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British Colonial Period [1824-1948]

  • British colonial period : Commentary (non-official books, academic papers, articles and reports)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: British Colonial Rule (Burmese)
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Title: British rule in Burma
    Description/subject: British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma as a province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a Chief Commissionership), British Burma, of British India in 1862.[1] After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a Lieutenant-Governorship) in 1897.[1] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948....Contents: 1 Divisions of British Burma... 2 Background: 2.1 Burma before British colonization... 3 Arrival of the British in Burma... 4 Early British rule: 4.1 Administration; 4.2 Colonial economy; 4.3 Daily life under British rule... 5 Nationalist movement... 6 Burma separated from India... 7 World War II and Japan... 8 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination... 9 See also... 10 Notes... 11 Further reading
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Robert Gordon and the Rubies of Mogok: Industrial Capitalism, Imperialism and Technology in Conjunction
    Date of publication: January 2011
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Robert Gordon’s trip to the Mogok ruby mines in northern Burma, as reported in his testament to the Royal Geographical Society in 1888, represents one of the most blatant uses of travel as empire building in the Mekong Region. While European explorers and adventurers had been travelling to and along the region for centuries, most had been intent on mapping, surveying and categorizing its contents for purposes of their own profit, in one way or another. Gordon, while of course not unmindful of his own career, represents the traveller aiming to be of service to the greater power. He was strongly motivated by the desire to bring the ruby mines of Mogok into the reach of the British Empire through the building of a railway and the necessary infrastructure to pacify the countryside and its people, thereby enabling the enclosure of another type of commons."... Keywords: Capitalism, Imperialism, British Empire, Burma, Ruby mining
    Author/creator: John Walsh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No.3
    Format/size: pdf (91K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


    Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
    Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
    Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
    Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012


    Title: Independence Lost
    Date of publication: January 2008
    Description/subject: Sixty years after shedding the yoke of the British Empire, Burma is still colonized—by its own military generals. The fight for true independence is not over
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Robbie and the Poet
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: "...I consider the various coincidences outlined above to be fairly convincing support of my theory that ‘the Poet’ was the future George Orwell, but there may well be a scholar somewhere who can prove me wrong..."
    Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
    Format/size: pdf (117K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: VACCINATION PROPAGANDA: THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATING COLONIAL MEDICINE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY BURMA
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: "...In examining the British government’s frequently half-hearted and sometimes even contradictory attempts to convince the indigenous population to accept vaccination, Burma does begin to appear in some ways as a neglected corner of British India. However, Burma may not really have been an exception as other literature has found similar problems in British India in general..."
    Author/creator: Atsuko Naono
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
    Format/size: pdf (225K - reduced version; 458K- original)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1naono.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2008


    Title: Colonial Burma’s prison: continuity with its pre-colonial past?
    Date of publication: December 2005
    Description/subject: The practice of confining convicted criminals in prison for a stipulated period of time – to punish or reform – is a modern western innovation. Pentonville in north London, opened in 1842 and said to be the first modern prison, had four wings radiating from a central hub from which guards could observe every cell, each holding a single prisoner. The ‘modern’ prison then became one of many western innovations (including the railway, scientific medicine and the filing cabinet) transported to the colonial world from the mid-19th century.
    Author/creator: Thet Thet Wintin and Ian Brown
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 39)
    Format/size: pdf (302K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
    Author/creator: Susanne Prager
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
    Format/size: pdf (601K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


    Title: The Self-Conscious Censor: Censorship in Burma under the British, 1900_1939
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: It is often assumed that censorship was not used to any great degree by British authorities in Burma. Yet, by looking at the way the British colonial government reacted to a variety of media including traditional Burmese drama, western blockbuster movies, and Burmese political pamphlets agitating against colonial rule, it is possible to see that censorship was very much a part of the British administration. British authorities censored pamphlets, books, dramas, and movies not only to contain political thought contrary to colonialism, but also to control the image of British officials as seen in the eyes of the Burmese.
    Author/creator: Emma Larkin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
    Format/size: pdf (627K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


    Title: Administrative terms of British Period - 1
    Date of publication: 1978
    Description/subject: The British ruled Myanmar for nearly 100 years and during that period they issued circulars and vernacular acts which were publish in the Burma Gazette. These old documents were found in 1978 in the Ayeyawady Division. The Peoples' Council transferred many rare documents to Myanmar Historical Research Department. From these documents the author selected administrative circulars, acts and vernacular acts as references for Myanmar historians. The article includes the authorized Myanmar equivalents of official designations for public administration....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British Rule, 2. Myanmar - Politics and government, 3. Myanmar - Administrative terms.....Key Words: 1. Administrative Terms, 2. Burma Gazette
    Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
    Language: English and Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
    Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 2, 1978, pp123-129, Historical Research Dept., Via Univeristy of Washington
    Format/size: pdf (171K-reduced version; 811K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0008.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


    Title: Myanmar and the Indian Press 1886-87
    Date of publication: 1977
    Description/subject: Political conditions of Myanmar immediately after the annexation (1886-87) as seen through the Indian press. The people were governed by a new master. Rebels were branded as dacoits by a critical Indian press which ridiculed and attacked Lord Dufferin's direct administration. They called His Excellency a quack politician, not a farseeing statesman. The press favoured a native prince on the Myanmar throne, a practice common in India. The press argued that the English were suppressing the so-called dacoits at the expense of Indian tax-payers.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Political conditions, 1886-87; 2. Myanmar - History - British rule, 1886 - 1942..... Key Words: 1. Indian Newspapers; 2. Annexation of Myanmar
    Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
    Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", No.1, 1979, pp133-171, Myanmar Historical Research Department via University of Washington
    Format/size: pdf (662K-reduced version; 2.9MB-original )
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0010a.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2014


    Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
    Date of publication: 1960
    Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
    Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
    Format/size: read online, pdf (6.4MB) text (512K) etc.,
    Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Furnivall-Governance_of_Modern_Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


    Title: The Pacification of Burma
    Date of publication: 1912
    Description/subject: PREFACE: "Upper Burma was invaded and annexed in the year 1885. The work hardly occupied a month. In the following year the subjugation of the people by the destruction of all formidable armed resistance was effected; lastly, the pacification of the country, including the establishment of an orderly government with peace and security, occupied four years. As head of the civil administration, I was mainly concerned with this last phase. It would be a difficult task to give a continuous history of the military operations by which the country was subjugated. The resistance opposed to our troops was desultory, spasmodic, and without definite plan or purpose. The measures taken to overcome it necessarily were affected by these characteristics, although they were framed on definite principles. A history of them would resolve itself into a number of more or less unconnected narratives. A similar difficulty, but less in degree, meets the attempt to record the measures which I have included in the term “pacification.” Certain definite objects were always before us. The policy to be followed for their attainment was fixed, and the measures and instruments by which it was to be carried out were selected and prepared. But I have found it best not to attempt to follow any order, either chronological or other, in writing this narrative. My purpose in writing has been to give an intelligible narrative of the work done in Burma in the years following the annexation. It was certainly arduous work done under great difficulties of all kinds, and, from the nature of the case, with less chance of recognition or distinction than of disease or death. The work was, I believe, well done, and has proved itself to be good. My narrative may not attract many who have no connection with Burma. But for those who served in Burma during the period covered by it, whether soldiers or civilians, it may have an interest, and especially for those still in the Burma Commission and their successors. I hope that Field-Marshal Sir George White, V.C., to whom, and to all the officers and men of the Burma Field Force, I owe so much, may find my pages not without interest. I have endeavoured to show how the conduct of the soldiers of the Queen, British and Indian, helped the civil administration to establish peace. I believe, as I have said, that our work has been successful. The credit, let us remember, is due quite as much to India as to Britain. How long would it have taken to subjugate and pacify Burma if we had not been able to get the help of the fighting-men from India, and what would have been the cost in men and money? For the Burmans themselves I, in common with all who have been associated with them, have a sincere affection. Many of them assisted us from the first, and from the Upper Burmans many loyal and capable gentlemen are now helping to govern their country justly and efficiently. It has been brought home to me in making this rough record how many of those who took part in this campaign against disorder have laid down their lives. I hope I may have helped to do honour to their memories. I have to thank all the kind friends who have sent me photographs to illustrate this book, and especially Sir Harvey Adamson, the present Lieutenant-Governor, for his kindness in making my wants known." C. H. C. February, 1912......[A page or so is missing from the Index]
    Author/creator: Sir Charles Crosthwaite
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Edward Arnold
    Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/pacificationofbu00crosrich
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2012


  • British Colonial Period: texts (official and quasi-official documents)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Digital South Asia Library
    Description/subject: The Burma holdings of this digital library cover the period when Burma was part of British India... Major texts (fully searchable) are the "Statistical abstract relating to British India" 1840-1920 in digital book and Excel spreadsheet form and "The Imperial Gazetteer of India" (1909 edition, 24 volumes, each of more than 400 pages)... Reference Resources: Scholarly reference books and a link to full text dictionaries at Digital Dictionaries of South Asia (DDSA)... Bibliographies and Union Lists: Electronic catalogs and finding aids for dispersed resources and collections... Images: Photographs are arranged in databases organized by the original collections... Indexes: Includes periodical indexes and document delivery mechanisms... Maps: Catalogs of maps and maps themselves, ranging from historical to topographic... Books and Journals: This section includes pedagogical books, general scholarly titles, journals and newspapers... Statistics: Statistical information from the colonial period through the present, available in a variety of formats... Other Internet Resources: A link to SARAI, South Asia Resource Access on the Internet.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: DSAL, (University of Chicago)
    Format/size: html, Excel
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2005


