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Society and Culture, Burma/Myanmar - general studies

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) Culture - burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Subscribe: burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2013


Individual Documents

Title: "Conservation of Cultural Heritage Buildings in Bagan Area"
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This research paper would be conducted to integrate with cultural heritage buildings and new public buildings within the whole area of Bagan harmoniously. New public buildings such as hotels, motels, guest houses, inns, museum and viewing tower are constructed within old Bagan area, new Bagan area, area of inside city wall and Nyaung Oo area. The authority demarcated laws an d regulations, and building control plans within archaeological zone, monumental zone and preservation zone for constructing of new public buildings and then new public buildings must not construct within their demarcated areas. In present, new public buildings are influencing within the area of Bagan according to their site and setting, form and height. Bagan archaeological museum is influencing not only the environment of Gawdawpalin temple but also the whole Bagan area according to its massive form. And, viewing tower is also influencing with the height of building. Construction of new public buildings such as Bagan archaeological museum and viewing tower which can be compared in relation to their height and massiveness such as the height and form of Bagan monuments can lose the essence of Bagan from visual aspects. While taking every respect of old cultural heritage buildings, it is very important to consider ( i ) not to lose the value of cultural heritage buildings ( ii ) not to influence with site and setting ( iii ) not to influence with the form of building and ( iv ) not to obstruct with the height of building. Therefore, in depth research work should be conducted for the emergence of new public buildings in Bagan environment.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: San Nan Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: A Study of the usage ‘Ger Aye who is beaten by her mother' in Myanmar Language
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar language is derived from Tibeto-Chinese family of languages. Myanmar language is tone language because high and low tones determine different meanings of words. Besides Myanmar Language has sayings, proverbs and metaphors like other languages. The usage of ‘Ger A ye who is beaten by her mother’ is the metaphor of Myanmar Language.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (355K)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Comparative Study on the Myanmar Cloth Painting Fine Art during 11 th -­‐ 18 th Century CE : Documentary References and Survey Findings
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "The main purpose for this study on the Myanmar cloth painting fine art as comparative work during 11th–18th century is to attain perceptive knowledge and exchange of expertise among the neighbouring counties in Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, knowledge and practice of Theravada Buddhism has been related to the literature, architecture, fine arts and daily life style of the people residing in the ancient city of Bagan (11th-­‐13th century CE). At that time, the tr aditional fine arts of Myanmar in Bagan was unique and perpetually augmented. Thus varieties of arts like architecture, stucco carvings, inscriptions, sculpture of wood/stone and other materials turnery and tapestry and glazed plaques and reliefs and smith –works were decorated at the stupas and temples. Moreover, mural paintings were also depicted those mainly consisted of Buddha’s life stories including Nativity scenes, ascending the throne, great renunciation, Enlightenment 45 years preaching Dhamma, 550 Jatakas stories and Demised Buddha in the Parinicana scene. Nearly at the same period of the 11th century, fine arts on cloth painting emerged in Myanmar. According to the documentary references and survey findings of archaeologists and researchers, it was stated that Myanmar cloth painting fine arts appeared in the ancient city of Bagan (Abeyatana Temple No. 1202). Since then, the tradition of cloth painting spread out by the fine artists to the other people within Bagan and also to different places in later periods. Abeyatana Ceti, situated over the vault of the main temple No. 1202 (1084-­‐1113 CE), was the only temple being built in 11th century CE. Even after 800 years, some remains of cloth painting were seen on the lowest terrace of the Ceti of that temple. Regarding the cloth painting terraces at Abeyatana Ceti, it can be assumed to be one of the oldest extent images in Myanmar. In this paper I will also argue that it could be one of the oldest extent cloth painting idols in Southeast Asia. At the present, there are traces of cloth paintings in twenty temples in Myanmar from the 11th-­‐18th century. (See map. 1) Out of 20, sixteen temples are situated in Bagan (See map. 2), one is in Salay, one in Sarle, one in Mandalay and the final one is in Pakhan Gyi.".....International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Author/creator: Aye Aye Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Cultural Heritage Buildings in Mandalay City (Myanmar): A Geographic Approach to the Urban Landscape
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: The cultural heritage buildings give a sense of past and of cultural identity. Those buildings encompassed the historical evidence, artifacts and beliefs. As being a last capital of Myanmar Konbaung Dynasty, there were various kinds of building which are still left out in Mandalay City. Since the City was founded in 1857, the King Mindon intended to be very spacious capital by laying down the systematic town planning. The urbanization is taken placed since that time. Moreover, the study area was experienced by the diverse political systems and is ruled by the different governance. Therefore, the buildings were constructed according to the rulers. In this study the buildings are categorized into 4 groups: religious buildings, institutional buildings, and residential buildings, industrial and commercial buildings. Although the buildings regarding religions and institutions are already recorded by the Government Offices and Archaeology Department, there is lack of record on the commercial or industrial or residential buildings. Nowadays, the urbanization system has been taken place very quickly in the city. The range of pressures facing urban heritage include: population gains propelling rapid, uncontrolled growth and socio-­economic transformations generating functional changes in the city. It caused to renovate or reconstruct the new buildings in the places of previous ones, especially for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It will affect to lose the ancient architectural style of the buildings and their significance. Therefore, the major aim of this research work is put on to define, to record and to locate as the cultural heritage buildings.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Khin Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Dr. Than Tun and Myanmar Language & Literature
