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Development in Myanmar - general articles

Individual Documents

Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan [Myanmar]
Date of publication: 30 April 2014
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a framework for national action for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. According to Article 6 of the Convention, each member country needs to develop its own National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) to integrate conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. In order to fulfill this commitment to the Convention, Myanmar conducted a project entitled National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in Myanmar (NBSAP Myanmar). The Government Meeting No. 17/2006 of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, held on 25th May 2006, approved to formulate NBSAP of Myanmar. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) agreed to support the technique and funding in formulating NBSAP. With approval of the Government Meeting No. 11/2009 of of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar held on 19th March 2009, Forest Department of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has signed the Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with UNEP, a GEF Implementing Agency, which is also accountable to the GEF Council for GEF financed activities, on 10th April 2009. The NBSAP is the outcome of extensive data and information collating and analysis, as well as a series of workshops and working group meetings with participation from government departments, NGOs, and academic institutions. Based on the consultations, discussions, comments, suggestions and updated information of biodiversity and natural resources in the country, the NBSAP has been prepared and approved by national stakeholders. The NBSAP will act as the major guiding document for planning biodiversity conservation in the country, following its goal to provide a strategic planning framework for the effective and efficient conservation and management of biodiversity and natural resources based on greater transparency, accountability and equity. On 3rd May of 2012, the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar adopted the Myanmar NBSAP by its Government Meeting No. 16/2012. The NBSAP is composed of six major chapters, which start with a general description of Myanmar’s biodiversity and then extends to a strategy for the sustainability of biodiversity conservation. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced verson; 5.6MB-original version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Biodiversity%20strategy%20and%20action%20plan.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


