Myanmar population to Mae Sot District include financial difficulties back home due to debt, death or sickness, and the hope for a better life in the future. 1 Some of those who arrive in Myawaddy are brought to the Thai side of the border through the employment of “carriers” or brokers (commonly referred to as gae-ri in Bamar or nai nah in Thai), who offer migrants job placement opportunities that would otherwise be almost impossible to achieve without a contact. Under such schemes, female migrants are particularly vulnerable to exploitation. There is evidence to suggest that brokers provide the initial capital for the women to migrate to Thailand and then sell them to a karaoke bar or brothel. The women are then bound to work off the amount of money that was paid by the brothel to the broker. Though factory work is certainly the most sought after type of employment, it is not consistently available. Many migrants are forced to wait several months for positions or find other endeavours as day labourers, farmhands, construction workers or housemaids, or simply return home. The ultimate goal for the majority of migrants working in Thailand is to accumulate enough capital to eventually return home to family and friends and use that capital for commercial pursuits. Should such pursuits fail, the individual often considers returning to Thailand. Sex workers are vulnerable to HIV primarily due to the high risk of their profession. Indirect sex workers (those working out of a karaoke bar, restaurant or freelance) are particularly vulnerable because information and services do not reach them. Conversely, factory workers demonstrated little vulnerability to HIV due to their sparse amount of free time, restriction of movement outside the factory compound, lack of extramarital sex, conservative social values and lack of disposable income. Their lack of knowledge with respect to HIV/AIDS and sexual health, however, creates some vulnerability. These findings could be confirmed by results from studies in other provinces/countries with migrants from other countries such as Lao PDR. Efforts need to be increased to provide culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information to migrants, using strategies that facilitate analysis of personal risk perception. Health-care providers require improved sensitivity to the basic needs of migrants, including respect for confidentiality in the clinical setting. The importance of the public sector in providing STI, HIV and reproductive health services to migrants cannot be overemphasized. Migrants express a clear preference for STI treatment in the public health sector because they can better remain anonymous in the clinical Thai setting. Many direct sex workers (brothel-based sex workers) are already assisted through regular check-ups at Mae Sot General Hospital. Factory workers and sex workers involved in the study trust government health-care providers over nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations. Great impact can be made by strengthening collaboration between government health-care providers and both the private sector and the migrants themselves. Migrant community health workers working under the direction of the health authorities can be an effective mechanism (e.g., the IOM-Ministry of Public Health [MOPH] Migrant Health 2 Programme model). Sensitivity, confidentiality and communication skills of public sector health-care providers should be strengthened for improved impact. Moreover, existing programmes (e.g., the hospital’s STI clinic) could be strengthened to ensure that migrants receive appropriate referral to an array of government and NGO services locally available. During the study it was clear that the agencies working on HIV-related programmes are neither communicating regularly nor cooperating effectively with one another. A strengthened coordination mechanism is warranted wherein government, NGO, and private sector stakeholders can improve transparency, share materials and information, strengthen referral networks and create improved working relationships. Although the study faced several obstacles, particularly regarding issues on access to targeted populations which affected the representativeness of the study sampling, the research team had used the best of their knowledge and skills in minimizing the study bias. It is the hope of the assessment team that the information contained within this study will assist in informing policy makers and implementers in improving STIs/HIV programmes for migrants in Mae Sot District and elsewhere in Thailand.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Organisation for Migration (IOM), UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf (768K)
          Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


          Title: Effective HIV/AIDS support in Myanmar (Burma) and sustained development
          Date of publication: 21 December 2006
          Description/subject: "Although political sanctions preclude Burma from consistent international financial contributions to HIV/AIDS, the first program to access ARV drugs for the HIV+/AIDS patients in the public sector has been funded by a private company: Yadana (Total and partners) and implemented by an international NGO: the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUTLD) also called "The Union". The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Health of Myanmar support this program. It started April 1st, 2005 at the General Hospital (MGH) of Mandalay the second largest city of the country where 7000 HIV+ patients are estimated to be in need of ARVs...."
          Author/creator: Odile Picard
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Retrovirology. 2006; 3(Suppl 1): P75.
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 02 January 2008


          Title: Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid
          Date of publication: 08 December 2006
          Description/subject: "The delivery of humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar is facing new threats. After a period in which humanitarian space expanded, aid agencies have come under renewed pressure, most seriously from the military government but also from pro-democracy activists overseas who seek to curtail or control assistance programs. Restrictions imposed by the military regime have worsened in parallel with its continued refusal to permit meaningful opposition political activity and its crackdown on the Karen. The decision of the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to withdraw from the country in 2005 was a serious setback, which put thousands of lives in jeopardy, although it has been partly reversed by the new Three Diseases Fund (3D Fund). There is a need to get beyond debates over the country's highly repressive political system; failure to halt the slide towards a humanitarian crisis could shatter social stability and put solutions beyond the reach of whatever government is in power..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Crisis Group -- Asia Briefing N°58
          Format/size: pdf (199K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b58_myanmar___new_threats_to_humanitarian_aid.ashx
          Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


          Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS Operational Plan April 2006- March 2009
          Date of publication: 23 September 2006
          Description/subject: "1. Introduction The Operational Plan 2006 -2009 was developed following the development of the National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010. The Operational Plan, using the National Strategic Plan as a guide for decisions on priorities and scaling up, provides a range of products associated with the planning, monitoring and implementation that require the input and involvement of many different stakeholders. A NSP flow-chart has been developed to clearly identify the steps, timing, and actors responsible for leading and/or being involved in processes (cf annex). A training workshop was conducted in April 2006 on estimation of resources need and provisional rapid costing for resource mobilization. As a result, yearly targets and estimated cost of each component and sub-component of the strategic plan 2006 - 2010 were formulated. A core team of experts for the same to undertake future costing work was also formed. The Operational Plan incorporates all existing resources. The three year Operational Planning Cycle aims to encourage longer term financing. Each year, the immediately forthcoming year will be developed in greater detail to ensure coordination, identify specific actors and geographical areas, assess key enabling environment issues which need to be addressed, and better plan financial flows. The annual review of a three-year rolling plan thus balances the desire for longer-term financing with the need for annual review of progress, changing conditions and more detailed planning. Funding for Year 1 (April 2006 to March 2007) includes existing resources from the Global Fund and the FHAM which are mostly available up to December 2006. Funding to fill the gaps will be sought from a variety of sources, including increased domestic contributions, pooled donor mechanisms such as the 3-Diseases Humanitarian Fund for Myanmar, bilateral development agencies and other sources. The Operational Plan is composed of a set of documents, including: • description of the strategic directions and indicators with targets, including scaling-up and geographical priorities • business plan and budget • Monitoring and Evaluation Framework."
          Language: English
          Format/size: pdf (192K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 February 2007


          Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010 (draft)
          Date of publication: 28 June 2006
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The HIV epidemics in Myanmar remain largely concentrated among people identified with high-risk behaviours, in particular sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and men having sex with men; and populations identified as highly vulnerable on the basis of their young age, gender, mobility and social or occupational characteristics. This focus of the epidemics calls for the urgent strengthening of prevention, care and treatment programmes addressing primarily the needs of these populations. The responses to the HIV epidemic to date have been diverse and great sources of learning, and demonstrated the capacity to respond to the HIV epidemic successfully in Myanmar, but are not being implemented to a scale sufficient to slow down the epidemic or mitigate its impact. Confronting an unabated HIV epidemic, the Government of Myanmar decided to embark on a comprehensive prevention, care and treatment strategy which would build on the experience and enrol the participation of all actors committed to this goal. Accordingly, this National Strategic Plan was the first in Myanmar developed using participatory processes, with direct involvement of all sectors involved in the national response to the HIV epidemic. Contributions were made by the Ministry of Health, several other government ministries, United Nations entities, local non-government organizations, international non-government organizations, people living with HIV and people drawn from vulnerable groups. The National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010 was prepared following a series of reviews which looked at the progress and experiences of activities during the first half of the decade. These included a mid-term review of the Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS in 2005 and a review of the National AIDS Programme in 2006, as well as many diverse studies and reviews of particular programmes and projects. The National Strategic Plan identifies what is now required to improve national and local responses, bring partners together to reinforce the effectiveness of all responses, and build more effective management, coordination, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. It builds on current responses, identifies initiatives which are working and need to be scaled up to have maximum impact, builds on key principles which will underlie the national response, outlines broadly the approaches to be used for prevention, treatment, care and support, and delineates strategic directions and activity areas to be further developed in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic. Ambitious service delivery targets have been set, aiming towards ‘Universal Access’ to prevention and care services. The National Strategic Plan is composed of two parts: Part One, presenting background information, aim, objectives, key principles, strategic directions, approaches and information on roles of participating entities and coordinating mechanisms; and Part Two, presenting, for each strategic direction activity area, outcomes, outputs, indicators and targets. The subsequent formulation of a Plan of Operations and accompanying budgets will translate key principles and broad directions set out in the strategic plan into a directly actionable and costed plan relevant to all aspects of the national response to HIV and to all partners in this unprecedented effort. Building on previous experiences and lessons learned by all partners about what works best in the specific context of Myanmar, the National Strategic Plan identifies the key principles underpinning both the plan itself and its future implementation. Among these are: the adherence to the “Three Ones” principles – One HIV and AIDS Action Framework; one National Coordinating Authority; and one Monitoring and Evaluation System – the participation of people living with HIV in every aspect and at every stage of the strategy, a primary emphasis on outcomes, defined as targeted behaviour changes and use of services; and a focus on the Township level with selected “Accelerated Townships” receiving support towards accelerated programme implementation. Key principles bring into focus populations at higher risk and vulnerability and with the greatest needs, ensuring that their needs are met to the maximum extent possible and that their participation in activities concerning them is secured. The development and implementation of an enabling environment is central to this approach, recognizing the negative effects that lack of information, inequality, discrimination and non-participation have on the reduction of HIV-related risk and vulnerability. The strategy will strive to scale up programme coverage and use of services to the maximum achievable levels of resource availability and implementing capacity. It will build on evidence as strategic information guides decision and action and will achieve value for money as financial and other resources are incrementally mobilized and efficiently used. Working across sectors of government will gradually expand as capacity is built. The strategy will rely on collaboration between government and other public, private and non-government entities while mechanisms for coordination at the central and peripheral levels are enhanced. The National Strategic Plan for Myanmar aims at reducing HIV transmission and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, disability and social and economic impact. Its objectives are to: reduce HIV transmission and vulnerability, particularly among people at highest risk; improve the quality and length of life of people living with HIV through treatment, care and support; and mitigate the social, cultural and economic impacts of the epidemic. Strategic directions are primarily defined on the basis of beneficiary populations. They include the reduction of HIV-related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, drug users, partners and familes of people living with HIV, institutionalized populations, mobile populations, uniformed services personnel, young people, individuals in the workplace and, more generally, men and women of reproductive age. They strive to meet the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment through the scaling up of services and use of a participatory approach. In order to expand the ability of all actors to engage fully in this collaborative effort, strategic directions also include the enhancement of the capacity of health systems and the strengthening of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. This National Strategic Plan is a living document: it lends itself to adjustments and revisions as further experience is gained, resources are mobilized and evidence of success and shortcomings is generated through monitoring, special studies and mid-term and end-of-term evaluations."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/MM_draft_Nat_strat_plan_on_HIV-AIDS.pdf
          Format/size: pdf (633K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 February 2007


          Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
          Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
          Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
          Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: Children and AIDS fact sheet: Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2006
          Description/subject: Various statistics, including prevention of mother-child transmission of HIV; Number of HIV+ pregnant women receiving ARVs for PMTCT; Number of children in need receiving ART... UNICEF, WHO and UNAIDS, Children and AIDS: Country fact sheets
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: UNAIDS Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (2006 Update)
          Date of publication: 2006
          Description/subject: The national adult prevalence of HIV infection is between 1% to 2%. Myanmar is thus characterized as having a "generalized" epidemic. However, the spread of the HIV infection across the country is heterogenous varying widely by geographical location and by population sub group. HIV was introduced in Myanmar in mid-to-late 1980s and by the end of 2003, a cumulative 7,174 AIDS cases and 3,324 AIDS deaths have been reported. The male-to-female ratio among reported cases is 3.6:1. Among cases with known mode of transmission, 65% acquired infection by heterosexual route, 26% by injecting drug use, and 5% by contaminated blood. ....
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNICEF, WHO, UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf (988.79 K)
          Alternate URLs: www.aidsdatahub.org
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: In Burma, a Setback on AIDS
          Date of publication: 30 December 2005
          Description/subject: RANGOON, Burma -- Dada would have killed herself but she couldn't afford a proper burial. An orphan with a broad, sweet face and downcast eyes, she recalled the horror of learning two years ago that she had HIV. She had been a prostitute since she was 15 and hadn't saved enough for even a simple funeral, which according to her belief as a Buddhist was vital to reincarnation into a better life. So Dada kept on living. Now, at age 23, it is what is left of this life that frightens her. Friends and other prostitutes have begun wasting away from AIDS, unable to pay the staggering cost of antiretroviral drugs, and Dada admits with an awkward giggle that she expects the same fate. "I have no husband. I have no family," she whispered. "I have to stand on my own feet all by myself." The secretive Burmese government had long denied that this country had a major AIDS problem, but international health experts now say it is among the worst in Asia. With antiretroviral drugs for AIDS costing about 10 times a teacher's monthly salary, few Burmese can pay for them. Fewer than 5 percent of those who need the drugs can get them free from the government and international agencies, according to U.N. estimates. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a Geneva-based foundation, had planned to expand funding to triple the number of HIV-positive people receiving subsidized medication. But in August, it canceled a program to fight the three diseases in Burma and ended $87 million in funding, because of new restrictions imposed by the military government on travel and the import of medical supplies.
          Author/creator: Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Citing New Restrictions, Fund Cancels Treatment Program
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma. Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe im autoritären System
          Date of publication: 29 December 2005
          Description/subject: Der Abzug der Gelder des UN Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria stellt einen schweren Einschnitt in die Gesundheitsversorgung Burmas dar. Laut öffentlicher Aussage des Global Fund sind die Rahmenbedingungen für eine effektive Implementierung der Programme aufgrund zunehmender Restriktionen des Regimes nicht mehr gegeben. Gleichzeitig soll der Global Fund jedoch von den USA und dortigen Menschenrechtsorganisationen unter massivem politischem Druch zum Rückzug aus Burma bewegt wroden sein. Unter internationalen Akteuren im humanitären Bereich besteht noch immer keine Einigkeit darüber, ob in Burma humanitäre Hilfe geleistet werden soll und - wenn ja - in welcher Form. keywords: UN Global Fund, humanitarian aid, AIDS, NGOs
          Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 65-71
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


          Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar, Progress Report 2003 - 2004 and Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM) Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005
          Date of publication: 19 October 2005
          Description/subject: Foreword: I Introduction... II Context: Overview of the epidemic in Myanmar... III Programme Achievements: Highlights in achievements - 1 Access to services to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV improved; 2 Access to services to prevent IDU transmission of HIV improved; 3 Knowledge and attitudes improved; 4 Access to services for HIV care and support improved; 5 Enabling environment and capacity building... IV Coordination, Harmonisation and Monitoring & Evaluation: Governance and Coordination; Monitoring and Evaluation... V FHAM Resources and Operational Issues: Financial resources; Operational issues... Conclusion... Annexe 1: FHAM budget overview... Annexe 2: FHAM Summary of technical progress... Annexe 3: Achievements by FHAM implementing partners... Annexe 4: Round II of the FHAM (FY 2004-05): Budget, expenditure and utilisation by implementing partners."...This report covers progress under both the Joint Programme and the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar because the two are so closely linked. It covers the calendar years 2003 and 2004 for the Joint Programme, and the second financial year for the FHAM, 2004 (1st April 2004 � 31st March 2005). As all of the activities are ongoing, in some cases key events or achievements which have occurred later in 2005 � strictly speaking outside the reporting period � have been mentioned. In April and May 2005, the Country Coordinating Mechanism in Myanmar prepared a proposal for the 5th Round of the Global Fund. This proposal mobilised more actors and resulted in probably the best Global Fund proposal to date. Much of the information that went into the proposal has been used and borrowed and is presented here, to ensure that the work that went into the analysis for the Global Fund receives a broader hearing. Also in May, 2005, the Joint Programme underwent a three week, independent, external review. In preparation for this process, each of the five thematic Component Groups prepared pre-Review briefing papers which highlighted progress and identified key issues. These pre- Review papers have also informed this report, and the time and efforts of individuals who worked on them are hereby acknowledged. The Mid Term Review itself is contributing to a process of reflection and reorganisation, which will result in a Joint Programme document for 2006 and beyond, along with a resource mobilisation drive for the FHAM. And finally some words on the mobilisation of new resources for AIDS in Myanmar. The concerning news of course is that the Global Fund grants for tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS have been terminated, leaving a gap in resources which the FHAM and other sources will be required to fill. The good news is that the Government of the Netherlands in July 2005 indicated it will contribute �4m to the FHAM, �1m for each of the years 2005-08. This brings to four the number of donors contributing to the FHAM - in addition to the United Kingdom�s Department for International Development (DFID), Sweden�s Agency for International Development Cooperation (SIDA), and the Norwegian Government - and provides the first concrete funding commitment for the next cycle of programming. This report demonstrates that it is possible to deliver humanitarian assistance in Myanmar, and will, I hope, encourage donors to consider making such necessary investments in the fight against AIDS for the people of Myanmar."...Of the 2 versions the smaller one, the pre-publication version, has no photos but, as far as I can see from a brief comparison, the text is more or less the same.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: United Nations Expanded Theme Group on HIV/AIDS
          Format/size: pdf (615K, 4.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://data.unaids.org/Publications/IRC-pub06/FHAMannualprogressreport_Myanmar_19Oct05_en.pdf?preview=true
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar 2003-2005 - Mid-term Review
          Date of publication: 03 October 2005
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgements; Executive Summary; Summary of mid-term review findings and recommendations; Background; HIV/AIDS situation and response in Myanmar; Challenges to mobilising a response; Review methodology; Progress against Joint Programme outputs;; Output 1; Output 2; Output 3; Output 4; Output 5; Responses to additional questions in the TORs; Table 1: HIV sentinel surveillance results among IDUs, 1992-2003 10; Table 2: Numbers of clients, by age and sex, receiving results and 13; post-test counselling in 2004; Figure 1: Trends in drug use reflected through new registered cases 10; in Yangon, Mandalay, Kachin, Shan, Sagaing and Bago; Figure 2: Number of PLWHA receiving home-based care, 2000-2005; Figure 3: Actual versus needed ART, 2004 and 2005; Diagram 1: Illustrative re-structuring of Joint Programme management and co-ordination structures... Annex A: Mid-term review itinerary; Annex B: Joint Programme partner implementing organisations; Annex C: Pre-review assessment paper topics; Annex D: Mid-Term review terms of reference; Annex E: Additional comments received on the first draft mid-term review report..."Myanmar is presently faced with the challenge of controlling a dual epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and injection drug use. Injection Drug Users (IDUs) have a very high risk of infection, which can occur soon after an individual begins injecting. Sexual transmission is another major mode of HIV transmission. Commercial sex, which is driven by patronage of sex workers by men, is the largest contributor to this. Transmission is occurring heterosexually outside of the commercial sex industry and HIV is now in the general population. A substantial amount of sexual transmission of HIV is also taking place amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). It is thought that a significant proportion of male youth are at risk because of having early sex with sex workers. Some migrant populations are at increased risk as well. The trend of HIV infection amongst women attending antenatal clinics is upward and it is presumed that HIV is thus being passed on to babies at expected rates. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) death rates have not been examined, but rising numbers of orphaned children are being seen and very few programmes to assist them exist..."
          Author/creator: Dr Anne Scott (Team Leader); Dr Carol Jenkins; Dr Dilip Mathai; Dr Samiran Panda
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf (731K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 29 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
          Date of publication: September 2005
          Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: Clinical stages of HIV/AIDS for adults; UNHCR point of view on HIV/AIDS; The right to access to care... DIAGNOSIS: Voluntary Counselling and Testing: Are we doing it correctly or p with words?... MANAGEMENT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART); Nutrient requirements for people living with HIV/AIDS; Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection in HIV/AIDS... SOCIAL: Responding to bad news including HIV/AIDS result; Stigmatization and discrimination; Home based care: A day as a home visitor and interview; Testimonial of people living with HIV/AIDS... PREVENTION: PMCT activities in Maela refugee camp; How to increase condom use? Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and Glossary.
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (4MB, 9.7MB, 49MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-mr.pdf (medium resolution)
          http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-hr.pdf (high resolution
          Date of entry/update: 07 October 2007


          Title: Turbulence Ahead
          Date of publication: September 2005
          Description/subject: Burma’s mushrooming HIV/AIDS problem is already of international concern, but now efforts to keep the lethal disease—and TB and malaria—in check will be further hampered by a Global Fund decision to cut off aid... "Another storm cloud appears to be heading towards an already battered Burma. But unlike others before it, this is not about such lofty issues as democracy and human rights, or even more down-to-earth issues as forced labor and political prisoners. It involves simply life and death, particularly after the tumultuous decision by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to cancel its US $98 million program over the next five years. It is not just a case of saving more people from the clutches of TB and malaria, which already cut a huge swathe of death and misery through the wretched country. Programs to combat these are also now at risk, but it is the potentially more deadly spread of HIV/AIDS which is darkening Burma’s already gloomy horizons..."
          Author/creator: Bruce Kent
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


          Title: Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM): Six Monthly Progress Report 1 April 2004-30 September 2004
          Date of publication: 30 March 2005
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf-html
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2003: General Population and Youth
          Date of publication: February 2005
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A multi-site survey was conducted during September through November 2003 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to transmission and prevention of HIV and AIDS among general population and youths residing in seven survey sites in Myanmar. A total of 9678 individuals (4631 males and 5047 females) were interviewed. Of these, 35% were youth aged 15-24 years. Although 91% of the population had heard about HIV and AIDS, only 35% knew about methods of HIV prevention and barely 27% were able to correctly reject the common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Youth, women and respondents with lowest level of education had the lowest knowledge about HIV prevention. Less than a quarter of the respondents were willing to buy food from an HIV-infected vendor and just half of them expressed willingness to care for an HIV-infected relative. Only a quarter of the population sought treatment for sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms; a large proportion of these consulted a private practitioner or took self treatment and only 15% visited a government hospital for STD treatment. About 7% of men had sex with a non-regular partner; nearly twothirds of them had unprotected sex (only 54% of male respondents reported using condom consistently with a commercial sex worker and 18% with a casual acquaintance). While 68% respondents expressed the intent for voluntary confidential counseling and testing (VCCT) but a mere 5% actually got tested and received the result. The findings of the survey indicate the following programmatic gaps: * Knowledge about HIV prevention is deficient * High level of misconceptions about HIV transmission prevail * Negative attitudes towards PLWHA are common * Utilization of STD services is suboptimal * High-risk sexual behaviours exist and unprotected sex is common * VCCT needs remain unmet..."
          Author/creator: Dr. Min Thwe, Dr. Aye Myat Soe, Dr Tin Aung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar MInistry of Health (National Aids Control Programme)
          Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
          Date of entry/update: 19 June 2006


