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Human Rights
See also UN System and Burma/Myanmar

  • Various Rights

    • Human rights: international standards
      Includes versions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Burmese, Shan and other languages of Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: International Human Rights Instruments
      Description/subject: This page contains the principal human rights instruments, with General Comments. The URLs of some of the individual instruments are also given in the different sections below
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
      Date of publication: 16 December 1966
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
      Date of publication: 16 December 1966
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966; entry into force 3 January 1976.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Burmese
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (39K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Chin (Falam)
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Chin (Falam)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (30K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Chin (Hakha)
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Chin - (Hakha)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (32K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Chin (Tiddim)
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Chin (Tiddim)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (31K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - English
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Karen (Pwo)
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Pwo-Karen
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (82K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Karen (S'gaw)
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: (S'gaw-Karen
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (91K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Shan
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Shan
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (61K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Thai
      Date of publication: 10 December 1948
      Language: Thai
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (658K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009


    • Human rights issues, UN human rights bodies and mechanisms

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Human Rights Issues: UNHCHR Page
      Description/subject: List of human rights issues, with links to specific pages
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council
      Description/subject: Thematic and country rapporteurs, Working Groups etc.
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) - OHCHR web-page
      Description/subject: Main OHCHR page on the UPR..."The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique process which involves a review of the human rights records of all 192 UN Member States once every four years. The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides the opportunity for each State to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations. As one of the main features of the Council, the UPR is designed to ensure equal treatment for every country when their human rights situations are assessed. The UPR was created through the UN General Assembly on 15 March 2006 by resolution 60/251, which established the Human Rights Council itself. It is a cooperative process which, by 2011, will have reviewed the human rights records of every country. Currently, no other universal mechanism of this kind exists. The UPR is one of the key elements of the new Council which reminds States of their responsibility to fully respect and implement all human rights and fundamental freedoms. The ultimate aim of this new mechanism is to improve the human rights situation in all countries and address human rights violations wherever they occur..."
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2009


      Title: Universal Periodic Review - Link to OBL UPR section
      Description/subject: We have placed the UPR material under: UN System > Human Rights Council > Universal Periodic Review - follow this link
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 January 2010


    • Human rights organisations, networks: resources, training, methodology and other links

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Resources for Human Rights Watch Partners
      Date of publication: 22 September 2009
      Description/subject: Useful set of links to resources for: Advocacy and Communications...Training, Networking, and Management...Law, Research and Methodology...Protection and Security...Fundraising.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2010


      Title: AHRC Burmese-language blog (Burmese)
      Description/subject: Very useful page... "The AHRC Burmese-language blog is also updated constantly for Burmese-language readers, and covers the contents of urgent appeal cases, related news, and special analysis pieces..."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2011


      Title: Amnesty International
      Description/subject: Search for Torture etc.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Description/subject: Several hundred documents on Burma. "The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) was founded in 1986 by a prominent group of jurists and human rights activists in Asia. The AHRC is an independent, non-governmental body, which seeks to promote greater awareness and realisation of human rights in the Asian region, and to mobilise Asian and international public opinion to obtain relief and redress for the victims of human rights violations. AHRC promotes civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. AHRC endeavours to achieve the following objectives stated in the Asian Charter "Many Asian states have guarantees of human rights in their constitutions, and many of them have ratified international instruments on human rights. However, there continues to be a wide gap between rights enshrined in these documents and the abject reality that denies people their rights. Asian states must take urgent action to implement the human rights of their citizens and residents... " Search for Burma and/or go to Asian Countries/Burma. Links, Urgent appeals.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission, Asian Legal Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ahrchk.net/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Asian Human Rights Commission Burma page
      Description/subject: Human rights cases, campaigns, statements, news, interviews...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


      Title: Asian Legal Resource Centre
      Description/subject: "The ALRC will work to develop effective legal resources for the poor and disadvantaged of Asia, especially those who are subjected to multiple forms of oppression, such as women. The objectives of the Centre are to: * PROMOTE awareness among the oppressed of their inalienable rights as human beings and of remedies available to them under national, regional and international instruments; * PROMOTE awareness and acceptance among jurists and others whose activities affect human rights of their responsibilities to serve and protect the oppressed; * PROVIDE FOR EXCHANGE within Asia of expertise and experience among human rights organisations and legal resource groups; * ENGAGE IN inter-disciplinary RESEARCH on human rights, and on the provision of legal resources in support of such human rights in the various countries of the region; * PROMOTE THE TRAINING of lawyers to render effective legal assistance to the oppressed and victims of human rights violations; * DEVELOP METHODOLOGIES for, and assist in the training of, paralegal workers, and facilitate the sharing of such experiences; * DEVELOP PROGRAMMES of mass education about law, and support the sharing experiences of those involved in such programmes; * PROMOTE the creation and strengthening of legal resource organisations in the region; * PROMOTE reform of such institutions to increase their ability to provide timely and effective relief."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 March 2004


