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Historical periods

  • Multiple periods of Burmese history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: History of Burma (Wikipedia)
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Early history (to 9th century CE) 1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Pyu city-states 1.3 Mon kingdoms 2 Pagan Dynasty (849–1298) 2.1 Early Pagan 2.2 Pagan Empire (1044–1287) 3 Small kingdoms 3.1 Ava (1364–1555) 3.2 Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287–1539) 3.3 Shan States (1287–1557) 3.4 Arakan (1287–1784) 4 Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752) 4.1 First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599) 4.2 Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752) 5 Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) 5.1 Reunification 5.2 Wars with Siam and China 5.3 Westward expansion and wars with British Empire 5.4 Administrative and economic reforms 5.5 Culture 6 British rule 6.1 World War II and Japan 6.2 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination 7 Independent Burma 7.1 1948–62 7.2 1962–88 7.3 Crisis and 1988 Uprising 7.4 1989–2006 7.5 2007 anti-government protests 7.6 Cyclone Nargis 7.7 2011–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
    Date of publication: April 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
    Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
    Format/size: pdf (272K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    Title: Myanmar and Historical Writing/ မြန်မာတို့ နှင့် ရာဇဝင် ရေးသားမှု
    Date of publication: May 1957
    Description/subject: Annotation: This article was written under the pen-name San Aung. Many texts of great value to historians were written during the Myanmar monarchies. After independence the Myanmar Historical Commission was formed and assigned the duty of writing Myanmar's history. The author eulogized Sithu U Kaung, the first chairman of the Burma Historical Commission. His death in a plane crash in 1957 was a great loss for Myanmar's scholars and educators..... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History ..... 2. Myanmar Historical Commission ..... Key Words: 1. Burma Historical Commission 2. Historical Writing 3. U Kaung
    Author/creator: /ဗိုလ်မှူး ဘရှင်
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: University Libraries / University of Washington
    Format/size: pdf (1.28 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0003.pdf
    http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/list/author/BA%20SHIN/
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Title: History of Burma : including Burma proper, Pegu, Taungu, Tenasserim, and Arakan : From the earliest time to the end of the first war with British India (1883)
    Date of publication: 1883
    Description/subject: "History of Burma. This was the first comprehensive history of Burma, and has become regarded as a classic reference. The author draws upon Burmese written records and the narratives of European travellers and residents before him. The book is accompanied by several maps and two Appendices which provide comprehensive lists of the 'Kings of Burma' and the 'Kings who Reigned in Pegu'."
    Author/creator: Phayre, Arthur Purves, Sir, 1812-1885
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Truebner & Co. (London)
    Format/size: pdf (8.6MB) + various other formats; (7.9MB - OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Phayre-History_of_Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010


    Title: Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma)
    Description/subject: "GENERAL INFORMATION" Burmese Personal Names ... Background to Burmese Political History ... Burman Prehistory ... History of the Burmans ... The Life of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... The Life of Suu Kyi ... National Accounts and Other Statistics for Myanmar ... Regional Population Distribution
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: San Jose' State University
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


  • Mon kingdom [9th - 11th, 13th - 16, 18th]

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Prehistory: Prehistory of Burma, Pyu city-states and Mon city-states
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Ecology of Burman-Mon Warfare and the Premodern Agrarian State (1383-1425)1
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: "...The present study is broken into five sections as follows. First, it looks at conflicts over the middle Irrawaddy (1389-1411) from various perspectives with different sets of historical data, including changes in chronicle lists of settlements; the observations of a British colonial-era gazetteer, the narrative of Kalà’s Great Chronicle and the Rajadirat epic. Previous papers (Fernquest 2006a, 2006b) have discussed in detail the larger context of these conflicts in the Ava-Pegu War (1383-1426). Second, it then describes the historical geography of Lower Burma and the middle Irrawaddy River basin and draws out the implications for military power. Historically, the north-to-south orientation of the Irrawaddy River has broken the east-to-west orientation of settlements in Lower Burma. This fragmented geography together with the limited farming potential and difficult terrain of the Irrawaddy Delta, contributed to an underlying localism in Lower Burma’s geography. Viewed in this context, the middle Irrawaddy River region is a pivotal thoroughfare providing access to the delta region, Lower Burma, and food supply located along the river. Battles over this strategically important stretch of river are a crucial turning point in the Ava- Pegu War with food supply and adjustments in military logistics playing a crucial role in the course of the conflicts. Apparently, because of the difficult nature of Lower Burma’s geography, the Burmans never established a military outpost any further south than Tharrawaddy on the Irrawaddy River, before the delta even begins. Third, ecological patterns conditioned the long-term conduct of warfare. The regular yearly cycle of changing climate and agriculture conditioned the way wars were fought if manpower was to be optimally conserved. The subsistence crisis was used as an extension or weapon of war. Long-term climate patterns may have increased the potential for these subsistence crises. Fourth, from the underlying constraints of environment and ecology in warfare the paper passes to the dynamics of warfare. A cycle of expansionary warfare explains how military success fueled further military success through the accumulation of geopolitical resources such as land, food supply, and manpower. A marchland factor also was operative in which enemies on fewer fronts aided the expansionary warfare of a state. Eventually, imperial overstretch and logistical overload resulted in a reverse process of state contraction in which the resources accumulated during expansionary warfare were quickly lost. Scorched earth tactics in which local food supplies were destroyed were part of the offensive strategy of expansionary warfare, whereas flight to the hinterland was part of the defensive response. Finally, in the conclusion the paper re-examines the agrarian nature of the Burmese state suggesting that general cross-cultural models of premodern agrarian states lead to richer explanations than the regionspecific mandala or “galactic polity” models traditionally employed in Southeast Asian history. Cross-cultural models allow for more realistic multi-causal explanations of historical events. They also allow for the posing and testing of a wide variety of different hypotheses and the possibility that disparate, geographically unrelated cultures, have shared historical experiences and processes. A Bayesian approach that brings in and VOLUME 6 (2008) 7 5 integrates knowledge of other premodern agrarian states in the form of a priori probabilities is suggested as one approach to crafting such a multi-threaded history of what-might-have-happened. Taken together, the six sections of this paper demonstrate how various seemingly fictional elements typically found in Southeast Asian historical chronicles, fictional elements often conceived of as a historical deficit, rather provide rich details that should be conceived instead as a historical surfeit worthy of study in and of itself..."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 6, 2008
    Format/size: pdf (6.2MB, 1.4MB))
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: RAJADHIRAT’S MASK OF COMMAND: MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN BURMA (C. 1348-1421)
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: "The reign of the Mon king Rajadhirat (r. 1383-1421) was an exceptional period in Burma’s history. Rarely has one person exerted so much influence over the events of an era. Lower and Upper Burma were locked in endemic warfare for almost forty years during his reign. Unlike his father and predecessor, Rajadhirat was forced to wage war to obtain power. Once in power, he had to continue fighting to maintain power. During the critical first seven years of his rule, Rajadhirat consolidated power in a series of conflicts with other members of the ruling elite..."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
    Format/size: pdf (275K - reduced; 1.97MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1fernquest.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


    Title: THE BUDDHIST KINGS OF CHIENGMAI AND PEGU, THE PURIFICATION OF THE SANGHA, AND THE MAHABODHI REPLICAS IN THE LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
    Date of publication: December 1996
    Description/subject: "In the late fifteenth century two similar and interesting events took place. Two Southeast Asian kings, both claiming to be Buddhist world rulers, built replicas of the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodhgaya, India. The first king was Dhammacetti (1462-1492) of Pegu, who built the Shwegugyi Temple in Pegu in 1479. The other king was Tilokaraja (1441-1487), of Chiengmai, who began building the Wat Cet Yot in 1455 (although the building went on for over a decade). Both the Shwegugyi and the Wat Cet Yot are replicas of the Mahabodhi temple at Bodhgaya, India, in their general architectural design, their use of the seven stations in their layout, and their association with the bodhi tree. The Mahabodhi temple is important to Buddhism, because it was built next to the bodhi tree under which the Buddha sat when he was enlightened. The seven stations at that temple refer to the seven different sites where the Buddha spent each of the seven weeks after enlightenment. This means that the Mahabodhi temple, the bodhi tree, and the seven stations there are directly tied to the foundation of the sasana and to the purity of the sasana. The construction of the two Mahabodhi replicas is even more interesting because only two other replicas of the Mahabodhi were built in Southeast Asia, one in Pagan built in 1215 by Nadaunmya (Htilominlo), and a minor one at Chiengrai, which cannot be dated or attributed. It is difficult to find out, however, why two kings in neighboring areas built Mahabodhi replicas at about the same time and why such replicas were not built in Southeast Asia for the 250 years before this time or at anytime afterwards.6 The chronicles and inscriptions explain that Tiloka and Dhammacetti were performing meritorious acts by building the Mahabodhi replicas. The chronicles and inscriptions also claim that these two kings were trying to unify and purify the sangha in their lands. However, the chronicles and inscriptions do not say why Mahabodhi replicas were built by Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja around the same time and not by every king before and after who tried to gain merit or be a dhammaraja by purifying and uniting the sangha. I think it is important to find the underlying reasons for the similar event occurring in Chiengmai and Pegu in the late fifteenth century. I will try, using the information that is available, and general information regarding the social, political, commercial, religious, agricultural, and demographic trends of that period, to provide the best possible answer to the questions (1) why the Mahabodhi replicas in Chiengmai and Pegu were built, (2) why they were built in these two places and not somewhere else, and (3) why they were built at this time. My argument, which I will develop and explain more fully below, is that the most significant factor in the adoption of Mahabodhi replicas and the repurification of the sangha in late fifteenth century Chiengmai and Pegu was international trade. During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, mainland Southeast Asia was politically (small and numerous states) and religiously (small and numerous sects) divided and not many kings had the resources or power to prove their claims of being dhammarajas by unifying or purifying the sangha or support the construction of temples on the same scale as Pagan. During the same period, however, trade grew as did agricultural cultivation and the population). By the late fifteenth century, central kings gained money for religious patronage of the sangha and for political patronage of (and more prestige in the eyes of) local rulers and probably better control of their kingdoms outside of the capital. The links that Chiengmai and Pegu had with international trade also brought ideas for rulers and monks. The religious reform and the building of Mahabodhi replicas of the late fifteenth century in Pegu and in Chiengmai came from ideas, brought along trade routes (maritime and within Southeast Asia), strengthening the prestige of Sri Lanka as a center of pure Buddhism. Also, Buddhist monks travelling along Southeast Asian trade routes seem to have spread beliefs in the royal capitals (as trade centers) that religious reform should also include a replica of the Mahabodhi temple. The monks who took advantage of these ideas won the support of the central ruler over rival sects since they had a better claim to religious purity. The central kings had more resources and control than their predecessors over their kingdoms and could make the selection of a particular sect and the religious repurification more significant throughout the kingdom. Finally, to reinforce their image as dhammarajas who unified and purified the sangha, and as cakravartins or world Buddhist rulers, Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja tried to replace Pagan with their own capitals as the chief center of Buddhism (which meant that their capitals also had to have Mahabodhi replicas)."
    Author/creator: ATSUKO NAONO
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-low res; 2.3MB-medium res; 4.3MB - high res)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-mr.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-hr.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


  • Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Imperial Burma: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
    Description/subject: "Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[50] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


    Title: Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü in Southern Yunnan
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "...Power struggles within ruling houses are a classic problem causing the weakening of dynasties and inviting foreign invasions. The Tai polities in pre-modern Asia were no exception. This recurrent problem is documented not only in contemporary Chinese sources, but also in the various versions of the Tai chronicles that the present writer has investigated. The present article focuses on the example of the Tai Lü polity, namely Moeng Lü (better known as Sipsòng Panna), which was founded in the twelfth century in present-day southern Yunnan along what Jon Fernquest has called the “Tai Frontier.”2 When waging fratricidal wars or committing fratricide to gain the throne was concerned, the traditional Tai polities in this frontier between China and the large lowland polities of mainland Southeast Asia were no better than the ruling houses of medieval Europe and China...The Chronicles of Moeng Lü (CML) is replete with killings and civil wars. Recorded above are seven major conflicts involving disputes related to succession to the throne of Saenwi Fa. The CML’s coverage of the successive reigns is not equal. The records of about one third of the reigns are very brief but that does not mean that there was no fighting during these reigns. Moeng Lü or Cheli was not a unified Tai kingdom. As recorded in the “Basic Annals” of the History of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuanshi), as early as around 1297/98 there were the Greater Cheli and Lessser Cheli. Moeng Lü was partitioned into two by the Mekong River long before Burmese expansion in the sixteenth century."
    Author/creator: Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Hamburg)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS BULLETIN OF BURMA RESEARCH VOL. 5, 2007
    Format/size: pdf (518K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


    Title: Pagan and Early Burma
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Pagan, today a small town of perhaps 2,000 inhabitants, was the capital of the first Burmese kingdom for about 250 years between the mid-eleventh and the end of the thirteenth centuries. During this period, more than 2,500 religious monuments, mostly Buddhist temples, stupas and monasteries, were constructed in and around the city. At the end of the thirteenth century, the city ceased to be a political center, having falled victim to demographic disruptions, economic exhaustion, and military pressure from the Mongols, though it kept its status as a sacred center and a place of learning until the end of the last Burmese kingdom..."
    Author/creator: Tilman Frasch
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Pwa Saws of Bagan/ ပုဂံခေတ် ဖွားစောများ
    Date of publication: 23 March 1996
    Description/subject: Title(Book/Serial): Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jublice publication; 1. Pwa Saw, 1st (Min Waing Pwa Saw) 1230 - 1287; 2. Pwa Saw, 2nd (Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw) 1262 - 1296; 3. Pwa Saw, 3rd (Thitmathi Pwa Saw) 1295 - 1334; 4. Myanmar - History - Bagan period, 1044 - 1287. Place/Publisher:Historical Research Department Ed. Date:1982 Pagination:p. 22 - 25 "Paper read at the first Union of Burma Literary and Social Sciences Conference held on 23rd March 1966. In the Bagan period three queens named Pwa Saw were well known. They were important advisors to the kings who ruled during their lives. The author observes that Bagan inscriptions document several queens named Saw; three Pwa Saws were described: (1) Min Waing Pwa Saw (2) Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw, and (3) Thitmathi Pwa Saw. They were clever and participated in the administration of the country.
    Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin/ ဗိုလ်မှူးဘရှင်
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Burma Historical Research Dept. via ANU Library
    Format/size: pdf (2.85MB) 35 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/article_title/The%20Pwa%20Saws%20of%20Bagan/?page=1&am...
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Title: Notice of Pugan, the Ancient Capital of the Burmese Empire.
    Date of publication: 04 July 1835
    Description/subject: "...The celebrated Venetian traveller, MARCO POLO, (see MARSDEN'S edition of his Travels, pages 441 to 451,) has given us an account of the war between the Tartars and the people of Mien (the Chinese name for Burmah), which occurred some time after 1272, and led the former to take possession of the then capital of the latter nation. SYMES and CRAWFORD, in the Journals of their Missions to Ava, as well as HAVELOCK and TRANT in their accounts of the late war, have described the extensive remains of Pagan, the former capital of the Burmese empire, lying between Prome and Ava, with its innumerable ruins of temples and columns. Perhaps the following account of the destruction of that city, translated from the 5th volume of the large edition of the Royal Chronicles of the Kings of Ava, (Maha Yazawen wen dan gyee,) may be deemed curious..."
    Author/creator: Lieut.-Col. Henry Burney, H. C.'s Resident In Ava
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 4 (vol. 4, July, 1835, pp. 400-404) via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
    Format/size: pdf (38K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


  • The Toungoo Dynasty [1486-1752]

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Imperial Burma: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
    Description/subject: "Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[50] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


    Title: The Toungoo Dynasty [1486-1752] (Burmese)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: Addendum: The Shan Realm in the Late Ava Period (1449-1503)
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Note: The following addendum to Jon Fernquest, (2005) “Min-gyi-nyo, the Shan Invasions of Ava (1524-27), and the Beginnings of Expansionary Warfare in Toungoo Burma: 1486-1539,” SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 3.2 (Autumn 2005): 35-142, was submitted after the journal was off to press (so to speak). We have added it here at the end of the volume. It is hoped that readers of Jon’s article, earlier in this journal, will also take note of this additional and revised material. M.W.C...."Several factors conditioned the relation between the Shan Realm, China, and Burmese Ava before Min-gyi-nyo’s accession to power:...
    Author/creator: John Fernquest (Fernquist)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
    Format/size: pdf (152K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: Min-gyi-nyo, the Shan Invasions of Ava (1524-27), and the Beginnings of Expansionary Warfare in Toungoo Burma: 1486-1539
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "The main purpose of this paper has been to provide a narrative history charting the forces at work behind state expansion in the early Toungoo period. Both the reign of Min-gyi-nyo and the Shan invasions of Ava played important roles in this expansion. From the very beginning of Min-gyi-nyo’s reign, after seizing the throne of Toungoo in 1486, Min-gyi-nyo built an ever widening sphere of influence in Upper Burma. After conquering the Pyinmana area near Toungoo, during the 1490s Min-gyi-nyo attacked the rebellious vassal Yamethin on behalf of his overlord the king of Ava and made exploratory military probes along the frontier of Mon Ramanya to the south. In 1501-03, there was a succession struggle at Ava as well as an invasion and occupation of the northern part of the Mu River valley, an important part of Ava’s food supply. In the wake of these events, the new king of Ava attempted to draw Min-gyi-nyo closer to him through a marriage alliance and a gift of strategically important territory near Kyaukse, another important part of Ava’s food supply. Min-gyi-nyo entered into a state of rebellion for the first time, spurned Ava’s gift and depopulated the territory. Ava sent a military expedition against Toungoo in retaliation, but Min-gyi-nyo intercepted it ahead of time and defeated it. Shortly afterwards, in 1505, Toungoo joined with Prome and attacked towns in the Myingyan area near Pagan. Toungoo was defeated and humbled by a joint military expedition sent by Ava and Hsipaw. In 1505, three princes rebelled and seized the town of Pakan-gyi at the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers. Instead of making an immediate move to help the rebels, Toungoo and Prome bided their time with expeditions against settlements like Magwe to the south. Their caution was vindicated when the princes were defeated and executed. During his trips from Toungoo to and from these campaigns, Min-gyi-nyo attacked and raided settlements along the way, in some instances establishing marriage alliances. In 1510, the king of Ava built a new capital and palace and Min-gyi-nyo followed his example. After 1510, while Ava was burdened by Shan raids of increasing intensity, Toungoo settled back to a period of peace. Only in 1523 did Min-gyi-nyo venture out of Toungoo again in a military expedition. During the Shan invasions of Ava (1524-27), he gained many loyal vassals in the area south of Ava. Min-gyi-nyo died in 1531. The new Shan state at Ava invaded Prome in 1532 and in 1535 Toungoo under a new king Tabinshweihti started a series of attacks against Pegu, the capital of Mon Ramanya, that led to Toungoo’s conquest and control over the southern Ramanya region and its lucrative maritime trade. Several demographic factors that played a role in state formation together with a model of state formation have been assessed for their relevance to early Toungoo state expansion (1486-1539). Although many might regard the lack of primary sources for the First Toungoo Dynasty as limiting research possibilities, it is hoped that shining the light of disciplines such as historical demography, political anthropology, the anthropology of war, as well as economic theory (Schmid, 2004; Van Tuyll and Brauer, 2004) on the evidence combined with a continued search for new primary sources will allow new advances to be made in this important but understudied period of Burmese history. Perhaps archaeological evidence will also one day supplement the evidence that is now almost entirely textual."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
    Format/size: pdf (800K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: THE FLIGHT OF LAO WAR CAPTIVES FROM BURMA BACK TO LAOS IN 1596: A COMPARISON OF HISTORICAL SOURCES
    Date of publication: 20 March 2005
    Description/subject: "In 1596, one thousand Lao war captives fled from Pegu, the capital of the kingdom of Burma, back to their native kingdom of Lan Sang. This incident is insignificant when compared to more cataclysmic changes like the founding or fall of dynasties, but it has attracted the attention of Western, Thai, and Burmese historians since the 17th century. The incident is noteworthy and exceptional in several ways. First, the flight was to a remote destination: Laos. Second, the incident involved two traditional enemies: Burmese and ethnic Tai's. "Tai" will be used to emphasize that this is an autonomous history of pre-modern states ranging from Ayutthya in the South, through Lan Sang, Lan Na, Kengtung, and Sipsong Panna in the North, to the Shan states of Burma in the far north. Third, the entries covering the incident in the Ayutthya, Chiang Mai, and Lan Sang chronicles are short, ambiguous, and beg to be explained. All of this gives the incident great dramatic potential and two historians of note have made use of these exceptional characteristics to further their literary and ideological goals: de Marini, a Jesuit priest, in a book published in 1663, and Prince Damrong, a Thai historian, in a book published in 1917. Sections 2 and 5 will analyze the works of these historians..."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (115K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: Ming China and Southeast Asia in the 15th Century: A Reappraisal
    Date of publication: July 2004
    Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "The 15th century was a period of intense interaction between Ming China and Southeast Asia. The period saw the Ming invade Ðại Việt, expand the scope of the Chinese polity by exploiting and then incorporating Tai polities of upland Southeast Asia, and launch a succession of hugely influential maritime armadas which travelled through Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. It is argued that these three aspects of Ming policy can be seen as differing types of Ming colonialism greatly affecting Southeast Asia during the 15th century and beyond. A chronological study of the policies relating to Southeast Asia of the successive Ming rulers is followed by a thematic overview of how the Ming policies actually affected Southeast Asia in the 15th century. This includes reference to effects in the political, economic and cultural topography of Southeast Asia The beginnings of a non-state-sponsored maritime trade between China and Southeast Asia is also investigated."...Keywords: Ming, Southeast Asia, 15th century, Zheng He, Dai Viet, Tai, Malacca.....20 references to Burma
    Author/creator: Geoffrey Wade
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore Working Paper 28
    Format/size: pdf (2.42MB)
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    Title: Accounts of King BayintNaung's life and Hanthawaday Hsinbyu-myashin Ayedawbon, a Record of his Campaings
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: About the king Bayintnaung, the king who united Myanmar and established second Myanmar kingdom, the Toungoo Dynasty and his campaigns...
    Author/creator: U Thaw Khaung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chulalongkorn University (Faculty of Arts, Department of Comparative Literature)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 December 2004