          Title: Myanmar An Incubator of New HIV Strains
          Date of publication: 2005
          Description/subject: Myanmar's HIV/AIDS epidemic -- estimated at 1.2 percent of the population -- is considered one of the most serious in Asia. But HIV/AIDS is just the latest problem to afflict this chaotic and corrupt country, which produces much of the world's opium and has long suffered from social problems connected to its massive drug smuggling industry, including disease, addiction and organized crime. In 1988, the Burmese government was overthrown by a corrupt military junta that changed the country's name to Myanmar. Reports of torture and mass murder followed. Western nations withdrew aid and imposed trade sanctions, which have crippled the nation's economy. * Note: Figures reflect most recent statistics from UNAIDS and the World Health Organization.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Age of AIDS
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS -- Burmese
          Date of publication: 2005
          Description/subject: This 63 page book collectively answers many of the questions young people want to ask about HIV/AIDS. [in Myanmar language] It explains AIDS origin in Africa and spread globally, its current prevalence in Myanmar, its modes of infection, and means for control. Yangon, 2005... For further information please contact: Jason Rush, Communication Officer, UNICEF in Myanmar Phone: (95 1) 212 086; Fax: (95 1) 212 063 ; Email: jrush@unicef.org
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: UNICEF
          Format/size: pdf (1.64MB)
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


          Title: Myanmar: Update on HIV/AIDS Policy
          Date of publication: 16 December 2004
          Description/subject: Asia Briefing N°34; 16 December 2004... OVERVIEW: "Myanmar's military government has acknowledged its serious HIV/AIDS problem in the two years since Crisis Group published a briefing paper.[1] This has permitted health professionals, international organisations and donors to begin a coordinated response. The international community has boosted funding and shown more willingness to find ways to help victims and counter the pandemic. Some government obstacles have been removed although the regime's closed nature is unaltered. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), which has generally opposed aid involving contact with the junta, has supported many HIV/AIDS steps because of the humanitarian imperative. The urgent need now is to boost the local staff capabilities and make more effective use of the money flowing into the country. In the process civil society and small NGOs and other local organisations can be fostered that can eventually help prepare a democratic transition. Significant problems remain. About 1.3 per cent of Myanmar's[2] adults are believed to be infected with the virus, one of the highest rates in Asia. Government spending on health and education is perilously low, and the economy has been grossly mismanaged by the military. HIV continues to present serious risks to the population, to security and to Myanmar's neighbours.[3] Critics of assistance to Myanmar have said the government would misappropriate any funds. This has not been the case so far. Increased international contact with the government on this issue has pushed it towards more pragmatic positions and opened up program possibilities that were not available in 2002. HIV prevention and treatment suffered then from a lack of resources and knowledge. Now the main constraint is the implementation capacity of groups involved in HIV prevention and AIDS care. The critical steps that need to be taken include: * expansion of assistance through all available channels to border areas where the HIV problem is particularly intense; * expansion of national capacity to deal with HIV, including more technical aid and training; * expansion of support for local and community-based organisations to strengthen their capacity and enable them to be larger providers of grassroots education, counselling and treatment; * more effective outreach to minority and ethnic communities with HIV/AIDS prevention education as well as counselling and treatment; * streamlining of disbursement, evaluation and monitoring procedures for funding; and * expansion of harm reduction programs. The political situation in Myanmar is extremely uncertain. Former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt is now under arrest on suspicion of corruption. He had chaired a key government committee on health issues and had supported greater involvement of international NGOs in fighting HIV. It is now very unclear whether further steps forward will be possible."... You might have to register (free) to access the document.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
          Format/size: pdf (137K)
          Date of entry/update: 22 January 2005


          Title: "Health Messenger" No. 25 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
          Date of publication: September 2004
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: What is AIDS? A Short Introduction (Health Messenger Team); Clinical Aspects of HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Transmission of HIV (Health Messenger Team); Empowering Community Change - HIV/AIDS Prevention (Mary Yetter, OXFAM UK)... FROM THE FIELD: The HIV/AIDS Situation in Burma (Zaw Winn, Chiang Mai); Women Empowerment and HIV/AIDS (Dr Padma, AMI Myanmar); Community Care for People with HIV/AIDS World Vision HIV/AIDS Programme in Ranong (Dr Win Maung, World Vision Ranong)... TREATMENT: Treatments for people with HIV/AIDS (Nicolas Durier, MSF France)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counselling for HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team); Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with Maw Maw Zaw); Thai Youth Action Programs (Owen Elias, Thai Youth Action Programmes); Non-transmission routes of HIV... SOCIAL: Alcohol Abuse and HIV/AIDS (Pam Rogers, CARE Project); Social Impact and Underlying Causes of HIV/AIDS Epidemics (Julia Matthews, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children); CASE STUDY: IDUs and HIV: A Case study (Greg Manning)... INTERVIEW: An Interview with Honeymoon from KEWG (Health Messenger Team).
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


          Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar 2003-2005
          Date of publication: 15 July 2004
          Description/subject: "The purpose of the Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar, 2003-2005, is to strengthen the enabling environment and supporting capacity for prevention and care of HIV/AIDS in Myanmar. This will be done in support of the National Strategic Plan for the expansion and upgrading of HIV/AIDS activities in Myanmar 2001-2005, of the National Health Plan and of the operational plans of implementing partners for this period. The success of this programme will build towards the establishment of an effective multisectoral response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and in the longer term the mitigation of the health and socioeconomic impact on the people of Myanmar..." CHAPTER 1 Programme Background and Rationale: 1.1 HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Myanmar; 1.2 Programme Approach; 1.3 Implementing Partners... CHAPTER 2 Joint Programme Objectives (The Logical Framework)... CHAPTER 3 Component Strategies of the Joint Programme: 3.1 Sexual Transmission of HIV; 3.2 Injecting Drug Use; 3.3 Knowledge and Attitudes; 3.4 Care, Treatment and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS; 3.5 Enabling Environment... CHAPTER 4 Implementation Arrangements: 4.1 Management and Coordination Arrangements; 4.2 Establishing the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; CHAPTER 5 Financing the Joint Programme... ANNEXES: Annex 1 United Nations Expanded Theme Group on HIV/AIDS: Purpose and Terms of Reference; Annex 2 Technical Working Group on HIV/AIDS: Purpose and Terms of Reference; Annex 3 UNAIDS Secretariat: Purpose and Scope of Work in Relation to the Joint Programme... Annex 4 Proposed Joint Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (Core Indicator Set)... Annex 5 Monitoring Schedule for the Joint Programme... Annex 6 Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM)... Annex 7 References.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS
          Format/size: pdf (339K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
          Date of publication: 14 July 2004
          Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
          Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
          Format/size: pdf (853K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


          Title: AIDS Takes the Backseat in Burma - An Interview with Chris Beyrer
          Date of publication: July 2004
          Description/subject: "Chris Beyrer has worked on HIV/AIDS issues along the Thai-Burma border since the early 1990s and is now associate research professor and director of the Johns Hopkins University Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program. He spoke with Irrawaddy reporter Naw Seng about efforts in Burma to control the epidemic..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7, July 2004
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


          Title: UNAIDS Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (2004 Update)
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: Assessment of the epidemiological situation 2004 The national adult prevalence of HIV infection is between 1% to 2%. Myanmar is thus characterized as having a "generalized" epidemic. However, the spread of the HIV infection across the country is heterogenous varying widely by geographical location and by population sub group. HIV was introduced in Myanmar in mid-to-late 1980s and by the end of 2003, a cumulative 7,174 AIDS cases and 3,324 AIDS deaths have been reported. The male-to-female ratio among reported cases is 3.6:1. Among cases with known mode of transmission, 65% acquired infection by heterosexual route, 26% by injecting drug use, and 5% by contaminated blood.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), WHO, UNICEF
          Format/size: pdf (250K)
          Alternate URLs: http://data.unaids.org/Publications/Fact-Sheets01
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2005


          Title: ASIA--THE NEXT FRONTIER FOR HIV/AIDS: Myanmar
          Date of publication: 19 September 2003
          Description/subject: "HLAING THAYAR, MYANMAR (BURMA)--Myanmar has one of the worst HIV problems in Asia, fueled by a potent mix of injecting drug use and commercial sex work. Yet poverty and the country's military dictatorship pose formidable obstacles to doing battle against AIDS here. This story is part of a series on HIV/AIDS in Asia; the stories in this initial installment focus on Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand..."
          Author/creator: Jon Cohen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: AIDScience -- American Association for the Advancement of Science.
          Format/size: pdf (535K), html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.aidscience.org/Science/Cohen301(5640)1650.htm
          Date of entry/update: 14 July 2007


          Title: Edging Towards Disaster
          Date of publication: May 2003
          Description/subject: "Burma has taken the first step to tackling its deepening AIDS epidemic: admitting the problem exists. But it has a long way to go to bring the problem under control... As Burma's HIV/AIDS epidemic mounts, researchers at Johns Hopkins University say an adequate response is going to entail not just pumped up resources, but also "political will" on the part of the government. The AIDS specialist notes that one recent development gives cause for hope. "There is a good Minister of Health [Dr Kyaw Myint] now," he says. "He seems to have a heart and he's interested in health�.that's a change..."
          Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 4
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


          Title: Facing the Challenge
          Date of publication: May 2003
          Description/subject: "The Irrawaddy spoke to Dr Myat Htoo Razak about the severity of the HIV/AIDS situation in Burma. He is a medical doctor and PhD from Burma who specializes in Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases with an emphasis on HIV/AIDS and Health Policy and Planning. He currently works in HIV/AIDS research, prevention, care, and support programs in Asia through various international agencies and institutions... Question: How serious is the HIV/AIDS situation in Burma?Answer: As a health worker and a person from Burma, I would say the HIV/AIDS situation is one of the country's most serious health and social challenges since the late 1980s. The focus has mainly been on how many are infected, as estimated numbers of people with HIV/AIDS in Burma vary. The UNAIDS 2002 report estimated from 180,000 to 420,000 cases, while another group of researchers estimated 687,000 cases. It doesn't matter whether the number is one hundred or one million if little is being done to prevent more infections and to provide care and support to those who are already infected. We need to have good estimates for better planning but Burma needs to move forward with action now. I deeply hope that people in Burma will soon be able to respond effectively to this serious health, social and development challenge..."
          Author/creator: An Interview with Dr Myat Htoo Razak
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11. No. 4
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


          Title: The British Solution
          Date of publication: May 2003
          Description/subject: The HIV/AIDS crisis, UK assistance and the general political situation. "The Irrawaddy interviewed Vicky Bowman, the British Ambassador to Burma. She previously worked in the British Embassy in Rangoon from 1990 to 1993 before returning in Dec 2002. The UK recently announced that it would contribute 10 million pounds (US $15.7 million) over the next three years to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in Burma... Question: Why did the British government decide to take action now? Answer: We've been providing some support to NGOs to combat HIV for several years, for example for subsidized condoms. But we believe that the time has now come to increase our support, both because the scale of the problem is such that it needs a significant response, and because the climate for working on HIV/AIDS in Burma is gradually improving. Q: Do you think the Burmese military has realized the seriousness of the AIDS epidemic?..."
          Author/creator: An Interview with Vicky Bowman
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 4
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


          Title: Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis
          Date of publication: 02 April 2002
          Description/subject: "HIV prevalence is rising rapidly in Burma/Myanmar, fuelled by population mobility, poverty and frustration that breeds risky sexual activity and drug-taking. Already, one in 50 adults are estimated to be infected, and infection rates in sub-populations with especially risky behaviour (such as drug users and sex workers) are among the highest in Asia. Because of the long lag time between HIV infection and death, the true impact of the epidemic is just beginning to be felt. Households are losing breadwinners, children are losing parents, and some of the hardest-hit communities, particularly some fishing villages with very high losses from HIV/AIDS, are losing hope. Worse is to come, but how much worse depends on the decisions that Myanmar and the international community take in the coming months and years... Myanmar stands perilously close to an unstoppable epidemic. However large scale action targeted at helping those most at risk protect themselves could still make a real difference. Action on the scale necessary will inevitably involve working through government institutions, possibly in partnership with NGOs. The international community, and bilateral donors in particular, should look for ways to channel resources to Myanmar in ways that encourage political commitment and capitalise on the emerging willingness to confront the HIV epidemic..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
          Format/size: pdf (125K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Revisiting ‘The Hidden Epidemic’ – a situation assessment of drug use in Asia in the context of HIV/AIDS (section on Burma/Myanmar)
          Date of publication: January 2002
          Description/subject: Myanmar is considered to have one of the most severe HIV epidemics in Asia due to the high prevalence of injecting drug use and HIV among drug users. Reports suggest there are approximately 150,000 to 250,000 IDUs in Myanmar. In 1997 HIV prevalence among IDUs was 54%, in 2000 this had risen to 63% and in some states was among the highest rate in the world, at up to 96%. National surveillance data shows that IDUs in Myanmar often become infected with HIV early in their injecting careers which is rarely seen elsewhere in the world. Date of release 8 February 2002 Author: Publisher: (Extract on Myanmar, pp 140-150
          Author/creator: Gary Reid and Genvieve Costigan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Centre for Harm Reduction, The Burnet Institute, Australia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Revisiting "The Hidden Epidemic
          Date of publication: January 2002
          Description/subject: "A Situation Assessment of Drug Use in Asia in thecontext of HIV/AIDS". Includes a section on Burma/Myanmar (see extract)
          Author/creator: Gary Reid, Genevieve Costigan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Centre for Harm Reduction, The Burnet Institute, Australia
          Format/size: PDF (912K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: The AIDS Embargo
          Date of publication: January 2002
          Description/subject: "Burma�s censors have imposed an effective ban on reporting about HIV/AIDS. But they are not alone: The exiled opposition is also maintaining an unhealthy silence on the issue..."
          Author/creator: Aung Zaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 1
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
          Date of publication: 11 November 2001
          Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
          Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: MAP Report 2001: The Status and Trends of HIV/AIDS/STI epidemics in Asia and the Pacific
          Date of publication: 04 October 2001
          Description/subject: "HIV has been well established in Asia for many years. However, many countries have recorded relatively low rates of infection even in sub-populations with high-risk behaviour. At the time of the last MAP report on Asia from Kuala Lumpur in 1999, only Thailand, Myanmar, and Cambodia were reporting substantial nation wide epidemics, with a number of states in India and provinces in China also heavily affected. In the last two years, the picture has changed dramatically. Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal and Vietnam, for example, have all registered marked increases in HIV infection in recent years, while in China, home to a fifth of the world's people, the infection seems to be moving into new groups of the population..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: MAP (Monitoring the Aids Pandemic)
          Format/size: Download MS Word doc (688K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.thebody.com/content/art621.html
          http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/default.asp
          Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


          Title: From Prison Cell to Cemetery
          Date of publication: September 2001
          Description/subject: "Release from prison is no guarantee of freedom in Burma, where the ruling junta’s control over the lives of political prisoners often extends as far as their graves. On June 12 and July 12 this year, two people passed away from AIDS-related diseases in Burma. Exactly one month after Bo Ni Aung died on June 12, 2001, Si Thu, also known as Ye Naing, succumbed to that incurable syndrome. These days, in fact, it seems to be nothing unusual or surprising when we hear about more victims of HIV/AIDS. Yet the true story shows that these two were not so much victims of AIDS, but of Burma’s ruling junta, which calls itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Both of them died as a result of the junta’s inhumane treatment of prisoners. Bo Ni Aung, 42, had been a political prisoner who was set free in the middle of 1999, having spent more than eight years in two disreputable prisons, Insein and Thayet. Si Thu died while being detained under Article 10(a) of the State Protection Act in Tharawaddy prison. Aged 35, he was a former student activist who had been incarcerated for 11 years in Insein and Tharawaddy, not far from the Burmese capital..."
          Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Burma and AIDS: the Silent Crisis
          Date of publication: 25 June 2001
          Description/subject: HIV/AIDS infection has reached epidemic proportions in Burma today and reports by UN agencies as well as independent health professionals unanimously confirm this fact. Estimates suggest at least five percent of the population is infected. The alarming situation has become a national emergency that affects all groups, including non-Burman ethnic nationalities and the military. . . .
          Author/creator: Dr. Thaung Htun, Director, Burma UN Service Office, New York
          Language: English, Japanese
          Source/publisher: NCGUB
          Format/size: pdf, html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=12&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.burmainfo.org%2FNCGUB%2FUNGA-SS-2001_jp.html&ei=AtsaSseKAcWLkAXg5lE&usg=AFQjCNGxrRo4XxXID-oUYjJVG3SAtesh_w&sig2=D2XbD8UzDdfmzqGTjoaeng
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 9 -- Special Issue on STDs and HIV
          Date of publication: June 2000
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: STD and HIV/AIDS in Thailand and Myanmar (Dr. Ying-Ru Lo, WHO, Mrs. Laksami Suebsaeng, WHO); Syndromic Management Appoach : An Effective Way to STD Case Management (Health Messenger); Neonatal Conjunctivitis (Dr. Jerry Vincent, IRC); An introduction to HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger); HIV/AIDS Transmission and Non-Transmission Routes (Andrea Menefee, IRC); AIDS NEWS (Health Messenger)... SOCIAL: The link between STDs and HIV/AIDS: the medical and social causes (Health Messenger); Health and Human Rights (Christine Harmston, BRC)... DIAGNOSIS: Syndromic approach to identifying common STDs (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counseling, Information and Partner notification for STD patients (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); SawPaing and Nan Wai (Gordon Sharmar, WEAVE)... MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: Children and HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: The Karen Education Working Group (Ms. Honey Moon, KEWG)... PREVENTION: Prevention (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU).
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


          Title: MOBILITY AND HIV/AIDS IN THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION
          Date of publication: 2000
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: A. Introduction: 1. Greater Mekong Subregion Overview 2. Population Mobility in the GMS 3. HIV/AIDS in the GMS Countries 3.1 A Region with Two HIV/AIDS Epidemics 3.2 Causes of the Epidemics 3.3 Regional Responses 4. Objectives and Methodology of the Study 4.1 Literature Review 4.2 National and Regional Consultations 4.3 Analysis and Draft Report 4.4 Terms and definitions ….. B. Country Report: Cambodia: 1. Country Profile 2. Population Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal and International Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Population Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 Characteristics of the HIV Epidemic 4.2 Geographical Distribution of HIV/AIDS 4.3 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Migration and Mobility 4.4 Hot Spots for Mobile Population and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusion ….. C. Country Report: Lao People’s Democratic Republic: 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 The Thai-Lao Border Provinces 2.2 Farming in the Lowland Border Provinces 2.3 Emigrant Workers 2.4 Trafficking 2.5 Corridors of Development 2.6 Specific Mobile Population Groups ….. 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in the Lao PDR 4.1 HIV/AIDS Country Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. D. Country Report: Myanmar 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The Two Epidemics – Intravenous Drug Use and Sexual Transmission 4.2 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. E. Country Report: Vietnam 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups … 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The ‘Two Epidemics’ – IDUs and Sex Workers 4.2 Drug Use and HIV Vulnerability 4.3 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.4 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Population Mobility 4.6 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusions ….. F. Country Report: Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China: 1. Province and Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Intra-Provincial Mobility 2.2 Inter-Provincial Mobility 2.3 International Cross-Border Mobility 2.4 Trafficking and Human Smuggling 2.5 Specific Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in Yunnan and PRC 4.1 HIV/AIDS Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk Situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. G. Conclusion and Discussion: 1. Migration and Mobility 2. Gender and Vulnerability 3. Poverty and Development as Driving Forces for Development 4. The Dynamics of HIV Spread and Implications for Mobility 5. The Responses ….. Annex: Map 1: Major Population Mobility Trends & Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 2: Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 3: Progression of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 4: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 5: Spread of HIV Over Time in ASIA 1984 to 1999 ….. Bibliography ….. Persons and Organisations Consulted ….. List of Tables, Figures and Maps A. Introduction Table 1: HIV/AIDS Situation in the GMS Countries B. Cambodia Table 2: Country Profile – Cambodia Table 3: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Cambodia Table 4: HIV Seroprevalence Among Sentinel Groups in 1999 Table 5: HIV Prevalence in Selected Sentinel Groups Table 6: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Cambodia C. Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Table 7: Country Profile – Lao PDR Table 8: Establishments that Provide Sexual Services, and their Customers Table 9: Trucks Departing and Entering Lao PDR Table 10: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their Risk Situation in Lao PDR Table 11: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Lao PDR D. Myanmar Table 12: Country Profile – Myanmar Table 13: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Myanmar Figure 1: HIV Prevalence Among Military Recruits Figure 2: HIV Prevalence Among Pregnant Women Table 14: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Myanmar E. Vietnam Table 15: Country Profile – Vietnam Table 16: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Vietnam Table 17: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Vietnam F. Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 18: Country Profile – Yunnan Province and People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 19: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Yunnan Table 20: HIV Prevalence Rates for Injecting Drug Users 1992-1999 Table 21: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Yunnan … Maps 1. Major Population Mobility Trend and Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2. Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion 3. Progression of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion 4. Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 5. Spread of HIV Over Time in Asia 1984-1999
          Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Allan Beesey and Shakti Paul
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University
          Format/size: pdf (716.10 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-AIDSMekongregion-Myanmar.pdf
          http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/mobility.pdf
          http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/default.asp#contents
          http://www.adb.org/documents/books/hiv_aids/mobility/prelim.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 09 November 2010