      Title: Better World Links - Human Rights
      Description/subject: A large number of human rights links by topic, people and country.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Better World Links
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 August 2012


      Title: Droits et Democratie/Rights and Democracy
      Description/subject: Centre international des droits de la personne et du developpement democratique/International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. English, francais, espanol
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: EarthRights International: Burma Project
      Description/subject: "EarthRights International's Burma Project collects vital on-the-ground information about the human rights and environmental situation in Burma. Since 1995, ERI has worked in Burma to monitor the impacts of the military regime's policies and activities on local populations and ecosystems. ERI's staff has gathered a vast body of valuable, rare information about the state of the military regime's war on its peoples and its environment. Through gathering testimonies, grassroots organizing, and distributing information through campaign work, the Burma Project has made a significant contribution to human rights and environment protection in Burma. Where possible, we link our grassroots fact-finding missions and community organizing with regional and international level advocacy and campaigning. We work alongside affected community groups to prevent human rights and environmental abuses associated with large-scale development projects in Burma. Currently, the Burma Project focuses on large-scale dams, oil and gas development, and mining. We share experiences and resources with local communities, as well as provide assistance relevant to community needs. Over the past 10 years the Burma Project has raised awareness about the alarming depletion of resources in Burma and their relationship to a vast array of human rights abuses, as well as the local, national, and regional implications of these practices."...Sections on Dams, Mining, Oil & Gas and Other Areas of Work.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org
      http://www.earthrights.org/taxonomy/term/148
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: Federation International Des Droits De L'Homme - Burma page (English
      Description/subject: Several reports on Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Federation International Des Droits De L'Homme (FIDH)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fidh.org
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federation International Des Droits De L'Homme - page Birmanie en francais
      Description/subject: Plusieurs documents en francais sur la Birmanie
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Federation International Des Droits De L'Homme (FIDH)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fidh.org
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: Fortify Rights
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Fortify ights.org/
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


      Title: Freedom House
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS - Links to various sources
      Description/subject: UN, Government, NGO, academic, networks.. useful links
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: WWW Virtual Library: International Affairs Resources
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 August 2012


      Title: Human Rights education and training (OHCHR page)
      Description/subject: "Human rights can only be achieved through an informed and continued demand by people for their protection. Human rights education promotes values, beliefs and attitudes that encourage all individuals to uphold their own rights and those of others. It develops an understanding of everyone's common responsibility to make human rights a reality in each community. Human rights education constitutes an essential contribution to the long-term prevention of human rights abuses and represents an important investment in the endeavour to achieve a just society in which all human rights of all persons are valued and respected. The High Commissioner is the coordinator of United Nations education and public information programmes in the field of human rights (General Assembly Resolution 48/141). OHCHR is working to promote human rights education by: * Supporting national and local capacities for human rights education in the context of its Technical Cooperation Programme and through the ACT Project, which provides financial assistance to grass-roots initiatives; * Developing selected human rights education and training materials; * Developing selected resource tools, such as a Database on Human Rights Education and Training, a Resource Collection on Human Rights Education and Training and a Web section on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; * Globally coordinating the World Programme for Human Rights Education..."
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2009


      Title: Human Rights Internet
      Description/subject: Search for Burma. Major human rights networking site.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Internet
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Human rights organisations which report on Burma/Myanmar
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html. pdf
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2014


      Title: Human Rights Watch
      Description/subject: "Human Rights Watch is one of the world’s leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights. By focusing international attention where human rights are violated, we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes. Our rigorous, objective investigations and strategic, targeted advocacy build intense pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse. For 30 years, Human Rights Watch has worked tenaciously to lay the legal and moral groundwork for deep-rooted change and has fought to bring greater justice and security to people around the world.... Mission Statement: Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice. We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable. We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law. We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Human Rights Web
      Description/subject: Very much dted, but there are some links I have not see in other lists
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Web
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: HURIDOCS
      Description/subject: Handling human rights material - training and formats
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Council on Human Rights Policy
      Description/subject: The International Council on Human Rights Policy (ICHRP) closed down in February 2012. This is a web-archive of the 14 years of work of the ICHRP. It provides free access to the full archive of ICHRP’s publications: over 35 reports and summaries and 200 working papers—mostly in English but also in Spanish, French and other languages—covering a wide range of human rights policy issues. On this site you can download all publications and learn more the projects of the ICHRP. You can browse by year, language, or type of document.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Council on Human Rights Policy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009