    Title: Statistical abstracts relating to British India. From 1840 to 1920
    Description/subject: 8 files in digital book and Excel spreadsheet formats... The last file, for example, has data on: * No. 1.-Area and Population of British India and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 2.-Variation in Population since 1891. * No. 3.-Density of the Population according to Natural and Administrative Divisions (Census of 1911). * No. 4.-Towns and Villages Classified by Population (Census of 1911). * No. 5.-Main Statistics for Cities (including Cantonments). * No. 6.-Population of Principal Towns (Census of 1911). (Names of Towns in Native States are in Italics.) * No. 7.-Distribution of Population according to Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 8.-Variation in Distribution of the Population by Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 9.-Distribution of Christians by Race and Denomination (Census of 1911). * No. 10.-Territorial Distribution of Christians according to Race (Census of 1911). * No. 11.-Distribution of Population by Main Provinces and States according to Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 12.-Distribution of Population according to Religion, Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 13.-Age, Sex and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 14.-Distribution of Population by main Provinces and States according to Residence, Age and Sex (Census of 1911). * No. 15.-Distribution of Population according to Religion and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 16.-Distribution of Population according to Residence and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 17.-Statistics of Chief Castes (Census of 1911). * No. 18.-Distribution of Population according to Occupation or Means of Livelihood (Census of 1911). * No. 19.-Classes, Sub-Classes, and Orders of Occupations of the Population. * No. 20.-Distribution of Population according to Language (Census of 1911). * No. 21.-Languages Chiefly Spoken in the British Provinces and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 22.-Infirmities According to Residence (Census of 1911). * No. 23.-Infirmities According to Age (Census of 1911). * No. 24.-Number of Judicial Divisions, and Number of Officers Exercising Appellate or Original Jurisdiction, in British India on 31st December, 1919. * No. 25.-Number of Cases Decided in, and Receipts and Charges of, the Courts. * No. 26.-Number and Description of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 27.-Number and Value of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 28.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Civil Suits. * No. 29.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Miscellaneous Cases. * No. 30.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Appeals from Decrees. * No. 31.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Miscellaneous Appeals. * No. 32.-General Results of Trials of Criminal Cases. * No. 33.-General Results of Appeals and Revisions in Criminal Cases. * No. 34.-Punishments Inflicted in Criminal Cases. * No. 35.-Strength and Cost of Civil Police. * No. 36.-Principal Police Offences. * No. 37.-Number and Distribution of Prisoners. * No. 38.-Religion, Age, and State of Education of Convicts. * No. 39.-Sickness and Mortality among Prisoners. * No. 40.-Number of Convicts who had been Admitted Previously Convicted. * No. 41.-Expenditure incurred in Guarding and Maintaining Prisoners, exclusive of Cost of Building, Repairs, &c. * No. 42.-Convict Settlement of Port Blair. * No. 43.-Number and Description of Registered Documents, and Value of Property transferred. * No. 44.-General Statement of Gross Revenue and Expenditure, Charged against Revenue or Capital, with Annual Surplus or Deficit and Cash Balances (in India and England). * No. 45.-General Statement of the Gross Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 46.-General Statement of the Gross Expenditure charged against Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees=�). * No. 47.-Net Revenue and Expenditure; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 48.-Amount of Land Revenue* and Charges. * No. 49.-Details of Land Revenue and Charges. * No. 50.-Amount of Opium Revenue and Charges. * No. 51.-Number of Chests of Bengal Opium sold for Export and issued to Excise and Medical Departments, and Number of Chests paying Duty in Bombay. * No. 52.-Amount of Salt Revenue and Charges. * No. 53.-Statement showing Consumption of Salt in India. * No. 54.-Amount of Stamp Revenue and Charges. * No. 55.-Details of Stamp Revenue. * No. 56.-Amount of Excise Revenue and Charges. * No. 57.-Details of Excise Revenue. * No. 58.-Amount of Customs Revenue and Charges. * No. 59.-Amount of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 60.-Details of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 61.-Amount of Provincial Rates and Charges. * No. 62.-Details of Provincial Rates. * No. 63.-Amount of Income Tax and Charges. * No. 64.-Details of Income Tax. * No. 65.-Refunds and Drawbacks. * No. 66.-Assignments and Compensations. * No. 67.-Expenditure on Famine Relief (excluding Outlay on Protective Railways and Irrigation Works). * No. 68.-Distribution of Expenditure on Famine Relief. * No. 69.-Expenditure in India and England on Construction of Protective Railway and Irrigation Works (charged against Famine Relief and Insurance). * No. 70.-Military Expenditure in India and England. * No. 71.-Distribution of Expenditure (charged against Revenue) and Receipts of the Government of India in England, in Sterling. * No. 72.-Ways and Means of the Home Government, in Sterling. * No. 73.-Burden of Taxation. * No. 74.-Statement of Expenditure on Railways, Irrigation, and other Public Works (chargeable to Revenue), by Provinces. * No. 75.-Expenditure on State Railways and Irrigation Works in India chargeable against Capital.* * No. 76.-Amount of Debt and of Other Obligations (with Interest thereon) of the Government of India at the close of each of the undermentioned Years in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 77.-Return of all Loans bearing Interest raised in India and England, chargeable on the Revenues of India, and outstanding on 31st March, 1921, with the date of the Termination of each Loan. * No. 78.-Sinking Funds created and the application thereof. * No. 79.-Prices of Principal Kinds of Indian Government Stock. * No. 80.-Government Promissory Notes enfaced for payment of Interest in London; in Rupees. * No. 81.-Loans and Advances by Government; Balances on 31st March of each year and Amount of Interest received. * No. 82.-Bank of Bengal Rates of Interest for Demand Loans on Government Paper. * No. 83.-Gold Standard Reserve. * No. 84.-Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on India by the Secretary of State. * No. 84A.-Sterling Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on London by the Government of India. * No. 85.-Cash Balances at the Treasuries and Agencies of the Government of India, at the close of each of the undermentioned Years; in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 86.-Value of Money Coined at the Calcutta and Bombay Mints. * No. 87.-Number and Value of Government Currency Notes of each Denomination in Circulation on 31st March in each Year. * No. 88.-Average Value of Government Currency Notes in Circulation throughout India; in thousands of Rupees. * No. 89.-Value of Note Circulation, and Amount of each Description of Reserve of the Paper Currency Department, and Net Receipts, on 31st March in each Year; in Rupees. * No. 90.-General Statistics of the Post Office of British India. * No. 91.-Estimated Number of Letters, Postcards, Newspapers, Parcels and Packets. * No. 92.-Total Number and Amount of Money Orders, with Annual Increase. * No. 93.-Receipts and Charges of the Post Office of British India. * No. 94.-Number of Post Office Savings Banks, Depositors and Amount (in rupees) of Deposits. * No. 95.-Progress of Banking Capital in India. * No. 96.-General Statistics of the Indo-European (Government of India) Telegraph Department. * No. 97.-General Statistics of Government Telegraphs in India. * No. 98.-Statistics of Messages by Government Telegraphs. * No. 99.-Population and Constitution of Municipalities, with Income and Expenditure. * No. 100.-Income of Municipalities.* * No. 101.-Expenditure of Municipalities.* * No. 102.-Income and Expenditure of District and Local Boards. * No. 103.-Number of Colleges and Schools in India* and Number of Male and Female Scholars. * No. 104.-Detailed Classification of Colleges and Schools in India,* and Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 105.-Number of Colleges and Schools, and of Scholars attending them during the Year 1919-20, by Provinces. * No. 106.-Number of Male and Female Scholars in Public and Private Institutions, by Provinces. * No. 107.-Number of University Graduates and Undergraduates in Art, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Oriental Learning. * No. 108.-Results of University, College, and School Examinations in Jndia,* showing the Number who obtained Each Degree or Passed the Prescribed Tests. * No. 109.-Number of Public Institutions under Public and Private Management and of Private Institutions with Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 110.-Number of Public Educational Institutions in India under management of Government and Local Bodies and maintained by Indian States and under Private Management, also of Private Institutions; and Number, Race, and Creed of Scholars. * No. 111.-Expenditure on Education in each Province. * No. 112.-Distribution of Expenditure on Education. * No. 113.-Expenditure on Education in India.* * No. 114.-Number of Printing Presses at Work, and Number of Newspapers, Periodicals, and Books Published. * No. 115.-Number, Membership and Financial Position of Co-operative Societies. * No. 116.-Normal and Actual Rainfall according to Chief Political Divisions. * No. 117.-Agricultural Statistics of British India--Summary. * No. 118.-Area, Cultivated and Uncultivated, in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 119.-Area under Irrigation in 1919-20; in Acres. * No. 120.-Area Surveyed and Assessed. * No. 121.-Crops under Cultivation in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 122.-Number of Transfers of Land, and Area Transferred, in each Province in British India. * No. 123.-Area of Forest Lands, Outturn of Produce, and Revenue and Expenditure of Forest Department. * No. 124.-Railway Statistios.--Summary. * No. 125.-Mileage of Railway Lines in India open for Traffic at end of Year. * No. 126.-Number (in thousands) of Passengers (including Season Ticket-Holders) conveyed on the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 127.-Quantity of Goods and Minerals Conveyed by the several Railway Systems in India; in thousands of Tons. * No. 128.-Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 129.-Working Expenses of the several Railways in India. * No. 130.-Net Earnings of the several Railways in India. * No. 131.-Percentage of Working Expenses to Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 132.-Irrigation Works.--Principal * No. 133.-Value of the Total Trade. * No. 134.-Value of Imports of Private Merchandise into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported. * No. 135.-Value of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 136.-Quantity of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 137.-Value of Exports of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 138.-Value of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 139.-Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 140.-Value of Exports of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports) from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 141.-Value and Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports). * No. 142.-Value of Principal Government Stores Imported into British India, by Sea. * No. 143.-Value of Principal Government Stores (Indian and Foreign) Exported from British India, by Sea. * No. 144.-Value of Treasure Imported into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported; together with Total Quantity in Ounces. * No. 145.-Value of Treasure Exported from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported; together with Total Quantity, in Ounces. * No. 146.-Distribution of Trade in Private Merchandise among the Provinces and Principal Ports. * No. 147.-Imports and Exports of Cotton Goods and Exports of Indian Raw Cotton. * No. 148.-Imports of Raw Silk and Silk Goods. * No. 149.-Imports of Wool Manufactures. * No. 150.-Imports of Apparel (excluding Hosiery and Boots and Shoes). * No. 151.-Imports of Metals. * No. 152.-Imports of Metal Manufactures. * No. 153.-Imports of Sugar. * No. 154.-Imports of Provisions. * No. 155.-Imports of Mineral Oil. * No. 156.-Exports of Jute, Raw and Manufactured. * No. 157.-Exports of Raw Wool. * No. 158.-Exports of Rice. * No. 159.-Exports of Wheat. * No. 160.-Exports of Barley. * No. 161.-Exports of Lac. * No. 162.-Exports of Seeds. * No. 163.-Exports of Indian Tea. * No. 164.-Exports of Opium. * No. 165.-Exports of Hides and Skins. * No. 166.-Value of Registered Imports into British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., whence Imported, and Provinces into which Imported. * No. 167.-Value of Registered Exports from British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., to which Exported, and Provinces from which Exported. * No. 168.-Principal Imports and Exports of Merchandise across the Land Frontier. * No. 169.-Trade of Aden. * No. 170.-Vessels Entered and Cleared, distinguishing Steamers and Sailing Vessels with Cargoes and in Ballast. * No. 171.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Entered with Cargoes or in Ballast from Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 172.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Cleared with Cargoes or in Ballast to Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 173.-Coasting Trade; Value of the Total Trade. * No. 174.-Total. Value of Private Merchandise (Indian and Foreign) and Treasure Imported into and Exported from Indian Ports (British and Foreign) in the several Provinces. * No. 175.-Ships Built at Indian Ports. * No. 176.-Ships First Registered at Indian Ports. * No. 177.-Detentions under the Merchandise Marks Act. * No. 178.-Port Trusts; No. of Members, Income, Expenditcre, and Debt. * No. 179.-Troops conveyed to and from India. * No. 180.-Established Strength of the Standing Army in India. * No. 181.-Ages of British Non-Commissioned Officers* and Men of all Arms serving in India on 1st October of each year. * No. 182.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Embarked for Service in India. * No. 183.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Disembarked from Service in India. * No. 184.-Past Services of British Troops in India Enlisted for Short Service on 1st October of each Year. * No. 185.-Terms of Engagement of British Troops* in India (excluding Regiments on Passage Out and Home) on 1st of October of each Year. * No. 186.-Sickness, Mortality, and Invaliding in British Army (excluding Officers). * No. 187.-Sickness and Mortality in Indian Army (excluding Officers). * No. 188.-Number of Coolie Emigrants embarked from Indian Ports to various Colonies under the Laws regulating Emigration. * No. 189.-Ports of Shipment and Provinces from which the Emigrants were drawn. * No. 190.-Abstract Statement of Births and Deaths in British India, and Ratio of Deaths according to Sex, Town or Country, Class, Cause, and Season. * No. 191.-Number of Births with Ratio per Mille, and of Deaths, Male and Female, with Ratios per Mille of Males and Females, and in Rural and Urban Districts, according to Provinces. * No. 192.-Number of Registered Deaths, according to Cause, and Ratios per 1,000 among the General Population. * No. 193.-Plague Mortality, British Provinces and Indian States. * No. 194.-Number of Primary and Re-vaccinations and of Successful Cases. * No. 195.-No. of State Public, Local Fund, and Private-Aided Hospitals and Dispensaries; No. of Patients; and Income and Expenditure. * No. 196.-Number of Lunatics. * No. 197.-Monthly Wages of Postal Runners and Postmen. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 198.-Monthly Wages (January) in a Woollen Mill in Northern India. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 199.-Wholesale Prices of Staple Articles of Export and Import; in Rupees. * No. 200.-Variations in the Wholesale Prices of the Staple Articles of Export and Import, the Prices in 1873 being taken to represent 100. * No. 201.-Average Wholesale Prices of Staple Commodities in India. * No. 202.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Salt in Bpitish India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 203.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Food Grains in British India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 204.-Index Numbers of Retail Prices of Food Grains in India (Prices of 1873=100). * No. 205.-Joint Stock Companies, Registered in British India: Class, Number, and Paid-up Capital. * No. 206.-Joint Stock Companies Registered in Each Province at the end of the Year. * No. 207.-Cotton and Jute Mills. * No. 208.-Factories and other Large Industries. * No. 209.-Factories inspected under the Factory Act. * No. 210.-Patents and Designs. * No. 211.-Production of Chief Minerals in British India and Indian States; Quantity and Value.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: HMSO via Digital South Asia Library
    Format/size: html, Excel
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Delineating British Burma - British Confidential and Official Print, 1826-1949
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Contents: Introduction 3 BIB-1 The British Conquest, 1827-1905; BIB-2 Gazetteers and handbooks, 1879-1944; BIB-3 Military Reports and Route Books, 1903-1945; BIB-4 Boundaries: Reports and Examinations, 1892-1937; BIB-5 Reports on Districts and States, 1868-1936; Index
    Author/creator: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
    Format/size: pdf (433K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