    Title: Voyage to Pegu, and Observations There, Circa 1583
    Date of publication: 1626
    Description/subject: “Gaspero Balbi his Voyage to Pegu, and observations there, gathered out of his owne Italian Relation,” in Samuel Purchas (ed.), Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and Others", volume 10, (1626). "Gaspero Balbi, an Italian travelling to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century, has left for us a valuable account of Burma during the reign of Bayinnaung..."
    Author/creator: Gaspero Balbi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: “Gaspero Balbi his Voyage to Pegu..." via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
    Format/size: pdf (58K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


  • The Konbaung Dynasty and the Anglo-Burmese Wars [1753-1885]

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Imperial Burma: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
    Description/subject: "Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[50] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


    Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History (Burmese)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History (Burmese)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Despot and the Diplomat
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: "The experiences of Capt Michael Symes, the first official British emissary to the Burmese court, offer lessons for diplomats dealing with the country’s current rulers... MILITARY-ruled Burma is surely one of the world’s least rewarding assignments for a United Nations diplomat. Visiting envoys are routinely refused contact with the country’s dictator, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, in his remote capital of Naypyidaw, the “Royal Abode.” Months or years may pass with no signs of progress before an envoy finally abandons his mission in frustration—and the regime claims another victory in its war of wills against the outside world. Much has been made of Than Shwe’s monarchical pretensions, and in his approach to diplomacy it is not difficult to see the influence of rulers of an earlier age, when Burmese kings believed they could keep the world at bay by treating foreign emissaries with studied disdain. Indeed, any diplomat who wishes to understand the mindset of Burma’s current rulers should probably go back at least as far as Bodawpaya, the king who perfected a brand of diplomacy still practiced in Burma today..."
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


    Title: Ruling the Rulers
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: Efforts to limit the powers of Burma’s absolute monarchs failed. So did the monarchy... "THROUGHTOUT Asia, the middle of the 19th century was a period of political turmoil, as Western imperial powers pressed in upon countries that were subject to various forms of pre-modern rule. Burma was no exception, as it was forced to come to terms with a nation that was not only militarily superior, but also politically more advanced. Under the country’s last two monarchs, King Mindon (1853-78) and King Thibaw (1878-85), there were attempts to reform Burmese polity in the face of growing external challenges. At the center of these efforts was Yaw Atwinwun U Hpo Hlaing, the author of “Rajadhammasangaha,” a treatise which would have laid the basis for a constitutional monarchy in Burma, and which, in the words of respected scholar Maung Htin, “might have kept King Thibaw in the enjoyment of his throne..."”
    Author/creator: Min Lwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


    Title: Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins (Punna) of the Konbaung Kings (1752-1885)
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Though they formed an essential part of Burmese court life, the Brahmins have hitherto attracted no scholarly interest outside Burma. Based on a study of royal orders and administrative compendia as well as recent Burmese research, this article gives for the first time an overview of the origins, the ritual and ceremonial functions and the organization of the punna. The main section is preceded by an overview of sources and research questions. Special emphasis is given in the last part to the noteworthy role played by punna in King Bodawphaya�s reform policies."
    Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 10, 2005/06
    Format/size: pdf (804K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 10)
    Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


    Title: Was “Yadza” Really Ro(d)gers?
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: "Under the terms of the Treaty of Yandabo, which ended the first Anglo-Burmese war of 1824-26, the Government of India sent Henry Burney to Burma as Resident Minister to the Court of Ava. Arriving at post in April 1830 he kept a journal in which, a few months later, he recorded the following: August 12 I paid a visit this morning to an extraordinary character, an uncle of the King, named Mekkhra Mon tha or Prince of Mekkhra. He has been taught to read and understand English by the late Mr Rogers, and he evinces a very laudable desire of becoming acquainted with European science and literature. (Tarling, ed.1995:59) Burney goes on to say that he and his associates considered the Prince to be ‘certainly the most extraordinary man we have seen in this country’ in that he possessed an impressive English library, was already well informed in scientific matters, had translated extracts from Rees’s Cyclopaedia and – with the help of an American missionary – had well-nigh completed an English- Burmese dictionary. According to Burney, then, the tutor credited with enabling the Prince to do all this was ‘the late Mr Rogers.’ But how did this intriguing English-born character come to be there, and who exactly was he? I raise the question because, while most of the information we have about Rogers is based on his own accounts of his background, those accounts are not consistent. I shall therefore, working backwards from 1830, collate various pieces of information about him in an attempt to establish the truth about his past. We must first jump back four years..."
    Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
    Format/size: pdf (111K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: "Adoniram Judson and the Creation of a Missionary Discourse in Pre-Colonial Burma"
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: In the following paper I argue that Adoniram Judson, the first American Baptist Missionary to Burma, was strongly empathetic with his adopted country. His work as interpreter-translator during the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826 and his visits to Ava both immediately before and after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), although coached in the language of Christian mission, exhibited characteristics markedly different from the perspective of Ann Judson's memoir and from those of certain missionary narratives subsequent to his own. I propose to examine aspects of three texts: Ann Judson's An Account of the American Baptist Mission to the Burman Empire; Henry Gouger's Personal Narrative of Two Years Imprisonment in Burmah; and Adoniram Judson's deposition to John Crawfurd. I shall also refer to J. Snodgrass' Narrative of the Burmese War (1824-1826) and Henry Trant's Two Years in Ava for other perspectives of some events.
    Author/creator: Helen James
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
    Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol7.html#
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: The Fall of Ayutthaya: A Reassessment
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Conventional views of the 1760-1767 Burmese attacks on Ayutthaya contend that the Burmese were taking advantage of an opportunity to attack a politically and economically weak kingdom. This article adduces evidence from the Burmese chronicles, from accounts by contemporary foreign observers, and from economic history to argue that Burma's campaigns against Ayutthaya were part of an epic struggle between the two polities that began in the 1500s and continued until the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824-1826. Control of trade was one of the central factors motivating this centuries-long conflict. It was the very strength and wealth of the Siamese kingdom, not its alleged weakness, that motivated the Burmese invaders, who hoped to strike a blow that would knock Ayutthaya out of contention as the trading hub of mainland Southeast Asia.
    Author/creator: Helen James
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
    Format/size: pdf (2.19MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    Title: The Mandalay Palace
    Date of publication: 1963
    Description/subject: Mandalay Palace - Historical Sites; Mandalay - Description and Travel; Mandalay - History; Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period; Contents: (1) Foundation of the Palace and City p. 10-15; (2) The City's Defensive Walls p. 16-19; (3) Building outside the palace platform p. 22-24; (4) The Buildings within the palace platform p. 25-35; (5) Appendix - Kings of the Alaungpaya Dynasty p. 37; This book was published with the grant of 1962 Asia; Foundation. Text by Mon C. Durosielle former Superintendent of the Directorate of Archaeological Survey. Supplemented with thirty one plates of photographs, plans and measured drawings of the palace structures and architectural motifs as preserved in the Archaeological Department.
    Author/creator: Mon C. Durosielle
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Directorate of Archaeological Survey
    Format/size: PDF (3.84MB) 57pages
    Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Zh_zzAF5zUgJ:https://www.myanmarisp.com/ABR/Ma...
    Date of entry/update: 10 July 2010


    Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
    Date of publication: 1892
    Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
    Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
    Format/size: pdf (139K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


    Title: Mandalay in 1885-1888: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892, Continued
    Date of publication: 1892
    Description/subject: Editor’s note: This is the second increment in the two-part series on the letters of James Alfred Colbeck. While the first part covered the years 1878-1879, the present letters include the years 1885-1888, when Colbeck returned to Upper Burma with British forces and served as both mission priest and as acting chaplain for British forces. M.W.C.
    Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
    Format/size: pdf (101K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
    Date of publication: 16 July 1878
    Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
    Author/creator: JAMES ALFRED COLBECK
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
    Format/size: pdf (240.04 K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Title: Some Documents of Tharrawaddy’s Reign: 1837-1846, Part I
    Date of publication: October 1841
    Description/subject: Editor's note: "The following documents drawn from the reign of King Tharrawaddy are intended as one contribution of many forthcoming to the project of organizing and publishing the source accounts for one of the Kon-baung dynasty’s most obscure, yet critical reigns. Thus, documents included have not been selected on the basis of their high rate of interest relative to other documents of the period, but rather more with the view of making the documentary record complete."...“Letter of Mr. Simons, Dated Rangoon, June 20, 1838: Relations Between Burmah and British India—The “heir apparent” and others put to death” By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Letter of Mr. Simons, 23 June 1838] By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Events at Amarapura, December 1837] Maulmain Chronicle, 9 December 1837...[Letter from Maulmain, 6 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 9 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...“Amarapura, 23rd March 1839” American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1 (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 3 July 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.3 (March 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Report on the Kayens] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Tharrawaddy’s March to Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Preparations for Tharrawaddy’s Arrival at Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 29, 1841...[Suggestions for a Show of Force Against Tharrawaddy, 2 October 1841] by “Prevantative” Letter to the Editor Maulmain Chronicle, October 13 1841...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
    Format/size: pdf (63K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


    Title: NARRATIVE OF THE BURMESE WAR, DETAILING THE OPERATIONS OF MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL'S ARMY, FROM ITS LANDING AT RANGOON IN MAY 1824, TO THE.CONCLUSION OF A TREATY OF PEACE AT YANDABOO, IN FEBRUARY 1826.
    Date of publication: 1827
    Description/subject: CONTENTS: . CHAPTER I. Junction of the combined forces from Bengal and Madras, at Port Cornwallis—Capture of Rangoon, and release of the British and Americans, who were made prisoners by the enemy….. CHAPTER II. Description of Rangoon, and the situation of the Army after landing there ….. CHAPTER III. State and position of the Burmese forces at the period of our landing in Pegu, and exertions of the court of Ava in calling out the military resources of the country—First encounter with the Burmese troops….. CHAPTER IV. Arrival at Rangoon of two Deputies from the Burmese camp—Continuation of the military operations, and situation of the army up to the first of July….. CHAPTER V. Feeble attack of the enemy on the British lines—Attack and capture of his fortified camp at Kummeroot — Expedition sent against Mergui and Tavoy on the Coast of Tenasserim….. CHAPTER VI. The King's two brothers, the Princes of Tonghoo and Sarrawaddy, with Astrologers, and a corps of Invulnerables, join the army—Operations of the British Force up to the end of August….. CHAPTER VII. Recal of Maha Bandoola and the Burmese army from Arracan—Continuation of hostilities at Rangoon— Their effect upon the court of Ava….. CHAPTER VIII. Friendly assurances of the Siamese—Their preparations for war, and probable line of policy—Capture of Martaban and Yeh….. CHAPTER IX. State of the force at the conclusion of the rains— Reinforcements and equipment for taking the field sent from India—Approach of the grand army under Maha Bandoola….. CHAPTER X. Actions in front of Rangoon, from the first to the seventh of December….. CHAPTER XI. Attack on the enemy's fortified camp at Kokeen.on the 15th December, and his final retreat to Donoobew….. CHAPTER XII. Plan of operations—Force equipped for field service….. CHAPTER XIII. Journal of the march from Rangoon to Donoohew….. CHAPTER XIV. Operations before Donoohew—Its evacuation by the enemy—Journal of the march to Prome….. CHAPTER XV. March of a detachment towards Tonghoo, and close of the Campaign….. CHAPTER XVL Winter-quarters at Prome—State of the country— Conduct of the inhabitants; with some remarks on their character and government….. CHAPTER XVII. Renewed exertions of the Burmese, government, in preparations for the prosecution of the war—Meeting of the British and Burmese Commissioners at Neoun-ben zeik, and their ineffectual efforts to conclude a peace….. CHAPTER XVIII. Strength and position of the British and Burmese armies—Defeat of the enemy in front of Prome ….. CHAPTER XIX. Preparations for an advance'upon Ava—Plan of the campaign….. CHAPTER XX. Journal of the march from Prome to Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXI. Conclusion of a treaty of peace—Is not ratified by the king—And the Burmese army, in consequence, is again defeated, and driven from Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXII. Continuation of the march upon Ava—Renewal of negotiations—Battle of Fagahm-mew—Conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.... CHAPTER XXIII. Concluding Remarks.... APPENDIX......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR THE ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
    Author/creator: MAJOR JOHN JAMES SNODGRASS,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: JOHN MURRAY via Google Books
    Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=NYs2AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Burmese&as_brr=1#PPR3,M1 (pdf 10MB)
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


    Title: Gleanings on Burma, December 1826
    Date of publication: December 1826
    Description/subject: "The following two entries appeared in The Gentleman’s Magazine in December 1826. They offer some useful information both on Burma’s looted textual heritage and on the confusion among the population after the war." M.W.C.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Gentleman’s Magazine via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (13K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: DIARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO BURMA IN 1760
    Date of publication: 1808
    Description/subject: "The following account is derived from Alexander Dalrymple, Oriental Repertory, 1808: I.351-393. Dalrymple has left us the following succinct introduction to the account below (M. W. C)...Capt. Alves was sent back to Burma in 1760; and on his return to Bengal, transmitted to Governor Pigot, at Madrass, the following Diary of his Proceedings.
    Author/creator: Captain Walter Alves
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (111K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: A CONCISE ACCOUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF PEGU
    Date of publication: 1785
    Description/subject: "The following account, written by the surgeon, William Hunter, relates his experiences in Pegu in 1782-1783. The observations were made on a voyage that had been ordered by the British East India Company. The account was originally printed at Calcutta in 1785 by John Hay under the title of A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu; Its Climate, Produce, Trade, and Government; The Manners and Customs of its Inhabitants. Interspersed with remarks Moral and Political. The additional appendices, one on “An Enquiry into the cause of the variety observable in the fleeces of sheep, in different climates,” and “A Description of the Caves at Elephanta, Ambola, and Canara” are unrelated to Burma and are thus not included in the text below." M. W. C.
    Author/creator: William Hunter
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (103K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm


    Title: PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO THE KING OF AVA, PEGU, &C. IN 1757
    Date of publication: August 1757
    Description/subject: "Ensign’s Robert Lester’s account of his embassy to Ava in 1757 was originally published in Alexander Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory. It provides one of the few first-hand accounts of Alaung-hpaya and thus remains a valuable source on the reign and the beginnings of the Kon-baung Dynasty. Dalrymple’s italicization has been removed and dates have been expanded to include the month and year in order to avoid confusion. M. W. C.... [Begins with an opening letter from Thomas Newton to Robert Lester dated 24 June 1757]
    Author/creator: Ensign Robert Lester
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (59K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


  • British rule in India 1757-1947

    Individual Documents

    Title: British Ruled India 1757-1947
    Date of publication: 02 January 2008
    Description/subject: 1. Documentary Sources, Libraries and other Institutions...2. Bibliography of Books Articles and Dissertations... 3. Wikipedia Articles (main Category - British rule in India)...4. Other Links
    Author/creator: David Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: House of David
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


  • British Colonial Period [1824-1948]

    • British colonial period : Commentary (non-official books, academic papers, articles and reports)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: British Colonial Rule (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Title: British rule in Burma
      Description/subject: British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma as a province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a Chief Commissionership), British Burma, of British India in 1862.[1] After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a Lieutenant-Governorship) in 1897.[1] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948....Contents: 1 Divisions of British Burma... 2 Background: 2.1 Burma before British colonization... 3 Arrival of the British in Burma... 4 Early British rule: 4.1 Administration; 4.2 Colonial economy; 4.3 Daily life under British rule... 5 Nationalist movement... 6 Burma separated from India... 7 World War II and Japan... 8 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination... 9 See also... 10 Notes... 11 Further reading
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Robert Gordon and the Rubies of Mogok: Industrial Capitalism, Imperialism and Technology in Conjunction
      Date of publication: January 2011
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Robert Gordon’s trip to the Mogok ruby mines in northern Burma, as reported in his testament to the Royal Geographical Society in 1888, represents one of the most blatant uses of travel as empire building in the Mekong Region. While European explorers and adventurers had been travelling to and along the region for centuries, most had been intent on mapping, surveying and categorizing its contents for purposes of their own profit, in one way or another. Gordon, while of course not unmindful of his own career, represents the traveller aiming to be of service to the greater power. He was strongly motivated by the desire to bring the ruby mines of Mogok into the reach of the British Empire through the building of a railway and the necessary infrastructure to pacify the countryside and its people, thereby enabling the enclosure of another type of commons."... Keywords: Capitalism, Imperialism, British Empire, Burma, Ruby mining
      Author/creator: John Walsh
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No.3
      Format/size: pdf (91K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


      Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
      Date of publication: January 2010
      Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
      Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
      Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
      Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012


      Title: Independence Lost
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: Sixty years after shedding the yoke of the British Empire, Burma is still colonized—by its own military generals. The fight for true independence is not over
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Robbie and the Poet
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: "...I consider the various coincidences outlined above to be fairly convincing support of my theory that ‘the Poet’ was the future George Orwell, but there may well be a scholar somewhere who can prove me wrong..."
      Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
      Format/size: pdf (117K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: VACCINATION PROPAGANDA: THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATING COLONIAL MEDICINE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY BURMA
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: "...In examining the British government’s frequently half-hearted and sometimes even contradictory attempts to convince the indigenous population to accept vaccination, Burma does begin to appear in some ways as a neglected corner of British India. However, Burma may not really have been an exception as other literature has found similar problems in British India in general..."
      Author/creator: Atsuko Naono
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
      Format/size: pdf (225K - reduced version; 458K- original)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1naono.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2008