      Title: International Service for Human Rights
      Description/subject: A human rights training organisation whose website is a rich seam of reports, lists, voting records, analysis, links etc. on human rights activities and mechanisms in Geneva and New York. Treaty bodies, Commission on Human Rights, world conferences, intergovernmental organisations..."About ISHR ... An international association serving human rights defenders; Analytical and practical information; Training on using UN human rights procedures; Internships; Human Rights Defenders Office (HRDO); Strategic lobbying and legal advice; ISHR staff and intern networks; Programme of activities..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ISHR
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 November 2004


      Title: Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma)
      Description/subject: DOCUMENTATION: The range of human rights violations in Burma is extensive, and each ND-Burma member organization focuses on certain violations that are particularly relevant to their mission. To provide a framework for collaboration among members, ND-Burma has developed a “controlled vocabulary” of the categories of human rights violations on which the network focuses... DOCUMENTATION MANUAL SERIES: Based on ND-Burma's controlled category list ND-Burma has developed a documentation manual series to support its members to effectively document human rights violations. 1. Killings & Disappearance 2. Arbitrary Arrest & Detention 3. Recruitment & Use of Child Soldiers 4. Forced Relocation 5. Rape & Other Forms of Sexual Violence 6. Torture & Other Forms of Ill-Treatment 7. Forced Labor 8. Obstruction of Freedom of Movement 9. Violations of Property Rights 10. Forced Marriage 11. Forced Prostitution 12. Human Trafficking 13. Obstruction of Freedoms of Expression and Assembly 14. General Documentation... TRAINING: ND-Burma's Training Team organises and provides training to its members, affiliates and invited organisations. Human Rights Documentation training and Martus software training is held regularly. Other traning provided includes; * International Human Rights legal systems * Project Management * Finance * Film Shooting/Editing Workshop * Taxation systems * Interview techniques * Advocacy * Training of Trainers... HUMAN RIGHTS DATA MANAGEMENT: All members use the same software for documentation, called “Martus”, allowing for analysis and storage of encrypted incident reports, called “bulletins,” on a secure common server. ND-Burma provides training and suppport on using Martus to its members... ADVOCACY: ND-Burma promotes its work and those of other Burmese human rights organizations through its website. ND-Burma provides human rights information to relevant advocacy campaigns and through publishing reports analyzing its data. ND-Burma is currently working on a report about Arbitary Taxation and its impact on the livilihoods of people in Burma. ND-Burma collaborates with its members and other human rights organizations’ campaigns.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: ND-Burma
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


      Title: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR)
      Description/subject: Resolutions, reports, human rights instruments etc. Lots of stuff; very well organised.
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES - HURIDOCS
      Description/subject: Tools and techniques last modified 2009-07-16 08:36 HURIDOCS Important: you need to register to download HURIDOCS tools. This is free, quick and easy. HURIDOCS has developed various tools to manage and organise information related to human rights. These tools can be divided into four groups:demo * Monitoring and documenting human rights violations * Monitoring respect for economic, social and cultural rights * Tools for human rights libraries and documentation centres * Information and communication technology tools
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: HURIDOCS
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 October 2003