    Title: Myanmar Diplomatic Mission to Bengal (AD 1830)
    Date of publication: 1982
    Description/subject: A Myanmar foreign mission was despatched to Bengal by King Bagyidaw in 1831. After the first Anglo - Burmese War, the Myanmar king signed the Treaty of Yandabo with the British. Under the terms of the Treaty, the British Government sent Major Henry Burney to Innwa (Ava) and the Myanmar King sent a diplomatic mission to Bengal. The leader was Maha Sithu U Rhwai (Twinthin Taik wun). The delegations included 84 officers and attendants who were sent to Bengal on 9 October 1830. They were to meet with the Governor-General of India and discuss (1) The return of the Kabaw valley to Myanmar, (2) Return of Martaban (3) Return of Tenasserim and Arakan, and (4) Repeal of an item calling for an exchange of emissaries. The mission met with many difficulties in India. They remained for three years and succeded only in getting the Kabaw valley back. The mission [of the?] Myanmar Government cost 168,000 kyats annually......Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Foreign relations - India, 2. Myanmar - Foreign relations - Bengal, 3. Myanmar - History - King Bagyidaw, 1819-1837.....Key Words: 1. Burney , Henry , Major, 2. Burney's Journal, 3. Bengal Secret and Political Consultations, 4. Rhwai , U , Maha Sithu (Twin thin taik wun).
    Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
    Source/publisher: Historical Research Department, (Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jubilee publication), via Washington University
    Format/size: pdf (933K-reduced version; 3.55MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0027.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