          Title: Addressing Humanitarian Needs in Burma
          Date of publication: September 1999
          Description/subject: Several articles. Includes discussion on UN activities in Burma, food scarcity, HIV/AIDS and other health issues.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VI No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: AIDS Denial
          Date of publication: July 1999
          Description/subject: "The SPDC has finally acknowledged the AIDS epidemic in Burma. But even now, the junta spends more of the country’s dwindling resources on attacking democrats than it does on tackling the disease, Aung Zaw writes..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
          Date of publication: July 1999
          Description/subject: Fighting "Fire" vs. Preventing "Fire". Preventing HIV/AIDS and fighting it are both very challenging. It will take courage, expertise, commitment and support to destroy the deadly virus, writes Dr Saw Lwin.
          Author/creator: Dr Saw Lwin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The Martyrs of Burma - Past, Present and Future
          Date of publication: July 1999
          Description/subject: How can victims of AIDS die with dignity in a county whose leaders only grudgingly acknowledge the sacrifices of its fallen of independences?
          Author/creator: Editorial
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Heroin and HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
          Date of publication: December 1998
          Description/subject: Review of "Out of Control 2"..."...A new report, titled “Out Of Control 2”, issued by the Southeast Asian Information Network [SAIN] shows the involvement of Burmese regime officials in narcotics trafficking and the correlation of increased drug trade and rising HIV/AIDS rates in Burma and beyond its borders..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Burma's AIDS Epidemic
          Date of publication: February 1998
          Description/subject: Dancing alone o­n the floor of a popular Rangoon nightclub in front of a huge video screen playing music videos, the young Burmese woman repeatedly glances at the very few western men in the disco. She approaches them and makes it clear her charms come at a price. Does she use condoms?
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Out of Control 2: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
          Date of publication: 1998
          Description/subject: A new report, titled “Out Of Control 2”, issued by the Southeast Asian Information Network [SAIN] shows the involvement of Burmese regime officials in narcotics trafficking and the correlation of increased drug trade and rising HIV/AIDS rates in Burma and beyond its borders. The report states that the last several years have produced a mounting body of evidence indicating high-level involvement of some junta members in the illicit narcotics industry. Routes and methods of transportation and export of Burmese narcotics are described in this report.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Southeast Asia Information Network (SAIN)
          Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=1521
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Burma's Secret Plague
          Date of publication: August 1997
          Description/subject: As if life in Burma was not grim enough, with its poverty and its brutal government, it now turns out to have an AIDS epidemic. Thousands of young adults have died without ever having heard of the disease that killed them, let alone of ways to prevent it. In parts of Burma, funerals of people in their 20s or 30s are an everyday occurrence.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Insein Prison: HIV Headquarters?
          Date of publication: August 1997
          Description/subject: A former political prisoner recalls the tale of HIV horror inside the notorious Insein prison. Slorc used to threaten political prisoners with the cancellation of visiting rights, beating, transferal to another prison or an unfamiliar cell-block, solitary confinement and extension of prison-terms. But it was not successful. Now, they use more effective weapons to threaten prisoners.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: HIV/AIDS problem of migrants from Burma in Thailand
          Description/subject: Abstract Over 50 years ago, the Constitution of WHO projected a vision of health as a state of physical, mental and social well-being - a definition that has important conceptual and practical implications. Recently, health professionals begin to recognize the importance of the protection and promotion of human rights as necessary precondition for individual and community health. It is now clear that regardless of the effectiveness of technologies, the underlying civil, cultural, economic, political and social conditions have to be addressed as well in the health care paradigm.
          Author/creator: Alice Khin M.B.,B.S., M.Med (Int Med)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Watch
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 October 2010


        • HIV/AIDS - international, regional and thematic material

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: AIDScience website
          Description/subject: "Welcome to AIDScience. As of 31 December 2003, AIDScience ran out of operating funds. The Web site is now archived. "The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), publisher of Science magazine, launched this Web site to provide researchers with a premier, centralized and global online source of information on all aspects of AIDS prevention and vaccine development..." ... "As of 31 December 2003, AIDScience ran out of operating funds. The Web site is now archived."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 14 July 2007


          Title: GANFYD AIDS pages
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: GANFYD
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 22 March 2008


          Title: UNAIDS
          Description/subject: UNAIDS Homepage
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Wikipedia AIDS page
          Description/subject: * 1 Infection by HIV * 2 Diagnosis o 2.1 WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease o 2.2 CDC Classification System for HIV Infection o 2.3 HIV test * 3 Symptoms and Complications o 3.1 The major pulmonary illnesses o 3.2 The major gastro-intestinal illnesses o 3.3 The major neurological illnesses o 3.4 The major HIV-associated malignancies o 3.5 Other opportunistic infections * 4 Transmission and prevention o 4.1 Sexual contact o 4.2 Exposure to infected body fluids o 4.3 Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) * 5 Treatment * 6 Epidemiology * 7 Economic impact * 8 Stigma * 9 Origin of HIV * 10 Alternative theories * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: Wikipedia HIV page
          Description/subject: * 1 Introduction * 2 Transmission * 3 The clinical course of HIV-1 infection o 3.1 Primary Infection o 3.2 Clinical Latency o 3.3 The declaration of AIDS * 4 HIV structure and genome * 5 HIV tropism * 6 Replication cycle of HIV o 6.1 Viral entry to the cell o 6.2 Viral replication and transcription o 6.3 Viral assembly and release * 7 Genetic variability of HIV * 8 Treatment * 9 Epidemiology * 10 Alternative theories * 11 References * 12 External links * 13 AIDS News
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: Responding to HIV and AIDS - A Practitioner’s Guide to Mainstreaming in Development Projects
          Date of publication: 2011
          Description/subject: "The guide provides comprehensive information on HIV/AIDS mainstreaming and assists project staff to identify ways to effectively address the root causes of HIV infection and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on their core activities. It also addresses HIV and AIDS issues concerning staff within an organization. The guide was developed and revised in conjunction with Misereor partners in the South. Many of the examples and explanations were taken from African contexts; nevertheless the guide is designed to be used also in Asian and Latin American countries. Therefore you will also find references to non-African countries in this guide. Contents: * Responding to HIV and AIDS: HIV and AIDS as a development issue and introduction to the mainstreaming concept... * Root causes of HIV infection and effects of HIV and AIDS... * Mainstreaming: A practical guide... * Good practice examples of HIV/AIDS mainstreaming... *Seeking pathways within and beyond your organisation..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Misereor - 2nd revised edition
          Format/size: pdf (5.5MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.misereor.org
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2014


          Title: Promising responses to HIV and AIDS in agriculture, rural development, self-help and social protection
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: Foreword: "HIV and AIDS have various implications on the life of individuals, families, communities and societies. HIV and AIDS are not “merely” a health but also a development issue as they reduce chances for development and increase poverty. People living with HIV, households headed by women, elderly or orphans often have barriers to perform like others not affected by HIV and AIDS. Therefore they need specific attention and tailor-made responses in the different development sectors focusing on their needs, abilities and skills. One of the main pillars of Misereor’s work and its partners’ in different countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America is the reduction of poverty and assistance of the poor and the marginalized. Misereor and its partners have to take HIV and AIDS into account in development projects. This document was conducted as a desk study for the revision of the Misereor guide “Responding to HIV and AIDS – A practitioner’s guide to mainstreaming in development projects” (published 2010). It provides useful information and practical examples of such responses in the fields of agriculture, rural development, self-help and social protection. It aims to invite Misereor partners and others working in these fields to reflect on their current approaches and to encourage them to respond in their core business to the challenges brought by HIV and AIDS."
          Author/creator: Iris Onipede, Ellen Schmitt
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Misereor
          Format/size: pdf (907K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.misereor.org
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2014


          Title: Scale-up of national antiretroviral therapy programs: progress and challenges in the Asia Pacific region.
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: Background: There has been tremendous scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in the Asia Pacific region, which is home to an estimated 4.7 million persons living with HIV/AIDS. We examined treatment scale-up, ART program practices, and clinical outcome data in the nine low-and-middle-income countries that share over 95% of the HIV burden in the region. Methods: Standardized indicators for ART scale-up and treatment outcomes were examined for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, and Vietnam using data submitted by each country to the WHO/ The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/UNICEF joint framework tool for monitoring the health sector response to HIV/AIDS. Data on ART program practices were abstracted from National HIV Treatment Guidelines for each country. Results: At the end of 2009, over 700 000 HIV-infected persons were receiving ART in the nine focus countries. Treatment coverage varies widely in the region, ranging from 16 to 93%. All nine countries employ a public health approach to ART services and provide a standardized first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. Among patients initiated on first-line ART in these countries, 65–88% remain alive and on treatment 12 months later. Over 50% of mortality occurs in the first 6 months of therapy, and losses to follow-up range from 8 to 16% at 2 years. Conclusion: Impressive ART scale-up efforts in the region have resulted in significant improvements in survival among persons receiving therapy. Continued funding support and political commitment will be essential for further expansion of public sector ART services to those in need. To improve treatment outcomes, national programs should focus on earlier identification of persons requiring ART, decentralization of ART services, and the development of stronger healthcare systems to support the provision of a continuum of HIV care....Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, Asia Pacific, HIV, outcomes, scale-up, treatment
          Author/creator: Padmini Srikantiah, M, Massimo Ghidinelli, Damodar Bachani, Sanchai Chasombat, Esorom Daoni, Dyah E. Mustikawati, Do T. Nhan, Laxmi R. Pathak, Khin O. San, Mean C. Vun, Fujie Zhang, Ying-Ru Lo, Jai P. Narai
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "AIDS" 2010, 24 (suppl 3):S62–S71
          Format/size: pdf (170K - OBL; 218K - civiblog)
          Alternate URLs: http://him.civiblog.org/_attachments/4664609/paper%20in%20aids%20on%20scaling%20up%20art%20in%20asia.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) : The Impact Survey 2008
          Date of publication: 2009
          Description/subject: "Thailand has experienced some degree of success in preventing uncontrolled spread of HIV, and in providing effective care for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Nevertheless, HIV transmission is still occurring, especially among those less fortunate who migrate to seek economic opportunity. A prime example of this are the lower-income populations of some of Thailand’s neighbors who come to work on fishing boats or in the fishery industry of Thailand. The vulnerability of these populations comes from their relative lack of knowledge and understanding of HIV prevention and tendency to engage in higher risk sexual behavior than when in their home communities of origin. To address these vulnerabilities, the Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) was conceived and implemented by the Raks Thai Foundation in collaboration with six NGO partners including: Empower Foundation, the Foundation for AIDS Rights (FAR), World Vision Foundation/Thailand, the Stella Maris Seafarers Center, the MAP Foundation, and the Pattanarak Foundation. Funding for the Project was provided by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with the goal to lower the incidence of HIV among foreign migrant workers in Thailand through communication strategies to reduce risk behaviors and support access from migrants to general health and reproductive health services. The Project was implemented during 2003-2008. In order to independently assess the performance of the PHAMIT Project compared to its targets and objectives, the Raks Thai Foundation contracted with the Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) of Mahidol University to conduct a final Project evaluation in 2008. IPSR would like to express its gratitude to Mr. Promboon Panitchapakdi, Executive Director of the Raks Thai Foundation for entrusting this important evaluation to the researchers of IPSR. It is our hope that the findings of this evaluation will be of benefit to the Project implementers, the PHAMIT partners in the field who will continue to deliver the interventions, and to any persons interested in conducting evaluation research of this type."
          Author/creator: Aphichat Chamratrithirong Wathinee Boonchalaksi
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University
          Format/size: pdf (9.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


          Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Burmese
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (7.6 and 9.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Burmese-HighDef.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Karen
          Date of publication: December 2008
          Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
          Language: Karen
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (7.2 and 8.7MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Karen-HighDef.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


          Title: An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Conclusion: "Boatmen in Teknaf are an integral part of a high-risk sexual behaviour network between Myanmar and Bangladesh. They are at risk of obtaining HIV infection due to cross border mobility and unsafe sexual practices. There is an urgent need for designing interventions targeting boatmen in Teknaf to combat an impending epidemic of HIV among this group. They could be included in the serological surveillance as a vulnerable group. Interventions need to address issues on both sides of the border, other vulnerable groups, and refugees. Strong political will and cross border collaboration is mandatory for such interventions."
          Author/creator: Rukhsana Gazi, Alec Mercer, Tanyaporn Wansom, Humayun Kabir, Nirod Chandra Saha, Tasnim Azim
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:5
          Format/size: pdf (154K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/5
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: From “Public Hot Air” to “Public Strength”
          Date of publication: 02 April 2007
          Description/subject: A call for reform of UN agencies, including UNAIDS.
          Author/creator: Dr. Saw Lwin
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
          Format/size: pdf (50K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


          Title: "Health Messenger" No. 25 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
          Date of publication: September 2004
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: What is AIDS? A Short Introduction (Health Messenger Team); Clinical Aspects of HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Transmission of HIV (Health Messenger Team); Empowering Community Change - HIV/AIDS Prevention (Mary Yetter, OXFAM UK)... FROM THE FIELD: The HIV/AIDS Situation in Burma (Zaw Winn, Chiang Mai); Women Empowerment and HIV/AIDS (Dr Padma, AMI Myanmar); Community Care for People with HIV/AIDS World Vision HIV/AIDS Programme in Ranong (Dr Win Maung, World Vision Ranong)... TREATMENT: Treatments for people with HIV/AIDS (Nicolas Durier, MSF France)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counselling for HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team); Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with Maw Maw Zaw); Thai Youth Action Programs (Owen Elias, Thai Youth Action Programmes); Non-transmission routes of HIV... SOCIAL: Alcohol Abuse and HIV/AIDS (Pam Rogers, CARE Project); Social Impact and Underlying Causes of HIV/AIDS Epidemics (Julia Matthews, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children); CASE STUDY: IDUs and HIV: A Case study (Greg Manning)... INTERVIEW: An Interview with Honeymoon from KEWG (Health Messenger Team).
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


          Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
          Date of publication: 14 July 2004
          Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
          Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
          Format/size: pdf (853K)
          Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


          Title: Revisiting "The Hidden Epidemic
          Date of publication: January 2002
          Description/subject: "A Situation Assessment of Drug Use in Asia in thecontext of HIV/AIDS". Includes a section on Burma/Myanmar (see extract)
          Author/creator: Gary Reid, Genevieve Costigan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Centre for Harm Reduction, The Burnet Institute, Australia
          Format/size: PDF (912K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: MAP Report 2001: The Status and Trends of HIV/AIDS/STI epidemics in Asia and the Pacific
          Date of publication: 04 October 2001
          Description/subject: "HIV has been well established in Asia for many years. However, many countries have recorded relatively low rates of infection even in sub-populations with high-risk behaviour. At the time of the last MAP report on Asia from Kuala Lumpur in 1999, only Thailand, Myanmar, and Cambodia were reporting substantial nation wide epidemics, with a number of states in India and provinces in China also heavily affected. In the last two years, the picture has changed dramatically. Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal and Vietnam, for example, have all registered marked increases in HIV infection in recent years, while in China, home to a fifth of the world's people, the infection seems to be moving into new groups of the population..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: MAP (Monitoring the Aids Pandemic)
          Format/size: Download MS Word doc (688K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.thebody.com/content/art621.html
          http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/default.asp
          Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 9 -- Special Issue on STDs and HIV
          Date of publication: June 2000
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: STD and HIV/AIDS in Thailand and Myanmar (Dr. Ying-Ru Lo, WHO, Mrs. Laksami Suebsaeng, WHO); Syndromic Management Appoach : An Effective Way to STD Case Management (Health Messenger); Neonatal Conjunctivitis (Dr. Jerry Vincent, IRC); An introduction to HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger); HIV/AIDS Transmission and Non-Transmission Routes (Andrea Menefee, IRC); AIDS NEWS (Health Messenger)... SOCIAL: The link between STDs and HIV/AIDS: the medical and social causes (Health Messenger); Health and Human Rights (Christine Harmston, BRC)... DIAGNOSIS: Syndromic approach to identifying common STDs (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counseling, Information and Partner notification for STD patients (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); SawPaing and Nan Wai (Gordon Sharmar, WEAVE)... MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: Children and HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: The Karen Education Working Group (Ms. Honey Moon, KEWG)... PREVENTION: Prevention (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU).
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


          Title: MOBILITY AND HIV/AIDS IN THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION
          Date of publication: 2000
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: A. Introduction: 1. Greater Mekong Subregion Overview 2. Population Mobility in the GMS 3. HIV/AIDS in the GMS Countries 3.1 A Region with Two HIV/AIDS Epidemics 3.2 Causes of the Epidemics 3.3 Regional Responses 4. Objectives and Methodology of the Study 4.1 Literature Review 4.2 National and Regional Consultations 4.3 Analysis and Draft Report 4.4 Terms and definitions ….. B. Country Report: Cambodia: 1. Country Profile 2. Population Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal and International Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Population Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 Characteristics of the HIV Epidemic 4.2 Geographical Distribution of HIV/AIDS 4.3 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Migration and Mobility 4.4 Hot Spots for Mobile Population and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusion ….. C. Country Report: Lao People’s Democratic Republic: 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 The Thai-Lao Border Provinces 2.2 Farming in the Lowland Border Provinces 2.3 Emigrant Workers 2.4 Trafficking 2.5 Corridors of Development 2.6 Specific Mobile Population Groups ….. 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in the Lao PDR 4.1 HIV/AIDS Country Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. D. Country Report: Myanmar 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The Two Epidemics – Intravenous Drug Use and Sexual Transmission 4.2 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. E. Country Report: Vietnam 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups … 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The ‘Two Epidemics’ – IDUs and Sex Workers 4.2 Drug Use and HIV Vulnerability 4.3 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.4 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Population Mobility 4.6 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusions ….. F. Country Report: Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China: 1. Province and Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Intra-Provincial Mobility 2.2 Inter-Provincial Mobility 2.3 International Cross-Border Mobility 2.4 Trafficking and Human Smuggling 2.5 Specific Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in Yunnan and PRC 4.1 HIV/AIDS Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk Situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. G. Conclusion and Discussion: 1. Migration and Mobility 2. Gender and Vulnerability 3. Poverty and Development as Driving Forces for Development 4. The Dynamics of HIV Spread and Implications for Mobility 5. The Responses ….. Annex: Map 1: Major Population Mobility Trends & Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 2: Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 3: Progression of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 4: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 5: Spread of HIV Over Time in ASIA 1984 to 1999 ….. Bibliography ….. Persons and Organisations Consulted ….. List of Tables, Figures and Maps A. Introduction Table 1: HIV/AIDS Situation in the GMS Countries B. Cambodia Table 2: Country Profile – Cambodia Table 3: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Cambodia Table 4: HIV Seroprevalence Among Sentinel Groups in 1999 Table 5: HIV Prevalence in Selected Sentinel Groups Table 6: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Cambodia C. Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Table 7: Country Profile – Lao PDR Table 8: Establishments that Provide Sexual Services, and their Customers Table 9: Trucks Departing and Entering Lao PDR Table 10: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their Risk Situation in Lao PDR Table 11: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Lao PDR D. Myanmar Table 12: Country Profile – Myanmar Table 13: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Myanmar Figure 1: HIV Prevalence Among Military Recruits Figure 2: HIV Prevalence Among Pregnant Women Table 14: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Myanmar E. Vietnam Table 15: Country Profile – Vietnam Table 16: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Vietnam Table 17: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Vietnam F. Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 18: Country Profile – Yunnan Province and People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 19: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Yunnan Table 20: HIV Prevalence Rates for Injecting Drug Users 1992-1999 Table 21: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Yunnan … Maps 1. Major Population Mobility Trend and Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2. Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion 3. Progression of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion 4. Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 5. Spread of HIV Over Time in Asia 1984-1999
          Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Allan Beesey and Shakti Paul
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University
          Format/size: pdf (716.10 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-AIDSMekongregion-Myanmar.pdf
          http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/mobility.pdf
          http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/default.asp#contents
          http://www.adb.org/documents/books/hiv_aids/mobility/prelim.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 09 November 2010


        • Hepatitis

          Individual Documents

          Title: Control of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Myanmar: Public Health Issues
          Date of publication: 2002
          Description/subject: Abstract: "Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered an important health problem in Myanmar as surveys carried out among different population groups revealed HBsAg carrier rate of 10-12%. Health authorities have taken various steps to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated chronic liver disease in Myanmar. In that context, interruption of its route of transmission and immunization of the susceptible host are the two main approaches. Research studies indicate that the vertical route of transmission might be the commonest route in Myanmar, although the possibility of horizontal transmission through sharing of razors and toothbrushes, or local customs leading to iatrogenic transmission of HBV infection could exist. In view of that, public education on transmission of HBV and means of interrupting it should be carried out especially focusing on specific high-risk groups. Moreover, to interrupt mother-to-infant transmission of HBV infection, hepatitis B vaccination should be promoted. As Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) is a successful public health measure in Myanmar, incorporation of hepatitis B vaccine into the EPI programme will eventually lead to the control of hepatitis B infection in Myanmar."
          Author/creator: Myo Khin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation -- Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region (Volume 6, Number 2)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


          Title: Molecular Characteristic-Based Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, and E Viruses and GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus in Myanmar
          Date of publication: April 2001
          Description/subject: Abstract: We carried out a molecular characteristic-based epidemiological survey of various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and GB virus C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV), in Myanmar. The study population of 403 subjects consisted of 213 healthy individuals residing in the city of Yangon, Myanmar, and the surrounding suburbs and 190 liver disease patients (155 virus-related liver disease patients and 35 nonviral disease patients). The infection rates of the viruses among the 213 healthy subjects were as follows: 8% for HBV (16 patients), 2% for HCV (4 patients), and 8% for GBV-C/HGV (17 patients). In contrast, for 155 patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma, the infection rates were 30% for HBV (46 patients), 27% for HCV (41 patients), and 11% for GBV-C/HGV (17 patients). In the nonviral liver disease group of 35 patients with alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver, liver abscess, and biliary disease, the infection rates were 6% for HBV (2 patients), 20% for HCV (7 patients), and 26% for GBV-C/HGV (9 patients). The most common viral genotypes were type C of HBV (77%), type 3b of HCV (67%), and type 2 of GBV-C/HGV (67%). Moreover, testing for HEV among 371 subjects resulted in the detection of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 117 patients (32%). The age prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 3% for patients younger than 20 years and 30% or more for patients 20 years of age or older. Furthermore, a high prevalence of anti-HEV IgG (24%) was also found in swine living together with humans in Yangon. These results suggest that these hepatitis virus infections are widespread in Myanmar and have led to a high incidence of acute and chronic liver disease patients in the region. and Kenji Abe1,*
          Author/creator: Kazuhiko Nakai, Khin Maung Win, San San Oo,4 Yasuyuki Arakawa
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, April 2001, p. 1536-1539, Vol. 39, No. 4
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/39/4/1536.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Health Information in Burmese
          Description/subject: Hepatitis A Vaccine, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Childhood Immunization
          Language: Burmese,English
          Source/publisher: Refugee Health Information Network
          Format/size: pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.immunize.org/vis/bu_hib98.pdf (Childhood Immunization)
          http://www.immunize.org/vis/bu_hpa06.pdf (Hepatitis A)
          http://www.healthyroadsmedia.org/titles/burptsd.htm (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