      Title: Colonial Burma’s prison: continuity with its pre-colonial past?
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: The practice of confining convicted criminals in prison for a stipulated period of time – to punish or reform – is a modern western innovation. Pentonville in north London, opened in 1842 and said to be the first modern prison, had four wings radiating from a central hub from which guards could observe every cell, each holding a single prisoner. The ‘modern’ prison then became one of many western innovations (including the railway, scientific medicine and the filing cabinet) transported to the colonial world from the mid-19th century.
      Author/creator: Thet Thet Wintin and Ian Brown
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 39)
      Format/size: pdf (302K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
      Author/creator: Susanne Prager
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (601K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: The Self-Conscious Censor: Censorship in Burma under the British, 1900_1939
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: It is often assumed that censorship was not used to any great degree by British authorities in Burma. Yet, by looking at the way the British colonial government reacted to a variety of media including traditional Burmese drama, western blockbuster movies, and Burmese political pamphlets agitating against colonial rule, it is possible to see that censorship was very much a part of the British administration. British authorities censored pamphlets, books, dramas, and movies not only to contain political thought contrary to colonialism, but also to control the image of British officials as seen in the eyes of the Burmese.
      Author/creator: Emma Larkin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (627K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
      Date of publication: 1960
      Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
      Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
      Format/size: read online, pdf (6.4MB) text (512K) etc.,
      Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Furnivall-Governance_of_Modern_Burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


      Title: The Pacification of Burma
      Date of publication: 1912
      Description/subject: PREFACE: "Upper Burma was invaded and annexed in the year 1885. The work hardly occupied a month. In the following year the subjugation of the people by the destruction of all formidable armed resistance was effected; lastly, the pacification of the country, including the establishment of an orderly government with peace and security, occupied four years. As head of the civil administration, I was mainly concerned with this last phase. It would be a difficult task to give a continuous history of the military operations by which the country was subjugated. The resistance opposed to our troops was desultory, spasmodic, and without definite plan or purpose. The measures taken to overcome it necessarily were affected by these characteristics, although they were framed on definite principles. A history of them would resolve itself into a number of more or less unconnected narratives. A similar difficulty, but less in degree, meets the attempt to record the measures which I have included in the term “pacification.” Certain definite objects were always before us. The policy to be followed for their attainment was fixed, and the measures and instruments by which it was to be carried out were selected and prepared. But I have found it best not to attempt to follow any order, either chronological or other, in writing this narrative. My purpose in writing has been to give an intelligible narrative of the work done in Burma in the years following the annexation. It was certainly arduous work done under great difficulties of all kinds, and, from the nature of the case, with less chance of recognition or distinction than of disease or death. The work was, I believe, well done, and has proved itself to be good. My narrative may not attract many who have no connection with Burma. But for those who served in Burma during the period covered by it, whether soldiers or civilians, it may have an interest, and especially for those still in the Burma Commission and their successors. I hope that Field-Marshal Sir George White, V.C., to whom, and to all the officers and men of the Burma Field Force, I owe so much, may find my pages not without interest. I have endeavoured to show how the conduct of the soldiers of the Queen, British and Indian, helped the civil administration to establish peace. I believe, as I have said, that our work has been successful. The credit, let us remember, is due quite as much to India as to Britain. How long would it have taken to subjugate and pacify Burma if we had not been able to get the help of the fighting-men from India, and what would have been the cost in men and money? For the Burmans themselves I, in common with all who have been associated with them, have a sincere affection. Many of them assisted us from the first, and from the Upper Burmans many loyal and capable gentlemen are now helping to govern their country justly and efficiently. It has been brought home to me in making this rough record how many of those who took part in this campaign against disorder have laid down their lives. I hope I may have helped to do honour to their memories. I have to thank all the kind friends who have sent me photographs to illustrate this book, and especially Sir Harvey Adamson, the present Lieutenant-Governor, for his kindness in making my wants known." C. H. C. February, 1912......[A page or so is missing from the Index]
      Author/creator: Sir Charles Crosthwaite
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Edward Arnold
      Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/pacificationofbu00crosrich
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2012


    • British Colonial Period: texts (official and quasi-official documents)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Digital South Asia Library
      Description/subject: The Burma holdings of this digital library cover the period when Burma was part of British India... Major texts (fully searchable) are the "Statistical abstract relating to British India" 1840-1920 in digital book and Excel spreadsheet form and "The Imperial Gazetteer of India" (1909 edition, 24 volumes, each of more than 400 pages)... Reference Resources: Scholarly reference books and a link to full text dictionaries at Digital Dictionaries of South Asia (DDSA)... Bibliographies and Union Lists: Electronic catalogs and finding aids for dispersed resources and collections... Images: Photographs are arranged in databases organized by the original collections... Indexes: Includes periodical indexes and document delivery mechanisms... Maps: Catalogs of maps and maps themselves, ranging from historical to topographic... Books and Journals: This section includes pedagogical books, general scholarly titles, journals and newspapers... Statistics: Statistical information from the colonial period through the present, available in a variety of formats... Other Internet Resources: A link to SARAI, South Asia Resource Access on the Internet.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: DSAL, (University of Chicago)
      Format/size: html, Excel
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2005


      Title: Statistical abstracts relating to British India. From 1840 to 1920
      Description/subject: 8 files in digital book and Excel spreadsheet formats... The last file, for example, has data on: * No. 1.-Area and Population of British India and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 2.-Variation in Population since 1891. * No. 3.-Density of the Population according to Natural and Administrative Divisions (Census of 1911). * No. 4.-Towns and Villages Classified by Population (Census of 1911). * No. 5.-Main Statistics for Cities (including Cantonments). * No. 6.-Population of Principal Towns (Census of 1911). (Names of Towns in Native States are in Italics.) * No. 7.-Distribution of Population according to Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 8.-Variation in Distribution of the Population by Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 9.-Distribution of Christians by Race and Denomination (Census of 1911). * No. 10.-Territorial Distribution of Christians according to Race (Census of 1911). * No. 11.-Distribution of Population by Main Provinces and States according to Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 12.-Distribution of Population according to Religion, Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 13.-Age, Sex and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 14.-Distribution of Population by main Provinces and States according to Residence, Age and Sex (Census of 1911). * No. 15.-Distribution of Population according to Religion and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 16.-Distribution of Population according to Residence and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 17.-Statistics of Chief Castes (Census of 1911). * No. 18.-Distribution of Population according to Occupation or Means of Livelihood (Census of 1911). * No. 19.-Classes, Sub-Classes, and Orders of Occupations of the Population. * No. 20.-Distribution of Population according to Language (Census of 1911). * No. 21.-Languages Chiefly Spoken in the British Provinces and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 22.-Infirmities According to Residence (Census of 1911). * No. 23.-Infirmities According to Age (Census of 1911). * No. 24.-Number of Judicial Divisions, and Number of Officers Exercising Appellate or Original Jurisdiction, in British India on 31st December, 1919. * No. 25.-Number of Cases Decided in, and Receipts and Charges of, the Courts. * No. 26.-Number and Description of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 27.-Number and Value of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 28.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Civil Suits. * No. 29.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Miscellaneous Cases. * No. 30.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Appeals from Decrees. * No. 31.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Miscellaneous Appeals. * No. 32.-General Results of Trials of Criminal Cases. * No. 33.-General Results of Appeals and Revisions in Criminal Cases. * No. 34.-Punishments Inflicted in Criminal Cases. * No. 35.-Strength and Cost of Civil Police. * No. 36.-Principal Police Offences. * No. 37.-Number and Distribution of Prisoners. * No. 38.-Religion, Age, and State of Education of Convicts. * No. 39.-Sickness and Mortality among Prisoners. * No. 40.-Number of Convicts who had been Admitted Previously Convicted. * No. 41.-Expenditure incurred in Guarding and Maintaining Prisoners, exclusive of Cost of Building, Repairs, &c. * No. 42.-Convict Settlement of Port Blair. * No. 43.-Number and Description of Registered Documents, and Value of Property transferred. * No. 44.-General Statement of Gross Revenue and Expenditure, Charged against Revenue or Capital, with Annual Surplus or Deficit and Cash Balances (in India and England). * No. 45.-General Statement of the Gross Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 46.-General Statement of the Gross Expenditure charged against Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees=�). * No. 47.-Net Revenue and Expenditure; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 48.-Amount of Land Revenue* and Charges. * No. 49.-Details of Land Revenue and Charges. * No. 50.-Amount of Opium Revenue and Charges. * No. 51.-Number of Chests of Bengal Opium sold for Export and issued to Excise and Medical Departments, and Number of Chests paying Duty in Bombay. * No. 52.-Amount of Salt Revenue and Charges. * No. 53.-Statement showing Consumption of Salt in India. * No. 54.-Amount of Stamp Revenue and Charges. * No. 55.-Details of Stamp Revenue. * No. 56.-Amount of Excise Revenue and Charges. * No. 57.-Details of Excise Revenue. * No. 58.-Amount of Customs Revenue and Charges. * No. 59.-Amount of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 60.-Details of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 61.-Amount of Provincial Rates and Charges. * No. 62.-Details of Provincial Rates. * No. 63.-Amount of Income Tax and Charges. * No. 64.-Details of Income Tax. * No. 65.-Refunds and Drawbacks. * No. 66.-Assignments and Compensations. * No. 67.-Expenditure on Famine Relief (excluding Outlay on Protective Railways and Irrigation Works). * No. 68.-Distribution of Expenditure on Famine Relief. * No. 69.-Expenditure in India and England on Construction of Protective Railway and Irrigation Works (charged against Famine Relief and Insurance). * No. 70.-Military Expenditure in India and England. * No. 71.-Distribution of Expenditure (charged against Revenue) and Receipts of the Government of India in England, in Sterling. * No. 72.-Ways and Means of the Home Government, in Sterling. * No. 73.-Burden of Taxation. * No. 74.-Statement of Expenditure on Railways, Irrigation, and other Public Works (chargeable to Revenue), by Provinces. * No. 75.-Expenditure on State Railways and Irrigation Works in India chargeable against Capital.* * No. 76.-Amount of Debt and of Other Obligations (with Interest thereon) of the Government of India at the close of each of the undermentioned Years in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 77.-Return of all Loans bearing Interest raised in India and England, chargeable on the Revenues of India, and outstanding on 31st March, 1921, with the date of the Termination of each Loan. * No. 78.-Sinking Funds created and the application thereof. * No. 79.-Prices of Principal Kinds of Indian Government Stock. * No. 80.-Government Promissory Notes enfaced for payment of Interest in London; in Rupees. * No. 81.-Loans and Advances by Government; Balances on 31st March of each year and Amount of Interest received. * No. 82.-Bank of Bengal Rates of Interest for Demand Loans on Government Paper. * No. 83.-Gold Standard Reserve. * No. 84.-Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on India by the Secretary of State. * No. 84A.-Sterling Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on London by the Government of India. * No. 85.-Cash Balances at the Treasuries and Agencies of the Government of India, at the close of each of the undermentioned Years; in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 86.-Value of Money Coined at the Calcutta and Bombay Mints. * No. 87.-Number and Value of Government Currency Notes of each Denomination in Circulation on 31st March in each Year. * No. 88.-Average Value of Government Currency Notes in Circulation throughout India; in thousands of Rupees. * No. 89.-Value of Note Circulation, and Amount of each Description of Reserve of the Paper Currency Department, and Net Receipts, on 31st March in each Year; in Rupees. * No. 90.-General Statistics of the Post Office of British India. * No. 91.-Estimated Number of Letters, Postcards, Newspapers, Parcels and Packets. * No. 92.-Total Number and Amount of Money Orders, with Annual Increase. * No. 93.-Receipts and Charges of the Post Office of British India. * No. 94.-Number of Post Office Savings Banks, Depositors and Amount (in rupees) of Deposits. * No. 95.-Progress of Banking Capital in India. * No. 96.-General Statistics of the Indo-European (Government of India) Telegraph Department. * No. 97.-General Statistics of Government Telegraphs in India. * No. 98.-Statistics of Messages by Government Telegraphs. * No. 99.-Population and Constitution of Municipalities, with Income and Expenditure. * No. 100.-Income of Municipalities.* * No. 101.-Expenditure of Municipalities.* * No. 102.-Income and Expenditure of District and Local Boards. * No. 103.-Number of Colleges and Schools in India* and Number of Male and Female Scholars. * No. 104.-Detailed Classification of Colleges and Schools in India,* and Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 105.-Number of Colleges and Schools, and of Scholars attending them during the Year 1919-20, by Provinces. * No. 106.-Number of Male and Female Scholars in Public and Private Institutions, by Provinces. * No. 107.-Number of University Graduates and Undergraduates in Art, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Oriental Learning. * No. 108.-Results of University, College, and School Examinations in Jndia,* showing the Number who obtained Each Degree or Passed the Prescribed Tests. * No. 109.-Number of Public Institutions under Public and Private Management and of Private Institutions with Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 110.-Number of Public Educational Institutions in India under management of Government and Local Bodies and maintained by Indian States and under Private Management, also of Private Institutions; and Number, Race, and Creed of Scholars. * No. 111.-Expenditure on Education in each Province. * No. 112.-Distribution of Expenditure on Education. * No. 113.-Expenditure on Education in India.* * No. 114.-Number of Printing Presses at Work, and Number of Newspapers, Periodicals, and Books Published. * No. 115.-Number, Membership and Financial Position of Co-operative Societies. * No. 116.-Normal and Actual Rainfall according to Chief Political Divisions. * No. 117.-Agricultural Statistics of British India--Summary. * No. 118.-Area, Cultivated and Uncultivated, in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 119.-Area under Irrigation in 1919-20; in Acres. * No. 120.-Area Surveyed and Assessed. * No. 121.-Crops under Cultivation in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 122.-Number of Transfers of Land, and Area Transferred, in each Province in British India. * No. 123.-Area of Forest Lands, Outturn of Produce, and Revenue and Expenditure of Forest Department. * No. 124.-Railway Statistios.--Summary. * No. 125.-Mileage of Railway Lines in India open for Traffic at end of Year. * No. 126.-Number (in thousands) of Passengers (including Season Ticket-Holders) conveyed on the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 127.-Quantity of Goods and Minerals Conveyed by the several Railway Systems in India; in thousands of Tons. * No. 128.-Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 129.-Working Expenses of the several Railways in India. * No. 130.-Net Earnings of the several Railways in India. * No. 131.-Percentage of Working Expenses to Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 132.-Irrigation Works.--Principal * No. 133.-Value of the Total Trade. * No. 134.-Value of Imports of Private Merchandise into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported. * No. 135.-Value of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 136.-Quantity of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 137.-Value of Exports of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 138.-Value of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 139.-Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 140.-Value of Exports of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports) from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 141.-Value and Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports). * No. 142.-Value of Principal Government Stores Imported into British India, by Sea. * No. 143.-Value of Principal Government Stores (Indian and Foreign) Exported from British India, by Sea. * No. 144.-Value of Treasure Imported into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported; together with Total Quantity in Ounces. * No. 145.-Value of Treasure Exported from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported; together with Total Quantity, in Ounces. * No. 146.-Distribution of Trade in Private Merchandise among the Provinces and Principal Ports. * No. 147.-Imports and Exports of Cotton Goods and Exports of Indian Raw Cotton. * No. 148.-Imports of Raw Silk and Silk Goods. * No. 149.-Imports of Wool Manufactures. * No. 150.-Imports of Apparel (excluding Hosiery and Boots and Shoes). * No. 151.-Imports of Metals. * No. 152.-Imports of Metal Manufactures. * No. 153.-Imports of Sugar. * No. 154.-Imports of Provisions. * No. 155.-Imports of Mineral Oil. * No. 156.-Exports of Jute, Raw and Manufactured. * No. 157.-Exports of Raw Wool. * No. 158.-Exports of Rice. * No. 159.-Exports of Wheat. * No. 160.-Exports of Barley. * No. 161.-Exports of Lac. * No. 162.-Exports of Seeds. * No. 163.-Exports of Indian Tea. * No. 164.-Exports of Opium. * No. 165.-Exports of Hides and Skins. * No. 166.-Value of Registered Imports into British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., whence Imported, and Provinces into which Imported. * No. 167.-Value of Registered Exports from British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., to which Exported, and Provinces from which Exported. * No. 168.-Principal Imports and Exports of Merchandise across the Land Frontier. * No. 169.-Trade of Aden. * No. 170.-Vessels Entered and Cleared, distinguishing Steamers and Sailing Vessels with Cargoes and in Ballast. * No. 171.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Entered with Cargoes or in Ballast from Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 172.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Cleared with Cargoes or in Ballast to Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 173.-Coasting Trade; Value of the Total Trade. * No. 174.-Total. Value of Private Merchandise (Indian and Foreign) and Treasure Imported into and Exported from Indian Ports (British and Foreign) in the several Provinces. * No. 175.-Ships Built at Indian Ports. * No. 176.-Ships First Registered at Indian Ports. * No. 177.-Detentions under the Merchandise Marks Act. * No. 178.-Port Trusts; No. of Members, Income, Expenditcre, and Debt. * No. 179.-Troops conveyed to and from India. * No. 180.-Established Strength of the Standing Army in India. * No. 181.-Ages of British Non-Commissioned Officers* and Men of all Arms serving in India on 1st October of each year. * No. 182.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Embarked for Service in India. * No. 183.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Disembarked from Service in India. * No. 184.-Past Services of British Troops in India Enlisted for Short Service on 1st October of each Year. * No. 185.-Terms of Engagement of British Troops* in India (excluding Regiments on Passage Out and Home) on 1st of October of each Year. * No. 186.-Sickness, Mortality, and Invaliding in British Army (excluding Officers). * No. 187.-Sickness and Mortality in Indian Army (excluding Officers). * No. 188.-Number of Coolie Emigrants embarked from Indian Ports to various Colonies under the Laws regulating Emigration. * No. 189.-Ports of Shipment and Provinces from which the Emigrants were drawn. * No. 190.-Abstract Statement of Births and Deaths in British India, and Ratio of Deaths according to Sex, Town or Country, Class, Cause, and Season. * No. 191.-Number of Births with Ratio per Mille, and of Deaths, Male and Female, with Ratios per Mille of Males and Females, and in Rural and Urban Districts, according to Provinces. * No. 192.-Number of Registered Deaths, according to Cause, and Ratios per 1,000 among the General Population. * No. 193.-Plague Mortality, British Provinces and Indian States. * No. 194.-Number of Primary and Re-vaccinations and of Successful Cases. * No. 195.-No. of State Public, Local Fund, and Private-Aided Hospitals and Dispensaries; No. of Patients; and Income and Expenditure. * No. 196.-Number of Lunatics. * No. 197.-Monthly Wages of Postal Runners and Postmen. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 198.-Monthly Wages (January) in a Woollen Mill in Northern India. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 199.-Wholesale Prices of Staple Articles of Export and Import; in Rupees. * No. 200.-Variations in the Wholesale Prices of the Staple Articles of Export and Import, the Prices in 1873 being taken to represent 100. * No. 201.-Average Wholesale Prices of Staple Commodities in India. * No. 202.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Salt in Bpitish India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 203.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Food Grains in British India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 204.-Index Numbers of Retail Prices of Food Grains in India (Prices of 1873=100). * No. 205.-Joint Stock Companies, Registered in British India: Class, Number, and Paid-up Capital. * No. 206.-Joint Stock Companies Registered in Each Province at the end of the Year. * No. 207.-Cotton and Jute Mills. * No. 208.-Factories and other Large Industries. * No. 209.-Factories inspected under the Factory Act. * No. 210.-Patents and Designs. * No. 211.-Production of Chief Minerals in British India and Indian States; Quantity and Value.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: HMSO via Digital South Asia Library
      Format/size: html, Excel
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: Delineating British Burma - British Confidential and Official Print, 1826-1949
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Contents: Introduction 3 BIB-1 The British Conquest, 1827-1905; BIB-2 Gazetteers and handbooks, 1879-1944; BIB-3 Military Reports and Route Books, 1903-1945; BIB-4 Boundaries: Reports and Examinations, 1892-1937; BIB-5 Reports on Districts and States, 1868-1936; Index
      Author/creator: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
      Format/size: pdf (433K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: History of Minbu District, Introduction, 1887 - 1897
      Date of publication: 1936
      Description/subject: 1. Minbu District - History; 2. Geography - Minbu District; 3. Mibu District - Gazetter; 4. Historical Sites - Minbu District. Issue and Volume: Ed. Date:1936 Pagination:p. 43 - 51. "The District of Minbu is bounded on the north by Pakokku District, on the south by Thayetmyo District and on the west by the Rakhine Yomas. The article describes the geography, narrative history, canals and water courses of Minbu district."
      Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Research Society Vol. 26 , Part 1 via ANU Library
      Format/size: pdf (795K) 10 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/author/BA%20SHIN/?page=6&fromlistpage=1
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1931 edition.
      Date of publication: 1931
      Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps, Maps of Towns.
      Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931. via South Asia Digital Library
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Title: REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF INDIA, 1931
      Date of publication: 1931
      Description/subject: "The area covered by the sixth general census of India is approximately identical with that covered by the census of 1921 and differs little from the area of previous occasions from 1881 onwards; 2,308 sq. miles containing some 34,000 inhabitants have been added in Burma and in the North of Assam, while on the other hand, six sq. miles have been lost to Nepal. The statistics therefore cover the whole empire of India with, Burma and the adjacent islands and islets (Exclusive of Ceylon and the Maldives) as well as Aden and Perim Island, but not the Kuria Muria Islands* and Sokotra, which is part of the Aden Protectorate, administered from Aden on behalf of the Colonial Office, and not part of British India. The statistics the tables do not of course cover those parts of the peninsula, which are not parts of the British Empire, that is to say, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the French and Portuguese possessions, the area and population of which, together with the rate of increase since 1921 where available, are shown in the marginal table. For the rest the scope of this census extended to the whole of the peninsula of India, forming what is commonly described as a sub continent between long. 61 o and 101 o E. and lat 6 o to 37 o N. Some information has also been included with regard to natives of India resident permanently or temporarily outside the Indian Empire or serving on the High Seas at the time the census was taken..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