      Title: University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
      Description/subject: Lots of stuff and links to human rights groups and docs
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Minnesota
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: University of Minnesota Meta Search Engine for Searching Multiple Human Rights Sites
      Description/subject: Erratic and eccentric results from a Burma search
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Minnesota
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: HURIDOCS events standard formats : a tool for documenting human rights violations
      Date of publication: March 2001
      Description/subject: The Events Standard Formats are a methodology for using the “violations” approach in monitoring and documenting all types of human rights: civil and political as well as economic, social and cultural. They are integrated, flexible and adaptable, and cover the various aspects of documenting human rights events. This document contains formats with defined fields and instructions to assist organisations in documenting human rights-related events and in designing their databases, and for exchange of information among organisations. The document introduces basic concepts in documenting violations and describes tools and techniques that can be used. It provides a general overview of the Events Standard Formats and the Micro-thesauri for terminology. It gives guidelines for completing, using and adapting the Events Standard Formats. Scope notes contain principles and guidelines for recording information in specific formats and fields.
      Author/creator: Dueck, Judith ; Guzman, Manuel ; Verstappen, Bert
      Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: HURIDOCS
      Format/size: pdf (2.28 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.huridocs.org/resource/huridocs-events-standard-formats/
      http://www.huridocs.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/HURIDOCS_ESF_French.pdf (French)
      http://www.huridocs.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/HURIDOCS_ESF_Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Micro-thesauri : a tool for documenting human rights violations
      Date of publication: March 2001
      Description/subject: This collection of 48 lists with terminology was developed by HURIDOCS or adapted from a variety of authoritative resources. The Micro-thesauri are intended for use in conjunction with HURIDOCS Standard Formats manuals, and in particular with the HURIDOCS Events Standard Formats: a tool for documenting human rights violations. The Micro-thesauri can be used as a starting point for developing index terms for libraries and documentation centers, keywords for organising information on websites, or controlled vocabularies for databases to record violations. They have been translated into the following languages, often by volunteers: English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, Portuguese, and Bahasa Indonesia.
      Author/creator: Dueck, Judith ; Guzman, Manuel ; Verstappen, Bert
      Language: English (French, Russian and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: HURIDOCS
      Format/size: pdf (696.09 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.huridocs.org/resource/micro-thesauri/
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Promoting and Defending Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Handbook
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: Chapter 1: An Overview of the International Bill of Rights; Chapter 2: Connections Between Human Rights and Law; Chapter 3: What Are Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Who Must Ensure that They Are Implemented? Chapter 4: How Are Civil and Political Rights Linked to Economic, Social and Cultural Rights? Chapter 5: Do “Universal” Human Rights Always Apply? And Do They Apply Everywhere? Chapter 6: Violations of the Covenant: A Quick Summary; Chapter 7: Violations of Covenant Obligations; Chapter 8: Violations of Specific Covenant Rights; Chapter 9: How Do Non-Governmental Organisations Help to Stop Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Work for Their Implementation? Chapter 10: How Does the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Monitor Implementation and Violations of the Covenant? And How Can NGOs Enhance the Process? Chapter 11: ESCR Promotion by Other UN and Regional Human Rights Bodies, and Related Roles for NGOs; Chapter 12: Sharing and Improving this Handbook; ANNEXES:- Annex A: Selected References; Annex B: Glossary of Terms and Acronyms; Annex C: UN and Regional Human Rights Bodies and Contact Data; Annex D: Navigating the Website of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; Annex E: NGOs Active in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Annex F: NGO Checklists for the Promotion and Defence of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Annex G: Using the Internet for Human Rights Work; Annex H: Fictional Case Studies on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Annex I: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
      Author/creator: Allan McChesney
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AAAS, Huridocs
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 October 2003


      Title: Thesaurus of Economic Social and Cultural Rights
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: A major tool for linking violations of economic, social and cultural rights to standards. English and Spanish
      Author/creator: Stephen Hansen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AAAS
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Huridocs Standard Formats (for human rights documentation)
      Date of publication: 1993
      Description/subject: HURIDOCS Standard Formats for the Recording and Exchange of Bibliographic Information concerning Human Rights includes the following chapters: PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 1985... PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION... CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION... . CHAPTER 2 TABLE OF FIELDS... CHAPTER 3 SCOPE NOTES OR DEFINITION OF FIELDS... CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLES OF RECORDS... CHAPTER 5 ANGLO-AMERICAN CATALOGUING RULES... CHAPTER 6 GUIDELINES FOR MAKING CATALOGUE CARDS... CHAPTER 7 COMPARISON OF FIRST AND SECOND EDITION OF HURIDOCS BIBLIOGRAPHIC STANDARD FORMATS... CHAPTER 8 COMPATIBILITY WITH OTHER FORMATS... CHAPTER 9 GLOSSARY... BIBLIOGRAPHY.
      Language: English (French and Arabic also available)
      Source/publisher: HURIDOCS
      Format/size: pdf (1.21 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.huridocs.org/resource/huridocs-standard-formats-for-the-recording-and-exchange-of-bibliographic-information-concerning-human-rights/
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