        • Leprosy

          Individual Documents

          Title: Leprosy-free, but stigma still hurts
          Date of publication: 22 August 2010
          Description/subject: “PEOPLE are afraid of us; when I go into town they give me a dirty look,” says U Mg Mg Khin, 73, a leprosy patient at the Mayanchaung Welfare Centre, Halegu township, in Yangon Division. “I have to hide my hands and legs whenever I go into town.” The centre, which is about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from Yangon and located close to the Yangon-Naypyitaw highway, operates under the Department of Social Welfare and currently houses 56 former leprosy patients.
          Author/creator: Nilar Win
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: Leprosy Elimination in Myanmar, A Success Story
          Date of publication: 2006
          Description/subject: eprosy has been a major public health problem in Myanmar for many years. By the 1950s, Myanmar ranked as a country with one of the highest prevalence rates of the disease. The Government of Union of Myanmar had been fighting against the disease with the expertise and advice of the World Health Organization (WHO) and INGOs. WHO has closely supported the leprosy programme in Myanmar from the 1960s through several projects, as well as research to develop better preventive and curative methods against leprosy. WHO MDT was introduced in Myanmar in 1986. The leprosy prevalence at that time was 59.3 per 10,000 population with 222,209 registered leprosy cases in the country. Nationwide MDT Programme started in hyperendemic areas in 1988. The prevalence rate was 39.9 per 10,000 with 155,857 registered cases.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization, SEARO
          Format/size: pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section20/Section54_12168.htm
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: JICA continues support for leprosy eradication project
          Date of publication: 28 September 2003
          Description/subject: THE JAPAN International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has already spent 300 million Yen (K275 million) in its five-year pilot project in leprosy control and rehabilitation in Myanmar, a senior official with JICA said last week. “JICA implemented a pilot plan in April 2000 which will run until March 2005. So far we have spent about 100 million Yen (Kyats 915m) annually,” said Dr Yutaka Ishida, Chief Adviser, Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services. The JICA project covers 48 townships in Mandalay, Magwe and Sagaing divisions including the Special Skin Hospital and a leprosy community in Hlegu Township in Yangon Division.
          Author/creator: Khin Maung Soe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: A Million Smiles: Eliminating Leprosyin South-East Asia
          Date of publication: 2003
          Description/subject: Leprosy patients are humans with eyes seeing others smiling and laughing, with ears hearing jokes and laughter, and with faces that could smile and laugh, but who never laugh or smile once they have acquired the disease. Now with multi-drug therapy, they are smiling and laughing like others. Excerpts from “Thitsar Yaysin [Holy Truths]" by Chit San Win# * Introduction Leprosy is a disease recognized globally as a dreadful illness associated with the great social, mental, and physical suffering. In ancient days, people knew leprosy as “Kushtha” as it was termed in Sanskrit. The disease is supposed to be originated in India and spread around the world over 2 500 years ago.
          Author/creator: Than Sein, Kyaw Lwin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region(Volume 7,Number 1)
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Regional_Health_Forum_1.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: A STUDY ON COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES ON LEPROSY
          Date of publication: 2003
          Description/subject: Introduction: 1.1 Leprosy 1.2 History of leprosy 1.3 Stigma of leprosy 1.4 Health education 1.5 The global situation 1.6 Global strategy for the elimination of leprosy 1.7 Global strategy beyond the elimination phase 1.8 Leprosy in Singapore, Chapter 2 Review of Literature: 2.1 Community knowledge of leprosy 2.2 Beliefs and misconceptions about leprosy 2.3 Community attitudes towards leprosy 2.4 Measuring leprosy stigma 2.5 Community health practices 2.6 Effectiveness of interventions targeting knowledge and attitudes 2.7 Concluding remarks 2.8 Rationale for the study 2.9 Objectives, Chapter 3 Methodology: 3.1 Study design 3.2 Place of study 3.3 Study population 3.4 Sampling 3.5 Data collection 3.6 Interviewers 3.7 Pilot study 3.8 Data processing and analysis 3.9 Study variables 3.10 Minimizing errors 3.11 Ethical issues, Chapter 4 Results: 4.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.1.1 Socio-demographic variables 4.1.2 General information 4.1.3 Knowledge of leprosy 4.1.4 Misconceptions regarding leprosy 4.1.5 Attitudes towards leprosy patients 4.2 Statistical Analysis for Associations 4.2.1 Knowledge of leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.2 Beliefs regarding leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.3 Overall knowledge scores 4.2.4 Beliefs regarding the cause of leprosy by socio-demographic variables 4.2.5 Attitudes towards persons affected by leprosy 4.2.6 Overall attitudes scores 4.2.7 Median attitude scores 4.2.8 Relationship between overall knowledge, age, education and accommodation of the respondents with attitude score 4.2.9 Stigmatising attitudes towards leprosy.4.3. Stratified Analysis 4.3.1 Stratified analysis by age group 4.4. Multiple Regression Analysis, Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusions: 5.1 Main findings 5.2 Limitations of the present study 5.3 Interpretation of findings 5.4 Conclusions 5.5 Recommendations, Chapter 6 References Appendices: Annexe I Questionnaire, Annexe II Operational definitions
          Author/creator: PADMINI SUBRAMANIAM, MBBS.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Department of Community, Occupational & Family Medicine National University of Singapore
          Format/size: pdf (725.81 K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: Leprosy elimination programme in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2000
          Description/subject: Leprosy has been endemic in Myanmar since ancient times. The earliest information on the prevalence of leprosy in Myanmar came from a report by the Leprosy Commission in India published in 1893. During the census in 1891, 6464 cases or 8.4 per 10000 population were recorded in a population of 7.5 million. But the illness was diagnosed by enumerators without the knowledge of leprosy. Several surveys have been carried out since 1932 (Tha Saing-Santra) which indicated high prevalence in various parts of the country
          Author/creator: Dr. U Kyaw Lwin, M.B.,B.S.(Rgn)D, .P.H.(Canada)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: MJCMP
          Format/size: pdf (253.18 K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: The efficacy and tolerability of rifampicin in Burmese patients with lepromatous leprosy
          Date of publication: March 1978
          Description/subject: SUMMARY — Seventy-one Burmese adult patients with lepromatous leprosy were treated with various regimens of rifampicin monotherapy, 450 mg. daily for 60 days or 900 mg. once weekly for 12 weeks or 450 mg. daily for six months. Of the patients, 18 had relapsed after stopping DDS therapy, 20 were intolerant of DDS, 18 were DDS resistant and 15 had received no previous treatment. Rifampicin produced a 75% reduction in the size of skin nodules in two thirds of the patients and a complete disappearance of nodules in the others. After one month drug treatment the MI fell to zero but the BI remained unchanged. The once weekly regimen was as effective as the daily treatment. Four patients had to be withdrawn due to ENL reactions. NOTE:The contents of this paper were presented at the Burma Medical Conference, 1977.
          Author/creator: TIN SHWE, KYAW LWIN, KYO THWE
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Hansen. Int
          Format/size: pdf (298.66 K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: Leprosy page on WHO website
          Description/subject: Information about Leprosy including map of leprosy Myanmar Prevalence Rate/10,000 December 2005.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization, SEARO
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section20/Section54_12168.htm
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


        • Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis)

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis) - Wikipedia page
          Description/subject: "Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, "the elphant") is a syndrome that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. Elephantiasis generally results from obstructions of the lymphatic vessels. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: Thailand Under Threat
          Date of publication: June 2005
          Description/subject: How Burma’s dams project could spread disease... "When Nang A Cha, a Shan migrant, consulted a doctor in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, complaining of a fever and a swollen leg, the physician initially suspected malaria. A blood test ruled that out, but the young laboratory technician was still puzzled by what he saw under the microscope and sent the blood smear to his supervisor, a semi-retired man who had been trained in parasitology about 40 years previously. He was astounded by what he saw: for the first time in 30 years, he gazed at an old nemesis, an entity believed eradicated from urban Thailand. There was no mistaking the threadlike shadows in the blood smear: Wuchereria bancrofti, the parasite responsible for lymphatic filariasis, more colloquially known as elephantiasis, a term conjuring up images of grotesquely swollen limbs and severe disability. Lymphatic filariasis is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. Once inside the human host, the parasite resides in the lymphatic system, producing larvae which then migrate back to the blood and are subsequently picked up by mosquitoes to continue the infection cycle. Over time, progressive damage to the lymphatics causes obstructions and subsequent swelling from accumulation of lymph..."
          Author/creator: Withaya Huanok, MD
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


        • Malaria

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Malaria & Infectious Disease
          Description/subject: "In addition to recording the second most malaria deaths of any country in Southeast Asia, Myanmar is a regional epicenter of spreading resistance to vital anti-malarial drugs. The situation is worst in ethnic areas in the eastern, western and northern border regions, which receive little or no government health services and are inaccessible to large-scale international efforts. These regions are populated with displaced and vulnerable communities and rife with fake anti-malaria drugs, contributing to a growing reservoir of infection and a “perfect storm” of conditions to encourage increasing resistance to key artemisinin-based drugs. With in-depth mentoring and technical support from CPI, our local partners have conducted the only peer-reviewed surveys in this inaccessible region, demonstrating that malaria accounts for nearly half of all deaths, with a disproportionate impact on children and pregnant women: Nearly 15% of children will die before their fifth birthday, one-third from malaria, and malaria is the leading cause of maternal anemia, stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight.... For malaria-related articles and reports, see links at right"
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Community Partners International
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


          Title: Malaria control page from Global Health Access Program
          Description/subject: Burma records the most malaria deaths of any country in Southeast Asia, but preventive and curative services remain unavailable to the most vulnerable populations living in ethnic areas along the borders of India, China and Thailand. Since 2001 Planet Care/GHAP has increased the capacity of local ethnic health organizations to increase access for villagers to proven preventive and curative malaria interventions. Beginning with a modest pilot program among 1,800 Karen internally displaced peoples (IDPs) in four villages along the Thai-Burma border, effective malaria interventions now reach 60,000 villagers in about 140 villages along three of Burma's borders. The details of the program along each border, described below, are modified according to local guidelines, but are based on over four years of experience reducing malaria transmission along the Thai border.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Global Health Access Program
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


          Title: Malaria Situation in SEAR Countries: Myanmar
          Description/subject: "Malaria is one of the major public health problems with around 40.6 million people at risk. Although much of the population is at risk of malaria, the most vulnerable are non-immune migrant workers occupied with gem-mining in forests, logging, agriculture and construction. Annually, around 200,000 confirmed malaria cases and around 1200 malaria deaths are recorded every year. The Pf percentage of reported malaria cases are more than 75%. Malaria transmission in the country is perennial. About 60% of the total malaria cases are reported from forest areas. ITNs / LLINs are used as a main tool for vector control. IRS has been applied selectively to control epidemics only. For case detection in the areas not covered by microscopy, the Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) is used. Around 40% of the malaria cases are seeking treatment through the private sector...Myanmar has reported an increase in the number of confirmed malaria cases from 120,029 in 2000 to 447,073 in 2008 and 414,008 in 2009 respectively (Fig.1). This increase in reported confirmed cases was mainly due to increase in the case finding activities (including use of RDT). As a result reported number of probable malaria cases are decreasing. The percentage of P. falciparum cases has increased from 80% in 2000 to 97% in 2008 and 91% in 2009 (as almost all RDTs are used to detect Pf cases only). The number of malaria admissions and malaria attributed deaths declined from 85,409 and 2752 respectively in 2000 to 47,772 and 972 respectively in 2009. Amongst inpatient admissions, the proportion of malaria cases declined from 16% in 2000 to 6-7% and of all admissions in 2008-09. These statistics suggest that there is some improvement in the malaria situation in the country. However, the reasons behind these trends, such as improved diagnostic practices or the effect of increased use of ACTs (Fig2), are not clear. Between 2007 and 2009 2.28 million ITNs were delivered(Fig3)..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


          Title: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU)
          Description/subject: SMRU was established in 1986 in Shoklo. It is a field station of the faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, and is part of the Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit (MORU) supported by the Wellcome Trust (UK)... Location: The S.M.R.U base is in Mae Sot and the activities extend to the populations living along the Thai-Myanmar border... Beneficiaries: Population living along the border, including refugees and other migrants... Objectives: 1. To treat and care for patients with malaria.... 2. To define the epidemiology, entomology, and clinical features of malaria in this area of low (unstable) transmission, and to determine the best methods of prevention and treatment... 3. To advise the Thai Medical Institutions and the Non Governmental Organisations involved in the treatment and the control of malaria in the South East Asia region. Project Objectives: The projects are designed to be of direct benefit to the local community, and also to provide information useful to other populations living in malaria endemic areas elsewhere in the world through publications in mainstream international scientific journals... Project Areas: 1. Malaria in Pregnancy and Infancy; 2. Malaria treatment studies; 3. Entomology; 4. HIV/Aids awareness and prevention of vertical transmission; 5. Nutrition and Anaemia; 6. Laboratory studies; 7. Control of malaria and detection of epidemics along the border..." ...Very useful site with news, abstracts of publications -- not full text, unfortunately)-- Substantial "Laboratory Manual for Laboratory Technician Training" and other training documents in Burmese and English..."
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


          Title: Wikipedia Malaria Page
          Description/subject: * 1 History * 2 Symptoms * 3 Mechanisms of the disease o 3.1 Mosquitoes o 3.2 The malarial parasite * 4 Diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 Prevention and disease control o 6.1 Prophylactic drugs o 6.2 Mosquito eradication o 6.3 DDT Insecticide o 6.4 Economics o 6.5 Mosquito Nets and Prevention of mosquito bites o 6.6 Vaccination * 7 Social and economic impacts of malaria * 8 References * 9 External links o 9.1 Vaccine and other research o 9.2 DDT o 9.3 Animations, images and photos
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Individual Documents

          Title: WHO warns about surge in drug-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia
          Date of publication: 27 September 2012
          Description/subject: The World Health Organization said Thursday that governments in the Mekong region must act “urgently” to stop the spread of drug-resistant malaria which has emerged in parts of Vietnam and Myanmar. There is growing evidence that the malaria parasite is becoming resistant to a frontline treatment, the anti-malarial drug artemisinin, in southern and central Vietnam and in southeastern Myanmar, the WHO said in a statement.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: rawstory.com
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 29 September 2012


          Title: "Drug resistant malaria spreads"
          Date of publication: 05 April 2012
          Description/subject: "New research shows that artemisinin-resistant malaria has emerged and increased rapidly along the Thailand-Myanmar border, with implications for the regions containment strategy" - "The Lancet"....For the full text of "The Lancet" article, go to http://www.thelancet.com and search for Artemisinin-resistant malaria - you will need to register to read it - free...The other article, in "Science" of 6 April can be accessed at http://www.sciencemag.org -- similar search, but you have to pay to register.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: AFP via "Bangkok Post" from "The Lancet" 5 April and "Science" 6 April
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/search?num=100&hl=en&safe=off&q=artemisinin-resistant+malaria+April+2012&oq=artemisinin-resistant+malaria+April+2012&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_l=serp.12...13071l28934l0l31759l12l12l0l0l0l0l228l1845l1j9j2l12l0.frgbld. (Google search results for artemisinin-resistant malaria April 2012)
          Date of entry/update: 08 April 2012


          Title: Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Regional and Country Profiles
          Date of publication: 28 April 2010
          Description/subject: Acknowledgements ... Abbreviations ... Regional Profi le of Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion ... 1. Background and epidemiology 2. National Malaria Control Programmes 3. Key challenges facing malaria control in the Region 4. International partners in malaria control in the GMS ... Country Profiles: Cambodia 1. Epidemiological profi le 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... China–Yunnan province 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Lao PDR 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Myanmar 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Thailand 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Viet Nam 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Annex I: Approved GFATM Malaria Proposals for the Greater Mekong Subregion
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEAR, WPR
          Format/size: pdf (990.83 K- full text; 73K - Myanmar section)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Malaria_in_the_GMS-Myanmar.pdf (extract on Myanmar)
          Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


          Title: New strain of malaria hits Thailand (Video)
          Date of publication: 01 April 2010
          Description/subject: "A drug-resistant strain of the disease malaria - first detected about 18 months ago near the Thailand-Cambodia border - is now showing up again along Thailand's border with Myanmar. Many patients in the region taking anti-malarial drugs are now taking much longer to respond to treatment. Medics fear the resistant strain could eventually spread to Africa, where most of the world's malaria cases and deaths occur. Aela Callan reports from a clinic near the Thai town of Mae Sot on the border with Myanmar."
          Author/creator: Aela Callan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Aljazeera
          Format/size: Adobe Flash (2 minutes 37 seconds)
          Date of entry/update: 29 April 2010


          Title: Internally displaced human resources for health: villager health worker partnerships to scale up a malaria control programme in active conflict areas of eastern Burma
          Date of publication: 17 November 2008
          Description/subject: "Approaches to expand malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict are urgently needed. Despite international agreement regarding the imperative to control malaria in eastern Burma, there are currently no large-scale international malaria programmes operating in areas of active conflict. A local ethnic health department demonstrated that village health workers are capable of implementing malaria control interventions among internally displaced persons (IDPs). This paper describes how these internally displaced villagers facilitated rapid expansion of the programme. Clinic health workers received training in malaria diagnosis and treatment, vector control and education at training sites along the border. After returning to programme areas inside Burma, they trained villagers to perform an increasingly comprehensive set of interventions. This iterative training strategy to increase human resources for health permitted the programme to expand from 3000 IDPs in 2003 to nearly 40,000 in 2008. It was concluded that IDPs are capable of delivering essential malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict in eastern Burma. In addition, health workers in this area have the capacity to train community members to take on implementation of such interventions. This iterative strategy may provide a model to improve access to care in this population and in other conflict settings..." Keywords: internally displaced persons; village health workers; human rights; human resources for health; malaria control
          Author/creator: C.I. Lee, L.S. Smith, E.K. Shwe Oo, B.C. Scharschmidt, E. Whichard, Thart Kler, T.J. Leea, and A.K. Richards,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Global Public Health Vol. 00, No. 0,
          Format/size: pdf (93K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Malaria-VHW%20Paper%20MCP.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


          Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
          Date of publication: June 2008
          Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


          Title: SMRU Malaria Handout (English and Burmese)
          Date of publication: November 2007
          Description/subject: "The 15th Edition of SMRU Malaria handout: English and Burmese Edition (November 2007) prepared for the NGOs working along the Thai-Burma border and other groups confronting malaria in the region. It is composed of short summaries on treatment of uncomplicated malaria and of uncomplicated hyperparasitaemia, treatment of severe malaria and malaria in pregnancy."
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
          Format/size: pdf (656K- English; 182K - Burmese)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.shoklo-unit.com/smru_meeting/SMRU_Malaria_Handout_Burmese_version_15_Edition.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


          Title: Prevalence of plasmodium falciparum in active conflict areas of eastern Burma: a summary of cross-sectional data
          Date of publication: 05 September 2007
          Description/subject: Abstract: :Background: Burma records the highest number of malaria deaths in southeast Asia and may represent a reservoir of infection for its neighbors, but the burden of disease and magnitude of transmission among border populations of Burma remains unknown. Methods: Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) parasitemia was detected using a HRP-II antigen based rapid test (Paracheck-Pf®). Pf prevalence was estimated from screenings conducted in 49 villages participating in a malaria control program, and four retrospective mortality cluster surveys encompassing a sampling frame of more than 220,000. Crude odds ratios were calculated to evaluate Pf prevalence by age, sex, and dry vs. rainy season. Results: 9,796 rapid tests were performed among 28,410 villagers in malaria program areas through four years (2003: 8.4%, 95% CI: 8.3 – 8.6; 2004: 7.1%, 95% CI: 6.9 – 7.3; 2005:10.5%, 95% CI: 9.3 – 11.8 and 2006: 9.3%, 95% CI: 8.2 – 10.6). Children under 5 (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.93 – 2.06) and those 5 to 14 years (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 2.18 – 2.29) were more likely to be positive than adults. Prevalence was slightly higher among females (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.06) and in the rainy season (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16 – 1.88). Among 5,538 rapid tests conducted in four cluster surveys, 10.2% were positive (range 6.3%, 95% CI: 3.9 – 8.8; to 12.4%, 95% CI: 9.4 – 15.4). Conclusion: Prevalence of plasmodium falciparum in conflict areas of eastern Burma is higher than rates reported among populations in neighboring Thailand, particularly among children. This population serves as a large reservoir of infection that contributes to a high disease burden within Burma and likely constitutes a source of infection for neighboring regions."
          Author/creator: Adam K Richards, Linda Smith, Luke C Mullany, Catherine I Lee, Emily Whichard, Kristin Banek, Mahn Mahn, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, and Thomas J Lee
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 01 January 2008


          Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
          Date of publication: July 2007
          Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
          Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
          Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


          Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
          Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
          Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
          Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: Evaluation of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) therapy in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indo-Myanmar border areas
          Date of publication: May 2005
          Description/subject: Summary: Chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) are two first-line antimalarials used under the existing Indian National Drug Policy in the north-eastern region of India bordering several countries including Myanmar. Although widespread resistance to antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum has been reported from western Myanmar, information from the Indian side of the border is scarce. We studied the therapeutic response to CQ and SP at four sites in Changlang and Lohit, two administrative districts of Arunachal Pradesh bordering Myanmar. We monitored uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients after treatment with standard regimens of CQ and SP for 28 days following the revised in-vivo protocol of the World Health Organization. A total of 236 patients, 95 in the CQ group and 141 in the SP group, participated. We recorded 23.8% early treatment failures to CQ and 14.1% to SP; late clinical failures of 14.3 and 12.6%; late parasitological failures of 10.7 and 8.1% and adequate clinical and parasitological responses of 51.2 and 65.2%, respectively. The significantly different treatment failure rates seen in Chowkham (furthest from Indo-Myanmar border) and Jairampur/Nampong (nearest to Indo-Myanmar border) for chloroquine (Cox proportion hazard ratio 9.1, P < 0.0001) and SP (Cox proportion hazard ratio 7.35, P ¼ 0.001) denote a non-response gradient to the two antimalarials extending from the international border. The gradient is probably indicative of the direction of movement of the drug-resistant P. falciparum parasite. The utility of chloroquine as the first-line drug under the present National Drug Policy in these areas needs reconsideration... Keywords: antimalarial, drug resistance, in-vivo sensitivity, border area malaria, chloroquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, therapeutic failure
          Author/creator: P. K. Mohapatra, Anil Prakas, K. Taison, K. Negmu, A. C. Gohain, N. S. Namchoom, D. Wange, D. R. Bhattacharyya , B. K. Goswami, B. K. Borgohain, J. Mahanta
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "Tropical Medicine & International Health" Volume 10, Issue 5, pages 478–483, May 2005
          Format/size: pdf (121K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Overivew of malaria control activities and programme progress - Myanmar country profile
          Date of publication: 27 April 2005
          Description/subject: "...Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Myanmar and is reported as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. A major risk group is non-immune adult migrants in forests who work in gem mining, logging, agriculture, plantations and construction. In addition to their lack of immunity against clinical malaria, migrant workers are also vulnerable to poor access to laboratory and treatment services and language barriers. As a result, about 70% of reported malaria cases in Myanmar are olde than 15 years of age, and about 60% of cases are related to forestry work. Myanmar experienced 56 malaria outbreaks between 1991 and 2000, with international migration being the most important factor of those outbreaks. Given poor access to health care in remote areas where most cases originate, the total malaria burden is likely to be much higher than reported. Moreover, self-treatment is common, and malaria reporting does not include cases treated in the private sector or through traditional medicine practices..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