    Title: History of Minbu District, Introduction, 1887-1897
    Date of publication: 1936
    Description/subject: The District of Minbu is bounded on the north by Pakokku District, on the south by Thayetmyo District and on the west by the Rakhine Yomas. The article describes the geography, narrative history, canals and water courses of Minbu district.....Subject Terms: 1. Minbu District-History... 2. Geography-Minbu District... 3. Mibu District-Gazetter... 4. Historical Sites-Minbu District
    Author/creator: BA SHIN, Col.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Journal of the Burma Research Society", Vol. 26, Part 1,1936, pp.43-51, via University of Washington
    Format/size: pdf (464K-reduced version; 794K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0001J.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1931 edition.
    Date of publication: 1931
    Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps, Maps of Towns.
    Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931. via South Asia Digital Library
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


    Title: REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF INDIA, 1931
    Date of publication: 1931
    Description/subject: "The area covered by the sixth general census of India is approximately identical with that covered by the census of 1921 and differs little from the area of previous occasions from 1881 onwards; 2,308 sq. miles containing some 34,000 inhabitants have been added in Burma and in the North of Assam, while on the other hand, six sq. miles have been lost to Nepal. The statistics therefore cover the whole empire of India with, Burma and the adjacent islands and islets (Exclusive of Ceylon and the Maldives) as well as Aden and Perim Island, but not the Kuria Muria Islands* and Sokotra, which is part of the Aden Protectorate, administered from Aden on behalf of the Colonial Office, and not part of British India. The statistics the tables do not of course cover those parts of the peninsula, which are not parts of the British Empire, that is to say, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the French and Portuguese possessions, the area and population of which, together with the rate of increase since 1921 where available, are shown in the marginal table. For the rest the scope of this census extended to the whole of the peninsula of India, forming what is commonly described as a sub continent between long. 61 o and 101 o E. and lat 6 o to 37 o N. Some information has also been included with regard to natives of India resident permanently or temporarily outside the Indian Empire or serving on the High Seas at the time the census was taken..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of India
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