      Title: PROPOSALS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION FOR BURMA.
      Date of publication: 1920
      Description/subject: 1. Letter from the Government of India to the Secretary of state for India, No. 1 (Reforms), dated 25th March, 1920: Enclosures in No. 1.: 1. Resolution by tbe Government of Burma, No. 1 L—7, dated 17th December, 1918, publishing for discussion and criticism a provisional scheme of reform ... Annexures to Enclosure No. 1. 1. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 2. (1) Board for Home Affairs; (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development ; (4) Board of Local Self-Government... 3. Summary of Recommendations..... 2. Government of Burma's first scheme.: Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 21—1—L—1. dated 2 June, 1919.... Annexures to Enclosure No. 2. 1. Speech by Sir Reginald Craddock, Lieutenant-Governor of Burma, 19th April, 1919, (Extract); 2. Proposed grouping of towns for purpose of representation on the Burma Legislative Council; 3. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 4. (1) Board for Home Affairs... (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development; (4) Board of Local Self-Govermnent ….. 3. Criticism by the Government of India of the first scheme of the Government of Burma. Letter from the Government of India to the Government of Burma, No. 2425, dated 18th November, 1919; 4. Second scheme of the Government of Burma; Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 59 T—1—L—8, dated 22nd January, 1920 .
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of India via His Majesty's Stationary Office
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2012


      Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1909 edition.
      Date of publication: 1909
      Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps and Plans of Towns
      Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press,
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Title: Imperial Gazeteer of India
      Date of publication: 1908
      Description/subject: This work is fully searchable by keyword... Apart from the first four, the 24 volumes (the index, named Vol. 25 has no content in this version) are arranged alphabetically. References to Burma can be found by browsing the volumes or using the search engine.... Volume 1 - The Indian Empire, Descriptive; Volume 2 - The Indian Empire, Historical; Volume 3 - The Indian Empire, Economic; and Volume 4 - The Indian Empire, Administrative, Volume 5 - Abazai-Arcot... Volume 6 - Argaon-Bardwan... Volume 7 - Bareilly-Berasia... Volume 8 - Berhampore-Bombay... Volume 9 - Bomjur-Central India... Volume 10 - Central Provinces-Coopta... Volume 11 - Coondapoor-Edwardesabad... Volume 12 - Einme-Gwalior... Volume 13 - Gyaraspur-Jais... Volume 14 - Jaisalmer-Kara... Volume 15 - Karachi-Kotayam... Volume 16 - Kotchandpur-Mahavinyaka... Volume 17 - Mahbubabad-Moradabad... Volume 18 - Moram-Nayagarh... Volume 19 - Nayakanthatti-Parbhani... Volume 20 - Pardi-Pusad... Volume 21 - Pushkar-Salween... Volume 22 - Samadhiala-Singhana... Volume 23 - Singhbhum-Trashi-Chod-Zong... Volume 24 - Travancore-Zira... Volume 25 - Index (no content)....Volumes 1, 2 and 4 are dated 1909. The rest are dated 1908.
      Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922; Burn, Richard, Sir, 1871-1947; Cotton, James Sutherland, 1847-1918; Risley, Sir Herbert Hope, 1851-1911.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council via Clarendon Press, Oxford, via Digital South Asia Library (University of Chicago)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol III)
      Date of publication: 1901
      Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Myingyan, Sagaing district, Myitkyina district, Shwegu, Sawbwa, Keng Tung, Myelat, Irrawaddy river, Chin Hills, Palaung, Yamethin, Amarapura, Pyinmana, Wuntho, Meiktila, Tang Yan, Chindwin river, Magwe, square miles, Northern subdivision
      Author/creator: James George Scott , John Percy Hardiman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (9.3MB); html (467 pages)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
      http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


      Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. I)
      Date of publication: 1901
      Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: kengtung, paddy cultivation, hkam, revenue paid, shwebo, eight annas, myingyan, land revenue, chindwin, east longitude, bhamo, fifteen houses, hsen, revenue amounted, daung, mawk mai, hsam tao, hsop nam, francis gamier, ken pwi
      Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: html (573 pages)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb03hardgoog
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


      Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. II)
      Date of publication: 1901
      Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Key words and phrases kengtung, paddy cultivation, myingyan, revenue paid, hkam, eight annas, shwebo, east longitude, mogaung, fifteen houses, palaung, population numbered, hsen, upper burma, chindwin, deputy commissioner, irrawaddy flotilla, arakan yoma, mount victoria, hok lap
      Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: html (833 pages)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb02hardgoog
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


      Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. 1)
      Date of publication: 1900
      Description/subject: KEYWORDS: hkam, upper burma, mogaung, lower burma, kachins, police posts, thibaw, military police, shans, hill tribes, hsen, six villages, bhamo, men five, shwebo, deputy commissioner, mindon min, ney elias, kanaung mintha, marco polo
      Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (15MB) html, 788 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog
      http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog#page/n780/mode/1up
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


      Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. II)
      Date of publication: 1900
      Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (12MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2009


      Title: Burmese Buddhism in Colonial Burma
      Date of publication: 1895
      Description/subject: The following pieces found publication in 1895 and 1896: “Burmese Buddhists and Mission Work” (Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd August 1895): The following is the reply from the joint secretaries to the Babuthutta Society Rangoon, to Mr. H. Dharmapala, General Secretary to the Mahabodhi Society...[Buddhagaya Temple Controversy] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 2 May 1896...“The Buddha Gaya Temple” [I] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 9 May 1896...“The Buddhagaya Temple” [II] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd May 1896, p. 9...An Examination of Mr. Tsaw Hla Phroo’s Reasons for Embracing Christianity1 by Maung Chan Htwan Oung (1896)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
      Format/size: pdf (36K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


      Title: The British Burma gazetteer 1879 (Vol. II)
      Date of publication: 1879
      Description/subject: A-Z list of villages and other entities in (Lower?) Burma
      Author/creator: Horace Ralph Spearman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Burma
      Format/size: html, pdf etc.
      Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/britishburmagaze02spea
      http://openlibrary.org/books/OL13997258M/British_Burma_gazetteer
      Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


      Title: PAPERS RELATING TO HOSTILITIES WITH BURMAH
      Date of publication: 04 June 1852
      Description/subject: Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Her Majesty's Command. June 4, 1852......LIST OF PAPERS (enclosures not listed here): No. 1. Letter from the President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee of the Court of Directors of the East India Company (No. 8): Thirty-seven Inclosures: ...... The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 1): Twenty Inclosures..... 3. The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee .. .. .. .. .. (No. 2) Seventeen Inclosures...... 4. The Governor-General of India to the Secret Committee..... 5. The Governor-General of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee (No.3.): Six Inclosures..... 6. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 4.) Thirty Inclosures..... 7. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 8): Nine Inclosures..... 8. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee . (No. 14) Five Inclosures..... Treaty with the King of Ava, signed at Yandaboo, February 24, 1826 Commercial Treaty with Ava
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Parliamentary Papers, Vol. 36
      Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.co.th/books?id=TYwSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA103&dq=Burmah&hl=en&ei=-TOSTNP...
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


    • British colonial period - images

      Individual Documents

      Title: A Burmese Album 1824-1948
      Date of publication: 1948
      Description/subject: 96 bklack and white photos of Burma, 1824-1948
      Author/creator: P. Klier
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Colgate University digital library
      Format/size: jpeg
      Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


    • British colonial period - novels

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burmese Days
      Date of publication: 1934
      Description/subject: "U Po Kyin, Sub-divisional Magistrate of Kyauktada, in Upper Burma, was sitting in his veranda. It was only half past eight, but the month was April, and there was a closeness in the air, a threat of the long, stifling midday hours. Occasional faint breaths of wind, seeming cool by contrast, stirred the newly drenched orchids that hung from the eaves. Beyond the orchids one could see the dusty, curved trunk of a palm tree, and then the blazing ultramarine sky. Up in the zenith, so high that it dazzled one to look at them, a few vultures circled without the quiver of a wing..."
      Author/creator: George Orwell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Gutenberg, Australia
      Format/size: html (547K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


    • Pre-Independence - books, reports and articles

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
      Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: 'A Leader of Men'
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: The Muslim schoolteacher who joined Burma's martyrs... "Being a Muslim in a country where 87 percent of the population is Buddhist, and where the military government regularly practices ultra-nationalism and uses religion as a political tool, means joining the underprivileged at the bottom of the pile. The fight for liberty is the fight for peace. And like peace, liberty is indivisible —U Razak, June 1947 Muslims in Burma regularly suffer social and religious discrimination. Burmese Buddhists commonly call them, Kala, a derogatory term for South Asians and also used insultingly to describe westerners. While some consider the term abusive and degrading, there's general acceptance that it takes on a sense of honor, respect and lovingkindness when it's used in the form Kalagyi (Big Kala), to describe independence hero Abdul Razak. U Razak rose from the position of headmaster of Mandalay Central National High School to become minister of education and national planning in Burma's pre-independence government. His career was brought to a brutal end at the age of 49, when he was gunned down by assassins on July 19, 1947, together with independence leader Gen Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. The nine murdered leaders are commemorated annually on the country's Martyr's Day. Mandalay, where U Razak taught, is a center of Burmese Buddhist faith and culture. Yet U Razak, of ethnic Indian-Burmese origin, was fully accepted by the community..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8463
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: U Razak of Burma: A Teacher, a Leader, a Martyr
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: "As a primary school student, I read about Sayagyi (a great teacher or a principal) U Razak and fellow martyrs in school textbooks and in remembrance booklets of Martyrs' Day, (19th July, 1947), the day he was assassinated along with U Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. Later in my twenties and thirties, I read the few available writings by U Razak, and articles written about him by his former students, and talked with people who knew him well. From this exposure, I learned about U Razak's deep love for Burma, his courage to fight for our country's independence, his respect for diversity, his desire for unity and his far-sighted wisdom. As a leader, his vision carried beyond our country and highlighted the principles of humanity, integrity, knowledge, courage, freedom and peace. The points U Razak, as Burma's Minister for Education and National Planning, emphasized in his 1947 speech at the First South East Asian Regional Conference of International Student Service in Madras, India, are still valid if not more pronounced in 2007. In times of intolerance and divisiveness, such as today, his vision and gentle yet persistent approach sought to unite diverse groups through education for the common goal of freedom and development should be referenced and explored further as we seek practical actions for long-lasting peace, security and prosperity..." CONTENTS: I. Preface; II. A Tribute to Sayagyi U Razak By Dr. Nyi Nyi; III. Freedom Movements As Peace Movements By Honorable U Razak; IV. The Burman Muslim Organization By A. Razak, B.A.; V. Translator's Note... 1. Sayagyi U Razak And Mandalay University By M.A. Ma Ohn; 2. Our Selfless Sayagyi By Colonel Khin Nyo; 3. Sayagyi Didn't Care For High Offices By U Saw Hla; 4. Our Sayagyi U Razak; By Thakin Chan Tun; 5. Affection Just As One Has For One's Mother By Pinnie; 6. A Partial Profile Of Sayagyi U Razak By Aung Kyi; 7. Just Like A Father By Thuriya Than Maung; 8. Our Marvellous Sayagyi By Maung Maung Mya; 9. In Fond Memory Of Sayagyi U Razak By Colonel Wai Lin; 10. Sayagyi U Razak And I By Theikpan Hmu Tin.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Private publisher
      Format/size: pdf (895K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/19167977/Dr-Nyi-Nyi-U-Razak-of-Burma
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2007


      Title: Gandhian Links to the Struggle in Burma - a review of "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement (1906-1948) and India,"
      Date of publication: April 2007
      Description/subject: "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement" (1906-1948) and India, by Rajshekhar. South Asia Publishers, New Delhi, Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan 2006. P128... Gandhi and Indian Congress Party had influence over Burma’s nationalist movement.
      Author/creator: Yeshua Moser Puangsuwan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


      Title: Aung San’s lan-zin, the Blue Print and the Japanese occupation of Burma.
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Chapter 8 in Kei Nemoto (Ed). 2007 Reconsidering the Japanese military occupation in Burma (1942-45). Tokyo: ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp 179-224. This includes an English-Burmese bibliograpy of Aung San’s communications (pp 213-224)...Opinions are divided on the impact the Japanese occupation on Burma and on Southeast Asia more widely. Harry Benda summed up the Japanese occupation as 'a distinct historical epoch in Southeast Asian history' (Benda 1972:148-49). He viewed it as introducing discontinuity from the past colonial order, and as facilitating important changes, including in particular the mobilization of youth and the disruption of traditional patterns of authority (Benda 1969:78). In his useful work, Yoon (1971a:293) summed up its significance specifically for Burma saying that ‘the Japanese occupation directly affected and greatly accelerated the realization of Burmese independence’. Guyot (1974: iv, 43, 55, 222) viewed the Japanese occupation of Burma as marking ‘an important threshold in Burma’s political evolution’, since it ‘created the political elite’; in particular, it empowered a young generation of students, Burmanized the army, and helped rally and unify Burmans against British rule..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Gustaaf Houtman
      Format/size: pdf (664K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: "The Concepts of Dobama ("Our Burma") and Thudo-bama ("Their Burma") in Burmese Nationalism, 1930-1948"
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: This article attempts to demonstrate the interdependent operation of the term dobama ("our Burma") and its opposite, thudo-bama ("their Burma"), in the minds of members of the Dobama-asiayoun ("Our Burma Party"). From the party's very beginning in 1930 to the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League's struggle against Japanese rule and subsequently for independence from the British from 1944 to 1947, Dobama party members, known as "thahkins", avoided being identified as thudo-bama, meaning "the Burmese of their (the British or Japanese) side" or "the Burmese people who collaborated with the colonial regime." Instead, they invariably identified themselves as dobama, or "our Burmese." The thahkins preferred to define themselves in negative rather than positive terms. In other words, they chose to identify themselves by describing what they were not rather than what they were, and by attacking their imagined enemies, the thudo-bama, rather than attempting a clear definition of dobama.
      Author/creator: Kei Nemoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
      Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/Abstract1_GreenOpt.pdf
      http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol5/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • Pre-Independence documents

      Individual Documents

      Title: Our Fraternal Greetings to the Siamese people
      Date of publication: May 2002
      Description/subject: "This speech was delivered by Burmese independence hero Aung San at the Orient Club, Rangoon, on April 17, 1947�three months before his assassination. Aung San founded the Burma Independence Army in Bangkok on Dec 26, 1941."
      Author/creator: Aung San
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of Burma
      Date of publication: 17 October 1947
      Description/subject: "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Provisional Government of Burma; Considering that it is the intention of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to invite Parliament to pass legislation at an early date providing that Burma shall become an independent State; Desiring to define their future relations as the Governments of independent States on the terms of complete freedom, equality and independence and to consolidate and perpetuate the cordial friendship and good understanding which subsist between them; and Desiring also to provide for certain matters arising from the forthcoming change in the relations between them, Have decided to conclude a treaty for this purpose and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:- The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: The Right Hon. Clement Richard Attlee, C.H., M.P., Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. The Provisional Government of Burma: The Hon'ble Thakin Nu, Prime Minister Who have agreed as follows:- ..." Includes, as an annex, the Britain-Burma Defence Agreement of 29 August 1947 and other associated documents.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Public Records Office (London)
      Format/size: html (80K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: REPORT OF THE FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
      Date of publication: 24 April 1947
      Description/subject: "A Committee of Enquiry shall be set up forthwith as to the best method of associating the Frontier peoples with the working out of the new constitution for Burma. Such Committee will consist of equal numbers of persons from the Frontier Areas, nominated by the Governor after consultation with the leaders of those areas, with a neutral Chairman from outside Burma selected by agreement. Such Committee shall be asked to report to the Government of Burma and His Majesty's Government before the summoning of the Constituent Assembly." CHAPTER I. The Problem; CHAPTER II. The Work of the Committee; CHAPTER III. Recommendations and Observations: Part I- General; Part II- The Constituent Assembly; Part III- Observations. APPENDICES: App. I. Verbatim Record of Evidence heard by the Committee. App. II. Resolutions and Memorials communicated to the Committee. App. III. Notes by the Frontier Areas Administration, Government of Burma, on Economic Situation, Education, Health and Communications and Mineral Resources in the Frontier Areas Administration. App. IV. Administrative and Racial Maps of Burma... (Administrative map missing)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
      Format/size: pdf (7.8M); text without appendices 171K),html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Frontier_Areas_Committee_of_Enquiry-text.pdf (without appendices)
      http://www.sialkal.com/home_doc_FACI.htm
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2012


      Title: The Panglong Agreement, 1947
      Date of publication: 12 February 1947
      Description/subject: Text of the Agreement signed at Panglong on the 12th February, 1947 by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, and by representatives of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: India Office Records
      Format/size: html (5K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Japanese Occupation Period and World War II

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
    Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Title: Burma Campaign
    Description/subject: "The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily between British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from British India. The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against the British forces....Contents: 1 Japanese conquest of Burma: 1.1 Japanese advance to the Indian frontier; 1.2 Thai army enters Burma... 2 Allied setbacks, 1942–1943... 3 The Balance Shifts 1943–1944: 3.1 Allied plans; 3.2 Japanese plans; 3.3 Northern and Yunnan front 1943/44; 3.4 Southern front 1943/44... 4 The Japanese Invasion of India 1944... 5 The Allied Reoccupation of Burma 1944–1945: 5.1 Southern Front 1944/45; 5.2 Northern Front 1944/45; 5.3 Central Front 1944/45; 5.4 Race for Rangoon; 5.5 Operation Dracula... 6 Final operations... 7 Results... 8 See also... 9 Notes... 10 References... 11 Further reading... 12 External links: 12.1 Associations; 12.2 Museums; 12.3 Media; 12.4 Primary sources; 12.5 History.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: Burma Railway
    Description/subject: "The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Thailand–Burma Railway and similar names, was a 415 kilometres (258 mi) railway between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign. Forced labour was used in its construction. About 180,000 Asian labourers and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, around 90,000 Asian labourers (mainly romusha) and 16,000 Allied POWs died as a direct result of the project. The dead POWs included 6,318 British personnel, 2,815 Australians, 2,490 Dutch, about 356 Americans and a smaller number of Canadians and New Zealanders..."...Contents: 1 History: 1.1 Hellfire Pass; 1.2 Post-war... 2 Workers: 2.1 Conditions during construction; 2.2 Cemeteries and memorials; 2.3 Prominent people who helped build the line... 3 Significant bridges along the line... 4 See also... 5 References... 6 Book references... 7 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA
    Description/subject: Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II 65 books and other articles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA (CBI)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://cbi-theater.home.comcast.net/~cbi-theater/menu/cbi_home.html#NEW
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Burma_India_Theater_of_World_War_II
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Digital South Asia Library - Photo collection
    Description/subject: This collection of photos contains several hundred of Burma, mostly from WWII. Search for "Burma" within the different collections... The Hensley Photo Library: "This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Glenn S. Hensley.(103 images of Burma); Government College of Arts and Crafts (Chennai) "The Museum of Contemporary Art, housed within the Government College of Arts and Crafts, has a photograph collection dated from the mid 1800s. The subjects of these photographs range from the hill tribes of Niligiris to pagodas and monuments of the Madras Presidency to guns and antiques from Fort St. George."(42 images of Burma); Keagle Photograph Library - "This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Robert Keagle."(42 images of Burma); Bond Photograph Library - This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Frank Bond (142 images of Burma).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Digital South Asia Library
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


    Title: Japanese occupation of Burma
    Description/subject: "The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent. In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded Burma and nominally declared Burma independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943. A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. Aung San, father of the opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation (later renamed Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League), which asked Great Britain to form a coalition with other Allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence..."...Contents: 1 Background... 2 Occupation... 3 Massacre during the Occupation... 4 End of the Occupation... 5 See also... 6 References... 7 Further reading.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: The Burma Railway (video)
    Description/subject: Archive footage on the construction of the Bridge over the River Kwai... in 6 parts..."The Burma Railway is a 415 km line between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign. Forced labour was used in its construction. About 180,000 Asian labourers and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, around 90,000 Asian labourers and 16,000 Allied POWs died as a direct result of the project. The dead POWs included 6,318 British personnel, 2,815 Australians, 2,490 Dutch, about 356 Americans and a smaller number of Canadians. A railway route between Thailand and Burma had been surveyed at the beginning of the 20th century, by the British government of Burma, but the proposed course of the line — through hilly jungle terrain divided by many rivers — was considered too difficult to complete. In 1942, Japanese forces invaded Burma from Thailand and seized it from British control. To maintain their forces in Burma, the Japanese had to bring supplies and troops to Burma by sea, through the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea. This route was vulnerable to attack by Allied submarines, and a different means of transport was needed. The obvious alternative was a railway. The Japanese started the project in June 1942. They intended to connect Ban Pong with Thanbyuzayat, through the Three Pagodas Pass. Construction started at the Thai end on 22 June 1942 and in Burma at roughly the same time. Most of the construction materials for the line, including tracks and sleepers, were brought from dismantled branches of the Federated Malay States Railway network and from the Netherlands East Indies. On 17 October 1943, the two sections of the line met about 18 km (11 miles) south of the Three Pagodas Pass at Konkuita (Kaeng Khoi Tha, Sangkhla Buri district, Kanchanaburi Province). Most of the POWs were then transferred to Japan. Those left to maintain the line still suffered from the appalling living conditions as well as Allied air raids. The most famous portion of the railway is probably Bridge 277 over the Khwae Yai River (Thai แควใหญ่, English "big tributary"). (The river was originally known as the Mae Klong and was renamed Khwae Yai in 1960.) It was immortalized by Pierre Boulle in his book and the film based on it: The Bridge on the River Kwai. However, there are many who say that the movie is utterly unrealistic and does not show what the conditions and treatment of prisoners was really like.[2] The first wooden bridge over the Khwae Yai was finished in February 1943, followed by a concrete and steel bridge in June 1943. According to Hellfire Tours in Thailand, "The two bridges were successfully bombed on 13 February 1945 by the Royal Air Force. Repairs were carried out by POW labor and by April the wooden trestle bridge was back in operation. On 3 April a second raid by Liberator bombers of the U.S. Army Air Forces damaged the wooden bridge once again. Repair work continued and both bridges were operational again by the end of May. A second raid by the R.A.F. on 24 June put the railway out of commission for the rest of the war. After the Japanese surrender the British Army removed 3.9 Kilometers of track on the Thai-Burma border. A survey of the track had shown that its poor construction would not support commercial traffic. The track was sold to Thai Railways and the 130-km Ban Pong--Namtok section relaid and is in use today.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Documentary Channel via Youtube
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Burma Boy (video)
    Date of publication: 29 August 2011
    Description/subject: Barnaby Phillips follows the life of one of the forgotten heroes of World War II..."In December 1941, the Japanese invasion of Burma (now Myanmar) opened what would be the longest land campaign fought by the British in the Second World War. It began with defeat and retreat for Britain, as Rangoon fell to the Japanese in March 1942. But the fighting went on, over a varied terrain of jungles, mountains, plains and wide rivers, until the Japanese forces surrendered in August 1945. Some 100,000 African soldiers were taken from British colonies to fight in the jungles of Burma against the Japanese. They performed heroically in one of the most brutal theatres of war, yet their contribution has been largely ignored, both in Britain and their now independent home countries. In the villages of Nigeria and Ghana, these veterans are known as 'the Burma Boys'. They brought back terrifying tales from faraway lands. Few survived, even fewer are alive today. Al Jazeera's Barnaby Phillips travels to Nigeria, Burma and Japan to find a Nigerian veteran of the war and to talk to those who fought alongside him as well as against him. He even finds the family that saved the life of the wounded veteran in the jungles of Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Barnaby Phillips
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (48 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2011


    Title: The Yunnan-Burma Highway and Yunnan Economy during the Periods of Anti-Japanese War
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: Foundation Item: The Key Project of Scientific and Research Foundation in Office of Education in Yunnan Province “Study on Map of Japanese Aggression in Yunnan and the Second Battle Line of Japanese Attack on China” (09Z0085)... Abstract: The Yunnan-Burma Highway is an important line of transportation explored for need of the war situation. This highway has not only played a positive role in the Anti-Japanese War of China and in the victory of Anti-Fascist war throughout the world, but has made significant contributions to alleviation of the economic pressure during the war, boost of local economic development in Yunnan, reinforcement of development of ethnic regions in the border area and intensification of the close relations between Yunnan and Burma as well as Southeast Asian countries." Keywords: The Yunnan-Burma highway, Anti-Japanese War, Yunnan, Economy during the periods of Anti-Japanese War
    Author/creator: Li Cheng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No. 2
    Format/size: pdf (86K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


    Title: Aung San’s Winning Ways
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: How Burma’s national hero charmed the British general... "As the war in Burma swung the way of the Allies, the British commander, field-marshal William Slim, was faced with the problem of how to handle the Burma National Army led by Aung San. In the final months of the war the BNA forces changed sides, deserting Japan and opting to fight alongside the Allies. “I had all along believed they could be a nuisance to the enemy but, unless their activities were closely tied in with ours, they promised to be almost as big a nuisance to us,” recalled Slim, in his memoirs, Defeat Into Victory. “It seemed to me that the only way satisfactorily to control them was to get hold of their Commander-in-Chief, Aung San, and to make him accept my orders. This, from what I knew of him and of the extreme Burmese nationalists, I thought might be difficult, but worth trying.”..."
    Author/creator: Jim Andrews
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: How World War II Shaped Burma’s Future
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: Colonial powers beat the Japanese but lost their empires... "...while the Pacific War marked the beginning of the end of colonialism, it had another, more severe impact on Burma. In the beginning, Aung San and his Burman nationalists had sided with the Japanese. His Burma Independence Army was armed and trained by the Japanese, while the Allied powers armed and equipped hill peoples such as the Karen and Kachin to fight the occupiers. Centuries of mistrust between the Burmans and the hill peoples resurfaced, and those wounds have not yet been healed. Even today, many Karen talk with bitterness about atrocities carried out against them by the BIA during the Japanese occupation, and the Kachin are proud to point out that they already had celebrated their victory manau in Myitkyina by the time the Burman nationalists in March 1945 turned their guns against the Japanese. The arming of the hill peoples, and vast quantities of weapons left behind by the Japanese, meant that Burma’s ethnic conflicts from the very beginning turned violent..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Matsumoto of Merrill’s Marauders
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: From US internment to Burma battlefield glory... "His name was Matsumoto, but he wore an American uniform in Burma and served with soldiers fighting the empire of his ancestors..."
    Author/creator: Mick Elmore
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: The Burma Campaign and Beyond - review of Jon Latimer's "Burma, The Forgotten War"
    Date of publication: January 2005
    Description/subject: "...Jon Latimer’s study is worth reading, not because his heroes are “unsung”, as he puts it, but as an authoritative and comprehensive study of the Burma campaign. He chronicles the British defeat, the ensuing stalemate, and then the eventual victory over the Japanese in minute detail. It is also beautifully written. Latimer, who served for many years with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, then as a military intelligence officer, is the author of several other books about World War Two. For this book he drew from wartime records in Washington, London, Edinburgh, and the Gurkha Museum in Winchester, and interviews with survivors of the conflict..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


  • Independence and Parliamentary Periods (1948-1958)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
    Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    • Studies of the Independence and Parliamentary periods

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Pre-independence period (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Arming Nonalignment: Yugoslavia’s Relations with Burma and the Cold War in Asia (1950-1955)
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: (New Evidence from Yugoslav, Chinese, Indian, and U.S. Archives)..."...This paper will show the events surrounding the initiation of Yugoslavia’s arms shipments to Burma in the early 1950s and how these actions shifted the power equation inside the Burmese society and in its immediate neighborhood. Using recently declassified documents from the major Yugoslav archives (President Tito’s personal archive, Foreign Ministry Archives of Serbia , the Defense Ministry Archives of Serbia, and the Archive of Yugoslavia, which retains the records of the Yugoslav state and communist party), Chinese archives (Chinese Foreign Ministry Archives), Indian archives (National Archives of India, Ministry of External Affairs), and U.S. archives (National Archives and Records Administration) as well as private collections such as the ones at the National Security Archive, this paper will look at the impact that these arms transfers had on the overall development of the bilateral strategic partnership between Belgrade and Rangoon and how these arrangements between two distant countries were perceived by the government circles in the U.S., China, and India. The paper will argue that Yugoslav-Burmese military cooperation substantially altered some of the strategic plans of the great powers with regards to this region..."
      Author/creator: Jovan Čavoški
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Cold War International History Project (Working Paper #61)
      Format/size: pdf (1.49MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


      Title: The Split Story
      Date of publication: 23 March 1959
      Description/subject: "The Split Story, an account of the rise and fall of Burma’s strongest national Front, the Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League (AFPFL), was originally serialized in the Guardian Daily in January—February 1959; and it was not intended to be printed in a book form. But owing to popular demand by the Guardian readers, who insisted that the serial should be printed in a book form so that this historical account acquires a more permanent nature, the serial has been revised and presented in this book form. The whole work is an objective study of the post-independent political development in Burma, with special emphasis on the AFPFL in the country; and the account is based mainly on records and on personal observations of the writer after interviews on the subject with a number of leaders from both sides of the two political camps after the split in the AFPFL..."
      Author/creator: Sein Win
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Guardian" (Rangoon)
      Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 July 2012


  • Military (BSPP) Period, 1962-1988

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "The Burma Press Summary" (1987 - 1996)
    Description/subject: NOW TRANSFERRED TO THE MAIN DATABASE "The Burma Press Summary" contains full texts of many of the laws and decrees pronounced between April 1987 and December 1996, speeches by the BSPP and SLORC leaders as well as other documents and summaries of reports from "The Working People's Daily", "The New Light of Myanmar" and "The Guardian".
    Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall, compiler
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SLORC/SPDC publications
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Military Rule, 1962-2011 (Burmese)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: Civil-Military Relations in Ne Win’s Burma, 1962-1988
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: Summary of the author's university disseration... "This dissertation aims to describe the transformation of civil-military relations from 1962 to 1988 in Burma, focusing on Gen. Ne Win’s leadership and the bureaucratic development of the military (tatmadaw). The author argues that wide-ranging distribution of state posts to the relatively small-sized officer corps is the most important factor for the military regime durability in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Yoshihiro Nakanishi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kyoto University via SOASBulletin of Burma Research Vol. 5
    Format/size: pdf (87K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


    Title: The Disorder in Order: the Army-State in Burma since 1962
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: Book Announcement, Table of Contents and ordering information. "The Disorder in Order examines Burma’s history of “regime entropy” following the March 1962 coup d’etat that ended the country’s brief experiment with parliamentary government. Implementing socialist economic policies in central Burma and a hard line against ethnic minority and communist insurgents in the Border Areas, Ne Win’s Army-State presided over the country’s fall from prosperity to Least Developed Nation status by 1987. The following year, a new martial law regime, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), brutally suppressed a nationwide movement for democracy that drew on the country’s colonial-era traditions of revolutionary nationalism. Although SLORC promoted an open economy, including foreign private investment, the second Army-State operates on the same assumptions as its predecessor: that government is synonymous with pacification, unquestioned central control and cultural homogenization. The author argues that while the post-1988 junta, renamed the State Peace and Development Council in 1997, claims a unique mission in defending national unity and social order, its policies generate political disunity and socio-economic disorder. Tragically, genuine order, the key to Burma’s development, remains out of reach as the 21st century dawns..." Bangkok: White Lotus, 2002). 403 pp. US$25.00.
    Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: White Lotus
    Format/size: html (10K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress, 23-25 July 1988
    Date of publication: 25 July 1988
    Description/subject: July 23: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress opened at 8:30 am at the Saya San Hall, presided over by Yebaw Aung Tha Ban. 1062 of the 1089 delegates were present, or 97.52%. It heard five addresses: one by Chairman U Ne Win (full text); one by General Secretary U Aye Ko on the convening of the Congress [excerpts]; one on by U Aye Ko changes in State economic policies (excerpts]; one by Joint General Secretary U Sein Lwin on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the guiding philosophy, "the System of Correlation of Man and His Environment"; and one by U Htwe Han on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the Party Constitution.
    Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall (compiler of BPS)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Working People's Daily (via Burma Press Summary)
    Format/size: html (66K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The System of Correlation of Man and his Environment
    Date of publication: 17 January 1963
    Description/subject: The Philosophy of the Burma Socialist Programme Party. Contents: I The Three Worlds; II Man and His Society; III The Laws of Process of the History of Society: - The System of Correlation of the Material and the Spiritual Life of the Human Society; IV The Determining Role of the Working People: - Man and His Material Environment; - Man and Socialist Planning; - The Leading Role of Socialists; V Our Attitude to Our Own Ideology.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Socialist Programme Party
    Format/size: html (126K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Constitution of the Burma Socialist Programme Party
    Date of publication: 04 July 1962
    Description/subject: FOR THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD OF ITS CONSTRUCTION... ADOPTED BY THE REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL... CONTENTS: Origin and Purpose. CHAPTER 1: Party Organisation. CHAPTER II: Admission into and Membership of the Party. CHAPTER III: Code of Discipline for Party Members. CHAPTER IV: Rights. CHAPTER V: Resolves and Duties of the Party and Individual Members. CHAPTER VI: Amendment of the Constitution and Rule-making. APPENDIX A.-- Organisational Structure of the transitional Cadre Party. APPENDIX B. -- Roughcast of Future National Party. THE BURMA SOCIALIST PROGRAMME PARTY - Origin and Purpose: 1. "The Revolutionary Council of the Union of Burma, having rescued the Union, not a moment too soon, from utter disintegration, now strives to reconstruct the social and economic life of all citizens by the Burmese Way to Socialism...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Revolutionary Council
    Format/size: html (76K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burmese Way to Socialism
    Date of publication: 28 April 1962
    Description/subject: TOP SECRET. THE BURMESE WAY TO SOCIALISM. REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL. TOP SECRET. To be treated as Top Secret until officially announced. TOWARDS SOCIALISM IN OUR OWN BURMESE WAY. (Translated from the Burmese). Our Belief...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Revolutionary Council
    Format/size: html (29K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • SLORC-SPDC period 1988

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Endurance of Military Rule in Burma: Not Why, But Why Not?
    Date of publication: November 2010
    Description/subject: "...Although it is always possible that unforeseen events could dramatically recast the distribution of power inside Burma, the current military leadership is probably not one push short of capitulation to “pro-democracy” demands. The SPDC appears to have learned to manage the conflicts resulting from myriad pressures inside the country and from abroad.33 In this context, how would a “democratic opposition” (or more appropriately, “democratic oppositions”) bring about liberal political reform that advances the rights, protections, and interests of ordinary citizens and limits the arbitrary power of government? Short of an improbable capitulation to Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD, I suggest five possibilities:..."
    Author/creator: Mary Callahan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
    Format/size: pdf (220K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


    Title: A Historical Overview of Political Transition in Myanmar Since 1988
    Date of publication: August 2007
    Description/subject: "The issue of political transition in Myanmar has generated scholarly interest and debate on the nature and outcomes of the whole process. Various questions have been raised about the on-going National Convention entrusted with the task of drafting a new constitution. Some scholars placed the political transition in the context of national reconciliation in Myanmar while others analyzed it within the conceptual framework of democratization. A recent article by Robert Taylor examined the domestic and international political environment in which the National Convention is being conducted to draft the third constitution for Myanmar. He neatly described the bumpy road that Myanmar had gone through so far and he offered a cautiously optimistic view about the further steps in the process.1 This paper provides a historical overview of the political transition process in Myanmar since 1988. It highlights the missed opportunities and argues that the Tatmadaw's (Myanmar armed forces) position on the political transition in Myanmar has changed from a bystander to a key player. This paper studies the political circumstances that led to the holding of the National Convention and drafting of a new constitution in Myanmar. It will look at the nature of political executive that the new constitution will produce for Myanmar in future..."...Keywords: Myanmar; Burma; Tatmadaw; elections; SPDC; Southeast Asian politics
    Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 95
    Format/size: pdf (215K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


  • SLORC period (1988-1997)

    • The Burma Press Summary 1987-1996

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "The Burma Press Summary" (1987 - 1996)
      Description/subject: NOW TRANSFERRED TO THE MAIN DATABASE "The Burma Press Summary" contains full texts of many of the laws and decrees pronounced between April 1987 and December 1996, speeches by the BSPP and SLORC leaders as well as other documents and summaries of reports from "The Working People's Daily", "The New Light of Myanmar" and "The Guardian".
      Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall, compiler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SLORC/SPDC publications
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Events of 1988