          Title: GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH: AN ANALYSIS OF MALARIA AND PUBLIC HEALTH LAW IN BURMA
          Date of publication: September 2002
          Description/subject: With a Pilot Study on the Right to Health in Constitution. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master's in Law (LL.M) Table of Contents: Chapter I: Introduction... Chapter II: Malaria As Public Health Problem Globally and in Burma: 2.2 Malaria as a Global Public Health Problem; 2.2.1Basic Description of Malaria as a Disease; 2.3 The Global Disease Burden of Malaria; 2.3.1 Epidemiological Data; 2.3.2 Economic Cost of Malaria; 2.3.3 The Causal Factors Behind Malaria's Global Disease Burden; 2.3.3.1Health System Failure; 2.3.3.2 Drug Resistance; 2.3.3.3 Population Movement; 2.3.3.4 Deteriorating; 2.3.3.5 Poverty; 2.3.3.6 Environmental Degradation 2.4 Malaria as a Public Health Problem in Burma 2.4.1 The Burden of Malaria in Burma; 2.4.2 Causal Factors Behind Burma's Growing Malaria Problem; 2.4.2.1 Political Instability and Oppression; 2.4.2.2 Failure of the Burmese Public Health and Healthcare System; 2.4.2.3 Environmental Degradation Along Burma Frontier... Chapter III: Law, Public Health and Malaria in Burma: 3.2 Law and Public Health; 3.2.1 Public Health as a Government Responsibility; 3.2.2 Law as Critical to the Public Health Endeavor; 3.3 Gostin's Definition and Theory of Public Health; 3.3.1 Gostin's Definition of Public Health Law 3.3.2 Gostin's Theory of Public Health Law; 3.3.2.1 The Government; 3.2.2 Populations; 3.3.2.3 Relationships; 3.3.2.4 Services; 3.3.2.5 Coercion; 3.4 Law, Public Health, and Malaria Control in Burma; 3.4.1Burma and the Rule of Law; 3.4.2 Burmese Definition of Public Health Law; 3.4.2.1 Government; 3.4.2.2 Populations; 3.4.2.3 Relationships; 3.4.2.4 Services; 3.4.2.5 Coercion; 3.5 Lessons Learned from Applying Gostin's Theory of Public Health Law to Malaria Control in Burma... Chapter IV: Current Malaria Governance Initiatives: From the Global to the Local: 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Initiatives on Global Health Governance for Malaria; 4.2.1 What is �Global Health Governance'? 4.2.2 Global Malaria Initiatives; 4.2.2.1 WHO's Roll Back Malaria; 4.2.2.2 Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Malaria Drug and Vaccine Developmen;t 4.2.2.3 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; 4.3 Global Malaria Initiatives and National Malaria Governance in Burma; 4.3.1 Burma and the Roll Back Malaria Campaign; 4.3.2 Burma and the Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Malaria Drug and Vaccine Development; 4.3.3 Burma and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; 4.4 Conclusion... Chapter V: The Need for The Right to Health: Burma New Constitution: 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 The Right to Health in International Law; 5.3 The Right to Health in Constitutional Law; 5.3.1 Why the Right to Health in Constitutional Law? 5.3.2 The Right to Health in the South African Constitution; 5.3.2.1 Soobramoney v. Minister of Health, KwaZulu-Natal; 5.3.2.2 Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), et al (Applicants) v. Minister of Health, et al (Respondents); 5.4 Building the Right to Health into the New Burmese Constitution; 5.4.1 Why Analyze the Draft Constitution?; 5.4.2 Analysis of the Lack of Specific Public Health Provisions in the Draft Constitution; 5.4.3 A Potential Right to Health Provision for the New Burmese Constitution; 5.5 Conclusion; Chapter VI: Conclusion...BIBLIOGRAPHY... APPENDICIES: A. Soobramoney v Minister of Health (Kwazulu-Natal) in Constitutional Court of South Africa, CCT32/97 (27 November 1997) http://www.concourt.gov.za/date1997.html; B. Minister of Health v Treatment Action Campaign in Constitutional Court of South Africa, CCT8/02 (5 July 2002) http://www.concourt.gov.za/date2002.html; C. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa: Chapter II, Bill of Rights; D. The Draft Constitution of the (Future) Federal Union of Burma Drafted by National Council of the Union of Burma: Chapter II, Basis Rights; E. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)... CV.
          Author/creator: Amaya
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Indiana University School of Law Graduate Legal Studies Department
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2004


          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 16 -- Special Issue on Malaria
          Date of publication: May 2002
          Description/subject: FROM THE FIELD: Participatory Learning and Action for Community-Based Malaria Control (James Hopkins, Kenan Institute Asia)... GENERAL HEALTH: Population Movement and Malaria (Dr. Naw Nhai. M, SMRU); Fake Artesunate in Southeast Asia : A Murderous Trade (Stephane Proux, S.M.R.U)...MATRERNITH & CHILD HEALTH: Malaria in Pregnancy : Important Issues (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); Diagnosis of Malaria (Sarika Pattanasin. Lab technician, S.M.R.U.)... CASE STUDY: The Problem of Presumptive Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria (Lucy Phaipun, SMRU); Important Issues Regarding Treatment of Malaria in Small Children (Lucy Phaiphun, SMRU)...HEALTH EDUCATION: The Importance of Completing Anti-malarial Treatment (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU); Daw Shwe Mi's Lessons (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU).
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
          Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


          Title: IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ISOLATES FROM MYANMAR TO ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS
          Date of publication: 2001
          Description/subject: Abstract. In vitro drug susceptibility profiles were assessed in 75 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 4 sites in Myanmar. Except at Mawlamyine, the site closest to the Thai border, prevalence and degree of resistance to mefloquine were lower among the Myanmar isolates as compared with those from Thailand. Geometric mean concentration that inhibits 50% (IC50) and 90% (IC90) of Mawlamyine isolates were 51 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 40–65) and 124 nM (95% CI, 104–149), respectively. At the nearest Thai site, Maesod, known for high-level multidrug resistance, the corresponding values for mefloquine IC50 and IC90 were 92 nM (95% CI, 71–121) and 172 nM (95% CI, 140– 211). Mefloquine susceptibility of P. falciparum in Myanmar, except for Mawlamyine, was consistent with clinicalparasitological efficacy in semi-immune people. High sensitivity to artemisinin compounds was observed in this geographical region. The data suggest that highly mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum is concentrated in a part of the Thai-Myanmar border region.
          Author/creator: CHANSUDA WONGSRICHANALAI, KHIN LIN, LORRIN W. PANG, M. A. FAIZ, HARALD NOEDL
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: Treating Thousands of Malaria Patients
          Date of publication: 01 November 2000
          Description/subject: From the MSF 2000 International Activity Report. MSF has been working in Burma since 1992. International staff: 31, National staff: 192. Treatment of Malaria, AIDS prevention
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Influence of blister packaging on the efficacy of artesunate + mefloquine over artesunate alone in community-based treatment of nonsevere falciparum malaria in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 1998
          Description/subject: Three studies were carried out to determine the need, acceptability, and efficacy of adding mefloquine to artemisinin derivatives (AD) for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The first was a retrospective study of 255 basic health workers which showed that their recommendation ofAD to patients depended on their level of training. None of the paramedics/midwives and only 9% of 129 doctors had prescribed AD, and no one had recommended AD in combination with mefloquine; 72% of patients used courses that were too short for parasitological cure. To promote the addition of mefloquine to AD regimens we conducted intervention workshops with health care providers and subsidized the cost of mefloquine to patients. In the second study, we interviewed 200 patients before and after the intervention to evaluate drug compliance with fulidoses ofAD and use of subsidized mefloquine. After the intervention, we found that only 3.6% had used mefloquine and 62% had taken non-curative doses of AD. In the third study, we provided blister packs of medication in daily doses and compared the intake ofAD + placebo (158 patients) with that ofAD + mefloquine (222 patients) for 5 days. The compliance with both regimens was 99%. Blood smears for parasites on day 28 showed one positive in the AD + mefloquine group and 7 positive in the AD group. We conclude that provision of blister packs of daily doses is a very effective way to improve compliance with short courses and drug combinations, but the efficacy of the combination in Myanmar in this particular study was only marginally higher than that of AD alone.
          Author/creator: Tin Shwe, Myint Lwin, Soe Aung
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Word Health Organizaton
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


        • SARS

          Individual Documents

          Title: Auf beunruhigend niedrigem Niveau - das marode staatliche Gesundheitssystem
          Date of publication: September 2003
          Description/subject: Die Menschen in Burma haben wirklich Glück, dass das SARS-Virus an dem Land praktisch vorbeigezogen ist. Die meisten Beobachter stimmen zweifellos zu, dass Burma bereits ein sehr ernstes Problem mit der Volksgesundheit hat und über ein staatliches Gesundheitssystem verfügt, welches eindeutig nicht in der Lage ist, ernsthaft etwas dagegen zu unternehmen. Der Ausbruch einer so schweren Epidemie wie SARS hätte das System völlig zerschlagen und eine Katastrophe ausgelöst. Privatiserung, Militarisierung und Politisierung der Gesundheit Keys: public health system, militarization and politization of health, privatisation of public services
          Author/creator: Alfred Oehlers and Alice Khin Saw Win, Deutsch von Stefanie Hensengerth
          Language: Deutsch, German
          Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 19, Nr. 3 - Asienhaus
          Format/size: pdf (12K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 January 2004


        • Sexually-transmitted diseases

          Individual Documents

          Title: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks
          Date of publication: 25 February 2010
          Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 25, 2010 (IPS) - When Aye Aye (not her real name) leaves her youngest son at home each night, she tells him that she has to work selling snacks. But what Aye actually sells is sex so that her 12-year-old son, a Grade 7 student, can finish his education.
          Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: IPS
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: A ‘climate of fear’ at the Thai-Burma border
          Date of publication: 03 February 2010
          Description/subject: The oppressive regime running Burma has both forced many Burmese into displaced person camps in Thailand. Young Burmese people are particularly vulnerable, especially due to issues such as sexual health education and trafficking. By any account, Burma is a beautiful, naturally rich country with a diverse ethnic history. It is also run by one of the most oppressive regimes in the world, the State Peace and Development Council, an 11-member group of military commanders. This junta, in power under different names since 1988, has been cited for countless human rights abuses. The SPDC also oversees a corrupt, inefficient economy. In spite of the country’s natural wealth, social-economic conditions continue to deteriorate, along with Burma’s schools and hospitals.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conversation for A Better World
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


          Title: Family Planning Factsheet in Burmese
          Description/subject: Diaphragms Factsheet - Emergency Contraception Factsheet - The Contraceptive Implant Factsheet - The Contraceptive Injection (DMPA) Factsheet - The Contraceptive Pill Factsheet - The Copper IUD Factsheet - The Male Condom Factsheet - The Minipill or Progestogen-Only Pill (POP) Factsheet - The Progestogen IUD Factsheet - The Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing®) Factsheet - Other: Menstruation (Periods) Factsheet - Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs) Factsheet -
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Family Planning NSW
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


        • Tuberculosis and other lung/respiratory tract diseases

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: GANFYD tuberculosis page
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: GANFYD
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 22 March 2008


          Title: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Myanmar Progress, Plans and Challenges
          Description/subject: "The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 9,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases occur in Myanmar each year. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has been reported since 2007. In 2011, only 2% of MDR-TB cases received adequate diagnosis, treatment and care. Undiagnosed or mismanaged MDR-TB cases lead to further spread of the disease. he Ministry of Health is committed to ighting MDR-TB. In 2009 the National TB Programme (NTP) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) launched an MDR-TB pilot project in 10 townships in Yangon and Mandalay. Following excellent initial results, the NTP is taking MDR-TB management to scale. The 2011-2015 MDR-TB expansion plan will enable treatment of nearly 10,000 MDR-TB cases in 100 townships. he total cost of scaling up MDR-TB managemen is US$ 55 million, out of which US$ 41 million is yet to be raised. While the top priority remains preventing MDR-TB by sustaining and improving basic TB control, the Ministry of Health is working with technical and inancial partners towards the goal of universal access to MDR-TB diagnosis, treatment and care..."
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


          Title: Prevention and control of Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (including TB-HIV)
          Description/subject: Providing technical assistance to the National TB Programme (NTP), particularly on: * developing TB control policies and strategies; * building capacity to sustain, improve and further intensify Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) implementation; * scaling up and strengthening inter-sectoral partnerships for DOTS; * improving community awareness and utilization of DOTS; * addressing HIV related TB and anti-TB drug resistance under programme conditions; * measuring progress towards Millennium Development Goals; * designing and disseminating information, education and communication messages; * improving operational research to strengthen DOTS implementation, together with the Department of Medical Research. * Facilitating partnership, including with the Global TB Drug Facility. * Providing technical expertise to the joint programme implementation through Technical Working Group on TB. * Disseminating scientific information. * Organizing external two-yearly review of the NTP. * Advocacy and raising commitment for TB control. * Resource mobilization for TB and TB-HIV. * In-country presence of WHO Advisor for TB and TB-HIV.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: WHO Myanmar
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


          Title: Tobacco Free Initiative Myanmar page on WHO
          Description/subject: Fact sheets and reports from Global Health Professionals Survey.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEARO
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469.htm
          http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2475.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


          Title: Wikipedia tuberculosis pages
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 14 March 2008


          Individual Documents

          Title: Myanmar cures 130,000 TB patients in 2009
          Date of publication: 25 May 2010
          Description/subject: YANGON, March 25 — Myanmar is seeking new drugs, diagnosis and vaccine to fight tuberculosis (TB), the deadly disease that is on the rise again. The measures also covers promoting the anti-TB campaign with the cooperation of partners, fighting TB through primary healthcare and disseminating public health knowledge, official daily the New Light of Myanmar said Thursday. The paper quoted an annual report of the health ministry as saying that Myanmar was able to find and cure over 130,000 TB patients in 2009, meeting the millennium goal of the United Nations as discovery rate reached 94 percent and treatment success rate hit 85 percent.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Balita.ph
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://balita.ph/2010/05/10/myanmar-upgrades-labs-in-anti-tb-efforts/
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
          Date of publication: June 2008
          Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


          Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
          Date of publication: 14 March 2008
          Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
          Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
          Format/size: pdf (170K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
          Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


          Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
          Date of publication: July 2007
          Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
          Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
          Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


          Title: Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection
          Date of publication: 12 April 2007
          Description/subject: This article assesses whether social franchising of tuberculosis (TB) services in Myanmar has succeeded in providing quality treatment while ensuring equity in access and financial protection for poor patients. Newly diagnosed TB patients receiving treatment from private general practitioners (GPs) belonging to the franchise were identified. They were interviewed about social conditions, health seeking and health care costs at the time of starting treatment and again after 6 months follow-up. Routine data were used to ascertain clinical outcomes as well as to monitor trends in case notification.
          Author/creator: # Knut Lönnroth, Tin Aung, Win Maung, Hans Kluge and Mukund Uplekar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine via Health Policy and Planning
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/156.full.pdf+html
          Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


          Title: STUDY OF DRUG RESISTANT CASES AMONG NEW PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS ATTENDING A TUBERCULOSIS CENTER, YANGON, MYANMAR
          Date of publication: January 2007
          Description/subject: Abstract: "A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at a tuberculosis center, Yangon, Myanmar from October 2003 to July 2004 to analyze the drug susceptibility of new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 202 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were tested for resistance to isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin and ethambutol. Resistance to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug was documented in 32 (15.8%) isolates. Monoresistance (resistance to one drug) was noted in 15 (7.4%) isolates and poly-resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was noted in 17 (9.4%) isolates, including 8 (4.0%) multi-drug resistant isolates (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin). Total resistance to individual anti-tuberculosis drugs were: isoniazid (29, 14.3%), streptomycin (11, 5.4%), rifampicin (10, 4.9%) and ethambutol (1, 0.5%). The demographic data and possible contributing factors of drug resistance were evaluated among the drug resistant patients. Poly-resistant cases had significantly longer intervals between symptom appearance and achieving effective anti-tuberculosis treatment than mono-resistant cases (p = 0.015)."
          Author/creator: Wah Wah Aung, Ti Ti, Kyu Kyu Than, Myat Thida, Mar Mar Nyein, Yin Yin Htun, Win Maung,Aye Htun
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH Vol 38 No. 1 January 2007
          Format/size: pdf (46K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


          Title: Report on Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) 2007 in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: Summary: Myanmar as a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control had adopted the Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Products Law in 2006 which came into effect in May, 2007. Ministry of Health has been implementing tobacco control activities in collaboration with related ministries; school-based tobacco control activities are being conducted in coordination with the Ministry of Education. Myanmar conducted Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS) in 2001, 2004 and 2007 and the Global School Personnel Surveys (GSPS) in 2004 and 2007. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. The GSPS is also a school-based survey of all school personnel from the schools that the GYTS was conducted. The GYTS and GSPS were conducted as a nation-wide survey in Myanmar. Between 2001 and 2007, a significant reduction in the proportion of students currently smoked cigarettes is observed (a fall from overall prevalence among 13-15 year olds of 10.2% to 4.9%) but reported use of other tobacco products had increased during the period from 5.7% to 14.1%. Over the period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places did not change and stayed significantly high. There is very high demand from these children to ban smoking in public places (almost 90% of the children expressed this desire in both years). The ability to purchase cigarettes in a store had reduced significantly from 72.9% to 23.7%; percent who have been offered “free “cigarettes by a tobacco company had also reduced significantly from 17.1% to 8.7%. There is no change in percent of students receiving education on dangers of tobacco. There was relatively high prevalence of tobacco use among male school personnel ( 17% daily chewers, 22% occasional chewers ) ( 7.4% daily cigarette smokers, 29% occasional cigarette smoker)( 15% daily cheroot smokers and 18.4% occasional cheroot smokers). Schools had policy prohibiting tobacco use among students as well as students inside school buildings and on school premises, but enforcement was weak, especially for school personnel. Only one third of the school personnel had received training on prevention of tobacco use among youth.
          Author/creator: Dr. Nyo Nyo Kyaing
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEARO /New Delhi
          Format/size: pdf (125.50 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2480_14190.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


          Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 33 -- special issue on Communicable Disease Control
          Date of publication: September 2006
          Description/subject: Introduction: Overview of Communicable Diseases; Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; Principles of Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases... Disease Control Tools: Basic Concepts of Health Measurement/Disease Frequency in Epidemiology... Different Approaches: 4Role in Prevention, One Example of Immunization: Measles; Outline of Surveillance and Response Plans: Bird flu in Thailand; How to Break the Chain of Transmission: Tuberculosis; Steps in Outbreak Management: Meningitis; Dealing with Drug Resistance: Malaria; Fighting Against Vectors: An Example of Mosquito Control... From the Field: 100 HIV/AIDS Control: A Comprehensive Approach; Highly Active Anti Retro Viral Therapy (HAART): Adherence and Influencing Factors; Community Education on Birdflu: A Method of Participatory Learning and Action.
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (6MB - low res; 50MB - original)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.sylvainsilleran.com/index_ngo4.html
          Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


          Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 31 -- special issue on Acute Respiratory Infections
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Structures and functions of respiratory tract; Bird flu at a glance� DIAGNOSIS: Clinical approach to children with cough and/or difficulty breathing Clinical features of acute upper respiratory tract infections; Acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs� MANAGEMENT: Treatment of acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs; How to deal with an acute asthma patient? Coping with common cold and flu� FROM THE FIELD: Pneumonia case study; Recurrent respiratory infections in children� PREVENTION: Prophylaxis of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in HIV-AIDS; Glossary... Obese file in course of treatment
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (36.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 02 July 2007


          Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
          Date of publication: March 2006
          Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
          Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
          Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
          Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


          Title: THE GLOBAL FUND TERMINATES GRANTS TO MYANMAR
          Date of publication: 19 August 2005
          Description/subject: New Government Restrictions Make Grant Implementation Impossible Geneva - Given new restrictions recently imposed by the government of Myanmar, the Global Fund has concluded that its grants to the country cannot be managed in a way that ensures effective program implementation. As a result the Global Fund yesterday terminated its grant agreements to Myanmar. The decision means that three grants, one each for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, with a total value of US$ 35.7 million over two years, will be phased out by the end of the year. The decision has been taken after consultations with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which is the Principal Recipient of Global Fund grants in Myanmar. The Principal Recipient is responsible for grant implementation in the country.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.theglobalfund.org/content/pressreleases/pr_050819_factsheet.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


          Title: A Global Youth Tobacco Study among 8th, 9th and 10th Grade Students in Myanmar, 2004
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: OBJECTIVES: This report aims to describe the prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use as well as information on five determinants of tobacco use of 8th, 9th and 10th students in Myanmar: access/ availability and price, environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS), cessation, media and advertising, and school curriculum. These determinants are components of the comprehensive tobacco control programme of Myanmar. The report also describes the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding to tobacco use, the extent to which they receive anti-tobacco information in schools and from media and the extent they were exposed to pro-tobacco messages..... METHODS: A multi-stage, school-based, two –cluster survey ( n= 6,100, 8th, 9th and 10th graders) was conducted in 100 basic education middle and high schools of Myanmar, using a pre-tested, modified questionnaire based on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire developed by Office on Smoking and Health of Center for Communicable Disease Control, Atlanta..... INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is the biggest public health tragedy since it is estimated to kill approximately half of its long-term users, and of these, half will die during productive middle age, losing 20 to 25 years of life. Peto and Lopez estimated that about 100 million people were killed by tobacco in the 20th century and that for the 21st century; the cumulative number could be 1 billion of current smokers.1 The increased use of tobacco is one of the greatest public health threats for the 21st century and the tobacco epidemic is being spread and reinforced through complex mix of factors that transcend national borders. For the international public health community tobacco is clearly a global threat. Globalization of the tobacco epide mic restricts the capacity of countries to regulate tobacco through domestic legislation alone. In response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic, the 191 member States of World Health Organization unanimously adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control at the 56th World Health Assembly in May 2003, as a global complement to national actions. Myanmar, along with other Member Countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region is one of the Parties to the Convention. Surveillance of tobacco use is one of the components of the WHOFCTC; more than a surveillance tool on prevalence of tobacco use, the GYTS covers many important determinants of tobacco use which has been addressed in the FCTC such as advertising, cessation, education at schools, promoting of community awareness through anti-tobacco campaigns, access of tobacco products by minors and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organization
          Format/size: pdf (52.15 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2480_14190.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 7 -- Special Issue on Tuberculosis
          Date of publication: December 1999
          Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (15.6MB)
          Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


          Title: Global tuberculosis control - surveillance, planning, financing -- Myanmar
          Description/subject: "Each year since 1999 the NTP of Myanmar has detected more TB cases, with improving treatment success rates since 2003. High notification rates, coupled with preliminary results of a disease prevalence survey in Yangon, suggest that the burden of TB is probably higher than currently estimated. Slightly less than half of the 2006 TB control budget was funded, and funding gaps for 2007 and 2008 are larger still. The absence of a secure supply of first-line drugs poses a serious threat to the work of the NTP, the possible consequences of which include increasing drug resistance and loss of public confidence in TB control services."
          Source/publisher: WHO REPORT 2008
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2008/en/
          Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


          Title: Tuberculosis -- Myanmar country profile 2007 and 2009
          Description/subject: "Despite limited resources, the NTP continues to improve the quality of and access to TB services, and is close to reaching the global target for treatment success. Although Myanmar maintains a high rate of case detection, analysis from a recent TB prevalence survey in Yangon is likely to show an underestimate of the TB burden. The arrival of the new Three Diseases Fund will allow the NTP to continue basic programme needs while scaling up collaborative TB/HIV activities and initiatives to engage all care providers and involve the community..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: WHO
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/predefinedReports/TB/PDF_Files/mmr.pdf (2009 report)
          Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


        • Typhoid

          Individual Documents

          Title: Typhoid Fever outbreak in Madaya Township, Mandalay Division, Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: In September 2000, an outbreak of typhoid fever was reported in a rural village of Central Myanmar. The authors investigated the outbreak in the affected village. A suspected case was a person suffering from fever with either constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhoea / bloody diarrhoea. A probable case was a suspected case who had positive result on the diazo urine test or widal test. Based on probable cases, the authors conducted a case-control study comparing history of contact with the cases, water source, and personal hygiene. Control was a person living in the village was not ill and having a negative result for diazo urine test. Among 49 suspected cases, 33 were probable. Attack rate was 1.2%. Three cases had a positive culture for Salmonella typhi and were not drug resistant. The following risk factors were identified: drinking unboiled river water (adjusted OR 12.5, 95%CI 2.8-75.3), history of contact with other patients before the illness (adjusted OR 22, 95%CI 3.5-76.2), no hand washing with soap after defecation (adjusted OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03 - 0.81). Environmental investigation result showed that most of the households had unsanitary latrine and some latrines were constructed near the edge of a river. The outbreak subsided quickly after intervention. Keywords : Typhoid fever, Outbreak, Myanmar
          Author/creator: Tin Tin Aye, Potjaman Siriarayapon
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Medical Association of Thailand
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