    Title: PROPOSALS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION FOR BURMA.
    Date of publication: 1920
    Description/subject: 1. Letter from the Government of India to the Secretary of state for India, No. 1 (Reforms), dated 25th March, 1920: Enclosures in No. 1.: 1. Resolution by tbe Government of Burma, No. 1 L—7, dated 17th December, 1918, publishing for discussion and criticism a provisional scheme of reform ... Annexures to Enclosure No. 1. 1. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 2. (1) Board for Home Affairs; (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development ; (4) Board of Local Self-Government... 3. Summary of Recommendations..... 2. Government of Burma's first scheme.: Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 21—1—L—1. dated 2 June, 1919.... Annexures to Enclosure No. 2. 1. Speech by Sir Reginald Craddock, Lieutenant-Governor of Burma, 19th April, 1919, (Extract); 2. Proposed grouping of towns for purpose of representation on the Burma Legislative Council; 3. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 4. (1) Board for Home Affairs... (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development; (4) Board of Local Self-Govermnent ….. 3. Criticism by the Government of India of the first scheme of the Government of Burma. Letter from the Government of India to the Government of Burma, No. 2425, dated 18th November, 1919; 4. Second scheme of the Government of Burma; Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 59 T—1—L—8, dated 22nd January, 1920 .
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of India via His Majesty's Stationary Office
    Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2012


    Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1909 edition.
    Date of publication: 1909
    Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps and Plans of Towns
    Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press,
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


    Title: Imperial Gazeteer of India
    Date of publication: 1908
    Description/subject: This work is fully searchable by keyword... Apart from the first four, the 24 volumes (the index, named Vol. 25 has no content in this version) are arranged alphabetically. References to Burma can be found by browsing the volumes or using the search engine.... Volume 1 - The Indian Empire, Descriptive; Volume 2 - The Indian Empire, Historical; Volume 3 - The Indian Empire, Economic; and Volume 4 - The Indian Empire, Administrative, Volume 5 - Abazai-Arcot... Volume 6 - Argaon-Bardwan... Volume 7 - Bareilly-Berasia... Volume 8 - Berhampore-Bombay... Volume 9 - Bomjur-Central India... Volume 10 - Central Provinces-Coopta... Volume 11 - Coondapoor-Edwardesabad... Volume 12 - Einme-Gwalior... Volume 13 - Gyaraspur-Jais... Volume 14 - Jaisalmer-Kara... Volume 15 - Karachi-Kotayam... Volume 16 - Kotchandpur-Mahavinyaka... Volume 17 - Mahbubabad-Moradabad... Volume 18 - Moram-Nayagarh... Volume 19 - Nayakanthatti-Parbhani... Volume 20 - Pardi-Pusad... Volume 21 - Pushkar-Salween... Volume 22 - Samadhiala-Singhana... Volume 23 - Singhbhum-Trashi-Chod-Zong... Volume 24 - Travancore-Zira... Volume 25 - Index (no content)....Volumes 1, 2 and 4 are dated 1909. The rest are dated 1908.
    Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922; Burn, Richard, Sir, 1871-1947; Cotton, James Sutherland, 1847-1918; Risley, Sir Herbert Hope, 1851-1911.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council via Clarendon Press, Oxford, via Digital South Asia Library (University of Chicago)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


    Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol III)
    Date of publication: 1901
    Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Myingyan, Sagaing district, Myitkyina district, Shwegu, Sawbwa, Keng Tung, Myelat, Irrawaddy river, Chin Hills, Palaung, Yamethin, Amarapura, Pyinmana, Wuntho, Meiktila, Tang Yan, Chindwin river, Magwe, square miles, Northern subdivision
    Author/creator: James George Scott , John Percy Hardiman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (9.3MB); html (467 pages)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
    http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


    Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. I)
    Date of publication: 1901
    Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: kengtung, paddy cultivation, hkam, revenue paid, shwebo, eight annas, myingyan, land revenue, chindwin, east longitude, bhamo, fifteen houses, hsen, revenue amounted, daung, mawk mai, hsam tao, hsop nam, francis gamier, ken pwi
    Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: html (573 pages)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb03hardgoog
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


    Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. II)
    Date of publication: 1901
    Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Key words and phrases kengtung, paddy cultivation, myingyan, revenue paid, hkam, eight annas, shwebo, east longitude, mogaung, fifteen houses, palaung, population numbered, hsen, upper burma, chindwin, deputy commissioner, irrawaddy flotilla, arakan yoma, mount victoria, hok lap
    Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: html (833 pages)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb02hardgoog
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


    Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. 1)
    Date of publication: 1900
    Description/subject: KEYWORDS: hkam, upper burma, mogaung, lower burma, kachins, police posts, thibaw, military police, shans, hill tribes, hsen, six villages, bhamo, men five, shwebo, deputy commissioner, mindon min, ney elias, kanaung mintha, marco polo
    Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (15MB) html, 788 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog
    http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog#page/n780/mode/1up
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


    Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. II)
    Date of publication: 1900
    Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (12MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 September 2009


    Title: Burmese Buddhism in Colonial Burma
    Date of publication: 1895
    Description/subject: The following pieces found publication in 1895 and 1896: “Burmese Buddhists and Mission Work” (Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd August 1895): The following is the reply from the joint secretaries to the Babuthutta Society Rangoon, to Mr. H. Dharmapala, General Secretary to the Mahabodhi Society...[Buddhagaya Temple Controversy] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 2 May 1896...“The Buddha Gaya Temple” [I] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 9 May 1896...“The Buddhagaya Temple” [II] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd May 1896, p. 9...An Examination of Mr. Tsaw Hla Phroo’s Reasons for Embracing Christianity1 by Maung Chan Htwan Oung (1896)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
    Format/size: pdf (36K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


    Title: The British Burma gazetteer 1879 (Vol. II)
    Date of publication: 1879
    Description/subject: A-Z list of villages and other entities in (Lower?) Burma
    Author/creator: Horace Ralph Spearman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Burma
    Format/size: html, pdf etc.
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/britishburmagaze02spea
    http://openlibrary.org/books/OL13997258M/British_Burma_gazetteer
    Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