    • Human Rights and international relations

      Individual Documents

      Title: De la neutralité à la conditionnalité politique des relations communautaires avec les pays en voie de développement: ... Quelles sont les effets de la politique européenne de sanctions à l’égard du My
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: La conditionnalité, de par sa nature essentiellement politique, a souvent été étudiée par des politologues plutôt que par des juristes. Ce constat est attribuable à l´absence d´une réglementation juridique internationale relative à la conditionnalité, et à sa mise en oeuvre de nature essentiellement ad hoc, et non systématique. Tous les Etats n´appliquent pas la conditionnalité politique, ni ne l´appliquent-ils tous de manière homogène; et encore moins y sont-ils tous soumis équitablement. La conditionnalité est toujours subordonnée à des exigences géopolitiques, stratégiques, commerciales et économiques.1 Beaucoup d´arguments peuvent être mobilisés contre la conditionnalité: le principe de non ingérence, la critique du néocolonialisme, le relativisme culturel, etc. Toutefois, la nécessité de protéger et de promouvoir les droits de l´homme peut suffire à la légitimer, pour le moins d´un point de vue conceptuel. D´un point de vue juridique, reste encore à prouver la légalité de cette pratique dans le droit international. L´argument principal à cet effet réside dans l´article 2.1. du Pacte International sur les Droits civils et Politiques, ratifié par la communauté internationale, lequel suggère que tous les Etats parties prennent des initiatives, notamment par l´intermédiaire de l´aide internationale et de la coopération, pour parvenir à la réalisation complète des droits reconnus dans le Pacte.2 La Communauté européenne, au sortir de la Guerre Froide, adopte une nouvelle conception du développement et de sa mise en oeuvre ; une conception plus libérale, et qui engage davantage la responsabilité des PVD dans le processus de développement. Dans ce contexte surgit la notion de conditionnalité politique de l’aide : désormais, l’aide est délivrée à condition que les pays récipiendaires s’engagent à respecter les droits fondamentaux et les principes démocratiques. L’aide au développement communautaire n’a pas toujours impliqué cette notion de mérite ; nous le verrons dans la première partie. Les bases juridiques sur lesquelles a été conçue la politique d’aide au développement communautaire jusque dans les années 1990 datent du Traité de Rome. Les relations avec les « pays et territoires d’outre mer » constituaient à l’époque une partie substantielle du Traité, de manière à assurer la pérennité des relations entre les métropoles européennes et leurs colonies une fois leur indépendance acquise. La conception des relations entre les PVD et la CEE a donc été durablement marquée par les dispositions du Traité de Rome. Géographiquement, cela signifiait des relations zélées avec les pays ACP (regroupant, plus ou moins, les ex PTOM ), dans le cadre des Conventions successives de Lomé ; et des relations tardives et modestes avec les PVD non associés, selon la terminologie révélatrice de la réglementation communautaire. Politiquement, les Conventions de Lomé réglaient la coopération au développement communautaire avec les pays ACP sur base d’une relation neutre, sans condition politique ou économique préalable. L’échec de cette politique apparaît de plus en plus flagrant après la crise de la dette et l’incapacité des économies en développement, surtout des pays ACP, à s’insérer dans le système économique mondial globalisé. A la même époque, la fin de la Guerre Froide voit les démocraties libérales occidentales triompher. L’Union Européenne est créée en 1992 sur base des principes libéraux d’économie de marché, de bonne gouvernance, de démocratie et de respect des droits de l’homme. Désormais, ces principes imprègneront la politique extérieure communautaire définie dans le cadre de la PESC. Les relations communautaires avec les PVD doivent être revues dans cette optique libérale. La nouvelle politique des droits de l’homme va être mise en oeuvre à travers la conditionnalité politique de l’aide au développement. Désormais, la politique de développement ne doit plus être considérée de manière isolée mais comme un élément de la politique extérieure communautaire.3 Nous l’ observerons, en analysant les relations régionales eurasiatiques, dans la deuxième partie. Le partenariat avec l’ANASE a une portée allant de la coopération commerciale, économique et politique à la coopération au développement. Le dialogue intergouvernemental au sein de l’ASEM (qui réunit les 27 membres de l’UE et 16 pays asiatiques dont la Chine, le Japon, l’Inde, la Corée du Sud et les pays membres de l’ANASE ) a aussi un dessein multidimensionnel, confrontant les différentes parties relativement à leurs politiques étrangère, économique et financière. Dans la quatrième partie, nous étudierons le cas de la conditionnalité politique appliquée à la Birmanie, gouvernée depuis 40 ans par une junte militaire devenue la bête noire de la communauté internationale. Depuis 1997, la Birmanie ne bénéficie plus de préférences tarifaires pour ses exportations vers l’UE. Pas plus ne dispose-t-elle aujourd’hui de l’aide communautaire au développement. Apres une présentation générale du pays et son histoire contemporaine, nous tenterons d’évaluer les effets de la stratégie communautaire dans le cas birman et l’opportunité d’appliquer la conditionnalité politique (et les sanctions qu’elle implique) pour mener un pays à se réformer et à se développer.
      Author/creator: Louise Culot
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Format/size: pdf (481K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