      • Non-communicable diseases

        • Cancer

          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
          Date of publication: September 2010
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


          Title: Doctors urge early detection for breast cancer
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: WHEN the biopsy result came back, tears were rolling down 63-year-old Daw Khin Tin’s face. “While I was bathing, just by chance I touched a small lump in my breast. It wasn’t painful but one week later it seemed bigger so I went to a clinic and the doctor urged me to have a biopsy done straight away,” Daw Khin Tin said. “The results showed the cancer was already at stage three,” the final stage before it spreads to other parts of the body. “I was haunted by the disease and lived with the constant fear that I would die.”
          Author/creator: Zon Pann Pwint
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 26, No. 512)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


        • Cardiovascular diseases

          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
          Date of publication: September 2010
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


          Title: Prevalence of Hypertension in Two Selected Villages of Kayin State, Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2004
          Description/subject: Abstract: "The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among the 15-years-or-above population in Ta-Yoke-Hla (TYH) and Myaning-Ga-Lay (MGL) villages in Kayin state. During the cross-sectional survey conducted in November 2001, 753 respondents (370 in TYH and 383 in MGL) were interviewed. Weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio. Of them, 108 (54 with hypertension and 54 with normal blood pressure) were examined for serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level. The overall percentages of hypertension (systolic ³140 mmHg and diastolic ³ 90 mmHg) were: 22.4% for both townships; 17.3% in TYH; 27.4% in MGL; 18.7% among males, and 24.5% among females. The respective percentages of hypertension among different age groups (15-24 years, 25-39 years, 40 or above) were: 5.5%; 12.7%, and 38.1% for both townships; 3.8%; 11.3%, and 31.3% in TYH; 7.6%; 14.0%, and 43.7% in MGL; 3.9%; 13.2%, and 30.7% among males, and 6.5%; 12.4%, and 42.4% among females. Sixteen (2.1%) persons reported previous history of stroke. Biochemical levels and other known factors associated with hypertension are also described in the study. Health education should include among others, education on taking treatment for hypertension regularly."
          Author/creator: San Shwe, Ohnma, Kyu Kyu Than, Than Tun Sein, Aung Thu, Khin Maung Maung, May San Lwin and Hnin Lwin Tun
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation: Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region Volume 8 Number 1, 2004
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


        • Diabetes

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: On the cusp of disease transition in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 29 October 2013
          Description/subject: "Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death and disability. Between and within countries, however, there is still a marked diversity in the causes and nature of this disease transition. In Myanmar, economic and political reforms, and the ways in which these intersect with health, have created a unique public health and development context with major ramifications for public health. Myanmar’s transition creates anl opportunity to learn from the public health and development mistakes made elsewhere, but signs are at present that the rush towards short term economic opportunities is taking precedence. This piece illustrates some of the local dynamics that drive NCDs in Myanmar, and potential entry points for the international community to help address Myanmar’s next major health challenge..."
          Author/creator: Sam Byfield and Maeve Kennedy, Guest Contributors
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


          Title: Wikipedia section on Diabetes
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
          Date of publication: September 2010
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


        • Substance abuse

          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
          Date of publication: September 2010
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
          Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


          Title: Myanmar Country Advocacy Brief Injecting Drug Use and HIV
          Date of publication: 04 February 2010
          Description/subject: Myanmar is one of the few countries in East Asia that has reported a decrease in the overall prevalence of HIV in recent years. Estimates indicate that HIV prevalence peaked at about 0.9% (15-49%). By 2007, the estimated prevalence was 0.7% (range: 0.4-1.1%)..... Myanmar remains the second largest opium poppy growing country after Afghanistan, contributing 20% of opium poppy cultivation in major cultivating countries in 2008.3 Heroin use has become widespread and is the primary drug of choice among people who inject drugs. While the use of heroin and opium has been observed to be declining in recent years, the use of methamphetamine has been increasing since 2003. Injecting of amphetamine type stimulants has also been reported to occur, as well as injecting of a mixture of opiates and pharmaceutical drugs.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: UNAIDS, UNODC
          Format/size: pdf (255.94 K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


          Title: Substance Abuse, Drugs and Addictions: Guidebook
          Date of publication: September 2009
          Description/subject: "Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. It can also be simply defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Generally, when most people talk about substance abuse, they are referring to the use of illegal drugs. But illegal drugs are not the only substances that can be abused. Alcohol, prescribed medications, inhalants and even coffee and cigarettes, can be used to harmful excess. Substance abuse can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated use including a strong desire to take the drug, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal state. In this guidebook, based upon the situation in our community, we present the most common substances that are often abused, how they are used, their street names, and their intoxicating and health effects.".....CONTENTS:- Part I: Alcohol... Amphetamine, Yaba, Ecstasy... Benzodiazepines... Betel Nut and Betal Leaf (Kwan-ya)... Cannabis... Cocaine - (Crack)... Codeine... Heroin... Volatile Substance or Inhalants ... Methadone... Opium... Tobacco..... PART II:- General Views of Substance Abuse... Chronic Effects of Alcoholism... Management in Substance Abuse Overdose... Psycho-Counselling for Substance Abuse.
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Aide Médicale Internationale, UNHCR
          Format/size: pdf (13MB - reduced version; 15 MB - original)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/DrugGuidebook-LowReso-red.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


          Title: Living Ghosts The spiraling repression of the Karenni population by the Burmese military junta_ Chapter 6: Drugs
          Date of publication: 2008
          Description/subject: Chapter Overview: Farmers are turning to illegal drug cultivation as a way to escape extreme poverty thrust upon them by the relentless civil war. As the situation in Karenni State worsens, more and more farmers will turn to poppy cultivation and the more secure future it promises. Whilst the income that farmers can earn from drugs is significantly higher than from other crops, they remain vulnerable to economic hardships, exploitation and abuses from the Burmese military regime and non-state actors. Furthermore, the increased drug production has led to increased drug abuse amongst the Karenni people, in two districts 35 per cent of males are using opium. This adds pressure to an already inadequate health system while eroding the fragile social fabric of the Karenni people. In this chapter: * Types of drugs produced in Karenni State * Why villagers are producing drugs * Eradication Programmes * Social Problems
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Issue
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/livingghosts.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


          Title: Poisoned Flowers: The Impacts of Spiraling Drug Addiction on Palaung Women in Burma,
          Date of publication: 09 June 2006
          Description/subject: "'Poisoned Flowers: The Impacts of Spiraling Drug Addiction on Palaung Women in Burma', based on interviews with eighty-eight wives and mothers of drug addicts, shows how women in Palaung areas have become increasingly vulnerable due to the rising addiction rates. Already living in dire poverty, with little access to education or health care, wives of addicts must struggle single-handedly to support as many as ten children. Addicted husbands not only stop providing for their families, but also sell off property and possessions, commit theft, and subject their wives and children to repeated verbal and physical abuse. The report details cases of women losing eight out of eleven children to disease and of daughters being trafficked by their addicted father. The increased addiction rates have resulted from the regime allowing drug lords to expand production into Palaung areas in recent years, in exchange for policing against resistance activity and sharing drug profits. The collapse of markets for tea and other crops has driven more and more farmers to turn to opium growing or to work as labourers in opium fields, where wages are frequently paid in opium. The report throws into question claims by the regime and the UNODC of a dramatic reduction of opium production in Burma during the past decade, and calls on donor countries and UN agencies supporting drug eradication programs in Burma to push for genuine political reform..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
          Format/size: pdf (632K), Word (360K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/PoisonedFlowers.pdf
          http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/PoisonedFlowers.doc
          Date of entry/update: 08 June 2006


    • Restricted access to essential resources

      • Restricted access to adequate food

        • Food safety

          Individual Documents

          Title: Melamine, Chemical Dyes—What’s the Next Poison to Spike Burmese Food?
          Date of publication: June 2009
          Description/subject: "FIRST it was the melamine scandal, in which a harmful chemical was found in milk and dairy products sold in Burmese stores. Then came the pickled tea scandal, also involving chemical additives—followed by a similar scare over tainted shrimp paste. Burmese consumers are having an increasingly difficult time finding risk-free foodstuffs in the markets these days..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 24 June 2009


          Title: CURRENT STATUS OF PESTICIDES RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF FOOD IN RELATION WITH FOOD SAFETY
          Date of publication: 30 January 2002
          Description/subject: FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators Marrakech, Morocco, 28 - 30 January 2002 "Being a developing agricultural country at least in a foreseeable future, Myanmar is inevitable the use of pesticides in agriculture food production although other parallel efforts of non-chemical nature are being endeavoured in pest control strategies. Although there is a low pesticide consumption rate in Mayanmar, the present data indicates the urgent need of a cautious control in the use through coordination and cooperation of various government agencies and the people themselves. In addition, agricultural pesticides use in the country is expected to be increased with the abrupt change of cropping pattern for high rice production and extension of various crops grown areas. The use of agro-chemical on food crops is estimated about 80% of the total. At that time the use of organo-chlorine insecticides (oc's) is decreasing but the percentage of those pesticides is total (about 10%) is still high. The use of pyrethroids is increasing..."
          Author/creator: Mya Thwin, Thet Thet Mar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: FAO, WHO
          Format/size: html,pdf (27.14 KB)
          Alternate URLs: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meeting/004/ab429e.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        • Nutrition

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Nutrition and Food Safety. Nutrition profile of member countries: Myanmar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


          Individual Documents

          Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 7 - Nutrition
          Date of publication: January 2007
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (English, 8.5MB, Burmese, 8.5MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-7-nutrition-bu.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


          Title: Community Agriculture and Nutrition - Handbook (Burmese)
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: This Handbook is designed for both farmers and students to use in the field and during training. It is divided into eight sections, each one containing several topics and all illustrated with large clear pictures. The Handbook can be read from beginning to end or each topic can be read separately. Space is provided for readers to take notes and to add their own local knowledge...Our people have always been farmers. Farmers of the river lands, of the mountains, and of the forests. Due to civil war in Burma, more and more of us have migrated from our native lands and many now live in refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The Royal Thai Government, its citizens, and non-government organisations have been very generous in their support to us. We have food, shelter, health care and education, and for this we are very thankful. But while we have been living in refugee camps we have slowly been losing our heritage, our wisdom, and our ways. For our children, rice comes from a warehouse, not grown on our own land by our own hands. In 1999, I asked the organisations that were already supporting us if they could help me look for ways to teach our children about agriculture and to help us live more self-sufficiently. The result of this is now called the CAN Project (Community Agriculture and Nutrition). This Handbook is the latest step in its ongoing development over 7 years with refugees and internally displaced people along the Thai-Burma border. There are many good books and resources on sustainable agriculture and we have learnt much from them. However refugees are constrained in their agricultural practices due to limited access to land, water and other resources. This Handbook attempts to present a summary of simple adaptations of ideas found in other books, manuals and resources on sustainable agriculture. This Handbook is not a textbook as such, but a compilation of different subjects for people to pick and choose. We know that it is not complete and I would ask anyone with ideas or suggestions to forward them so we can keep on learning. In the year 2000 I wrote a draft CAN Handbook. Then Jacob Thomson and I wrote the first CAN curriculum in 2001. Since then it has been used in training with nearly 5,000 school children, teachers, villagers, and staff of community-based and non-government organisations. Needless to say, since the first curriculum was drafted, we have had many experiences, learnt many lessons and made many changes.
          Author/creator: David Saw Wah
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: Community Agriculture Nutrition (CAN)
          Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
          Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


          Title: Community Agriculture and Nutrition - Handbook (English)
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: This Handbook is designed for both farmers and students to use in the field and during training. It is divided into eight sections, each one containing several topics and all illustrated with large clear pictures. The Handbook can be read from beginning to end or each topic can be read separately. Space is provided for readers to take notes and to add their own local knowledge...Our people have always been farmers. Farmers of the river lands, of the mountains, and of the forests. Due to civil war in Burma, more and more of us have migrated from our native lands and many now live in refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The Royal Thai Government, its citizens, and non-government organisations have been very generous in their support to us. We have food, shelter, health care and education, and for this we are very thankful. But while we have been living in refugee camps we have slowly been losing our heritage, our wisdom, and our ways. For our children, rice comes from a warehouse, not grown on our own land by our own hands. In 1999, I asked the organisations that were already supporting us if they could help me look for ways to teach our children about agriculture and to help us live more self-sufficiently. The result of this is now called the CAN Project (Community Agriculture and Nutrition). This Handbook is the latest step in its ongoing development over 7 years with refugees and internally displaced people along the Thai-Burma border. There are many good books and resources on sustainable agriculture and we have learnt much from them. However refugees are constrained in their agricultural practices due to limited access to land, water and other resources. This Handbook attempts to present a summary of simple adaptations of ideas found in other books, manuals and resources on sustainable agriculture. This Handbook is not a textbook as such, but a compilation of different subjects for people to pick and choose. We know that it is not complete and I would ask anyone with ideas or suggestions to forward them so we can keep on learning. In the year 2000 I wrote a draft CAN Handbook. Then Jacob Thomson and I wrote the first CAN curriculum in 2001. Since then it has been used in training with nearly 5,000 school children, teachers, villagers, and staff of community-based and non-government organisations. Needless to say, since the first curriculum was drafted, we have had many experiences, learnt many lessons and made many changes.
          Author/creator: David Saw Wah
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Community Agriculture Nutrition (CAN)
          Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


          Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 26 -- special issue on Nutrition
          Date of publication: December 2004
          Description/subject: General Health: Underlying causes of malnutrition -- Why health workers should feel concerned by nutritional issues? Misconceptions Concerning Nutrition: Voices of Community Health Educators and TBAs along the Thai-Burmese Border; Micronutrients: The Hidden Hunger; Iron Deficiency Anaemia; The Vicious Circle of Malnutrition and Infection; Treatment: IDENTIFYING MALNUTRITION; MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SEVERE MALNUTRITION; GROWTH MONITORING: THE BEST PREVENTION; Fortified Flour for Refugees living in the camp; Making Blended Flour at Local Level; The example of MISOLA Flour in Africa. Health Education: Pregnancy and Nutrition; Breastfeeding; WHEN RICE SOUP IS NOT ENOUGH: First Foods - the Key to Optimal Growth and Development; BUILDING A BALANCED DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH; From the Field: How Sanetun became a malnourished child?
          Language: Burmese, English
          Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
          Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
          Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


          Title: Articles on Nutritional Health / အဟာရႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာ က်န္းမာေရး ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား
          Date of publication: November 2003
          Author/creator: Doctor Aye Kyaw
          Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
          Format/size: pdf (805K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


          Title: Nutrition profile of Myanmar
          Date of publication: 2000
          Description/subject: The document itself is undated. The date we use refers to the last date recorded in the page. The publication date is probably 2002.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


          Title: Strengthening Nutrition Through Primary Health Care - The Experience of JNSP in Myanmar
          Date of publication: December 1991
          Description/subject: Summary: "Summarizes the objectives, implementation, and results of the highly successful Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme (JNSP) in Myanmar (previously known as Burma). Initiated in 1983, JNSP aims to reduce infant and young child mortality, to improve child growth, and to reduce malnutrition in mothers. To date, the Programme has been implemented in 17 countries with widely varying results. The Myanmar project was distinguished from other JNSP projects because of its focus on the entire population, rather than on model districts or provinces, and its concentration on activities administered almost exclusively through the Ministry of Health. The Myanmar project was further characterized by a situation analysis, conducted prior to the start of the project, which yielded detailed and precise recommendations on how to improve nutrition. A description of the objectives and operation of the programme shows how the situation analysis allowed selection of a few activities for careful implementation and monitoring. The report also explains how a deliberate focus on education, coupled with nutrition monitoring, made it possible to do a few things very well at as low a cost as possible. Other distinctive features include operation through the existing infrastructure for primary health care services and avoidance of providing food supplements. A section devoted to the results of the project documents a decrease of under-three-year-old mortality, faster growth, a decline in protein-energy malnutrition, and improvements in young child feeding practices and health seeking behaviour of mothers. The report concludes that, despite poverty and a deteriorating economic situation, improvements in child health and nutrition can be achieved in a large population, over a short period of time, and at low per capita cost. A final section discusses the project in relation to the theory and practice of nutrition policies and programmes conducted in other countries. The Myanmar project was judged to be sustainable and suitable for replication, at low cost, in all countries that implement primary health care"
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (Regional Health Paper, SEARO, No. 20)
          Format/size: pdf (220K)
          Alternate URLs: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/searo/rhp/SEARO_RHP_20.pdf (original image file, 1.6MB)
          Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


          Title: Specific Effects of Honey(from-The_Koran) / က်မ္းျမတ္ ကုရ္အန္ႏွင့္ ဟဒီးဆ္က်မ္းလာ ပ်ားရည္ ၏ထူးျခားသည့္ အာနိသင္မ်ား
          Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
          Format/size: pdf (1.89MB)
          Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


      • Retricted access to health information

        Individual Documents

        Title: FATAL SILENCE? Freedom of Expression and the Right to Health in Burma
        Date of publication: July 1996
        Description/subject: The Online Burma Library contains two versions of this 1996 report -- in html with added URLs of references not available online in 1996 and a Word version, without these additions, which keeps, so far as possible, the format of the hard copy. "Censorship has long concealed a multitude of grave issues in Burma (Myanmar. After decades of governmental secrecy and isolation, Burma was dramatically thrust into world headlines during the short-lived democracy uprising in the summer of 1988. But, while international concern and pressure has since continued to mount over the country's long-standing political crisis, the health and humanitar­ian consequences of over 40 years of political malaise and ethnic con­flict have largely been neglected. Indeed, in many parts of the country, they remain totally unaddressed. There are many elements involved in addressing the health cri­sis which now besets Burma's peoples. A fundamental aspect, in ARTICLE 19's view, is for the rights to freedom of expression and information, together with the right to democratic participation, to be ensured. In a context of censorship and secrecy, individuals cannot make informed decisions on important matters affecting their health. Without freedom of academic research and the ability to disseminate research findings, there can be no informed public debate. Denial of research and information also makes effective health planning and provision less likely at the national level. Without local participation, founded on freedom of expression and access to information, the health needs of many sections of society are likely to remain unaddressed. Likewise, secrecy and censorship have a negative impact on the work of international humanitarian agencies..."
        Author/creator: Martin Smith
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Article 19
        Format/size: html (1.1MB), Word (589K), pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/burma-fatal-silence-.pdf
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/FATAL-SILENCE.doc
        Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


    • Trauma

      • Trauma care

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Trauma Care
        Description/subject: "There are no doctors or hospitals for eastern Myanmar’s displaced civilians, many of them living in recently active conflict zones, in a region with one of the highest rates of landmine injuries in the world. To address basic and critical emergency health needs, our partner organization, the Karen Department of Health and Welfare (KDHW), developed a mobile medical system uniquely adapted to the region: A network of tiny clinics now dot eastern Myanmar, with local health workers carrying supplies on their backs, walking for weeks through remote jungles to get medical training and reach patients. Community Partners International trains and equips these Trauma Management Program health workers. See links at right for peer-reviewed publications on our community-based initiatives to address trauma and other critical health needs in Myanmar.".....Best Practices Guidelines on Surgical Response in Disasters and Humanitarian Emergencies...Surgery in Humanitarian Settings (Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, December 2011)... Trauma Care in Conflict Zones (Human Resources for Health, March 2009)... Trauma and Mental Health in eastern Myanmar (Conflict & Health July 2013).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Community Partners International
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


      • Accidents at work

        Individual Documents

        Title: Thailand: Discrimination Against Burmese Migrants
        Date of publication: 09 June 2009
        Description/subject: On 4th December 2006, Nang Noom Mae Seng, a 37-year old Shan migrant worker from Burma, was left paralysed after being struck by a 300 kilogram mould at her worksite. Her official compensation claim was rejected by Thailand’s SSO. This was because she could not satisfy conditions for access to the WCF laid down in a 2001 SSO circular, requiring that: (1) Workers must possess a passport or alien registration documents; and (2) Their employers must have paid a dividend into the WCF. These conditions make it generally impossible for Burmese migrants to access the WCF.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 November 2010


  • Health systems and resources

    • Burma's health system -- general studies

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Country Health System Profile - Myanmar
      Description/subject: Country Health System Profile... Mini profile -2007... 1. Trends in Policy Development... 2. Trends in Socio-Economic Development... 3. Health and Environment... 4. Health Resources... 5. Development of the Health System... 6. Health Services... 7. Trends in Health Status... 8. Outlook for The Future... 9. Basic Health indicators including the U.N. Millennium Development Goals.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Health Organisation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


      Title: Network Myanmar's Health page
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Health in Myanmar 2011 (Myanmar Health Care System)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (200K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 September 2012


      Title: Health in Myanmar 2010 (Myanmar Health Care System)
      Date of publication: 2010
      Description/subject: Myanmar health care system evolves with changing political and administrative system and relative roles played by the key providers are also changing although the Ministry of Health remains the major provider of comprehensive health care. It has a pluralistic mix of public and private system both in the financing and provision. Health care is organized and provided by public and private providers.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: WHO
      Format/size: pdf (989.17 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.whomyanmar.org/LinkFiles/Health_Information_2.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