    Title: PAPERS RELATING TO HOSTILITIES WITH BURMAH
    Date of publication: 04 June 1852
    Description/subject: Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Her Majesty's Command. June 4, 1852......LIST OF PAPERS (enclosures not listed here): No. 1. Letter from the President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee of the Court of Directors of the East India Company (No. 8): Thirty-seven Inclosures: ...... The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 1): Twenty Inclosures..... 3. The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee .. .. .. .. .. (No. 2) Seventeen Inclosures...... 4. The Governor-General of India to the Secret Committee..... 5. The Governor-General of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee (No.3.): Six Inclosures..... 6. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 4.) Thirty Inclosures..... 7. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 8): Nine Inclosures..... 8. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee . (No. 14) Five Inclosures..... Treaty with the King of Ava, signed at Yandaboo, February 24, 1826 Commercial Treaty with Ava
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Parliamentary Papers, Vol. 36
    Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://books.google.co.th/books?id=TYwSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA103&dq=Burmah&hl=en&ei=-TOSTNP...
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


  • British colonial period - images

    Individual Documents

    Title: A Burmese Album 1824-1948
    Date of publication: 1948
    Description/subject: 96 bklack and white photos of Burma, 1824-1948
    Author/creator: P. Klier
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Colgate University digital library
    Format/size: jpeg
    Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


  • British colonial period - novels

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burmese Days
    Date of publication: 1934
    Description/subject: "U Po Kyin, Sub-divisional Magistrate of Kyauktada, in Upper Burma, was sitting in his veranda. It was only half past eight, but the month was April, and there was a closeness in the air, a threat of the long, stifling midday hours. Occasional faint breaths of wind, seeming cool by contrast, stirred the newly drenched orchids that hung from the eaves. Beyond the orchids one could see the dusty, curved trunk of a palm tree, and then the blazing ultramarine sky. Up in the zenith, so high that it dazzled one to look at them, a few vultures circled without the quiver of a wing..."
    Author/creator: George Orwell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Gutenberg, Australia
    Format/size: html (547K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


  • Pre-Independence - books, reports and articles

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
    Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: 'A Leader of Men'
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: The Muslim schoolteacher who joined Burma's martyrs... "Being a Muslim in a country where 87 percent of the population is Buddhist, and where the military government regularly practices ultra-nationalism and uses religion as a political tool, means joining the underprivileged at the bottom of the pile. The fight for liberty is the fight for peace. And like peace, liberty is indivisible —U Razak, June 1947 Muslims in Burma regularly suffer social and religious discrimination. Burmese Buddhists commonly call them, Kala, a derogatory term for South Asians and also used insultingly to describe westerners. While some consider the term abusive and degrading, there's general acceptance that it takes on a sense of honor, respect and lovingkindness when it's used in the form Kalagyi (Big Kala), to describe independence hero Abdul Razak. U Razak rose from the position of headmaster of Mandalay Central National High School to become minister of education and national planning in Burma's pre-independence government. His career was brought to a brutal end at the age of 49, when he was gunned down by assassins on July 19, 1947, together with independence leader Gen Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. The nine murdered leaders are commemorated annually on the country's Martyr's Day. Mandalay, where U Razak taught, is a center of Burmese Buddhist faith and culture. Yet U Razak, of ethnic Indian-Burmese origin, was fully accepted by the community..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8463
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: U Razak of Burma: A Teacher, a Leader, a Martyr
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: "As a primary school student, I read about Sayagyi (a great teacher or a principal) U Razak and fellow martyrs in school textbooks and in remembrance booklets of Martyrs' Day, (19th July, 1947), the day he was assassinated along with U Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. Later in my twenties and thirties, I read the few available writings by U Razak, and articles written about him by his former students, and talked with people who knew him well. From this exposure, I learned about U Razak's deep love for Burma, his courage to fight for our country's independence, his respect for diversity, his desire for unity and his far-sighted wisdom. As a leader, his vision carried beyond our country and highlighted the principles of humanity, integrity, knowledge, courage, freedom and peace. The points U Razak, as Burma's Minister for Education and National Planning, emphasized in his 1947 speech at the First South East Asian Regional Conference of International Student Service in Madras, India, are still valid if not more pronounced in 2007. In times of intolerance and divisiveness, such as today, his vision and gentle yet persistent approach sought to unite diverse groups through education for the common goal of freedom and development should be referenced and explored further as we seek practical actions for long-lasting peace, security and prosperity..." CONTENTS: I. Preface; II. A Tribute to Sayagyi U Razak By Dr. Nyi Nyi; III. Freedom Movements As Peace Movements By Honorable U Razak; IV. The Burman Muslim Organization By A. Razak, B.A.; V. Translator's Note... 1. Sayagyi U Razak And Mandalay University By M.A. Ma Ohn; 2. Our Selfless Sayagyi By Colonel Khin Nyo; 3. Sayagyi Didn't Care For High Offices By U Saw Hla; 4. Our Sayagyi U Razak; By Thakin Chan Tun; 5. Affection Just As One Has For One's Mother By Pinnie; 6. A Partial Profile Of Sayagyi U Razak By Aung Kyi; 7. Just Like A Father By Thuriya Than Maung; 8. Our Marvellous Sayagyi By Maung Maung Mya; 9. In Fond Memory Of Sayagyi U Razak By Colonel Wai Lin; 10. Sayagyi U Razak And I By Theikpan Hmu Tin.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Private publisher
    Format/size: pdf (895K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/19167977/Dr-Nyi-Nyi-U-Razak-of-Burma
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2007