Title: Karen Group Criticizes JICA Development Proposals
Date of publication: 20 February 2014
Description/subject: "An ethnic Karen group has criticized an extensive report by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) about proposals for development projects in southeastern Burma. The 593-page report by JICA and Burma’s Ministry of Border Affairs proposes wide-ranging development projects for Karen and Mon states, with the purpose of facilitating the eventual return of Burmese refugees. But the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN), a Thailand-based NGO focused on land rights and peace in Karen State, blasted the report on Wednesday for lacking input from local residents. The group said in a statement that the report, which was published in October, also fails to adequately address the development challenges created by decades of armed conflict in the region, while suggesting projects that could open the door to land-grabs."
Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: KESAN's Briefing on Japanese Government Plan for Development of Southeast Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 19 February 2014
Description/subject: "Japan's international aid agency has recently released a detailed framework for the future development of southeast Burma. This brief analysis summarizes the main content of the report, and raises concerns about the process of the study and its underlying assumptions."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kesan
Format/size: html, pdf (404K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/index.php/what-we-do/advocacy-campaign/development-and-resources-extraction-monitoring/281-kesan-s-briefing-on-japanese-government-plan-for-development-of-southeast-burma-myanmar
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTHEAST MYANMAR (PART 1)
Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION... CHAPTER 2 - EXISTING CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTHEAST MYANMAR...CHAPTER 3 EXISTING CONDITIONS OF SOCIO-ECONOMY OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR...CHAPTER 4 - EXISTING CONDITIONS OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTHEAST MYANMAR.
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYANMAR MINISTRY OF BORDER AFFAIRS, JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)
Format/size: pdf (7.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTHEAST MYANMAR (PART 2)
Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Description/subject: CHAPTER 5 - EXISTING CONDITIONS OF SOCIAL FACILITIES AND SERVICES IN SOUTHEAST MYANMAR...CHAPTER 6 - RAPID DEVELOPMENT DIAGNOSIS BY TOWNSHIP...CHAPTER 7 - REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR...CHAPTER 8 - EXISTING CONDITIONS AND PROSPECTS FOR RETURN AND SETTLEMENT OF REFUGEES AND IDPS IN SOUTH EAST MYANMAR
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYANMAR MINISTRY OF BORDER AFFAIRS, JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)
Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTHEAST MYANMAR FINAL REPORT - SUMMARY
Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION: 1.1Background; 1.2Study Scope and Objectives... CHAPTER 2 - CHARACTERISTIC OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR AND ITS POSITION IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR: 2.1Characteristics of Southeast Myanmar; 2.1.1Land and population; 2.1.2Natural conditions; 2.1.3Economy; 2.2Position of Southeast Myanmar in Union of Myanmar; 2.2.1Natural and physical conditions; 2.2.2Socio-economic conditions; 2.2.3Position of Southeast Myanmar in national development... CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTPOTENTIALS OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR: 3.1Economic Corridors Development; 3.1.1East-west economic corridors; 3.1.2Southern economic corridors; 3.1.3Additional regional economic corridors; 3.2Development of FTZ and Industrial Estates; 3.3Industrial Clusters Development; 3.3.1Rubber industrial cluster; 3.3.2Wood and bamboo works industrial cluster; 3.3.3Cashew industrial cluster; 3.3.4Other possible industrial clusters; 3.4Urban Development; 3.4.1Regional cities development; 3.4.2Border towns development; 3.4.3Urban hierarchy and city networking... CHAPTER 4 - PLANNING FOR RETURN AND SETTLEMENT: 4.1Planning Framework; 4.2Development Directions to Promote Peace; 4.2.1First type areas; 4.2.2Second type areas; 4.2.3Third type areas; 4.3Principles for Development for Peace; 4.3.1Settlement areas development; 4.3.2Provision of information; 4.3.3Border areas development; 4.3.4Issue based dialogues between peace groups and State Government... CHAPTER 5 - PLANNING FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR: 5.1.1Problem structure analysis; 5.1.2Objectives and basic strategy for regional development of Southeast Myanmar; 5.1.3Vision for regional development of Southeast Myanmar; 5.2Development Scenario; 5.2.1Development phasing; 5.2.2Preparatory phase: up to 2015/16; 5.2.3Phase 1: 2016/17-20/21... CHAPTER 6 - RECOMMENDATION FOR SUBSEQUENT STAGE: 6.1Return and Settlement Support and IntegratedRegional Development Master Plan; 6.1.1Return and settlement planning (Project 1.1); 6.1.2Implementation of pilot projects (Project 1.2); 6.1.3Integrated regional development master planning (Project 1.3); 6.2Feasibility Study of Hpayarthonesu -Thanbyuzayat Road with EIA (Project 2); 6.3Water Supply Improvement Program (Project 3); 6.4Mini Hydro Power Development Program (Project 4); 6.5Roads and Bridges Improvement Program; 6.5.1Artery and sub-artery roads strengthening project (Project 5.1); 6.5.2Access roads improvement project (Project 5.2); 6.5.3Ethnic group areas access improvement project (Project 5.3); 6.6Power Supply Network Expansion Program (Project 6); 6.7Industrial Clusters Promotion Program (Project 7); 6.8Industrial Estates Related Infrastructure Development (Project 8); 6.9Mixed and Integrated Farming Promotion Program (Project 9); 6.10Productive Re-forestation Program (Project 10); 6.11Social Development Model Project (Project 11); 6.12Implementation Support for Integrated Regional Development Master Plan (Project 12); 6.13Feasibility Study of Kyaikkhami Regional Port Stage 1 (Project 13); 6.14River Basin Development and Management Master Plan (Project 14); 6.15D/D of Hpayarthonesu –Thanbyuzayat Road (Project 15).
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYANMAR MINISTRY OF BORDER AFFAIRS, JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
Date of publication: 03 September 2013
Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
Author/creator: Kevin Woods
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (593K)
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small - scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small - scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (266K-OBL version; 314K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/ib-equitable-growth-myanmar-040613-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small-scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small-scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth. If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. These must address power inequalities in the markets, put small-scale farmers at the centre of new agricultural investments, and close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Author/creator: Jasmine Burnley
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (314K)
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTH-EAST MYANMAR. I. Planning for Return and Settlement (Powerpoint presentation)
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: 1. Three types of areas for return and settlement supports...2. Location of three types of areas for return and settlement supports...3. Approach to development in Type 1 areas...4. Approach to development in Type 2 areas...5. Approach to development in Type 3 areas...6. Principles for return and settlement supports... Comments by Steve Thompson
Language: English
Source/publisher: RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd
Format/size: ppt (342K)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTH-EAST MYANMAR II. Planning for Integrated Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar (Powerpoint presentation)
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: 1. Economic Corridors Development...2. Artery Road Network for Southeast Myanmar...3. Industrial Clusters Development...4. Rubber Industrial Cluster...5. Wood and Bamboo Works Industrial Cluster...6. Cashew Industrial Cluster...8. River Basins Water Resources Development and Management Program...9. Megatat River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...10. Bilin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...11.Dontami River and Ye River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...12. Melaga River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...13. Yunzalin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...14.Payathonezu Settlement Areas Development Program...15. Returnees Empowerment Center (REC)...16. Conciliatory Access Improvement Program...17. Water Supply Improvement Program...18. Problem Structure Analysis...19. Objectives for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...20. Basic Strategy for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...21.Vision for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...22. Factors Supporting the Regional Development Vision...23. Important Concepts to Support the Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...24. Development Scenario...25. Preparatory Phase: up to 2015/16...26. Phase 1: 2016/17~2020/21...27. Phase 2: 2021/22~2025/26...28. Phase 3: 2026/26~2035/36...29. Future Characteristic of Southeast Myanmar. Comments in red by Steve Thompson
Language: English
Source/publisher: RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd
Format/size: ppt (4.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