      Title: Contemporary medical pluralism in Burma
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: Conclusion - human rights and the right to health: "As in other developing nations, particularly in Africa, in Burma, a substantial proportion of government medications and preventive-health materials are sold on the black market. The theft of medical equipment, medicines and other products from international and UN organisations means these products can be purchased easily in Yangon’s main markets. The transparency of aid delivery and the provision of materials from international donors are issues that continually confront in-country aid providers. The Australian medical practitioners currently working in Burma (Myanmar/Burma Update 2007) attest to the latent capacity and talent still evident among the Burmese medical fraternity, but the cost of health care, the continuing exodus of qualified medical personnel, the loss of much traditional knowledge since the colonial period and the existence of conflict zones within the country are all factors contributing to limit Burmese people’s access to health care. Taken as a whole, the possibility of affordable, accessible and evidence-based health care is extremely limited for the majority of Burma’s 54 million inhabitants. In this context, it is not surprising that Burmese people turn to folk and magical forms 201 Contemporary medical pluralism in Burma of medical practices, such as exorcists, alchemists and wizardry, when they have exhausted their financial resources and cannot find relief. In the wake of the suppression of the so-called ‘Saffron Revolution’ in September–October 2007, it is perhaps timely to conclude with some thoughts about the long-term consequences of the lack of a right to health. There is indisputable photographic evidence of shootings and beatings administered to protestors during the attempted Saffron Revolution16 and the former UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Myanmar, Sergio Pinheiro, put the death toll at 31 with up to 4000 arrested and 1000 still detained as of 11 December 2007 (UNHRC 2008:4). In earlier work (Skidmore 2005, 2003), I described the long-term consequences of inculcating a state of fear and of perpetual vulnerability in the urban populace. Since September 2007, there has been a demonstrable increase in the efficiency by which terror, as distinct from fear, can be created among the population. In other countries in which violence has been perpetrated and witnessed, there are well-documented harvests of suicide, trauma and mental health problems. It is not possible to gather such health data in Burma, yet psychological health must surely be considered when describing Burma’s humanitarian and health crises. Paranoia, nightmares, confused and impaired thinking and psychological defences such as denial are also prevalent among the Burmese I have interviewed in the wake of the violence in Yangon (Skidmore 1998). Jail terms for monks and civilians who took part in the demonstrations, as well as reports of torture within prisons and harsh sentences to prison and labour camps, have together created a pathological psychological climate. In Yangon, the anger that Burmese Buddhists feel at the continuing barricading and closure of monasteries and the continuing arrests of monks is palpable. To seek health care for trauma and fear, however, is to risk charges of subversion and treason. In making these comments about the mental health of the urban populace, the purpose is not to detract from the serious human rights issues that occur among forcibly displaced civilian populations in Burma’s civil war zone. In addition to the significant volume of core human rights abuses occurring in Burma, however, is a virtually undocumented and untreated epidemic of psychological trauma. This psychological trauma is a crucial aspect of a lack of a right to health and it is in part related to the subversion of medical ethics that is required of Burmese people who train and practice medicine in Burma today. There are precious few provisions for psychological, psychiatric or counselling help for those suffering from the long-term effects of living in a state of fear. At times of crisis such as during the September 2007 street protests against cost-of-living increases and military rule, anxiety, fear and paranoia can become acute, but medical personnel also live in fear of giving aid to people branded as enemies of the State or criminals during these moments of resistance. 202 Dictatorship, disorder and decline in Myanmar The latter part of this chapter documents forms of health care offered by non-state providers, but also the forms of illness and disease that are not permitted to exist and therefore to be treated. It does so to emphasise not just the patent inadequacy of the current regime’s expenditure on health care, but to draw attention to the continuing denial of the fundamental right to health for the majority of the population".
      Author/creator: Monique Skidmore
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (153K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: Poor health care system plagues Myanmar
      Date of publication: 26 October 2007
      Description/subject: MAE SOT, Thailand — They travel for days though checkpoints, across dangerous roads and past Myanmar's bribe-hungry soldiers to make it to the Thai border. They're not refugees fleeing the junta -- they simply want to see a doctor. Myanmar has one of the world's worst health care systems, with tens of thousands dying each year from malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, dysentery, diarrhea and a litany of other illnesses. While there are hospitals in the impoverished Southeast Asian nation also known as Burma, only a few can afford to pay hospital workers the various "fees" in the tightly controlled nation fueled by corruption. "Even if you use the toilet in the hospital you have to pay money," said a 70-year-old man from Phyu Township, who journeyed two days by bus to see a doctor at the Thai border town of Mae Sot and have a cataract removed. He declined to give his name for fear of reprisals. "They never think of improving health care," he said. "They only pull the trigger. Because they are holding the guns, we have to live like this."
      Author/creator: Margie Mason
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: USA Today
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


      Title: Gonioscopy findings and prevalence of occludable angles in a Burmese population: the Meiktila Eye Study
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Aim: To determine the prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease in central Myanmar. Methods: A population-based survey of inhabitants >40 years in the Meiktila District was carried out; 2481 subjects were identified, 2076 participated and 2060 underwent gonioscopy of at least one eye. Eyes with angles traditionally described as ‘‘occludable’’ were recorded as primary angle-closure suspects (PACS); eyes with PACS and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), or an increased intraocular pressure but without primary angle-closure glaucoma, were recorded as primary angle closure (PAC). Results: The prevalence of PACS in at least one eye was 5.7% (95% CI 4.72 to 6.62); prevalence increased with age and was more common in women (p,0.001). The prevalence of PAC in at least one eye was 1.50% (95% CI 1.47 to 1.53). All participants with PAS had at least 90° of closure (range 90–360°). Conclusion: The prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease (PACS and PAC) in this population was 5.7% and 1.5%, respectively. PACS was more common in women, and its prevalence increased with age.
      Author/creator: R J Casson, H S Newland, J Muecke, S McGovern, L M Abraham, W K Shein, D Selva, T Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pub Med Central
      Format/size: html, pdf (148.57 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955640/pdf/856.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


      Title: Health and Security Control of Diseases – Post-Elimination/Eradication Strategies for Sustaining Disease Control Activities
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Abstract Disease Control and Prevention are an important component of Health Security. Of the many aspects of disease control, those pertaining to the control service activities during the post-elimination or eradication era are extremely important to prevent the re-emergence of the disease. Myanmar has conquered five diseases and the country is endeavouring to sustain control activities so that the conquered diseases always remain under control and thus reduce the disease burden. After the successful eradication of smallpox, no specific anti-smallpox activity was being undertaken. The Myanmar Health System, which is an integrated system is being further strengthened and the authorities are alert to the international situation regarding bio-terrorist attacks and are in contact with the International Epidemiology Network and drug and vaccine stockpile.
      Author/creator: U Ko Ko
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Health Organization, SEAR, Regional Health Forum – Volume 11, Number 1, 2007
      Format/size: pdf (109.71 K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


      Title: Prevalence of glaucoma in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Aim: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in the Meiktila district of central, rural Myanmar. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based survey of inhabitants >40 years of age from villages in Meiktila district, Myanmar, was performed; 2481 eligible participants were identified and 2076 participated in the study. The ophthalmic examination included Snellen visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, tonometry, gonioscopy, dilated stereoscopic fundus examination and full-threshold perimetry. Glaucoma was classified into clinical subtypes and categorised into three levels according to diagnostic evidence. Results: Glaucoma was diagnosed in 1997 (80.5%) participants. The prevalence of glaucoma of any category in at least one eye was 4.9% (95% CI 4.1 to 5.7; n = 101). The overall prevalence of primary angleclosure glaucoma (PACG) was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5 to 3.5) and of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was 2.0% (95% CI 0.9 to 3.1). PACG accounted for 84% of all blindness due to glaucoma, with the majority due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). Conclusion: The prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged >40 years in rural, central Myanmar was 4.9%. The ratio of PACG to POAG was approximately 1.25:1. PACG has a high visual morbidity and AACG is visually devastating in this community. Screening programmes should be directed at PACG, and further study of the underlying mechanisms of PACG is needed in this population.
      Author/creator: R J Casson, H S Newland, J Muecke, S McGovern, L Abraham, W K Shein, D Selva, T Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pub Med Central
      Format/size: html, pdf (185.38 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955608/
      Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


      Title: Armut im Land der Goldenen Pagoden. Soziale Sicherheit, Gesundheit und Bildung in Burma; Focus Asien Nr. 26
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: In den letzten Jahren häufen sich die Meldungen über die kritische humanitäre Situation in Burma. Die sozialen Indikatoren Sterblichkeitsraten, Bildungsindikatoren, Verbreitung von typischen Armutskrankheiten wie Malaria und Tuberkulose, die alarmierende Verbreitung von HIV/AIDS - zeichnen ein düsteres Bild über den Zustand des Landes, wobei es große regionale und gesellschaftliche Unterschiede gibt. Die Broschüre gibt Einblicke in die Bereiche Gesundheits- und Bildungswesen in Burma, wobei Erfahrungen aus der praktischen Arbeit von Hilfsorganisationen dargestellt werden. Neben Vorstellungen vom Wohlfahrtsstaat werden darüber hinaus die Situation burmesischer Migrant/innen in Thailand beleuchtet, die Auswirkungen des Opiumbanns auf die Bevölkerung der Wa-Sonderregion untersucht und Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe diskutiert. Inhalt: Ulrike Bey: Armut im „Land der Goldenen Pagoden“; Marco Bünte: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar – Ein Überblick; Hans-Bernd Zöllner: Der Traum vom budhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat; Tankred Stöbe: Das Gesundheitssystem in Burma/Myanmar unter Ausschluss der ethnischen Minderheiten?; Brenda Belak: Der Zugang zur medizinischen Versorgung; Johannes Achilles: Das Bildungswesen in Birma/Myanmar – Erfahrungen zum Engagement im Bildungsbereich; Ulrike Bey: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit; Michael Tröster: Die Wa in Gefahr. Nach dem Opiumbann droht in der Special Region eine humaitäre Katastrophe; Jackie Pollock: Die Lebensqualität von Migrant/innen in Thailand; Jasmin Lorch: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma; Alle Artikel dieses Bandes sind außerdem noch separat verlinkt. keywords: social security, health, education, humanitarian aid, migration, opium ban
      Author/creator: Ulrike Bey (Hrsg.)
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf 970k
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


      Title: Das Gesundheitssystem in Burma/Myanmar - unter Ausschluss der ethnischen Minderheiten?
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: Status Quo des burmesischen Gesundheitssystems; UNAIDS Bericht 2005; Engagement von Ãrzte Ohne Grenzen; Artikel von Brenda Belak: Der Zugang zur medizinischen Versorgung keywords: health care, HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS report, ethnic minorities
      Author/creator: Tankred Stöbe, Brenda Belak
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 23-30
      Format/size: pdf (89k)
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


      Title: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar - Ein Ãœberblick
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: Armut in Myanmar; Die Situation im Gesundheitswesen; Die AIDS-Problematik; Das Bildungssystem keywords: poverty, health system, HIV/AIDS, education, social problems
      Author/creator: Marco Bünte
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 9-14
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


      Title: Political Triage: Health and the State in Myanmar (Burma)
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: Abstract: "In 1988, the military government in Myanmar abandoned the socialist ideology and isolationism that had shaped the state since independence, embarking on a transition to an open economy and engagement of the international community. ¶ Where socialism had failed, economic development and partnerships with former insurgent groups became the new strategy to advance the military’s security agenda. The primary goal of the security agenda is to promote state consolidation based on a unitary state structure, and according to military values and interests. However, the military’s goals are antagonistic to much of the country’s population, especially its ethnic minority groups. Consequently, the military lacks moral authority, and is preoccupied with maintaining its power and seeking legitimacy. The state is oriented to regime maintenance rather than policy implementation, leaving the regime without autonomy to pursue policy goals outside of its security agenda. ¶ The changing nature of the state, and state-society relations during the period of transition is revealed by trends in social development. Specifically, this thesis explores these issues through a case study of the health system. One impact of the economic transition and the military’s new nation-building strategy has been the abandonment of social equity as an ideological goal of the state. Even under socialism, state capacity to promote health was weak. In the transitional state, weak state capacity is now combined with a political incapacity of the regime to make public health a priority. In the quest for performance legitimacy, the military government is pursuing a narrow conception of development that values economic growth. Putting the state’s scarce resources into social development does not fit into this development strategy. Government expenditure on health has declined steadily since 1988, and health bureaucrats struggle to implement government policy. Standards in the public health system are very low, and most people seek health care in the private and informal health sectors. ¶ Therefore, the military regime’s inability to achieve state consolidation, which leaves it preoccupied with its own legitimacy crisis, is a significant factor in the inability of the Myanmar state to promote social development. The process of economic transition from a socialist economy has exacerbated this through the withdrawal of the state from financing and delivery of social services, resulting in increasing inequity of access to these services."
      Author/creator: Emily Rudland
      Language: Enbglish
      Source/publisher: The Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2007


      Title: An approach to health system strengthening in the Union of Myanmar
      Description/subject: "PURCHASE ONLY" Article Outline 1. Introduction 1.1. Country and health system background 1.2. GAVI and health system strengthening 2. Materials and methods 3. Results 3.1. Development process of the HSS strategy 3.2. Health system barrier analysis content 3.3. Health system strategic framework 4. Discussion 4.1. Critical factors in quality improvement of health system strengthening strategy 4.2. Rethinking health development through health system strengthening approaches 5. Conclusion References
      Author/creator: Nilar Tin, Saw Lwin, Nyo Nyo Kyaing, Thein Thein Htay, John Grundy, Margareta Skold, Thomas O’Connell and Siddharth Nirupam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Health Policy, Volume 95, Issues 2-3, May 2010, Pages 95-102
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    • Backpack medics and other health projects in Eastern Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) home page
      Description/subject: Mission Statement: "The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) is an independent, nonprofit, multi-ethnic organization dedicated to providing primary health care to ethnic groups and vulnerable populations in armed conflict and rural areas of Burma, where access to healthcare is otherwise unavailable. Furthermore, by equipping communities with the skills and knowledge necessary to manage their own health issues, the Back Pack Health Worker Team is dedicated to the long-term, sustainable development of a healthy society in Burma. To accomplish its mission, BPHWT utilizes mobile health teams to provide a range of primary medical care, maternal and child health services, and community health education and prevention programs to internally displaced and vulnerable populations in Burma."..... Emergency Assistance Team; Services; Reports and Publications; About Us; Partners; Contact Us; Links... How to Help: Volunteer; Wish List; Donations Download Videos
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


      Title: Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) Reports and Publications
      Description/subject: Annual and mid-term reports from 2002; 10-year report (1998-2009); special reports; proposals (2010, 2011) survey (2011)
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team ( BPHWT)
      Format/size: htmlk, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: Free Burma Rangers
      Description/subject: "... The Free Burma Rangers is an organization dedicated to freedom for the people of Burma. "De Oppresso Liber" is the motto of the Free Burma Rangers and we are dedicated in faith to the establishment of liberty, justice, equal rights and peace for all the people of Burma. The Free Burma Rangers support the restoration of democracy, ethnic rights and the implementation of the International Declaration of Human Rights in Burma. We stand with those who desire a nation where God's gifts of life, liberty, justice, pursuit of happiness and peace are ensured for all... MISSION: The mission of the Free Burma Rangers is to bring help, hope and love to the oppressed people of Burma. Its mission is also to help strengthen civil society, inspire and develop leadership that serves the people and act as a voice for the oppressed... ACTIONS: The Free Burma Rangers (FBR), conduct relief, advocacy, leadership development and unity missions among the people of Burma... Relief: ..."...FBR has issued some of the best documented reports on internal displacement/forced migration
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2004


      Title: Health and Human Rights
      Description/subject: "Many of CPI's local partners serve ethnic communities located in Myanmar's conflict-affected zones that are not adequately served by governmental organizations or large humanitarian agencies — areas that also often suffer from chronic human rights abuses. See links at rights for peer-reviewed articles and reports documenting the connection between systemic abuses and poor health in Myanmar's border regions....Diagnosis Critical (CPI Partners, Oct. 2010)... After the Storm (CPI Partners, March 2009)... Chronic Emergency (CPI partners, Sep. 2006)... Displacement and Disease (Conflict and Health, March 2008)... Health and human rights and political transition (Intl Health & Human Rights, May 2014)... Maternal health and human rights violations (PLoS Medicine, Dec. 2008)... Quantifying associations between human rights violations and health (Epidemiology & Community Health, Sep. 2007)... The Gathering Storm (CPI partners, July 2007)... Community-based Assessment of Human Rights (Conflict and Health, April 2010).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Community Partners International
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


      Title: Health Systems Strengthening
      Description/subject: "In Myanmar, one in seven children die before they reach the age of five, and many of these deaths are easily preventable. The challenge is to provide essential basic services to tens of thousands of villagers who have become nearly inaccessible due to civil conflict, displacement, and isolated and rugged jungle terrain. Community Partners International’s Village Health Worker program trains and equips hundreds of local health workers who provide a variety of interventions, ranging from basic hygiene and nutrition education to testing for and treating malaria. In Myanmar, these health workers are often the only source of health care in the community. See links at right for our peer-reviewed publications and reports on the community-based initiatives designed, implemented and managed through partnership Community Partners International to improve the functions of the indiginous health systems in Myanmar, and lead to better health through improvements in access, coverage, quality, and efficiency."..... Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Health: Back Pack Health Worker Team 1998-2009... Mortality rates in eastern Burma (Tropical Medicine & International Health, July 2006)... Multi-Level Partnerships to Promote Health (Global Public Health, April 2008)... Responding to Infectious Diseases (Conflict and Health, March 2008).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Community Partners International
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Jungle Surgeon of Myanmar - One medic finds that moves towards political reform have not benefited his patients in Burma's remote border areas. (video)
      Date of publication: 13 January 2014
      Description/subject: "One medic finds that moves towards political reform have not benefited his patients in Burma's remote border areas. "Nyunt Win is a surgeon and medical trainer working with a mobile clinic in the East Burma jungle. He is also a former soldier of the Karen National Liberation Army. Nyunt Win's patients are the displaced Karen people who as well as suffering the effects of years of civil war are without any healthcare whatsoever. With moves towards political reform and international aid going directly to the government under the guise of development projects, there is an increase in resource exploitation, human rights abuses and displacement of ethnic populations. The plight of Nyunt Win's patients seems to be more acute than ever...The Jungle Surgeon of Myanmar exposes what life is like in the remote areas of Myanmar. It shows this marginalised community's fight for survival and thoughts on longterm peace, providing an alternative perspective on the ceasefire."
      Author/creator: Gigi Berardi
      Language: Karen (voice), English (sub-titles)
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (Witness)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 14 January 2014