    Title: Gandhian Links to the Struggle in Burma - a review of "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement (1906-1948) and India,"
    Date of publication: April 2007
    Description/subject: "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement" (1906-1948) and India, by Rajshekhar. South Asia Publishers, New Delhi, Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan 2006. P128... Gandhi and Indian Congress Party had influence over Burma’s nationalist movement.
    Author/creator: Yeshua Moser Puangsuwan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    Title: Aung San’s lan-zin, the Blue Print and the Japanese occupation of Burma.
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Chapter 8 in Kei Nemoto (Ed). 2007 Reconsidering the Japanese military occupation in Burma (1942-45). Tokyo: ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp 179-224. This includes an English-Burmese bibliograpy of Aung San’s communications (pp 213-224)...Opinions are divided on the impact the Japanese occupation on Burma and on Southeast Asia more widely. Harry Benda summed up the Japanese occupation as 'a distinct historical epoch in Southeast Asian history' (Benda 1972:148-49). He viewed it as introducing discontinuity from the past colonial order, and as facilitating important changes, including in particular the mobilization of youth and the disruption of traditional patterns of authority (Benda 1969:78). In his useful work, Yoon (1971a:293) summed up its significance specifically for Burma saying that ‘the Japanese occupation directly affected and greatly accelerated the realization of Burmese independence’. Guyot (1974: iv, 43, 55, 222) viewed the Japanese occupation of Burma as marking ‘an important threshold in Burma’s political evolution’, since it ‘created the political elite’; in particular, it empowered a young generation of students, Burmanized the army, and helped rally and unify Burmans against British rule..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Gustaaf Houtman
    Format/size: pdf (664K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: "The Concepts of Dobama ("Our Burma") and Thudo-bama ("Their Burma") in Burmese Nationalism, 1930-1948"
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: This article attempts to demonstrate the interdependent operation of the term dobama ("our Burma") and its opposite, thudo-bama ("their Burma"), in the minds of members of the Dobama-asiayoun ("Our Burma Party"). From the party's very beginning in 1930 to the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League's struggle against Japanese rule and subsequently for independence from the British from 1944 to 1947, Dobama party members, known as "thahkins", avoided being identified as thudo-bama, meaning "the Burmese of their (the British or Japanese) side" or "the Burmese people who collaborated with the colonial regime." Instead, they invariably identified themselves as dobama, or "our Burmese." The thahkins preferred to define themselves in negative rather than positive terms. In other words, they chose to identify themselves by describing what they were not rather than what they were, and by attacking their imagined enemies, the thudo-bama, rather than attempting a clear definition of dobama.
    Author/creator: Kei Nemoto
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
    Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/Abstract1_GreenOpt.pdf
    http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol5/index.shtml
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    Title: BREAKTHROUGH IN BURMA - Memoirs of a Revolution, 1939-1946
    Date of publication: 1968
    Description/subject: "Dr. Ba Maw, first Burman to be Prime Minister of Burma under the British in the thirties, Head of State during the Japanese occupation in the Second World War, member of the British Bar, practicing lawyer and leading politician and statesman in Burma for more than forty years, gives us in this book an invaluable record and analysis of the struggle of an Asian people against foreign domination and their search for a way to freedom and independence. The record is invaluable because it is unique. It is unique on two counts: there is no one else who for so long a time has been so thoroughly involved in the working out of the patterns that unfold in these pages; and it is also the highly personal account of a sensitive, intelligent, and humane man who for a time exercised total power within the limits of a military occupation of his country..."
    Author/creator: U Ba Maw
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (11MB)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2014


  • Pre-Independence documents

    Individual Documents

    Title: Our Fraternal Greetings to the Siamese people
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "This speech was delivered by Burmese independence hero Aung San at the Orient Club, Rangoon, on April 17, 1947�three months before his assassination. Aung San founded the Burma Independence Army in Bangkok on Dec 26, 1941."
    Author/creator: Aung San
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of Burma
    Date of publication: 17 October 1947
    Description/subject: "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Provisional Government of Burma; Considering that it is the intention of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to invite Parliament to pass legislation at an early date providing that Burma shall become an independent State; Desiring to define their future relations as the Governments of independent States on the terms of complete freedom, equality and independence and to consolidate and perpetuate the cordial friendship and good understanding which subsist between them; and Desiring also to provide for certain matters arising from the forthcoming change in the relations between them, Have decided to conclude a treaty for this purpose and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:- The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: The Right Hon. Clement Richard Attlee, C.H., M.P., Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. The Provisional Government of Burma: The Hon'ble Thakin Nu, Prime Minister Who have agreed as follows:- ..." Includes, as an annex, the Britain-Burma Defence Agreement of 29 August 1947 and other associated documents.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Public Records Office (London)
    Format/size: html (80K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: REPORT OF THE FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
    Date of publication: 24 April 1947
    Description/subject: "A Committee of Enquiry shall be set up forthwith as to the best method of associating the Frontier peoples with the working out of the new constitution for Burma. Such Committee will consist of equal numbers of persons from the Frontier Areas, nominated by the Governor after consultation with the leaders of those areas, with a neutral Chairman from outside Burma selected by agreement. Such Committee shall be asked to report to the Government of Burma and His Majesty's Government before the summoning of the Constituent Assembly." CHAPTER I. The Problem; CHAPTER II. The Work of the Committee; CHAPTER III. Recommendations and Observations: Part I- General; Part II- The Constituent Assembly; Part III- Observations. APPENDICES: App. I. Verbatim Record of Evidence heard by the Committee. App. II. Resolutions and Memorials communicated to the Committee. App. III. Notes by the Frontier Areas Administration, Government of Burma, on Economic Situation, Education, Health and Communications and Mineral Resources in the Frontier Areas Administration. App. IV. Administrative and Racial Maps of Burma... (Administrative map missing)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
    Format/size: pdf (7.8M); text without appendices 171K),html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Frontier_Areas_Committee_of_Enquiry-text.pdf (without appendices)
    http://www.sialkal.com/home_doc_FACI.htm
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2012


    Title: The Panglong Agreement, 1947
    Date of publication: 12 February 1947
    Description/subject: Text of the Agreement signed at Panglong on the 12th February, 1947 by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, and by representatives of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: India Office Records
    Format/size: html (5K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003