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Description/subject: Background Biographies; Bomb Blasts in Burma—A Chronology; Burma Diplomatic Missions; Burma's Regional Commanders; CCB forms Investigation Body to investigate money laundering offenses; Cabinet of Burma; Chronology of Burma's Laws Restricting Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Chronology of Chinese-Burmese Relations; Chronology of the Press in Burma; Committee Representing the People's Parliament [CRPP]; Dialogue between Military Government and NLD; Diplomatic Trips; Foreign Companies Withdrawn from Burma; Foreign Embassies to Burma; Foreign Investment in Burma; Full List of the Prisoners - Page1; List of Cease-fire Agreements with the Junta; List of Journalists, Authors and Poets Who Received Sentences After 1988; List of the Prisoners (Authors); List of the Prisoners (Death in Custody).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: The role of students in the 8888 People's Uprising in Burma
      Date of publication: 08 August 2011
      Description/subject: "...Twenty three years ago today, on 8 August 1988, hundreds of thousands of people flooded the streets of Burma demanding an end to the suffocating military rule which had isolated and bankrupted the country since 1962. Their united cries for a transition to democracy shook the core of the country, bringing Burma to a crippling halt. Hope radiated throughout the country. Teashop owners replaced their store signs with signs of protest, dock workers left behind jobs to join the swelling crowds, and even some soldiers were reported to have been so moved by the demonstrations to lay down their arms and join the protestors. There was so much promise...The leaders of the 88 generation have a particularly important role to play in the future of Burma. Not only are they widely admired but they have repeatedly shown their ability to unite ordinary people from all walks of life under a common cause: equality; self-determination; and democratization. This struggle for a unified Burma has been ongoing since independence and cannot be achieved unless there is an inclusive dialogue between the ruling “civilian” regime, the National League for Democracy, and representatives of all ethnic nationality groups to discuss the future of a unified Burma. Until these issues are resolved, Burma will not transition into a peaceful, democratic, and developing country..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (661K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2011


      Title: The repression of the August 8-12 1988 (8-8-88) uprising in Burma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 25 February 2009
      Description/subject: Table of Contents: * A. Context; * B. Decision-Maker, Organizers and Actors; * C. Victims,; * D. Witnesses; * E. Memories; * F. General and Legal Interpretations of the facts; * G. Bibliography
      Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Sciences-Po (Encyclopedia of Mass Violence)
      Format/size: pdf (175K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.massviolence.org/Article?id_article=303
      Date of entry/update: 20 April 2010


      Title: Memories of 8.8.88
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: A journalist recalls clandestine visits to Burma to report the country’s story to the world, in an historic period of upheaval... "WORD reached Bangkok in late August 1987 that the Burmese economy was grinding to a standstill, and that the rice harvest could be compromised by weak rainfalls in some areas. As a reporter who liked to operate alone, I was assigned by Asiaweek, the Hong Kong-based newsweekly, to slip into the country. I would get no byline, no credit, not much pay, but a lot of satisfaction..."
      Author/creator: Dominic FAulder
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


      Title: Secrets of Commune 4828
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: How communists played a shadowy role in Burma’s 1988 pro-democracy uprising
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


      Title: The Price of Disunity
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: Burma’s democracy movement needs some serious soul-searching if it wants to secure its aims... "IN this 20th year of Burma’s democracy movement it’s time to ask what it has achieved in those two decades. Is it any nearer now to its goal?..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


      Title: Twenty Years of Marking Time
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: After 20 years at a political standstill, the iconic images of Burma’s 1988 pro-democracy uprising have lost none of their immediacy..."BURMA imploded on August 8, 1988. Students and monks governed the country for months as millions marched through the streets, demanding democracy and an end to one-party rule. Economic mismanagement and the demonetization of the Burmese currency in 1987 finally forced many to come out in protest. The regime that had ruled the country for 26 years wasn’t wise enough to negotiate with the protesters but countered with brutal force, at a cost of many lives. Politicians, a new generation of student leaders and the general public joined forces in a movement for change that became known as the “four eights” uprising. Its foundation coincided with the 50th anniversary of the “1300 Movement,” the Burmese resistance against British colonial rule. This time, Ne Win was the public enemy No 1, inflaming popular anger still more with a speech in which he warned: “If the army shoots, it has no tradition of shooting into the air. It will shoot straight to hit.” ..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


      Title: Making Revolution Happen: An Interview with Christopher Gunness
      Date of publication: September 2003
      Description/subject: "BBC reporter Christopher Gunness was in Burma during the nationwide 8.8.88 democracy uprising. He conducted clandestine radio interviews with several Burmese students and activists that were broadcast to millions of Burmese. The military government accused the reports of triggering the August 1988 uprising. Fifteen years later, Gunness remains blacklisted from entering Burma and is still considered a top enemy of the junta. The Irrawaddy reminisced with him via email about his reporting experiences from 1988... Question: When you worked in Burma as a reporter in 1988, did you get the sense that the sporadic student protests early in the year would flare up into a nationwide uprising?..."
      Author/creator: Christopher Gunness
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/interview_show.php?art_id=3085
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


      Title: "Conqueror of Kings: Burma's Student Leader"
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: During the democracy uprising in 1988, Paw Oo Htun, whose nom de guerre, Min Ko Naing, means Conqueror of Kings, emerged as one of the movement's most prominent student leaders. Together with other student leaders, he revived the umbrella students' organization the All Burma Federation of Student Unions. Today, while serving out a twenty year prison sentence, Min Ko Naing remains a symbol of the Burmese student movement. In this essay, interviews with close friends and student colleagues help document his story.
      Author/creator: Megan Clymer and Min Ko Naing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (804K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: Another Black August
      Date of publication: August 2000
      Description/subject: For every person who experienced Burma's democracy summer of 1988, August will always be remembered as a month of bloodshed and crushed hopes. For it was in August 1988 that literally millions of Burmese from every walk of life joined to demand an end to more than a quarter-century of unenlightened despotism, onlyto be gunned down in untold numbers throughout the country.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: His Story, Not History - a review of of Maung Maung's "The 1988 Uprising in Burma"
      Date of publication: August 2000
      Description/subject: "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung (foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49, 1999, Yale Southeast Asia Studies, New Haven, Connecticut..."Despite its title, this is not an account of the dramatic events that engulfed Burma in 1988. It is an attempt to rewrite history, a whitewash of one of the most brutal massacres in modern Asian history. More precisely, it is a blind eulogy to Burma’s aging strongman Gen Ne Win. And the reverence for the "Old Man," as he is usually referred to in Burma, is extended even to his children and grandchildren. For these reasons alone, Dr. Maung Maung’s book is worth reading because it shows how far an academic sycophant is prepared to go to please his mentor..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Reporting '88
      Date of publication: August 2000
      Description/subject: A veteran journalist gives a personal recount of his experiences in covering Burma and the 8-8-88 movement.
      Author/creator: Dominic Faulder/Bangkok
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Misremembrance of an Uprising: Dr Maung Maung, The 1988 Uprising in Burma
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: Review Article... (Foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49/Yale Southeast Asia Studies.
      Author/creator: Myint Zan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Newcastle [Australia] Law Review (Vol. 4, No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (213K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 11 Years Later
      Date of publication: August 1999
      Description/subject: Cast of 1988 Players • Burma's Unfinished Revolution • Calm before the storm • August 8, 1988 • "They are killing us" • "Something of ourselves" • Filling the power vacuum • The threat to law and order • Prelude to the coup • Eleven years later... • The Sagaing Massacre • A Sketch of Taunggyi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Remembering 1988
      Date of publication: June 1998
      Description/subject: 1) Reminiscences & Reflections on 8-8-88 by Burton Levin2) Voices of 88: selections from Voices of '88, a traveling exhibit compiled under the sponsorship of the Open Society Institute.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol... V, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress, 23-25 July 1988
      Date of publication: 25 July 1988
      Description/subject: July 23: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress opened at 8:30 am at the Saya San Hall, presided over by Yebaw Aung Tha Ban. 1062 of the 1089 delegates were present, or 97.52%. It heard five addresses: one by Chairman U Ne Win (full text); one by General Secretary U Aye Ko on the convening of the Congress [excerpts]; one on by U Aye Ko changes in State economic policies (excerpts]; one by Joint General Secretary U Sein Lwin on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the guiding philosophy, "the System of Correlation of Man and His Environment"; and one by U Htwe Han on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the Party Constitution.
      Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall (compiler of BPS)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Working People's Daily (via Burma Press Summary)
      Format/size: html (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 8-8-88 Archive
      Description/subject: Rangoon General Hospital dead and wounded list 1 (7th Aug-17th Aug 1988)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 8-8-88 Archive
      Description/subject: Sagaing-dead and wounded list
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 8-8-88 Archive
      Description/subject: Rangoon General Hospital dead and wounded list 2 (7th Aug-17th Aug 1988)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Events 1989-1997

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Etymology: Names of Burma
      Description/subject: "In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue.[25] Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: Letter to General Ne Win from U Aung Gyi
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: Rangoon May 1, 1992 Through a series of open letters to Ne Win and former members of the Revolutionary Council written between 1988 and 1992, U Aung Gyi criticized the economic policies and human rights abuses of the government. The following excerpts are from one of these letters.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol.. IV, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • SPDC Period 1997-2011

    • Chronologies and profiles 1997-

      Individual Documents

      Title: Events of 2009
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: For Burma’s generals, 2009 was little more than a breathing space between last year’s constitutional referendum and next year’s election. For everyone else, however, it was a year full of disturbing developments, with just the faintest ray of hope on the horizon. Early in the year, the plight of the Rohingya grabbed the headlines, highlighting a humanitarian crisis that is just one of many in military-ruled Burma. Before the year was over, tens of thousands of refugees from other ethnic minorities would pour over the country’s borders with Thailand and China, fleeing military offensives launched by the junta and its allies. But for the regime, all of this was merely a sideshow. The generals’ main tasks for the year were to keep opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi safely under wraps—which it accomplished thanks to an unwanted American “visitor” and a compliant court—and to rein in restive cease-fire groups ahead of the 2010 election. When it wasn’t settling scores within its own borders, the regime was busy forging new ties overseas. But while the Burmese generals found fellow pariah state North Korea to be a natural ally, they seemed less sure about how to respond to the friendly overtures from the US, their staunchest international critic. Many in Burma welcomed the US initiative with cautious optimism, but after yet another year marked by farce and tragedy, few look forward to the year ahead with any great expectations... Rohingya Refugees on the High Seas; A Pact between Pariahs: Burma and North Korea; Courtroom Theater of the Absurd; The DKBA: Bloodstained Opportunism; Border Guard Force Proposal Sets Off Test of Wills; The Kokang Conflict: The Beginning of the End for Ethnic Insurgency in Burma?; US Rethinks Its Burma Policy
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17327
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: Looking Back at Burma 2008
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "The Irrawaddy gives a chronological rundown on the top news-making moments from January to November"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


      Title: Names That Made The News [in 2008]
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: Win Tin, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ashin Pannya Vamsa, 88 Generation Students, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, Aung Thaung, Maung Sue San and Thakin Tin Mya, Ein Khaing Oo, Khin Maung Aye, Htun Htun Thein, Nay Phone Latt, Aye Aye Win, Bo Kyi, Khin Ohmar, Charm Tong, Zoya Phan, Mahn Sha.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


      Title: Review of 2005 in Burma and the Region
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: The Faces of Burma 2005
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: By December 2005 The Irrawaddy presents around three dozen profiles of those making headlines in Burma and abroad
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: The people of 2004
      Date of publication: December 2004
      Description/subject: "Who made an impact in Burma in 2004? The Irrawaddy has compiled its own list of the 25 people who caught the public eye in an event-packed year"...Photos and profiles of:- Artists: Win Pe Myint, Min Wae Aung...Pop Singer: Htun Eindra Bo... Musician: Maung Maung Zaw Latt/Htoo Ein Thin...Model: Thet Mon Myint...Actor: Lu Min...Writer: Kyaw Win...Public Figure: Dagon Taya...Scholar: Prof Dr Myint Myint Khi...Social Service: Than Myint Aung...Media Commentator: Amyotheryei Win Naing...Ethnic Leader: Shwe Ohn...Media: BBC Burmese Service...Rights Group: AAPP...Newsmakers of 2004: Gen Bo Mya (Karen rebel leader); Zarni (founder of the Free Burma Coalition); U Lwin (secretary and spokesman of the National League for Democracy); Min Ko Naing (former student leader); Aung San Suu Kyi (democracy leader and Nobel laureate); Gen Khin Nyunt (former prime minister)... Politics: Sr-Gen Than Shwe; Deputy Sr-Gen Maung Aye; Gen Thura Shwe Mann; Lt-Gen Soe Win (new Prime Minister).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 11
      Format/size: html, jpg
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


      Title: Burma’s Influential Figures (2003)
      Date of publication: December 2003
      Description/subject: "Power 18" is a list of Burma’s most influential figures of 2003. It is not comprehensive but includes individuals inside and outside Burma whom The Irrawaddy feels made significant contributions—positive and negative—to the country this past year. For our more superstitious readers, that 1 + 8 = 9 is merely a coincidence..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10, December 2003
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


      Title: 2002: Year in Review
      Date of publication: December 2002
      Description/subject: Suu Kyi Moves, Junta Stalls; Thai-Burma Relations: A Family Feud? Rising Tensions: Reports of Human Rights Violations and Social Unrest on the Rise; Death of a Despot, End of an Era; Playing Diplomacy with the Junta; Goodbye to Premier; Kyat Hits Rock Bottom.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Year in Review: 1999
      Date of publication: January 2000
      Description/subject: 18-page summary of news items
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 1998: a Year of Standoffs
      Date of publication: January 1999
      Description/subject: "In 1998, the roadside standoff between Aung San Suu Kyi and the military reflected the larger impasse between the SPDC and the National League for Democracy. In a surprise move, Burma's military leaders changed the name of the government to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) at the end of 1997, but this has been regarded as only a cosmetic change and, in 1998, there was ardly peace or development in Burma as political instability continued with the potential for future explosion..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Year in Review: 1998
      Date of publication: January 1999
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 7, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CHRONOLOGY 1998
      Date of publication: 01 January 1998
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=575&page=1
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: Chronology 1997
      Date of publication: January 1998
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Chronology: February-April 1997
      Date of publication: May 1997
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/research_show.php?art_id=3533
      http://www.irrawaddy.org/research_show.php?art_id=5762
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Events of 2007 and their consequences: "The Saffron Revolution" and its aftermath

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION
      Date of publication: 24 March 2008
      Description/subject: The protests: Students and opposition activists protested after the unannounced 15 August decision to increase fuel prices by 500%. On 5 September, SPDC security forces used force against monks to break up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokku, Magwe Division. The military refused to apologize by the monks' 17 September deadline, and monks began to lead daily non-violent protests. Civilians joined as the protests quickly gained momentum and grew in size. Between 18 and 28 September, thousands of monks joined and led demonstrations. Between 19 August and 31 October, hundreds of thousands of monks, nuns, and citizens participated in over 150 protests spread across nearly every State and Division in the country. See complete list of protests...... The crackdown: The crackdown began on 26 September and involved the use of deadly force, raids on monasteries, and the arrest of thousands of protesters. The regime arrested over 3,000 people, killed at least 31 during the crackdown, and sentenced to prison at least 33. SPDC authorities detained 18 elected MPs, several thousand monks, 274 NLD members, and 25 88 Generation Students members. At least 18 detainees died in custody due to poor conditions and harsh interrogations. The regime continued to hunt for protesters in the months following the peak of the protests. As of 25 January 2008, 700 people involved in the protest remained in custody with 80 unaccounted for...... The international response: The international community was quick to condemn the arrests of protesters in August, and criticism intensified as calls for a peaceful approach to September protests and genuine political dialogue went unheeded. ASEAN expressed "revulsion"strongly deplored" the violent repression of demonstrators. ..... Worldwide demonstrations: People in over 35 countries organized rallies, vigils, marches, petitions, and protests during and following the Saffron Revolution. Some expressed their support for and solidarity with the peaceful protesters. Many demonstrations focused on the policies of Burma's military regime, with calls for the release of political prisoners and an end to the violent crackdown of the protests. Demonstrators also urged the UN and governments worldwide to intervene. See complete list of worldwide solidarity actions...... Related reports: • Saffron Revolution: Recap; • Fuel price hikes inflame Burmese people; • Face off in Burma: Monks vs SPDC; • Saffron Revolution: Update; • Burma Bulletin - August 2007; • Burma Bulletin - September 2007; • Burma Bulletin - October 2007; • Burma Bulletin - November 2007; • Burma Bulletin - December 2007......The documents include also a photo gallery of the events, maps of the demonstrations and crackdowns, a 12MB! Flash presentation of the background and photos of the international solidarity protests around the world and an invitation to buy the T-shirt.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: html etc.
      Date of entry/update: 28 March 2008


      Title: All Burma Monks' Alliance
      Description/subject: We are a religious and social service provider organization staffed by and composed of Burmese Buddhist monks from the 2007 Saffron Revolution. We are currently supporting and providing assistance to refugee monks inside and outside of Burma. The A.B.M.A was formed by a group of senior monks as a response to the severe economic and social problems existing in Burma in 2007. The A.B.M.A. leaders are recognized as the primary organizers and coordinators of the activities of the so-called Saffron Revolution in September, 2007. In a very dramatic way, the world was reminded again of the Burmese people’s struggle for democracy. The peaceful marches, demonstrations and rallies led by the saffron-robed monks were ultimately met by violent reactions of the Burmese military regime. Since that time there has been less media attention to the ongoing problems in Burma. However, as a result of their activities in September 2007, thousands of monks and individual citizens have suffered from the reaction and repression of the military regime. Some monks were arrested and tortured, and remain in prison. Some went into hiding inside Burma, and others left Burma as refugees. The A.B.M.A has established an assistance network for these internal and external refugees, both monks and civilian democracy activists. We hope that through the support of sympathetic organizations and individuals we will be able to continue and to expand on the important work we are doing. Exiled Burmese monks living in Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are supported by the A.B.M.A. main office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Groups of exiled monks are also living in refugee status in various cities around the United States, supported by our monastery in Utica, New York. Objectives: * To maintain our support for the assistance network for monks, both inside and outside of Burma * To promote democracy inside Burma, especially in order to defend and preserve the religious and cultural foundations of the nation * To fulfill the customary role of Burmese monks by distributing reading material and sponsoring meetings and discussions on Buddhist beliefs, practices and education * To maintain and update the database of targeted and refugee monks. We have compiled a list of monks under threat, and we will continue to monitor and document information about them from inside Burma. * To support and expand the existing educational programs for both monks and needy families inside Burma. We are trying to procure assistance for educational facilities, schools and training programs for the monks and needy families inside Burma.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: All Burma Monks' Alliance
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