Title: Excluded - Burma’s Ethnic Nationalities on the Margins of Development & Democracy
Date of publication: December 2012
Description/subject: "This report presents documented evidence that ethnic nationalities directly affected by development projects in Burma are systematically denied their right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC). While development related abuse has been well documented, no report has shed light on the staggering scale of the widespread denial of participation rights in Burma...Our research shows that: • Close to 90% of those surveyed did not receive any information about the development project before it was started by a decision maker. In all but 2 sites, not one person was given any information. • Approximately 80% of the total survey population did not know who to contact or where to go to find out more information about the project. In 3 sites, the figure soared to 100%. • Less than 1% said a public forum was held by a project decision maker where the local community could attend. • Of the total sample population, less than 2% felt they would not be punished if they sought information about the project. • Close to half (44.1%) felt unsafe seeking further information about the project, while 45.2% were not sure whether it was safe or unsafe. • Less than 1% experienced positive impacts from the development project... This report is meant to serve as a warning of the risks entailed in denying participation rights as well as a reminder to potential investors of their human rights obligations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nationalities Youth Forum (NY-Forum) and Students Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB)
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 May 2013


Title: United Nations Strategic Framework 2012-2015 [Myanmar]
Date of publication: 19 January 2012
Description/subject: Table of Contents: Foreword... Signatories: October 2011... Acronyms and Abbreviations... Map of UN offices in Myanmar... Section I: Development Context... Human Development and the MDGs.... UN in Myanmar.... Section II: The Strategic Framework... Strategic Priority 1: Encourage inclusive growth (both rural and urban), including agricultural development and enhancement of employment opportunities ... Strategic Priority 2: Increase equitable access to quality social services..... Strategic Priority 3: Reduce vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change.... Strategic Priority 4: Promote good governance and strengthen democratic institutions and human rights... Section III: Resource Requirements... Section IV: Management and Implementation.... Section V: Monitoring and Evaluation..... Section VI: Operationalization of the UN Strategic Framework
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/userfiles/yangon/file/UN_Strategic_Framework_for_Myanmar_2012-2015.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


Title: A Comparative Study of State-Led Development in Myanmar (1988–2010) and Suharto’s Indonesia: An Approach from the Developmental State Theory
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: Abstract: "This article explores the institutionalization of state-led development in Myanmar after 1988 in comparison with Suharto’s Indonesia. The analysis centres on the characteristics and theory of developmental states that emerged from the studies of East Asian countries like Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, Suharto’s Indonesia was perceived as a successful case and was studied by scholars in line with the characteristics of the developmental state. The Tatmadaw (military) government in Myanmar was believed to follow the model of state-led development in Indonesia under Suharto where the military took the role of establishing economic and political development. However, Myanmar has yet to achieve its goal of building a successful state-led development. Therefore, this paper argues that implementing an efficient and effective institutionalization is essential for a successful state-led development (developmental state) in Myanmar.".... Keywords: Myanmar, Suharto’s Indonesia, state-led development, developmental state, institutionalization....ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print
Author/creator: Sai Khaing Myo Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 1/2011: 69-94
Format/size: pdf (230K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011