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "History, language, and literature are inseparable. Undoubtedly, historian represents the past via language and employs literature as historical evidence. The late Dr.Than Tun, the highly respected and prominent Myanmar historian, was trained in a positivist fashion under the supervision of D.G.E. Hall and G.H. Luce, the leading colonial scholars. Hence, his treatment of literature fundamentally confined to and empirical historical framework, attaching great importance to its factual data and historicity. Nonetheless, some of his writings reveal that he did not neglect discussing how to trace back and interpret Myanmar history from fictional genres of the past, for example, myth, legend and folklore. He suggests that pre-­‐Buddhist elements of pre-­‐literate societies are preserved in those traditional songs, fables, proverbs, riddles and customs. Moreover, to study the history of Myanmar literature is supposed to begin with the earliest form of literature, the oral tradition. While his copious historical research was primarily based on very formal literary evidence, for instance, inscriptions, royal orders, first-­‐hand accounts, contemporary historical documents on tax, revenue, demography and even tombstones, when he wrote his works he preferred to write in the colloquial Myanmar form. He advocated Ludu U Hla’s campaign for simple and accessible writings for people. He also urged his pupils to write theses in the colloquial language. This paper attempts to analyze Dr.Than Tun’s perception of Myanmar language and literature in a light of the historical context of Myanmar society.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (195K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Gender Equality and Cultural Norms in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is giving increasing attention to gender inequality as an impediment to the development and attainment of human rights especially women’s rights. Realizing the close inter-­‐relationship between gender equality and cultural norms, a qualitative research study, “Raising the Curtain: Cultural Norms, Social Practices and Gender Equality in Myanmar" was undertaken with the objective of furthering the understanding of social and cultural norms in Myanmar and their impact for men and women in relation to family and community life, work, health and education. The study was implemented in May 2014 covering 543 women and men participants covering seven States and four Regions in Myanmar. This study illustrates that cultural norms and related social practices impact men and women throughout their lifespan, from the most deeply personal–the sense of self, body, confidence, love and marriage-­‐ to the practical organization and valuing of paid and unpaid work; education opportunities; health status and services; participation in community development and the affairs of the nation. Furthermore, it shows how social and cultural norms carry ideas of different functions and worth for men and women, impacting on their life opportunities. Women, regarded as ‘bearers and protectors of culture’, are often blamed for what are seen as disappearing cultural values and this can be a barrier to the realization of women’s rights and gender equality. Some salient recommendations from the study include i) using gendered lens on all developmental issues; ii) re-­‐framing gender equality from being seen as a ‘women’s issue’ to an issue of political advancement, human rights and democracy; iii) broaden the base in gender equality work from the circles of current activists, and engage people of different sexes, socioeconomic backgrounds, education levels, ethnicities, locations and abilities; iv) focus on gender inequality around concrete issues in peoples’ lives that have impact at both individual, collective levels.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Pansy Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: Socio-economic Pattern of Yindaw Township (1853-1910)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "How Yintaw came into existence under the Myanmar monarchical rule and how it changed in the successive periods until Myanmar regained her colonial period are discussed. Yintaw was first inhabited by the Pyus, and it became an important locality ruled by Myanmar kings. When the colonial government divided the country into districts, Yintaw became a district and later became a sub-division of Mandalay Division. When colonial administration was introduced, priority was given to the maintenance of law and order rather than to the effectiveness of administration. This work revealed a broad perspective of the importance of the region in the development of societies throughout history. As is already known, the interrelation between the society and agrarian economy was so great that one cannot develop if the other is weak. In order to discuss these topics, the researcher has made extensive field research to collect primary source materials which have never been used before. Stone inscription, land mortgage deeds and contemporary records were used to speak of their supra and infra relation, administrative pattern, self sufficiency economy, economic hardship, social status and various religious sectors. I believe that my new finding research work will be a significant value for the South East Asian studies.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Moe Moe Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Urbanism and Cultural Heritage: How to maintain history and forge into modernity in a fast growing Yangon
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report is about urbanism and historical heritage preservation in Yangon, Myanmar. When we look at urbanism, we are as well to view from the perspectives of urban development along with urban planning. The buildings are merely the physical infrastructures for the citizens of Yangon but also the cultural landscape and the history of the place. They have been changing throughout the time along with social and culture values of the local people. To be able to understand fully about the urban development of a certain area, attentive investigation on urban planning is mandatory. Thus, decent urban planning is vital for the positive development. This research report is based on the theories of urbanism, cultural diversity and tangible and intangible cultural heritage but focus mainly on tangible historic architectural buildings conservation. The case study is in the city of Yangon, Myanmar and critical analysis is centered on the Yangon Heritage Trust, the local NGO working on preserving the heritage of the city. The analysis themes are made upon th e benefit and wellbeing of the city dwellers."....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Hay Mann Zaw
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (405K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: THE BURMAN: HIS LIFE AND NOTIONS
Date of publication: 1882
Description/subject: "The Burman: His Life and Notions (1882) is a book about the peoples and customs of Burma (now Myanmar). First published under the pseudonym Shway Yoe, the book was written by the Scottish journalist and British Colonial administrator James George Scott. The book caused a sensation when it was first published because it was considered impossible that a Burman could write so well in English - Shway Yoe's unbiased tone and positive curiosity is also one reason that the author was presumed Burmese by the British. The book is most note worthy in the fact that the author made an extremely detailed and unparallelled description of the Burmese people and their culture, from their pagoda festivals to their lacquer, traditions, religion, dressing, food, and almost any category related." (Wikipedia)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shway Yoe (James George Scott)
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB - OBL version; 38MB - original scanned version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/burmanhislife&notions-scott.pdf
http://www.archive.org/details/burmanhislifenot00scotrich
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2010