      Title: La dimension des droits de l’homme dans les relations internationales : le cas de la Birmanie (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: August 2006
      Description/subject: Introduction: "L’étude politique des droits de l’homme ne peut se faire sans tenir compte du contexte politique, géographique et historique dans lequel ces derniers ont évolué. Souvent brandis comme l’étendard que des hommes et des femmes ont porté dans l’espoir de faire valoir leur individualité face à des gouvernements, ces valeurs n’en continuent pas moins d’être souvent traitées avec cynisme, ironie ou utopisme. Cela s’avère encore plus véridique lorsque nous choisissons de transposer l’étude de ces droits à la sphère des relations internationales où il existe un dilemme entre l’universalité proclamée des principes fondamentaux et le poids des états dans l’élaboration de politiques parfois nuisibles aux droits de l’homme mais justifiées par un recours systématique au principe de souveraineté étatique. Cependant, ce concept des droits de l’homme revient constamment, au travers de discours, articles, essais et discussions, alimenter la thèse selon laquelle ces droits, bien que proclamés déjà en 1789, restent à être pleinement réalisés en ce début de 21° siècle. S’ils sont déjà considérés comme acquis et immuables en occident principalement, il n’est pas inutile de rappeler que les valeurs qu’ils défendent (liberté, égalité…) sont des concepts relativement nouveaux dans l’histoire humaine et que leur application au niveau international est loin d’être évidente. Notre optique n’est pas de se livrer à une condamnation de l’application du respect des droits de l’homme que certains diront secondaires à la prise en compte de considérations économiques, politiques ou géostratégiques mais plutôt de comprendre comment la défense des droits de l’homme trouve sa place dans la justification des politiques internationales en comparant leur promotion faite en occident et leur application dans une région aussi lointaine que l’Asie. Ce mémoire analysera donc l’importance du non-respect des droits de l’homme au sein des relations internationales en analysant le cas de la Birmanie, également connue sous le nom de Myanmar.2 Nous partirons du principe que le gouvernement militaire birman ne respecte pas les droits contenus dans la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme de l’ONU de 1948 et que cela complique ses relations avec des gouvernements étrangers ainsi qu’avec des institutions internationales qui ont un devoir de veiller à ce que leur politique extérieure avec des pays tiers tienne compte du respect des droits de l’homme. Les instances analysées sont les Etats-Unis, l’Union Européenne (UE) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies (ONU) et nous nous focaliserons sur la place que tiennent les droits de l’homme dans leurs rapports avec la Birmanie. Le choix de ces trois protagonistes permet de mettre en évidence une institution internationale (l’Organisation des Nations Unies) ainsi que deux niveaux différents d’organisations politiques au sein de ce que l’on nomme communément l’"occident" : un état (les Etats-Unis) et une institution régionale (l’Union Européenne). Le noeud de ce travail portera donc sur la question suivante : « Dans quelle mesure le non-respect des droits de l’homme influence-t-il les relations qu’entretient la Birmanie avec les Etats-Unis, l’UE et l’ONU depuis 1988 ? » L’idée n’est pas de savoir si le gouvernement birman nuit aux droits de l’homme ou pas. Ce fait est unanimement reconnu aussi bien par la communauté internationale que par le gouvernement birman lui-même. La question est plutôt de savoir jusqu’à quel point les considérations éthiques relatives au respect des droits de l’homme devancent les intérêts économiques, politiques ou géostratégiques dans la région du sud-est asiatique..."
      Author/creator: Bryan Carter
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Université libre de Bruxelles, Faculté des sciences sociales, politiques et économiques -- Section de science politique
      Format/size: pdf (509K), Word (457K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/M%e9moire.doc
      Date of entry/update: 30 September 2006


    • Rule of Law

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Rule of Law
      Description/subject: Link to OBL's Rule of Law sub-section in Law and Constitution
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 December 2012


    • National Human Rights Institutions

      • Theory and practice of national human rights institutions

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: National Human Rights Institutions - UNHCHR page
        Description/subject: GA and CHR reports and resolutions on NHRIs; links to: Paris Principles (October 1991), Rabat Declaration (April 2000), Lome Declaration (March 2001), Athens Declaration (November 2001) etc. Also, UN Fact sheet, "National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights".
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Paris Principles - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
        Description/subject: "The Paris Principles were defined at the first International Workshop on National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights held in Paris on 7-9 October 1991. They were adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Commission by Resolution 1992/54 of 1992, and by the UN General Assembly in its Resolution 48/134 of 1993. The Paris Principles relate to the status and functioning of national institutions for the protection and promotion of human rights. In addition to exchanging views on existing arrangements, the workshop participants drew up a comprehensive series of recommendations on the role, composition, status and functions of national human rights institutions (NHRIs)... Five stipulations: The Paris Principles list a number of responsibilities for national institutions, which fall under five headings. First, the institution shall monitor any situation of violation of human rights which it decides to take up. Second, the institution shall be able to advise the Government, the Parliament and any other competent body on specific violations, on issues related to legislation and general compliance and implementation with international human rights instruments. Third, the institution shall relate to regional and international organizations. Fourth, the institution shall have a mandate to educate and inform in the field of human rights. Fifth, some institutions are given a quasi-judicial competence. "The key elements of the composition of a national institution are its independence and pluralism. In relation to the independence the only guidance in the Paris Principles is that the appointment of commissioners or other kinds of key personnel shall be given effect by an official Act, establishing the specific duration of the mandate, which may be renewable." Compliance with the Paris Principles is the central requirement of the accreditation process that regulates NHRI access to the United Nations Human Rights Council and other bodies. This is a peer review system operated by a subcommittee of the International Coordinating Committee of NHRIs..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 September 2011


        Individual Documents

        Title: Performance & legitimacy: national human rights institutions (2nd edition)
        Date of publication: 2004
        Description/subject: "Many national human rights commissions have been created in the last decade. This document summarises the findings of a research project to examine how successfully such institutions promote and protect human rights in their societies. It looks at what NHRIs have done well and, based on the experience of specific institutions in a range of countries, what they might do to be more effective..."
        Author/creator: Richard Carver
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Council on Human Rights Policy
        Format/size: pdf (1.13MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (The Paris Principles)
        Date of publication: 20 December 1993
        Description/subject: Adopted by General Assembly resolution 48/134 of 20 December 1993 ...Five stipulations The Paris Principles list a number of responsibilities for national institutions, which fall under five headings. First, the institution shall monitor any situation of violation of human rights which it decides to take up. Second, the institution shall be able to advise the Government, the Parliament and any other competent body on specific violations, on issues related to legislation and general compliance and implementation with international human rights instruments. Third, the institution shall relate to regional and international organizations. Fourth, the institution shall have a mandate to educate and inform in the field of human rights. Fifth, some institutions are given a quasi-judicial competence. [2] "The key elements of the composition of a national institution are its independence and pluralism. In relation to the independence the only guidance in the Paris Principles is that the appointment of commissioners or other kinds of key personnel shall be given effect by an official Act, establishing the specific duration of the mandate, which may be renewable." [3] Compliance with the Paris Principles is the central requirement of the accreditation process that regulates NHRI access to the United Nations Human Rights Council and other bodies. This is a peer review system operated by a subcommittee of the International Coordinating Committee of NHRIs. (from the Wikipedia page on the Paris Principles)
        Language: English (Arabic, Chinese,French, Russian and Spanish also avaialble)
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (17K, 22K))
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/116/24/PDF/N9411624.pdf?OpenElement (A/RES/48/134)
        Date of entry/update: 10 September 2011


      • Burma's National Human Rights Commission

        • Myanmar's National Human Rights Commission (announcements, statements, open letters and other official texts)

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission website
          Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 September 2013