      Title: Detailed List of Detainees since peaceful protests began in Burma on August 19
      Description/subject: For other lists, see the alternate URL -- http://aappb.org
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://aappb.org
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: List of female detainees from August 19 to date.
      Description/subject: Updated 31 January 2008
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: List of those who disappeared during the protest in Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Sasana Moli - International Burmese Monks Organization
      Description/subject: "Mission Statement background Burmese monks from all around the world established the International Burmese Monks Organization (IBMO) in October 2007 under the leadership of two prominent Burmese Buddhist monks, the late Venerable U Kovida and Venerable U Pannya Vamsa. Following the September 2007 street protests in Burma, many Buddhist monks were arrested, disappeared, beaten and even killed. During the crackdown, monks and nuns inside Burma asked monks living outside of the country to continue to their struggle. They asked the IBMO to raise international awareness about Burma’s political struggles. Inside Burma, there is no freedom of speech. To speak out against human rights abuses, to speak out against dictatorship, or to speak out for common human decency, as the Buddhist faith demands, is to invite attack at the hands of the military junta. The IBMO travels the globe in order to provide a voice for our monks and nuns inside Burma who are denied this right. We try to teach others about both the beauty and the harsh realities of military control inside the closed country. Monks are not politicians but is their duty to help relieve the suffering of all the people of Burma. The Buddha gave ten rules for kings to ensure that kings did not harm their subjects. Burma’s generals violate all of these rules every day. According to IBMO Chairman, the Venerable U Pannya Vamsa, the roots of Burma’s crisis are in the military's refusal to hand over power in 1990 to leaders elected in general elections. The IBMO works alongside the Burma democracy movement to lobby international governments to pressure the junta to commence a real dialogue with democratic opposition leaders including the Nobel Peace Laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Additionally, IBMO partners with the Burmese Diaspora, grassroots advocacy groups, and ecumenical and peace organizations to support direct advocacy efforts on behalf of the Burmese people, such as media interviews, lectures, and testifying before legislators. The IBMO also supports the courageous work of monks and nuns inside Burma. Throughout Burmese history, monks have played a significant role in maintaining peace in our society. The Burmese military dictatorship has total disregard for the welfare of its people. The junta provides no proper education, health care or other public services. People are forced to turn to the monasteries for help. Monks witness the desperate needs of the people every day and in September, they rose up together to answer these needs. Today, monks inside Burma are working desperately to feed and clothe Cyclone Nargis victims taking shelter in monasteries throughout Southern Burma. The IBMO raises funds to send directly to these monks inside Burma to buy rice, medicine, and other much-needed relief supplies..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Sasana Moli
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://sasanamoli.org/
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


      Title: Sites of demonstrations in Burma, August-November 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
      Date of publication: 23 December 2009
      Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
      Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


      Title: The Resistance of the Monks: Buddhism and Activism in Burma
      Date of publication: 22 September 2009
      Description/subject: "Since the Burmese army’s brutal military crackdown on Buddhist monks and other peaceful protestors in September 2007, a constant refrain has been, “What happened to the monks?” ...This report attempts to answer that question. It tells the story of many among hundreds of monks who were arrested and beaten, and the more than 250 monks and nuns who remain in prison today, often with decades remaining on their sentences. It tells the story of large numbers of monks who left their monasteries, returning to their villages or seeking refuge in other countries. And it tells the story of monks who remained, many of whom live under constant surveillance...".....TABLE OF CONTENTS: * The Resistance of the Monks * Map of Burma * I. Summary * II. Burma: A Long Tradition of Buddhist Activism * III. The Role of the Sangha in the 1988 Uprising and After the 1990 Election * IV. Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhism * V. The SPDC and Buddhism * VI. The Reemergence of Buddhist Political Activism in Burma * VII. The September 2007 Crackdown * VIII. Cyclone Nargis and Its Aftermath * IX. International Networks * X. Conclusion * XI. Recommendations * Acknowledgments * Appendix I: Terminology and Abbreviations * Appendix II: Letter to the Penang Sayadaw U Bhaddantapannyavamsa from the Burmese Foreign Ministry, October 27, 2007[195] * Appendix III: Statement by Sasana Moli, the International Burmese Monks Organization, May 2008
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2009


      Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 1)
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: A Commentated and Documented Chronology of the Monks' Demonstrations in Myanmar in 2007 and their Background...The account published here does hot and cannot claim to present the "true story" of what happened in August and September 2007 in Myanmar. The time span between the events and the writing about them is too short for an account putting the events into a proper historical perspective. Moreover, the emotional reactions to the events which are a little bit elaborated at the beginning of chapter 8 are on the one hand very appropriate given the dramatic nature of what happened. At the same time, they point to the limits an unbiased evaluation of the episode under review here. The main aim of this account, therefore, is to present some material which allows the reader with some interest in Myanmar to make up his own mind and to preserve some information, impressions and assessments which otherwise might get lost. Hopefully, the reader will share the opinion that the meaning of the monks' demonstrations can only be understood if one considers them as part of a global and extremely complex net of interdependences which defies simple judgements and that the people of Myanmar need not just sympathy but a thorough investigation into the causes of their problems as well which may be related to some of our own troubles....1 INTRODUCTION... 2 GLIMPSES INTO HISTORY: ECONOMICS, PROTESTS AND STUDENTS 2.0 From 1824 to 1988 - In Fast Motion 2.1 From 1988 to 2007... 3 FROM AUGUST 15 TO SEPTEMBER 5 3.0 Narration of Events 3.1 The Media 3.2 Summary and Open Questions... 4 PAKOKKU 4.0 Preliminary Remarks 4.1 Undisputed facts 4.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 4.3 Summary and Disputed News 4.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 4.5 Open Questions 4.6 Conclusions... 5 THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA 5.1 Reflections on the Sources Taken from the Media 5.2 The Media 5.3 Conclusions... 6 THE MONKS' DEMONSTRATIONS - SEPTEMBER 18 TO SEPTEMBER 25 6.0 Preliminary Remarks 6.1 Undisputed Information 6.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 6.3 Summary and Disputed Information 6.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 6.5 Open Questions 6.6 Conclusions... 7 MONKS, SOCIETY AND THE TURNOVER OF THE ALMS BOWL 7.1 The two Sides of the Alms Bowl 7.2 From Early Times to the End of the Burmese Kingdom 1885 7.3 The Colonial Period 7.4 After Independence 7.5 Conclusion... 8 CRACKDOWN AND SUPPRESSION 8.0 Preliminary Remarks 8.1 Undisputed Information 8.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 8.3 Summary and Disputed Information 8.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 8.5 Open Questions 8.6 Conclusion: Two Pyrrhic Victories... 9 EPILOGUE 9.1 The Aftermath 9.2 Instead of a Conclusion... BIBLIOGRAPHY
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 36
      Format/size: pdf (9.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


      Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 2 -Documents)
      Date of publication: 2009
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 37
      Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


      Title: Internal dynamics of the Burmese military: before, during and after the 2007 demonstrations
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "Since the military takeover in 1962, the internal dynamics in the Burmese military, which is not monolithic, have greatly affected the way successive military governments have organised themselves and operated. Top military leaders have devised their ideas, built up their power bases and purged rival factions in order to maintain their hardline approaches and their hold on power. This chapter explains how the internal dynamics of the Burmese military played out before, during and after the September 2007 demonstrations and analyses their impact, especially on political and socioeconomic reforms. It also considers possible future internal dynamics, how they might play out and the potential impacts for the country as a whole..."
      Author/creator: Win Min
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (146K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: The dramatic events of 2007 in Myanmar: domestic and international implications
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "In the second half of September 2007, events in Myanmar exploded onto television screens around the world. The pictures—first showing ordered columns of orange-robed monks marching through the streets of Yangon, then showing the brutal response by security forces—generated surprise and shock. The events took place while the UN General Assembly was meeting in New York, amplifying their international political impact. No-one seemed to have anticipated the sudden involvement of the monks or the speed with which the demonstrations gathered pace. In particular, the regime itself appeared to be taken by surprise. Then, once the demonstrations had been effectively put down, there was a sense that this was a watershed moment, and that the situation in Myanmar could never be quite the same. In the words of the Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General, Professor Ibrahim Gambari, ‘a return to the status quo ante is unsustainable’..... In part one, this chapter explores the origin of the demonstrations, in particular the fuel-price protests of August 2007, in an attempt to understand the events that ultimately led to the large-scale demonstrations in September. It investigates why it was that the recent increase in fuel costs gave rise to persistent (if small-scale) demonstrations, when even sharper fuel-price increases in 2005 prompted no public reaction..... In part two, the chapter looks at how the September demonstrations by the monks evolved, and at the nature of the response of the security forces. It discusses the reasons why the monks took to the streets in such large numbers and the domestic impact of the regime’s violent response. It then discusses whether a return to the status quo ante is inconceivable, and whether it would indeed be unsustainable..."
      Author/creator: Richard Horsey
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (158K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: Burma’s ‘saffron revolution’ and the limits of international influence
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The demonstrations in September 2007 were the most significant civil protests seen in Burma since the ill-fated pro-democracy uprising of 1988. The military government’s brutal response to the latest unrest prompted an unprecedented level of diplomatic activity and a rare consensus on the need for political change. Since then, however, efforts to resolve the crisis have withered away, underlining the international community’s inability over the past 20 years to make a significant impact on the situation in Burma. Neither the principled approach of some countries and organisations, nor the more pragmatic attitude adopted by others, has persuaded the regime to abandon any of its core positions. Indeed, by demonstrating the international community’s continuing disagreement over Burma, and the limited policy options available, the lack of concerted action since the protests has probably encouraged the regime’s obduracy and increased its confidence that it can survive external pressures. An appreciation of the generals’ threat perceptions may help the international community to understand the regime’s intransigence, but it is still difficult to see what policies can be effective against a government that puts its own survival before accepted norms of behaviour and the welfare of its people. Real and lasting change will have to come from within Burma itself, but the events of 2007 suggest that this is a distant prospect."
      Author/creator: Andrew Selth
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Journal of International Affairs Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 281-297,
      Format/size: pdf (142MB)
      Date of entry/update: 15 February 2009


      Title: Saffron Revolution Imprisoned, law demented
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: Contents: SPECIAL EDITION: SAFFRON REVOLUTION IMPRISONED, LAW DEMENTED... Foreword: Dual policy approach needed on Burma Basil Fernando... Introduction: Saffron Revolution imprisoned, law demented Editorial board, article 2... Ne Win, Maung Maung and how to drive a legal system crazy in two short decades, Burma desk, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong... Ten case studies in illegal arrest and imprisonment..... APPENDIX: Nargis: World’s worst response to a natural disaster, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Article 2 (Vol. 7, No. 3)
      Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


      Title: The Role of Monkhood in Contemporary Myanmar Society
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: Introduction: "Recent events in Myanmar, particularly the “Saffron Revolution” in 2007 and cyclone Nargis in 2008 placed Myanmar monks in the focus of the international community. Not for the first time in history, the Myanmar "Sangha" took a leading role in times of emergency, and was able to mobilise rapidly their forces in order to help and represent the people of Myanmar. In 1988 they went to the streets with other citizens to call for democratic and economic reforms in the country. Similarly, in 2007, monks participated in the nation-wide protests against rising fuel and commodity prices. The visible and silent support of the monks provided encouragement and moral guidance for the predominantly Buddhist na-tion. Facing the post-Nargis devastation and indecisiveness related to access of interna-tional humanitarian aid, Myanmar monks became the only organised group able to respond promptly with aid for traumatised victims, providing them with shelter and distributing basic commodities in their communities. The saffron revolution did not succeed. How-ever, for some analysts it was not the end but rather the beginning of a new chapter in Myanmar’s contemporary history, marking the emergence of a new potential social and political force, nourishing hopes of the opposition and for all who expect general changes in Myanmar. Monks, particularly the younger generation, became more aware of their strength and responsibility for the country. In Myanmar most independent activity is suppressed or under strict control of the state. The monkhood, in contrast, enjoys a high level of immunity and freedom, for instance, with regard to freedom of movement (within the country and abroad)3 or various social activities, mostly in the local area. The recent events showed that their role in the society is not limited to the preservation of religion and rituals..."
      Author/creator: Sylwia Gil
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
      Format/size: pdf (288K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


      Title: A Monk’s Tale
      Date of publication: April 2008
      Description/subject: A leading activist monk recounts his personal experiences of oppression and torture at the hands of Burma’s self-appointed protectors of the Buddhist faith... "ASHIN Pyinnya Jota is the deputy abbot of Rangoon’s Maggin Monastery. He has also been a political prisoner twice since 1990. Now, nearly six months after Burma’s military rulers crushed monk-led protests last September, he is in hiding in a monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. The 48-year-old monk played a leading role in last year’s uprising as one of the founding members of the All Burma Monks Alliance. After months of evading the authorities in Burma, he finally fled to Thailand in early February. Monks praying at Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon before joining an anti-government march on September 24, 2007. (Photo: Reuters) Speaking from a Thai monastery where more than a dozen Burmese monks have taken refuge since last year’s crackdown, he described the injustices that fueled the monks’ movement and the Buddhist basis for his decades of political activism..."
      Author/creator: Wai Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Human Rights Council - 7th Session: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar - update
      Date of publication: 07 March 2008
      Description/subject: "...The present report is submitted pursuant to Council resolution 6/33. It is based on information gathered since the Special Rapporteur's report (A/HRC/6/14) on the human rights implications of the crackdown on the peaceful demonstrations in Myanmar in September 2007, its causes and consequences. The report covers the period from December 2007 to March 2008"
      Language: English, Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish
      Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/7/24)
      Format/size: pdf (English - 60K; Arabic - 147K; French - 155K; Russian - 175K, Spanish - 145K)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ar.pdf
      http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-fr.pdf
      http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ru.pdf
      http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-sp.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 March 2008


      Title: BULLETS IN THE ALMS BOWL - An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acronyms and Abbreviations... Maps... Map of Burma Showing Protest Locations... Map of Rangoon... I Executive Summary... II Government by Exploitation: The Burmese Way to Capitalism?... Macroeconomic Policy... Fiscal Policy... Monetary Policy... The Economic Cost of Militarization... The Straw that Broke the Camel’s Back... III Growing Discontent: The Economic Protests... Early Signs of Dissatisfaction... Protesting the Fuel Price Rise....... IV The Saffron Revolution... The SPDC and the Sangha... Interdependence of the Monastic and Lay Communities... Pakokku and the Call of Excommunication... Nationwide Protests Declared... V Crackdown on the Streets... Wednesday, 26 September 2007... Shwedagon Pagoda... Downtown Rangoon... Thakin Mya Park... Yankin Post Office... Thursday, 27 September 2007... South Okkalapa Township... Sule Pagoda... Pansodan Road Bridge... Thakin Mya Park... Tamwe Township State High School No3... Friday, 28 September 2007... Pansodan Road... Pazundaung Township... Latha Township ... Saturday, 29 September 2007, onwards... VI The Monastery Raids... Invitations to ‘Breakfast’ ... Maggin Monastery ... Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery ... Additional Raids in Okkalapa ... Thaketa Township... Raids in Other Locations around the Country...Arakan State Mandalay Division... Kachin State... Continued Raids... VII A Witch Hunt... Night Time Abductions... Arrested for Harbouring... Arrests in Lieu Of Others... Collective Punishment of Entire Neighbourhoods... Release of Detainees... Continuing Arrest and Detention of Political Activists... VIII Judicial Procedure and Conditions of Detention... Prolonged Detention without Charge... Judicial Procedure... Conditions of Detention... Interrogation and Torture of Detainees.... Denial of Medical Care... Deaths in Custody... Treatment of Monks... IX Analysis of the Crackdown: Intent to Brutalise, Cover Up and Discredit... Hired Thugs... Targeted and Intentional Killings... Removal of the Dead and Wounded... Treatment of the Injured... Secret Cremations... Suppression of Information... The Internet... Telephone Networks Severed... The National Press... Deliberate Targeting of Journalists... Providing Information to the Media... Defamation of the Sangha... The Pro-SPDC Rallies... X Conclusion... XI Recommendations.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 13 March 2008


      Title: Compassionate Confrontation
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: "...Metta, usually rendered as “loving-kindness” in English, is a strong wish for the well-being and happiness of all living things. A mind with metta is inclusive and nondiscriminatory and has the power to transform any situation. This is what the Buddha taught and exemplified. As the Burmese monks who participated in last September’s protests demonstrated, metta is not an attitude of passive acquiescence. Metta does not accept evil, but confronts it directly with a force that is its exact opposite. In times of trouble, the revered Sangha, or community of monks, cannot merely insulate itself from the suffering of ordinary people. The monks who protested in Burma showed that they are not just peace lovers, but peacemakers. They did not stop at praying for the benefit of the Burmese people, but took to the streets to oppose the malice manifested in the exclusionary politics of military domination..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Stanley Van Tha ist zurück in der Schweiz â�" in Burma geht die Repression weiter.
      Date of publication: 18 February 2008
      Description/subject: Die allgemeine Lage in Burma hat sich seit den Protesten signifikant verschlechtert. 80 Prozent der Anführer der Mönche und der Studentengruppen, welche die Proteste anführten, sind im Gefängnis, der Rest ist auf der Flucht. Die burmesische Militärdiktatur schreckt vor ausgiebiger Folter nicht zurück, um sich durch das Aktivistennetzwerk zu arbeiten und auf ebenso brutale Art und Weise wurden weitere Proteste auf der Strasse umgehend unterdrückt. Im Januar wurden neue Bemühungen unternommen, den Internetzugang in Burma zu erschweren. Rolle von burmesischen Kindern; schweizer Asylpolitik; Stanley Van Tha; role of burmese children; suisse asylum policy;
      Author/creator: Nina Sahdeva
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Subdued but Unbowed
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Fiery Pakokku monks who were in the forefront of anti-junta demonstrations have been under constant surveillance from authorities... A 35-year-old, slender, dark man with a long face wearing a white shirt and longyi is sitting in a teashop opposite a A-Nauk Taik, a famous monastery in western Pakokku. Many people, including the teashop owner, notice him. They know he is an undercover police officer assigned to watch the monks’ activities in A-Nauk Taik, also known as Mandalay Monastery. Pakokku residents said that since the September monk-led protests, the authorities have assigned various officers in plain clothes to areas surrounding Buddhist monasteries, many of which are also monastic schools that train monks in the higher Buddhist scriptures..."
      Author/creator: Kyo Wai
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: The Lingering Question
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Why didn’t the ethnic groups do more to help the September protesters? Nearly five months after the anti-regime demonstrations that shook Burma late last year, one central question is still waiting for a definitive answer: Couldn’t the ethnic groups have done more to support the protesters in Rangoon and other cities? As monks and lay protesters filled the streets, there was some speculation that the armed forces of the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) and the Shan State Army—South (SSA-S) might at the very least launch offensives to pin down Burma Army divisions in Karen and Shan State. At the height of the brutal crackdown on the demonstrations in Rangoon it was reported that government troops had been sent from Karen State to help suppress the protests..."
      Author/creator: Violet Cho and Shan Paung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: AFTER THE CRACKDOWN
      Date of publication: 31 January 2008
      Description/subject: "The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General's special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the U.S. and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar's neighbours and the West must press together for a sustainable process of national reconciliation. This will require a long-term effort by all who can make a difference, combining robust diplomacy with serious efforts to address the deep-seated structural obstacles to peace, democracy and development. The protests in August-September and, in particular, the government crackdown have shaken up the political status quo, the international community has been mobilised to an unprecedented extent, and there are indications that divergences of view have grown within the military. The death toll is uncertain but appears to have been substantially higher than the official figures, and the violence has profoundly disrupted religious life across the country. While extreme violence has been a daily occurrence in ethnic minority populated areas in the border regions, where governments have faced widespread armed rebellion for more than half a century, the recent events struck at the core of the state and have had serious reverberations within the Burman majority society, as well as the regime itself, which it will be difficult for the military leaders to ignore. While these developments present important new opportunities for change, they must be viewed against the continuance of profound structural obstacles. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. The immediate challenges are to create a more durable negotiating process between government, opposition and ethnic groups and help alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, longer-term efforts are needed to encourage and support the emergence of a broader, more inclusive and better organised political society and to build the capacity of the state, civil society and individual households alike to deal with the many development challenges. To achieve these aims, all actors who have the ability to influence the situation need to become actively involved in working for change, and the comparative advantages each has must be mobilised to the fullest, with due respect for differences in national perspectives and interests..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°144)
      Format/size: pdf (806K)
      Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