      Title: Situation Update: Conflict and Displacement in Burma’s Border Areas 31st August 2011
      Date of publication: 31 August 2011
      Description/subject: "Armed conflict in Burma’s Karen, Shan and Kachin States continues to fuel large‐scale displacement of civilians both internally and into neighbouring countries. Between 5,000 and 7,000 civilians remain in temporary, unofficial sites along the Thai‐Burma border in Thailand's Tak Province; approximately 20,000 remain internally‐displaced in Kachin State along the border with China; and thousands have been forced to flee their homes in Shan State due to ongoing armed conflict. Community‐based groups continue in their efforts to provide assistance to these populations, who have no access to international protection mechanisms, and little or no assistance from international humanitarian organisations. The shortage of funding to such community‐based aid networks is a serious cause for concern, particularly with a high likelihood of further fighting resulting in more displacement. There is an urgent need for protection mechanisms and humanitarian assistance for civilians fleeing conflict and human rights abuses in Burma..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (360K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: Provision of Primary Health Care among Internally Displaced Persons and Vulnerable Populations of Burma - BPHWT 2010 Annual Report:
      Date of publication: 10 June 2011
      Description/subject: 1) Executive Summary Over sixty years of civil war in Burma have resulted in the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people. These people have fled their homes, been obliged to go into hiding for their own safety and have faced forced relocation. Compounding the loss of homes and security is a lack of basic human rights, including the right to health. People living along the country’s borders as well as inside ethnic nationalities’ areas have been severely affected. The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) has been providing primary health care for over ten years in the conflict and rural areas of Burma, where access to healthcare is otherwise unavailable. The BPHWT provides a range of medical care, community health education and prevention, and maternal and child healthcare services to internally displaced persons (IDPs) and other vulnerable community members in Burma. Doctors and health workers from Karen, Karenni, and Mon States established the BPHWT in 1998. The organization initially included 32 teams, comprising 120 health workers. Over the years and in response to increasing demand, the number of teams has gradually increased. In 2010, the BPHWT included 81 teams, with each team being comprised of 3 to 5 health workers. BPHWT teams now target displaced and vulnerable communities with no other access to healthcare in Karen, Karenni, Mon, Arakan, Kachin, and Shan States, and the Tenasserim Division. The teams deliver a range of health care programs to a target population of 180,000 IDPs and other vulnerable people. The BPHWT aims to equip people with the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and address their own health problems, while working towards long-term sustainable development with respect to community healthcare. In 2010, the BPHWT continued to work with communities in its target areas to implement its three health programs, namely Medical Care Program, Mother and Child Healthcare Program and Community Health Education and Prevention Program. Three new Back Pack teams were created in Kachin, Shan-Kayah and Palaung areas to serve communities with no other access to healthcare. BPHWT also worked in collaboration with Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee and ethnic health organizations serving the Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan and Palaung communities to plan, design and implement a health and human rights survey in eastern Burma; the results of this survey were published in October 2010 in the report entitled Diagnosis: Critical - Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma. Displaced Mother with a Child 2010 4 The BPHWT’s Ten Years Report 1998-2009, detailing the BPHWT’s programs and organizational development from 1998 through 2009, was also published in 2010. The BPHWT continued to conduct its regular monitoring and evaluation activities throughout 2010. In addition, BPHWT workers were given technical support by the Global Health Access Program (GHAP) to implement an Impact Assessment Survey so as to evaluate the outcomes of the BPHWT’s three health programs in target communities. The results of this survey will be published in 2011. At the March 2010 Donors’ Meeting, it was decided that an external evaluation would be conducted, in order to assess the BPHWT’s programs and management structure. A consultant was recruited and is currently conducting consultations with target communities, partner organizations and BPHWT medics, staff and Leading Group. The results of this evaluation will be published in 2011. After the November 2010 elections in Burma, increased armed conflict and conflictrelated abuses in areas of Karen State opposite Thailand’s Kanchanaburi, Tak and Mae Hong Song Provinces drove large displacement of populations, both inside Karen State and into Thailand. On the Thai side of the border, the pattern of civilian influxes evolved. The first large battles in November led to larger influxes of Burmese civilians openly fleeing into Thailand, where they were provided with temporary shelter in sites recognised by Thai authorities. But by the end of December, Thai authorities had shut down the last of the temporary shelter sites and the community network, under the overall coordination of the Mae Tao Clinic, was supporting a total of 9852 newly-displaced people - comprised of 2039 households with 7867 men and 3779 women. Out of these 9852 displaced people, there were 5212 children under five years of age among the newly-displaced people in hiding sites along the Thai-Burma border areas. Since the escalations in armed conflict and displacement in the aftermath of Burma’s elections, the Back Pack Health Worker Team has worked with the network of community organizations providing assistance to civilians displaced by ongoing conflict and human rights abuses along the Thai-Burma border. Inside Karen State, eight teams of Back Pack Health Workers were deployed to provide health services to civilians affected by the increases in conflict and conflict-related abuses. The BPHWT also set up a number of borderline mobile Out- Patient Department (OPD) clinics, to provide health care and assistance to displaced civilians hiding along the Thai-Burma border. Each borderline mobile OPD clinic was staffed by three to five experienced BPHWT medics and supplied with the medicines and equipment needed for the Displaced Mother and Children 5 provision of healthcare to the displaced civilians. On the Thai side of the border, BPHWT has worked as part of the community based Emergency Relief Team (ERT) providing assistance to thousands of newly displaced civilians in unofficial or hiding sites. BPHWT health workers worked with the Mae Tao Clinic and Burma Medical Association as part of the health team, providing medical assistance to civilians in hiding along the Thai-Burma border, particularly to those more vulnerable such as pregnant women, children and the elderly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team ( BPHWT)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB - OBL version; 2.6MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.backpackteam.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/BPHWT%202010%20Annual%20report%20final%20update%20without%20budget.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Health - BPHWT 10-year report - A decade of providing primary health care in Burma's displaced and vulnerable communities
      Date of publication: January 2011
      Description/subject: Preface: "Ten years ago, health workers from the Mon, Karen, and Karenni States in Burma came together as the Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) in partnership with the Mae Tao Clinic in Mae Sot, Thailand. The need for mobile healthcare services grew out of increasing military attacks against civilians in eastern Burma in the late 1990s, coupled with a lack of local, official healthcare. These circumstances prevented a large proportion of the population from receiving basic primary and preventative healthcare services. Since 1998, BPHWT has stayed true to its founding mission: to equip internally displaced persons with enough knowledge and skills that they are able to address the health problems of their own communities and work towards the development of a sustainable health infrastructure. The Back Pack Health Worker Team established key principles that have guided our work since the inception of the organization: to provide healthcare services to all, regardless of ethnic group, age, gender, religion, or political affiliation; to focus on communities where access to primary and preventive healthcare services is severely limited; to collaborate with local organizations and communities; to improve health through a multi-sectorial development and integration approach; and, to foster inter-ethnic unity and trust, thereby promoting democracy in Burma. Over the past ten years, BPHWT has expanded from 32 teams serving 64,000 people in the eastern border region of Burma to 80 teams serving over 187,000 people in eastern and western Burma. Over time, the scope of BPHWT’s services and programs has expanded as well. BPHWT has trained more than 1,300 multi-ethnic health workers who are currently living and working in their communities in Burma, providing primary and preventive healthcare services and enabling communities to address and prevent health problems. As BPHWT has grown, so has our reputation, and we have gained support and assistance from an expanding base of local and international health and education professionals and donors. As BPHWT looks towards the next ten years, we will continue to focus on strengthening and expanding our community-based primary healthcare system in Burma. Whether the future brings continued conflict or peace and democracy. BPHWT remains committed to our community-based approach, aimed at empowering local populations and bringing ethnic groups together in the name of improving health for all."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB - OBL vertion; 3.7MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.backpackteam.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/bp%20report%20online.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: Diagnosis: Critical – Health And Human Rights in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 19 October 2010
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report reveals that the health of populations in conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma, particularly women and children, is amongst the worst in the world, a result of official disinvestment in health, protracted conflict and the abuse of civilians..."Diagnosis: Critical" demonstrates that a vast area of eastern Burma remains in a chronic health emergency, a continuing legacy of longstanding official disinvestment in health, coupled with protracted civil war and the abuse of civilians. This has left ethnic rural populations in the east with 41.2% of children under five acutely malnourished. 60.0% of deaths in children under the age of 5 are from preventable and treatable diseases, including acute respiratory infection, malaria, and diarrhea. These losses of life would be even greater if it were not for local community-based health organizations, which provide the only available preventive and curative care in these conflict-affected areas. The report summarizes the results of a large scale population-based health and human rights survey which covered 21 townships and 5,754 households in conflict-affected zones of eastern Burma. The survey was jointly conducted by the Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team and ethnic health organizations serving the Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, and Palaung communities. These areas have been burdened by decades of civil conflict and attendant human rights abuses against the indigenous populations. Eastern Burma demographics are characterized by high birth rates, high death rates and the significant absence of men under the age of 45, patterns more comparable to recent war zones such as Sierra Leone than to Burma’s national demographics. Health indicators for these communities, particularly for women and children, are worse than Burma’s official national figures, which are already amongst the worst in the world. Child mortality rates are nearly twice as high in eastern Burma and the maternal mortality ratio is triple the official national figure. While violence is endemic in these conflict zones, direct losses of life from violence account for only 2.3% of deaths. The indirect health impacts of the conflict are much graver, with preventable losses of life accounting for 59.1% of all deaths and malaria alone accounting for 24.7%. At the time of the survey, one in 14 women was infected with Pf malaria, amongst the highest rates of infection in the world. This reality casts serious doubts over official claims of progress towards reaching the country’s Millennium Development Goals related to the health of women, children, and infectious diseases, particularly malaria. The survey findings also reveal widespread human rights abuses against ethnic civilians. Among surveyed households, 30.6% had experienced human rights violations in the prior year, including forced labor, forced displacement, and the destruction and seizure of food. The frequency and pattern with which these abuses occur against indigenous peoples provide further evidence of the need for a Commission of Inquiry into Crimes against Humanity. The upcoming election will do little to alleviate the situation, as the military forces responsible for these abuses will continue to operate outside civilian control according to the new constitution. The findings also indicate that these abuses are linked to adverse population-level health outcomes, particularly for the most vulnerable members of the community—mothers and children. Survey results reveal that members of households who suffer from human rights violations have worse health outcomes, as summarized in the table above. Children in households that were internally displaced in the prior year were 3.3 times more likely to suffer from moderate or severe acute malnutrition. The odds of dying before age one was increased 2.5 times among infants from households in which at least one person was forced to provide labor. The ongoing widespread human rights abuses committed against ethnic civilians and the blockade of international humanitarian access to rural conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma by the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), mean that premature death and disability, particularly as a result of treatable and preventable diseases like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections, will continue. This will not only further devastate the health of communities of eastern Burma but also poses a direct health security threat to Burma’s neighbors, especially Thailand, where the highest rates of malaria occur on the Burma border. Multi-drug resistant malaria, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are growing concerns. The spread of malaria resistant to artemisinin, the most important anti-malarial drug, would be a regional and global disaster. In the absence of state-supported health infrastructure, local community-based organizations are working to improve access to health services in their own communities. These programs currently have a target population of over 376,000 people in eastern Burma and in 2009 treated nearly 40,000 cases of malaria and have vastly increased access to key maternal and child health interventions. However, they continue to be constrained by a lack of resources and ongoing human rights abuses by the Burmese military regime against civilians. In order to fully address the urgent health needs of eastern Burma, the underlying abuses fueling the health crisis need to end."
      Language: Burmese, English, Thai
      Source/publisher: The Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (OBL versions: 5.3MB - English; 4.4MB Thai; 3.5MB-Burmese) . Larger, original versions on BPHWT site
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(th)-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(bu)-red.pdf
      http://www.backpackteam.org/?page_id=208
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: Chronic Emergency - Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 07 September 2006
      Description/subject: This link leads to a document containing the Table of Contents of the report, with links to the English, Burmese and Thai versions... Executive Summary: "Disinvestment in health, coupled with widespread poverty, corruption, and the dearth of skilled personnel have resulted in the collapse of Burma’s health system. Today, Burma’s health indicators by official figures are among the worst in the region. However, information collected by the Back Pack Health Workers Team (BPHWT) on the eastern frontiers of the country, facing decades of civil war and widespread human rights abuses, indicate a far greater public health catastrophe in areas where official figures are not collected. In these eastern areas of Burma, standard public health indicators such as population pyramids, infant mortality rates, child mortality rates, and maternal mortality ratios more closely resemble other countries facing widespread humanitarian disasters, such as Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Angola, and Cambodia shortly after the ouster of the Khmer Rouge. The most common cause of death continues to be malaria, with over 12% of the population at any given time infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of malaria. One out of every twelve women in this area may lose her life around the time of childbirth, deaths that are largely preventable. Malnutrition is unacceptably common, with over 15% of children at any time with evidence of at least mild malnutrition, rates far higher than their counterparts who have fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Knowledge of sanitation and safe drinking water use remains low. Human rights violations are very common in this population. Within the year prior, almost a third of households had suffered from forced labor, almost 10% forced displacement, and a quarter had had their food confiscated or destroyed. Approximately one out of every fifty households had suffered violence at the hands of soldiers, and one out of 140 households had a member injured by a landmine within the prior year alone. There also appear to be some regional variations in the patterns of human rights abuses. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in areas most solidly controlled by the SPDC and its allies, such as Karenni State and Pa’an District, faced more forced labor while those living in more contested areas, such as Nyaunglebin and Toungoo Districts, faced more forced relocation. Most other areas fall in between these two extremes. However, such patterns should be interpreted with caution, given that the BPHW survey was not designed to or powered to reliably detect these differences. Using epidemiologic tools, several human rights abuses were found to be closely tied to adverse health outcomes. Families forced to flee within the preceding twelve months were 2.4 times more likely to have a child (under age 5) die than those who had not been forcibly displaced. Households forced to flee also were 3.1 times as likely to have malnourished children compared to those in more stable situations. Food destruction and theft were also very closely tied to several adverse health consequences. Families which had suffered this abuse in the preceding twelve months were almost 50% more likely to suffer a death in the household. These households also were 4.6 times as likely to have a member suffer from a landmine injury, and 1.7 times as likely to have an adult member suffer from malaria, both likely tied to the need to forage in the jungle. Children of these households were 4.4 times as likely to suffer from malnutrition compared to households whose food supply had not been compromised. For the most common abuse, forced labor, families that had suffered from this within the past year were 60% more likely to have a member suffer from diarrhea (within the two weeks prior to the survey), and more than twice as likely to have a member suffer from night blindness (a measure of vitamin A deficiency and thus malnutrition) compared to families free from this abuse. Not only are many abuses linked statistically from field observations to adverse health consequences, they are yet another obstacle to accessing health care services already out of reach for the majority of IDP populations in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. This is especially clear with women’s reproductive health: forced displacement within the past year was associated with a 6.1 fold lower use of contraception. Given the high fertility rate of this population and the high prevalence of conditions such as malaria and malnutrition, the lack of access often is fatal, as reflected by the high maternal mortality ratio—as many as one in 12 women will die from pregnancy-related complications. This report is the first to measure basic public health indicators and quantify the extent of human rights abuses at the population level amongst IDP communities living in the eastern conflict zones of Burma. These results indicate that the poor health status of these IDP communities is intricately and inexorably linked to the human rights context in which health outcomes are observed. Without addressing factors which drive ill health and excess morbidity and mortality in these populations, such as widespread human rights abuses and inability to access healthcare services, a long-term, sustainable improvement in the public health of these areas cannot occur..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB, 2.2MB - English; 1,2MB - Burmese; 1.6MB - Thai)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/ChronicEmergencyE-ocr.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(English%20ver).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Burmese%20ver).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ChronicEmergency(Thai%20ver).pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Chronic_Emergency-links.html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    • Ethnic health organizations

      Individual Documents

      Title: Building Trust and Peace by Working through Ethnic Health Networks Towards a Federal Union
      Date of publication: 11 March 2013
      Description/subject: "We, the members of the Health Convergence Core Group (HCCG), welcome the prospect of future political dialogue between the government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) to establish a genuine federal union. During this time of prospective dialogue, it is vitally important that humanitarian health assistance be provided in a way that will build peace at both the community and state levels. During the decades of conflict, ethnic communities and organizations have built up their own health provision structures which continue to be the main provider of health care in the conflict affected and remote areas. It is vital that these networks continue to function until such time as the convergence of state and national health systems can be achieved through political dialogue..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: http://www.burmapartnership.org/tag/health-convergence-core-group/
      Format/size: pdf (68K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/2013/03/building-trust-and-peace-towards-a-federal-union/
      Date of entry/update: 14 July 2013


    • Health financing

      Individual Documents

      Title: JICA continues support for leprosy eradication project
      Date of publication: 28 September 2003
      Description/subject: THE JAPAN International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has already spent 300 million Yen (K275 million) in its five-year pilot project in leprosy control and rehabilitation in Myanmar, a senior official with JICA said last week. “JICA implemented a pilot plan in April 2000 which will run until March 2005. So far we have spent about 100 million Yen (Kyats 915m) annually,” said Dr Yutaka Ishida, Chief Adviser, Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services. The JICA project covers 48 townships in Mandalay, Magwe and Sagaing divisions including the Special Skin Hospital and a leprosy community in Hlegu Township in Yangon Division.
      Author/creator: Khin Maung Soe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    • History of health care in Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: VACCINATION PROPAGANDA: THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATING COLONIAL MEDICINE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY BURMA
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: "...In examining the British government’s frequently half-hearted and sometimes even contradictory attempts to convince the indigenous population to accept vaccination, Burma does begin to appear in some ways as a neglected corner of British India. However, Burma may not really have been an exception as other literature has found similar problems in British India in general..."
      Author/creator: Atsuko Naono
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
      Format/size: pdf (225K - reduced version; 458K- original)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1naono.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2008


      Title: The efficacy and tolerability of rifampicin in Burmese patients with lepromatous leprosy
      Date of publication: March 1978
      Description/subject: SUMMARY — Seventy-one Burmese adult patients with lepromatous leprosy were treated with various regimens of rifampicin monotherapy, 450 mg. daily for 60 days or 900 mg. once weekly for 12 weeks or 450 mg. daily for six months. Of the patients, 18 had relapsed after stopping DDS therapy, 20 were intolerant of DDS, 18 were DDS resistant and 15 had received no previous treatment. Rifampicin produced a 75% reduction in the size of skin nodules in two thirds of the patients and a complete disappearance of nodules in the others. After one month drug treatment the MI fell to zero but the BI remained unchanged. The once weekly regimen was as effective as the daily treatment. Four patients had to be withdrawn due to ENL reactions. NOTE:The contents of this paper were presented at the Burma Medical Conference, 1977.
      Author/creator: TIN SHWE, KYAW LWIN, KYO THWE
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hansen. Int
      Format/size: pdf (298.66 K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    • International health organisations and programmes

      • Bilateral health programmes

        Individual Documents

        Title: DFID’s Health Programmes in Burma
        Date of publication: July 2013
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma (also known as Myanmar) is a fragile state, one of the poorest countries in Asia, with a long history of political unrest and armed conflict. Following elections in 2010, the country is now undergoing rapid change. The UK is the largest international donor to Burma. It spends almost half of its Burma expenditure on health, £110 million over the period 2010-15. This review assesses whether DFID is achieving impact and value for money in Burma through its aid to the health sector..... Overall Assessment: Green - DFID has designed and delivered an appropriate health aid programme in a country where there is significant health need and where there are significant challenges of access and capacity. DFID has demonstrated clear leadership in working well with intended beneficiaries, other donors, delivery partners and the Government of Burma’s Ministry of Health. The health programme has addressed many health needs, although demonstrating the impact of DFID’s health programmes has been difficult given the lack of good data in Burma... Objectives Assessment: Green - DFID’s health programme has identified and balanced the health needs of the Burmese people wi th the longer-term objective of helping the Government of Burma to develop a robust public health system. We consider DFID Burma’s health objectives to be sound. DFID has taken the lead in a challenging environment, complementing the work of other donors and contributing to the peacebuilding process by working in conflict-affected and ceasefire areas. By developing relationships at the local level, DFID has helped to create a bottom-up approach to identifying health needs which has informed the design of health programmes and has prepared the ground for stronger state–citizen relationships in the future. There is, however, a lack of a clear approach for engaging with the informal and for-profit sectors which accounted for up to 85% of health expenditure in Burma in 2011... Delivery Assessment: Green - The health programme has delivered against its objectives and has helped to address the needs of intended beneficiaries. Good governance, sound financial management and risk management are integrated into the design and delivery of each intervention. Administrative and overhead costs of the programmes need to be understood better by DFID to help to ensure that delivery costs represent value for money... Impact Assessment: Green - Programme targets have, on the whole, been achieved. The health impact to date has been positive, insofar as it can be measured, although there is a risk that attribution to DFID may have been over-estimated by an independent evaluation. Intended beneficiaries who we met in Burma, including people living in the Irrawaddy Delta and intravenous drug users suffering from HIV/AIDS, supported this view of positive impact. Despite being largely humanitarian, the programme has been implemented in the light of longer-term, strategic objectives for the wider health sector. As a result, the prospects of generating better health impacts in the future, from the solid foundations built through DFID’s presence and leadership in the sector, are good... Learning Assessment: Green-Amber - DFID is sensitive to the context of working in Burma and is taking account of lessons learned. Recommendations from end-of-programme evaluations have been taken on board in new designs, especially around future monitoring and evaluation. The physical, political and aid context for generating evidence in Burma is very challenging. As a result, the monitoring of outcomes is difficult, due to a lack of robust baseline data. DFID could have done more work to establish baselines. It is now doing so for the new Three Millennium Development Goals (3MDG) Fund, which brings together previous programmes as well as new areas of health activities. The 3MDG Fund also presents significant risks as it needs to be highly flexible in a rapidly changing Burma. Also, there is a risk that critical corporate memory could be lost as long-serving DFID staff are replaced..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Independent Commission for Aid Impact (ICAI) - Report 25
        Format/size: pdf (470K-reduced version; 539K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://icai.independent.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/16-July-2014-ICAI-Burma-Health-Report-FINAL.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2013


        Title: 3-D Fund - Programme Document agreed with Government of Myanmar, June 2006
        Date of publication: June 2006
        Description/subject: TITLE: Three Diseases Fund... BENEFICIARY COUNTRY: Myanmar... 1. RATIONALE: 1.1. Strategic framework - The Three Diseases Fund is in accordance with the humanitarian objectives of each of the participating donors in relation to Myanmar. It is also in line with the ‘European Union Common Position on Myanmar’. The proposed action addresses the prevailing public health emergency relating to the three major communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria - through financial contributions to a single pooled funding mechanism - the Three Diseases Fund (3DF)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: DFID
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 October 2007


      • Humanitarian organisations, NGOs

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: ICRC Myanmar page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross
        Alternate URLs: http://www.icrc.org
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2010


        Title: ICRC: Search results for "Myanmar"
        Description/subject: (104 results, November 2010)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2010


        Title: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
        Language: English
        Format/size: Search for Myanmar
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
        Language: English
        Format/size: Search for Burma OR Myanmar
        Alternate URLs: http://www.msf.org/msfinternational/countries/asia/burma/index.cfm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Merlin, Medical Relief, Lasting Health Care
        Description/subject: Myanmar page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Merlin
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Emergency_Relief_International
        Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar Health Articles on MSF website
        Description/subject: Articles and activity reports on Myanmar health
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/ar/report.cfm?id=4447&cat=activity-report
        Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar Medical Association
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: MMA (GONGO)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: New Project in the Federal State of Shan
        Date of publication: 13 July 2001
        Description/subject: After two years of lobbying, MSF has gained permission to start aproject in the federal state of Shan in Myanmar (Burma).
        Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Treating Thousands of Malaria Patients
        Date of publication: 01 November 2000
        Description/subject: From the MSF 2000 International Activity Report. MSF has been working in Burma since 1992. International staff: 31, National staff: 192. Treatment of Malaria, AIDS prevention
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Health and Humanitarian Situation of Burmese Populations Along the Thai-Burma Border
        Date of publication: September 1999
        Description/subject: From August 9-19, 1999, an evaluation of indigenous health services for Burmese populations along the Thai-Burma border [including IDPs and migrant workers] was conducted by a U.S. team working with several local non-governmental organizations NGOs. Report and policy options
        Author/creator: Chris Beyrer
        Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 3
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma - Health Service Fails Ethnic Minorities
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: Health of women and children, incl. HIV/AIDS in Kachin and Arakan Statesand the shanty towns round Rangoon. NOT ACCESSIBLE, JULY 2001
        Source/publisher: Medicins Sans Frontieres
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: A Land of War, a Journey of the Heart
        Date of publication: 27 September 1997
        Author/creator: Paula Bock
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Seattle Times
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Studienreise der Blindenmission Hildesheim nach Birma/Myanmar
        Description/subject: Tiefe Eindrücke von einer unvergesslichen Reise nach Myanmar/Birma, in das faszinierende Land der goldenen Pagoden mitgebracht. Vorstellung eines Hilfsprojekts der Blindenmission für blinde Kinder. Im Anhang Literaturtipps: Der Glaspalast (Amitav Gosh) und Tage in Burma (George Orwell)
        Author/creator: Johannes Achilles
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Blindenmission Hildesheim
        Format/size: html (27k)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2005


      • UN agencies

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: UNICEF
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar. 464 results (November 2001). 819 in May 2005. Lots of pics but some substantial documents.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations Children's Fund
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: UNICEF Country Statistics
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: UNICEF Myanmar Page
        Description/subject: The most substantial material on the site is in the Media Centre, and includes: a pdf document in Burmese: "Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS"... "The State of the World's Children 2005 - Children under threat" in English, (and in the same box a link to what should be a Burmese version, but since this is 56 pages rather than the 164 of the English, I have doubts)... "Progress For Children A Child Survival Report Card" in English, with The Foreword, Child Survival, and the East Asia and Pacific sections in Burmese... a "Myanmar Reporter's Manual" (65 pages)in English and Burmese versions: "This manual provides instruction on international-standard reporting skills, child-focused reporting and ethics for Myanmar journalists in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child." then there is a glossy, 28-page "UNICEF in Myanmar - Protecting Lives, Nurturing Dreams" in English.....In the For Children and Youth section is an illustrated and simplified aticle-by-article version of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and a couple of illustrated online books for young children and their families in English and Burmese. Under Youth Web Links there English language animations (I suppose) called "Top 10 Cartoons for Children's Rights" but I could not get them to work. Also links to several other UNICEF and UN young people's sites. The "Activities" and "Real Lives" sections deal with UNICEF's activities in the country.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNICEF
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: WHO Myanmar
        Description/subject: * The WHO Mission * About WHO Myanmar * WR To Myanmar * WHO Myanmar Staff List and Emails * Professional Staff * General Staff * Vacancies * Map of Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


        Title: WHO Myanmar page
        Description/subject: Statistics; Selected Indicators; Disease outbreaks; HEALTH EXPENDITURES: Key Health Expenditures Indicators... PROVISION/COVERAGE: Immunization coverage; Attended Delivery and Care; Home-based long-term care; HEALTH SYSTEM ORGANIZATION AND REGULATION: Health Legislation... HEALTH: SUMMARY MEASURES: Life Tables; HALE... HEALTH: CONDITION SPECIFIC: Polio incidence/prevalence; TB incidence/prevalence; Oral Health... HUMAN RESOURCES: Doctors, Nurses and other health professionals.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: WHO
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


        Title: WHO Research tools
        Description/subject: Library database (WHOLIS): "WHOLIS is the World Health Organization library database available on the web. WHOLIS indexes all WHO publications from 1948 onwards and articles from WHO-produced journals and technical documents from 1985 to the present. An on-site card catalogue provides access to the pre-1986 technical documents"... A guide to statistical information at WHO (WHOSIS): A guide to epidemiological and statistical information available from WHO. Most WHO technical programmes develop health-related epidemiological and statistical information which they make available on the WHO website. The WHOSIS will help you to find it: - WHOSIS; - Burden of disease statistics; - WHO mortality database; - Statistical annexes of the World Health Report; - Statistics by disease or condition; - Health personnel; - External sources for health-related statistical information; WHO family of international classifications: - The international statistical classification of diseases; - International classification of functioning, disability and health; - Disability assessment schedule II (WHODAS II)... Geographical information tools: - Communicable disease surveillance and response: public health mapping; - Evidence and information for health policy: GIS; - Global health atlas; - PAHO/AMRO SIG-Epi... Media centre: - Multimedia Page: audio, video, photos... WHO collaborating centres: - WHO collaborating centres database.
        Language: English (available also in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish)
        Source/publisher: World Health Organization (WHO)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 02 September 2005


        Title: WHO: "Myanmar" results of a search September 2003
        Description/subject: 3120 results.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: WHO
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: World Health Organisation (WHO)
        Description/subject: Not much of substance emerged from a general search, but try the statistical tables of the annual reports.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Health Organization (WHO)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: