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Renewable energy

  • Renewable energy - general

    Individual Documents

    Title: Turning on Burma’s Lights
    Date of publication: 10 January 2013
    Description/subject: "New technologies could put electricity within reach for millions of Burmese—at a fraction of the economic and environmental cost of traditional means of power generation."
    Author/creator: David Fullbrook
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


    Title: EU Energy Initiative - Mission Report - Energy Scoping Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2012
    Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Part I: SCOPING MISSION REPORT: 1 Background of the Scoping ... 2 Country Overview ... 3 Energy Access Policy & Institutional Framework … 3.1 Overview & Observations .... 3.2 Conclusions & Recommendations on Energy Access Policy ... 4 Electricity: 4.1 Electricity Sector Overview ; 4.2 Rural Electricity Access ; 4.2.1 Electricity Situation in the Field ; 4.2.2 Rural Electricity Access Options; 4.2.3 Conclusions & Recommendations on Rural Electricity Access; 4.3 Notes on Urban, Commercial & Industrial Electricity Supply .... 5 Biomass Energy: 5.1 Biomass Energy Governance; 5.2 Wood Fuel Situation; 5.3 Improved Cook Stoves (ICS); 5.4 Other Forms of Biomass Energy ; 5.5 Conclusions & Recommendations on Biomass Energy ... 6 Scoping Mission Schedule & Contact Details..... Part II: OPTION PAPERS: Option Paper: Technical & Policy Advisory of Rural Energy Development Committee ' Option Paper: Support in Rural Energy Planning & Coordination; Option Paper: Piloting Village Mini-Grid Approaches for Systematic Learning; Option Paper: Sustainable Market Development for Household-level PV Systems ; Option Paper: Preparatory Assessment of Woodfuel Demand & Supply Side; Option Paper: Biomass Cooking Energy Programme for Rural Areas
    Author/creator: Mirka Bodenbender, Dr. Christoph Messinger, Roman Ritter
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EU Energy Initiative - Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF)
    Format/size: pdf (2.7-OBL version; 3.74-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/EUEI_PDF_Myanmar_Energy%20Scoping_Report_May2012_EN.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    Title: Renewable Energy Workshops in Burma
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: "...two hands-on renewable energy workshops were conducted in June 2002. One was for thirteen participants in Myitkyina, Kachin State in northern Burma, and another for fifteen participants in Toungoo in central Burma. The workshops emphasized both theory and practice of solar-electric system installation and maintenance..."
    Author/creator: Chris Greacen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: home power 98
    Format/size: pdf (252K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


  • Biofuels

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Agrofuels
    Description/subject: A collection of articles on bio-fuels
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foundation for Ecological Recovery
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: CONTENTS: v Abbreviations... vi Acknowledgment... 1 Introduction: 1 Agroecological Zones and Administrative Divisions... 1 Land Use... 1 Workforce in Agriculture... 3 Expansion of the Irrigation Network... 3 Food Security Situation... 4 Rationale and Objectives..... 6 Energy Market and Outlook: 6 Energy Supply and Demand... 18 Potential Alternative Sources of Energy... 21 Justification of Biofuel as an Alternative Energy Source... 22 Obstacles to the Development of Biofuels in Myanmar..... 23 Resource Base for Biofuels Production: 23 Energy Security and Sustainability... 23 Biofuel Options... 24 Biodiesel Production... 27 Bioethanol Production... 33 Biomass Energy Consumption from Wood Fuel..... 38 Prioritization of Feedstocks: 38 Priority Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production... 40 Priority Feedstocks for Bioethanol Production..... 42 Agribusiness Models: 42 Existing Biofuel Business Model... 42 Opportunities and Constraints to Biofuel Business Development... 45 Integration of Small Farmers into the Agribusiness Chain and Options... for Promoting Biofuel Business Ventures..... 47 Case Studies of Biofuel Ventures in Myanmar..... 56 Policy, Regulatory, and Institutional Support for Biofuel Development: 56 National Policies and Strategies for Biofuel Development... 57 Development Program and Plans to Address Agriculture Sector Objectives... 58 Institutional Analysis for Biofuel Development... 60 Investment and Financing Arrangements... 60 The Way Forward..... 61 Appendix 1: Oil Content of Different Land Races of Jatropha Curcas..... 62 Appendix 2: A Proposed Institutional Structure and Implementation Mechanism for Biofuels Development..... 63 Appendix 3: Indicative National Biofuel Program for Myanmar.
    Author/creator: U Hla Kyaw, Thandar Kyi, San Thein, U Aung Hlaing, U Tin Maung Shwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    Title: FMI subsidiary signs biofuel deal
    Date of publication: 16 November 2008
    Description/subject: "A K30 billion energy deal could be a huge step forward for Myanmar’s production of renewable energy. The deal, with a South Korean company, could lead to the setting up of a refinery in Myanmar. The source of the renewable energy is jatropha Curcas, a biodiesel crop grown in Myanmar. South Korean biofuel giant Enertech, and Myanmar Agri-Tech (MAGT) signed a preliminary memorandum of understanding (MoU) covering the production, export and refining of the fuel in Yangon on November 5...
    Author/creator: Ye Lwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    Title: Biofuel by Decree -- Unmasking Burma's bio-energy fiasco
    Date of publication: 01 May 2008
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: In December 2005, Burma's Senior General Than Shwe ordered the start of a nation-wide campaign to plant the toxic bush-like tree, Jatropha curcas, for biodiesel production. The country was to plant eight million acres, or an area the size of Belgium, within three years. Two years on, this report documents how Burma's people have endured forced labor, confiscation of farmlands, loss of income and threats to food security under the program. At the same time, testimonies of crop failure and mismanagement from all of Burma's states expose the campaign as a fiasco. Each of Burma's states and divisions, regardless of size, are expected to plant at least 500,000 acres. In Rangoon Division, 20% of all available land will be covered in jatropha. In Karenni State, to meet the quotas, every man, woman and child will have to plant 2,400 trees. Army commanders and state officials have organized mass meetings extolling the virtues of jatropha. Photos of senior officers with watering cans and shovels have appeared in the newspapers; progress reports from around the country have been announced daily. Signboards, advertisements, and pamphlets have bombarded the nation. Since 2006, all sectors of Burma's society have been forced to divert funds, farm lands, and labor to growing jatropha. Teachers, school children, farmers, nurses and civil servants have been directed to spend working hours planting along roadsides, at schools, hospitals, offices, religious compounds, and on farmland formerly producing rice. This radical program was started despite growing international concern about the negative impacts of biofuel production, especially when implemented rapidly or on a large scale. Field research from 32 townships in each of Burma's states, including 131 interviews with farmers, civil servants, and investors, reveals how people have been fined, arrested, and threatened with death for not meeting quotas, damage to the plants, or criticism of the program. One result of the excessive demands for farmlands and labor is a new phenomenon of "jatropha refugees" of whom nearly 800 have already fled from southern Shan State to neighbouring Thailand. Plantations up to 2,500 acres in size have ignored local climate and soil conditions and been planted haphazardly, leaving up to 75% of the plants dead. Improper processing of the oil has left engines damaged and raised serious questions about the existence of adequate infrastructure to realize domestic biodiesel production. A complete ignorance of harvest yields, price, or market for the oil has left farmers and even businessmen cynical about any potential benefits of the program. Burma's agricultural sector is the backbone of the country's economy and society. Policies impacting the sector should be considered carefully and implemented cautiously. However, with disturbing echoes of China's "Great Leap Forward" to increase steel production in the 1950s, Burma's generals are forging ahead with an ill-conceived draconian campaign, ignoring its negative impacts. This report highlights the urgent need for political reform in Burma so that agriculture is not left to the whims of generals. Sustainable agricultural policies are needed that can ensure land rights and human security and allow communities to manage their own natural resources.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: The Ethnic Community Development Forum (ECDF),
    Format/size: pdf (English - 1.2MB; Burmese, 2.67MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecree.pdf
    http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecreeBurmese.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


    Title: Ethnische Minderheiten im Würgegriff
    Date of publication: 01 May 2008
    Description/subject: Die ethnischen Minderheiten stellen rund 30 Prozent der 50 Millionen Bewohner Burmas. Sie leben überwiegend in den Bergregionen an den Grenzen zu den Nachbarländern. Seit 1948 ringen sie um mehr Selbstverwaltung und Menschenrechte. Während sich die internationale Gemeinschaft nun für die Freilassung der bei der Niederschlagung der Proteste in Rangun Festgenommenen einsetzt, nimmt kaum jemand wahr, dass in den Minderheitengebieten seit Jahren schwerste Menschenrechtsverletzungen andauern; Menschenrechtsverletzungen vor und nach 2007; Chin; Karen; Biosprit; Human rights violations before and after 2007; natural ressources, bio-fuels
    Author/creator: Ulrich Delius
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: FMI says K30 billion needed to develop Ayeyarwady Division biofuel plantation
    Date of publication: 13 January 2008
    Description/subject: "THE chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co Ltd, U Theim Wai, says an investment of K30 billion will be needed for a 100,000-acre biofuel plantation it is developing in Ayeyarwady Division in partnership with SPA Co. FMI’s chairman, U Theim Wai, told shareholders at the company’s annual general meeting in mid-December the group is expected to have a 30 percent share in the project. The balance would be held by SPA Co, he said. U Theim Wai said 700 acres of jatropha curcas has already been planted under the project, launched by FMI Co and SPA Co, in 2006. “We are scheduled to plant another 10,000 acres in 2008,” he told shareholders..."
    Author/creator: Ye Lwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    Title: Big plans for biofuel exports
    Date of publication: 09 September 2007
    Description/subject: "SINGAPORE – Myanmar plans to export jatropha-based biodiesel as it attempts to tap the growing market for biofuels, a senior Myanmar energy official told a seminar in Singapore on August 27. “By this time next year we hope to have seven million acres (2.8 million hectares) of jatropha plantations in full swing and a large amount of biodiesel for export in the future,” said U Soe Myint, director general of the Energy Planning Department..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    Title: Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation held
    Date of publication: 13 September 2005
    Description/subject: "YANGON, 12 Sept — Ministry of Energy of Myanmar and Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency of Thailand jointly held the Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation in A y e y a w a d y - C h a o Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS) at Sedona Hotel here today..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
    Format/size: pdf (62K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


    Title: THE NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP ON WOODFUEL TRADE IN MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 30 November 1996
    Description/subject: "In 1990, fuelwood accounted for some 80% of total energy consumption in Myanmar, equivalent to about 20,000 tons. Since then, the consumption of fuelwood has increased, and this trend is likely to continue in the coming years. Though the country is known for its vast forest resources, in populated areas scarcities of fuelwood are severe and basic fuel needs are not satisfied, particularly in the Dry Zone. The flow and trade of woodfuels in the country may be a key element of balancing supply and demand. RWEDP has for many years cooperated with the Forest Department of Myanmar, which in 1992 resulted in a programme for the introduction of improved stoves. In the same period, a study was undertaken on 'Woodfuel Flows in the Dry Zone of Myanmar' (see RWEDP Field Document No. 39, published in 1993). When the government of Myanmar declared 1995 the Year of Fuelwood Substitution, RWEDP contributed to the national effort by giving expert advice on technologies for densification of biomass residues for fuels. Furthermore, throughout the years, delegates from Mynamar have been active contributors to regional workshops and expert consultations on various aspects of wood energy development. The National Training Workshop on Woodfuel Trade in Myanmar, organized by the Forest Department in 1996 at Yezin, was supported by RWEDP and built on previous experiences as well as presented new studies. The National Workshop also extended the concepts of the Regional Course on Trade in Woodfuel-related Products, organized by RWEDP in 1995 at Peshawar, Pakistan (see RWEDP Report No. 25). More than a hundred participants attended the National Workshop at Yezin, of which the present report gives an account. The report will be of interest not only to the many staff involved in Myanmar itself, but also to experts in other RWEDP member-countries. Thanks are due to the Myanmar Forest Department and to Mr. Tara Bhattarai, Wood Energy Resources Specialist at RWEDP, who assisted in the preparations and overviewed the publication..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forest Research Institute, Yezin
    Format/size: pdf (754K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


  • Hydro-electricity
    See under Electrical Power: Production and Use

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
    Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: The New Great Walls: A Guide to China’s Overseas Dam Industry
    Date of publication: 26 November 2012
    Description/subject: "Chinese dam builders have come to dominate the world market. Civil society groups have expressed concerns about the social and environmental impacts of numerous Chinese dams in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This NGO guide published by International Rivers presents the lessons of past experience and informs interested NGOs how they can best influence the projects and policies of Chinese dam builders and advocate for social and environmental interests. This guide provides useful information for groups concerned about dam projects in which Chinese companies and financiers are involved, including: *A "who's who" among Chinese companies and financiers; *Laws and standards in the Chinese dam building sector; *A map of China's major overseas dam projects; *The new environmental policy of Sinohydro, the world's largest dam-builder; *An action guide for how to address problematic dams built by Chinese companies and financiers, and who to reach out to for help; *Case studies of how NGOs have influenced Chinese overseas projects; and *A sample letter to a Chinese dam building company... Translations into Chinese and Spanish are planned for early 2013. Please contact us if you would like to organize a civil society training with the new guide, or suggest translations into other languages.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rivers
    Format/size: html, pdf (4.6MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/intlrivers_newgreatwalls_2012_0.pdf (the full report)
    Date of entry/update: 10 January 2013


  • Solar energy

    Individual Documents

    Title: Solar power fills in for electricity in rural areas
    Date of publication: 06 October 2009
    Description/subject: "...Solar power is being used by many people in rural areas in Burma, where electricity is not available. Shops selling solar power plates in some townships said that more and more people are using solar power than before in Irrawaddy and Pegu Divisions, Kachin, Chin and Kayah States in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Nem Davies
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 October 2009


    Title: Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar
    Date of publication: August 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Energy consumption is one of the indices in determining the levels of development of a nation. Therefore, availability of energy supply to all sectors of life in any country is crucial for its development. These exists shortage of all kinds of energy, particularly electricity which is badly needed for economic development. Electricity from the sun which is quite abundant in most of the developing countries is used in rural areas to meet basic electricity needs of a rural community. Today’s electricity supply in Myanmar is generated by fuel generators and hydroelectric power plants. However, far-flung areas which are away from National Grids cannot enjoy the electricity generated by these sources. Since Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and southern regions of the country, the first form of energy- solar energy could hopefully become the final solution to its energy supply problem. The direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic system has been receiving intensive installation not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. It is mainly intended to present solar energy potential and application in Myanmar. It is also wanted to get the benefits of using solar energy for people in remote areas which are not yet connected to the national grids because of the high price of fossil fuel."... Keywords—Electricity supply in Myanmar, National Grids, solar energy.
    Author/creator: Thet Thet Han Yee, Su Su Win, and Nyein Nyein Soe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
    Format/size: pdf (340K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


    Title: SOLAR POWER SEEN AS SOLUTION FOR REMOTE VILLAGES
    Date of publication: 12 October 2003
    Description/subject: "Subsidies, technical support and greater awareness are needed to speed the development of alternative energy sources in Myanmar, an industry spokesman said last week. One of the leaders in the field, U Win Khaing, managing director of Myanmar Solar Energy System, a subsidiary of United Engineering, is enthusiastic about the future of solar power as an alternative power source in this country. “Myanmar has great potential for utilising solar energy which is a free energy source. It could provide an immediate solution for remote villages that are not connected to the national electricity grid”
    Author/creator: Kyaw Naing,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Times, 2003-10-03.
    Format/size: pdf (85K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/myanmartimes/no186/MyanmarTimes10-186/022.htm
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009


    Title: Renewable Energy Workshops in Burma
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: "...two hands-on renewable energy workshops were conducted in June 2002. One was for thirteen participants in Myitkyina, Kachin State in northern Burma, and another for fifteen participants in Toungoo in central Burma. The workshops emphasized both theory and practice of solar-electric system installation and maintenance..."
    Author/creator: Chris Greacen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: home power 98
    Format/size: pdf (252K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2009