      Title: Sangha under Siege
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: Yeni looks at the plight of Burmese monks, who took the lead in organizing pro-democracy opposition to the junta and are now feeling the brunt of the junta’s brutality.... "the sonorous sounds of bronze bells and wooden gongs dispel the early morning darkness, monks in maroon robes set off with their alms bowls on their daily rounds of the neighborhoods around their monasteries. This serene picture is part of the cultural tapestry of Burma, the “land of pagodas.” The crackdown on the September demonstrations scattered the protesting monks—and at the same time shattered an age-old picture. The number of monks making their morning rounds has shrunk dramatically. Many monasteries are empty..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Who Lost the Most in the 2007 Uprising?
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: "Who were the true winners and losers in the uprising now widely known as the “Saffron Revolution”? The truth is everyone involved lost—the Burmese people, the military junta and the international community. Most Burmese people lost faith in a better future, their dreams again destroyed by the dark reality of oppression and ruthlessness. The generals lost their chance to show the world they wished to move towards a legitimate government and gain the world’s recognition as leaders who guided Burma to true democracy. The generals might have gone down in history as men of vision, but because they stayed true to their past they will be remembered only as unenlightened villains who have the people’s blood on their hands. The international community lost in its efforts to effect peaceful change and is now searching for new ways to move the regime toward national reconciliation—which seems farther away than ever. Asean, especially, lost its chance to turn a new page, on which it could show it understands its responsibilities within the world community..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
      Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
      Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
      http://burmavjmovie.com/
      Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


      Title: Burma: schon vergessen?
      Date of publication: 06 December 2007
      Description/subject: Anfang Dezember verkündeten die Militärbehörden, sie hätten seit Mitte November über 8'500 Gefangene frei gelassen, darunter auch 10 politische Häftlinge. Damit unterstreiche die Regierung ihre Bereitschaft, den nationalen Zusammenhalt und die Zusammenarbeit mit der internationalen Gemeinschaft und den Vereinten Nationen zu fördern, liess das offizielle Organ „New Light of Myanmar“ verlauten. Die offiziellen Angaben sind verwirrlich, so bleibt unklar, ob die jetzt Freigelassenen im Zuge der Niederschlagung der Proteste vom vergangenen Herbst verhaftet worden waren. Offiziellen Quellen zufolge sind dabei 10 Menschen ums Leben gekommen und 2'927 in Haft genommen worden, darunter 596 Mönche; noch 80 Menschen, davon 21 Mönche, würden weiter in Haft gehalten. Menschenrechtsorganisationen fürchten allerdings, die Zahl der Todesopfer und Inhaftierten sei sehr viel höher. Repression nach den Aufständen 2007; repression after the uprisings 2007
      Author/creator: Christine Pluess, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: 2007: The Year in Review
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: The Irrawaddy presents a chronology of significant events in words and photographs for 2007.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Burma’s "Saffron Revolution” is not over - Time for the international community to act
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: Executive summary" "The situation in Burma after the “Saffron Revolution” is unprecedented. The September 2007 peaceful protests and the violent crackdown have created new dynamics inside Burma, and the country’sfuture is still unknown. This led the FIDH and the ITUC to conduct a joint mission along the Thai-Burma border between October 13th-21st 2007 to investigate the events and impact of the September crackdown, and to inform our organizational strategies and political recommendations. The violence and bloodshed directed at the monks and the general public who participated in the peace walks and protests have further alienated the population from its current military leaders. The level of fear, but also anger amongst the general population is unprecedented, as even religious leaders are now clearly not exempt from such violence and repression. This is different from the pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988, when monks were not directly targeted. In present-day Burma, all segments of the population have grown hostile to the regime, including within the military’s own ranks. The desire for change is greater than ever. Every witness -from ordinary citizens to monks, and Generation ‘88 leaders- told mission participants the movement was not over, despite the fear of reprisals and further repression. The question is what will happen next, and when? The future will depend of three factors: the extent to which the population will be able to organize new rounds of a social movement, the reaction of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the influence the international community can exert on the junta. What happened in Burma since the crackdown has proven that the international community has influence on the regime. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari’s good offices mission was accepted. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, Sergio Pinheiro was allowed access to the country for the first time in four years, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were given permission to meet with each other for the first time since Daw Suu was placed under renewed house arrest, in May 2003. Yet these positive signs are still weak: a genuine process of political change has not started yet. Such a process, involving the democratic parties and ethnic groups, is fundamental to establishing peace, human rights and development in Burma. To achieve that, the international community must keep its focus on Burma, and maximise its efforts and capacity to help bring about political transition..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
      Format/size: pdf (388K)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/FIDH-ITUC-Saffron-rev..pdf
      Date of entry/update: 14 December 2007


      Title: Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: Summary: "In August and September 2007, Burmese democracy activists, monks and ordinary people took to the streets of Rangoon and elsewhere to peacefully challenge nearly two decades of dictatorial rule and economic mismanagement by Burma’s ruling generals. While opposition to the military government is widespread in Burma, and small acts of resistance are an everyday occurrence, military repression is so systematic that such sentiment rarely is able to burst into public view; the last comparable public uprising was in August 1988. As in 1988, the generals responded this time with a brutal and bloody crackdown, leaving Burma’s population once again struggling for a voice. The government crackdown included baton-charges and beatings of unarmed demonstrators, mass arbitrary arrests, and repeated instances where weapons were fired shoot-to-kill. To remove the monks and nuns from the protests, the security forces raided dozens of Buddhist monasteries during the night, and sought to enforce the defrocking of thousands of monks. Current protest leaders, opposition party members, and activists from the ’88 Generation students were tracked down and arrested – and continue to be arrested and detained. The Burmese generals have taken draconian measures to ensure that the world does not learn the true story of the horror of their crackdown. They have kept foreign journalists out of Burma and maintained their complete control over domestic news. Many local journalists were arrested after the crackdown, and the internet and mobile phone networks, used extensively to send information, photos, and videos out of Burma, were temporarily shut down, and have remained tightly controlled since. Of course, those efforts at censorship were only partially successful, as some enterprising and brave individuals found ways to get mobile phone video footage of the demonstrations and crackdown out of the country and onto the world’s television screens. This provided a small window into the violence and repression that the Burmese military government continues to use to hold onto power..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.88MB)
      Date of entry/update: 08 December 2007


      Title: Death of a Journalist
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: The shooting of a Japanese cameraman by Burmese security forces shocked the Japanese public and government, but what about official foreign policy?
      Author/creator: Yamamoto Munesuke
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


      Title: Editorial_December 2007
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: Ups and Downs in 2007... "The year 2007 brought high hopes to the Burmese people when protesters led by monks took to the streets demanding democratic change. But the hopes were short lived. The brutal crackdown unleashed by the military regime killed not only innocent people but also the people’s hope for change. However, the people of Burma, tired of their life under a repressive regime, have pressed the fast forward button for change, and I believe they won’t let up that pressure. Regional players and allies of the regime have failed to back this indefatigable will for change. They have also seen many ups and downs since Burma joined Asean in 1997..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Faces of 2007
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: The year when the people of Burma again lost patience with their military rulers... "Without them, the people of Burma wouldn’t have achieved the present political momentum which seems to be building toward a chance of democratic reforms. Without them, the pro-democracy movement wouldn’t have achieved the current international pressure that’s pushing the ruling junta to engage in a dialogue with the opposition. Without them, there would be no hope for a better future in 2008..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Myanmar: Briefing Paper: No Return to "Normal"
      Date of publication: 09 November 2007
      Description/subject: "The violent suppression by the Myanmar authorities of peaceful demonstrations in 66 cities country-wide from mid-August through September 2007 provoked international condemnation. Amnesty International continues to document serious human rights violations. The situation has not returned to normal. Based on numerous first-hand accounts from victims and eye-witnesses, this briefing paper outlines some key human rights abuses committed since the start of the crackdown."
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/037/2007)
      Format/size: pdf (55.7K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/037/2007
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/55be999b-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Francais)
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/53392708-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Espanol)
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


      Title: A Rangoon Diary
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: "They were nine days that not only rocked Burma but shook the conscience of the free world. Just over one week of bloody suppression of peaceful demonstrations in Rangoon and other cities and in the country’s monasteries—a period that will go down in Burmese history as the Uprising of September 2007. Bangkok-based author and photojournalist Thierry Falise lived through the events in Rangoon and wrote a diary of the nine days of terror..."
      Author/creator: Thierry Falise
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Burma’s Long Road to Democracy
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: Summary: • In August and September 2007, nearly twenty years after the 1988 popular uprising in Burma, public anger at the government’s economic policies once again spilled into the country’s city streets in the form of mass protests. When tens of thousands of Buddhist monks joined the protests, the military regime reacted with brute force, beating, killing, and jailing thousands of people. Although the Saffron Revolution was put down, the regime still faces serious opposition and unrest. • Burma’s forty-five years of military rule have seen periodic popular uprisings and lingering ethnic insurgencies, which invariably provoke harsh military responses and thereby serve to perpetuate and strengthen military rule. The recent attack on the monks, however, was ill considered and left Burma’s devoutly religious population deeply resentful toward the ruling generals. • Despite the widespread resentment against the generals, a successful transition to democracy will have to include the military. Positive change is likely to start with the regime’s current (though imperfect) plan for return to military-dominated parliamentary government, and achieving real democracy may take many years. When Than Shwe, the current top general, is replaced, prospects for working with more moderate military leaders may improve. In the end, however, only comprehensive political and economic reform will release the military’s grip on the country. • Creating the conditions for stable, effective democracy in Burma will require decades of political and economic restructuring and reform, including comprehensive macroeconomic reform, developing a democratic constitution and political culture, re- establishing rule of law, rebuilding government structures at national and state levels, and building adequate health and educational institutions. • The international community must give its sustained attention to Burma, continuing to press the regime for dialogue with the forces of democracy, beginning with popular democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and insisting on an inclusive constitutional process. International players should also urge the regime immediately to establish a national commission of experts to begin studying and making recommendations for economic restructuring to address the underlying concerns that brought about the Saffron Revolution. • Though China is concerned about the Burmese regime’s incompetence, it has only limited sway with the generals, who are fiercely anticommunist and nationalistic. Nonetheless, Beijing will cautiously support and contribute to an international effort to bring transition, realizing that Burma will be seen as a test of China’s responsibility as a world power. • The United States should restrain its tendency to reach simply for more unilateral sanctions whenever it focuses on Burma. Because a transition negotiated with opposition parties is still likely to produce an elected government with heavy military influence, the United States must prepare to engage with an imperfect Burmese democracy and participate fully in reconstruction and reform efforts, which will require easing some existing sanctions.
      Author/creator: Priscilla Clapp
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace (Special Report 193 November 2007)
      Format/size: pdf (215K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Burma%27s%20long%20road%20to%20democracy%20-%20Clapp.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


      Title: The Long Nightmare
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: Rangoon’s weeks of terror left few untouched... "There can be very few, in this city of five million, who have not been touched by the events of the last few weeks. Everyone I meet has a story to tell or a memory of where they were when the shooting started. No amount of censorship can erase these memories or the emotions they have aroused. No matter how many lines of communication are cut, the accounts of what people saw, heard or felt during the uprising will continue to circulate. Many of those with whom I have spoken confess to feelings of guilt because they did not or could not take part in the demonstrations. That the monks who walked in peaceful protest on their behalf should have been treated with such callous disregard has fermented in them a new sense of defiance. Even among very ordinary people whose silence has traditionally been taken by the regime as a sign of agreement, there is a growing mood of resentment. The scales have most decidedly tipped—but in whose favor? ..."
      Author/creator: Naomi Mann
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Where There’s Struggle, There’s Hope
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: "The September 2007 uprising was a struggle between the sons of Buddha and the forces of darkness and repression. In the struggle for democracy, hope is the key. The battle lines are drawn more clearly now than ever before..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Burma Berichterstattung
      Date of publication: 24 October 2007
      Description/subject: Burma 3 Wochen nach den Aufständen; Rolle und Möglichkeiten der NLD und der ethnsichen Minderheiten; Burma 3 weeks after the uprisings; role and possibilities of the NLD and ethnic minorities;
      Author/creator: Rebecca Vermot
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Comedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION: UPDATE
      Date of publication: 15 October 2007
      Description/subject: In the "Saffron Revolution," tens of thousands of Buddhist monks led massive anti-junta demonstrations. It was the largest show of peaceful protests against the military regime since 1988. Between 19 August and 2 October, 227 rallies defied military rule in 66 cities across all of Burma's States and Divisions. The SPDC arrested up to 6,000 people, including at least 1,400 monks, since the beginning of the crackdown on 26 September. This briefer contains the latest accounts of resistance and documentation of human rights abuses perpetrated during crackdowns.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (80K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 October 2007


      Title: Inside Myanmar: The Crackdown - 10 Oct 07 (video)
      Date of publication: 11 October 2007
      Description/subject: IN 2 PARTS - FOR PART 2, CLICK ON ICON IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OR link in "ALTERNATE URLs, BELOW... "For this extended special news programme, Al Jazeera's Tony Birtley went undercover in Myanmar to report exclusively on the people's protests and resulting bloody crackdown by Myanmar's military government, talking to the protesters, filming the bloody crackdown and gauging the mood of the nation "
      Author/creator: Tony Birtley
      Language: English commentary, Burmese background
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (12:45, 10:07)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2goTVC5g3M (part 2)
      Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


      Title: Globale Unterstützung der "Safran-Revolution"
      Date of publication: 07 October 2007
      Description/subject: Weltweit haben am Wochenende Bürger und Menschenrechtsorganisationen Solidarität mit den Demonstranten und den buddhistischen Mönchen in Birma bekundet. In Australien, Asien, Nordamerika und Europa hielten Tausende Menschen mit Kerzen in den Händen Mahnwachen zum Gedenken an die Opfer der gewaltsamen Protest-Niederschlagung; Rolle Russlands, Indiens und Chinas; international support for the demonstrators; role of Russia, China, India
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Aller-Zeitung
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Einige Aspekte der Situation in Birma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 01 October 2007
      Description/subject: Die Zuspitzung der von buddhistischen Mönchen angeführten Proteste gegen das Militärregime in Birma bzw. Myanmar sowie das harte Vorgehen der Militärjunta haben Birma in den Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit gerückt. Seit Jahren wird von seiten vor allem der US-Regierung, aber auch Großbritanniens und teils auch der EU Propaganda gegen das Militärregime dort gemacht, wurden Drohungen ausgesprochen und Sanktionen verhängt. Und sie drängen auch jetzt zu verschärften Maßnahmen gegenüber Birma und setzen zunehmend China, Indien und die ASEAN-Staaten unter Druck, gegen die Militärjunta vorzugehen und noch mehr, sie drängen dazu, zu einem Machtwechsel in Birma beizutragen.USA-Burma Beziehungen, Aufstände 2007; USA-Burma relations; uprisings 2007
      Author/creator: Uwe Mueller
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Neue Einheit
      Format/size: Html (17 kb)
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: No Soft Touch
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: As the mother of a four-month-old baby, Nilar Thein should be at home now, caring for her little daughter. Instead, she’s a fugitive with a price on her head, in hiding from Burmese government forces desperate to silence her and other outspoken activists.For Nilar Thein, 35, it was a clear choice—whether to remain silent in the interests of her family or to join in the movement to bring democracy to Burma, knowing she risked jail and separation from her baby. She took the second course of action, believing that in the long run it would benefit her daughter far more than if she had done nothing. By working for democratic change in Burma, she hoped to “bring about a bright future for my daughter,” Nilar Thein told The Irrawaddy from her hiding place..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8907
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Risiken und Nebenwirkungen einer Farbrevolution in Birma
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: Eine Beleuchtung der Hintergründe und Akteure des Aufstandes, im Vergleich zu den Aufständen von 1988. background and actors of the uprisings 2007; uprisings 1988
      Author/creator: Wolfram Schaffer
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Zeitschrift-Peripherie
      Format/size: Pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: The Power Behind the Robe
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: Why Burma’s generals fear the influence of the Sangha... "The Lord Buddha shunned worldly affairs, but in his teachings he stressed the need for good governance and good rulers in the practice of politics. The Buddha said: “When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just and good; when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become just and good.” If these admonitions are followed by the large community of monks—the Sangha—in predominantly Buddhist Burma, the lingering “love lost” relationship between the country’s military rulers and its monks should be no surprise..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8908
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Walking a Stony Path
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: The pro-democracy activists who first took to the streets in the lead up to the mass demonstrations knew in advance that they faced arrest, imprisonment and possible torture. Many of them were well prepared for the ordeal, however, after serving many years in prison following the 1988 uprising, writes Yeni... "Spirits were high as around 500 demonstrators, led by prominent pro-democracy activists, paraded through Rangoon on that fateful day in August. The demonstrators were a happy, optimistic crowd, talking about their hopes for a better life some time in the future. For some prominent members of the 88 Generation Students group—notably Min Ko Naing, Ko Ko Gyi and Min Zeya—the demonstration would lead to imprisonment. But they were well prepared for it after each spending at least 15 years behind bars for their leadership role in the 1988 uprising. .."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8904
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Burmas Mönche zwischen Gleichschaltung und Rebellion
      Date of publication: 25 September 2007
      Description/subject: Zehntausende buddhistische Mönche demonstrieren in Burma für Demokratie und den Sturz der Militärjunta. Sie riefen sogar zur "Exkommunikation" der herrschenden Generäle auf, indem sie erklärten, von Militärs keine Nahrungsmittelspenden oder Almosen mehr anzunehmen. Da sich Buddhisten mit diesen Gaben traditionell jedoch Verdienste für das nächste Leben erwerben wollen, strafen die Mönche die Militärs mit ihrer Verweigerung wirksam ab.
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    • SPDC - general studies

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar: Autoritarismus im Wandel
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: Vor 20 Jahren erlebte die Demokratiebewegung in Myanmar (Birma) ihren bisherigen Höhepunkt, als am 8. August 1988 100.000 Menschen in Rangoon für die Demokratie demonstrierten. Das sozialistische Einparteiregime brach zusammen und machte einer Militärregierung Platz, die sich bis heute an der Macht hält. Analyse: Das Militär hat in den letzten zwei Dekaden seine Herrschaft langsam konsolidieren können. Aus einer Politik der Stärke heraus leitet das Militär nun einen Wandel ein und lässt knapp 20 Jahre nach den Demonstrationen von 1988 über eine neue Verfassung abstimmen; für 2010 sind Wahlen versprochen. Gleichzeitig stellt das Militär sicher, dass ihm auch in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle im Staate zukommt. Das Militär hat im vergangenen Jahrzehnt die territoriale Durchdringung des Staates erhöhen und seine Stellung konsolidieren können. Mit Hilfe einer geschickten Modernisierungs- und Beförderungspolitik hat es sein korporatives Interesse befriedigen und Risse innerhalb des Militärs verhindern können. Die äußere Sanktionierung des Militärregimes hat den Korpsgeist der Armee noch gefördert. Das Militärregime nutzt im Wesentlichen Repression und Propaganda, um seine Herrschaft abzusichern. Die Proteste gegen die Herrschaft des Militärs im Jahre 2007 haben indes gezeigt, dass das Militärregime zusätzlicher Legitimationsmittel bedarf, um sich dauerhaft an der Macht halten zu können. Externer Druck und interner Protest haben dazu geführt, dass das Militär die lange versprochenen Reformen allmählich umsetzt. Dabei monopolisiert es jedoch den gesamten Reformprozess und versucht, sich weiter eine dominante Stellung im politischen System zu sichern. Die neue Verfassung sieht nach wie vor eine dominante Rolle für die Streitkräfte vor. Gleichzeitig erlaubt sie aber – anders als beim jetzigen Status quo – die Repräsentation anderer gesellschaftlicher Kräfte. Es besteht die Hoffnung, dass mittelfristig neue Spielregeln entstehen, die zu einer größeren Öffnung führen und den rigiden Autoritarismus aufbrechen... Schlagwörter: Myanmar, Militärregime, Demokratisierung, Opposition, Medien
      Author/creator: Marco Bünte
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: GIGA Focus No. 7
      Format/size: pdf (476K)
      Alternate URLs: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QJRl7nG0Vh4J:se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/Files/EINIRAS/9...
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010