          Individual Documents

          Title: Statement of Myanmar National Human Rights Commission on its trip to the Kachin State (5/2012)
          Date of publication: 14 August 2012
          Description/subject: "Commission and two members of the Commission visited Myitkyina and Waingmaw of the Kachin State from 23 to 27 July 2012 and carried out the following tasks of the Commission:- - Visited 16 relief camps, met with the people of the camps and expressed words of encouragement to them. - Summoned and examined the witnesses in connection with the complaints, assumed to involve the violations of human rights in the Kachin State. - Met with the Chief Minister and the Ministers of the Kachin State Government and exchanged views on the prevailing situation in the Kachin State. Based on the activities and the findings of the Commission team, the following recommendations are made:-..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (101K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Statement No. (4/2012) of Myanmar National Human Rights Commission concerning incidents in Rakhine State in June 2012
          Date of publication: 11 July 2012
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (115K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission welcomes signing of Plan of Action for Prevention against Recruitment of the Under-Aged Children for Military Service
          Date of publication: 03 July 2012
          Description/subject: "...Since the prevention of the recruitment of the under-aged children for military service is a task that enhances the images of the country in the United Nations as well as in the international community, the Commission hopes that the Plan of Action will be successfully implemented by the organizations concerned, including the United Nations."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (213K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: President sends message to Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Speaker stating issues related to low salaries of union level personnel, increased pensions of retired service personnel and establishing Myanmar National Human Rights Commission
          Date of publication: 29 April 2012
          Description/subject: Exchange of letters between Parliament and President on the legal status of, inter alia, the National Human Rights Commission and who would pay their salaries...See also the reports of the 27th and 28th days of the 3rd Session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Alternate URLs, below)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (209K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/PYIDH-NLM2012-04-25-day27.pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/PYIDH-NLM2012-04-27-day28.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: According to international reaction, the fact that MNHRC is fifth national human rights institution in ASEAN has enhanced image of country (Statement No 2/2012)
          Date of publication: 28 March 2012
          Description/subject: The Statement of the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission on its establishment and its current status of functioning (Statement No 2/2012)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (147K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Statement by the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission
          Date of publication: 14 January 2012
          Description/subject: "...In the interest of enduring peace and national unity, to enable an inclusive political process and on grounds of humanitarian consideration, the President had granted amnesty to the prisoners. In view of the President’s magnanimity, the Commission strongly urges those who have been released to peacefully take part in whatever way they can in building national unity and a democratic State"
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (107K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: All prisoners express their ardent hope for granting of next general amnesty by President - Statement by the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission on its visits to the Insein Prison and Hlay- Hlaw-Inn Yebet Prison Labour Camp
          Date of publication: 30 December 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (18K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission issues statement [on its visit to Kachin State]
          Date of publication: 14 December 2011
          Description/subject: "A four-member team of the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission headed by its Secretary visited Kachin State from 8 to 10 December 2011 in order to observe at first hand the civil population who were displaced as a result of armed skirmishes that occurred from June 2011, with the view to ascertain their conditions in camps that are under the supervision of the Kachin State Government and also to make a need assessment..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (72K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Statement by Myanmar National Human Rights Commission on International Human Rights Day, 10 December 2011
          Date of publication: 10 December 2011
          Description/subject: "MNHRC to stress commitment to effectively fulfil its mandate of promoting and protecting human rights and to contribute to democratization process of country to the best of its capacity NAY PYI TAW, 10 Dec—The Myanmar National Human Rights Commission issued a Statement on International Human Rights Day today. The full text of the Statement is as follows:..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (34K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: First visit of US Secretary of State will pave way for promoting bilateral relations and provide positive impulses towards building of democratic society in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 27 November 2011
          Description/subject: Statement on Hillary Clinton's visit and the ASEAN Chair
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (158K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission sends open letter to President
          Date of publication: 13 November 2011
          Description/subject: "...the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission again humbly requests the President as a reflection of his magnanimity to include those prisoners when a subsequent amnesty is granted. 8. If for reasons of maintaining peace and stability, certain prisoners cannot as yet be included in the amnesty, the Commission would like to respectfully submit that consideration be made for transferring them to prisons with easy access for their family members."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (70K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission meets
          Date of publication: 12 October 2011
          Description/subject: Photo of the Commission in session and a few procedural notes
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (39K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Request submitted in open letter by Myanmar National Human Rights Commission to President of Republic of Union of Myanmar
          Date of publication: 11 October 2011
          Description/subject: "...the expectation of the Secretary- General of the United Nations and a number of countries is the release of what is referred to as “prisoners of conscience”. The Commission recognizes and appreciates the position of the Government that these are prisoners who have been sentenced to imprisonment for contravening the existing laws. 6. The release of those prisoner, convicted for breach of the existing laws, who do not pose a threat to the stability of state and public tranquility in the interest of national races will enable them to participate in whatever way they can in the nation-building tasks. 7. For these reasons, Myanmar National Human Rights Commission humbly requests the President, as a reflection of his magnanimity, to grant amnesty to those prisoners and release them from the prisons."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (28K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Myanmar National Human Rights Commission: Accepting of complaint
          Date of publication: 07 October 2011
          Description/subject: Procedures for submitting complaints to the Commission
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Myanmar National Human Rights Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (21K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: National Human Rights Commission formed
          Date of publication: 06 September 2011
          Description/subject: NAY PYI TAW, 5 Sept—"The Union Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar issued Notification No. 34/2011 dated 5-9-2011 as follows:- Republic of the Union of Myanmar Union Government Notification No. (34/2011) 8th Waxing of Tawthalin1373 ME (5 September, 2011)...Formation of Myanmar National Human Rights Commission Myanmar National Human Rights Commission was formed with the following persons with a view to promoting and safeguarding fundamental rights of citizens described in the constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" 6 September 2011
          Format/size: pdf (171K)
          Date of entry/update: 10 September 2011


        • Myanmar's National Human Rights Commission (commentary)

          Individual Documents

          Title: Statement Calling for a Transparent and Participatory Drafting Process of the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission’s Enabling Law (English. Burmese)
          Date of publication: 10 May 2012
          Description/subject: "We, the undersigned civil society, community-based organizations and networks, welcome the decision made by the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission to become an institution established under an act of the Parliament in order to fully comply with the Paris Principles and act as an independent institution..."....endorsed by 57 Burma groups
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: Burma Partnership et al
          Format/size: pdf (216K - English; 237K - Burmese)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Statement-on-nhrc-enabling-law-Bur-1005201210401.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


          Title: Empowering the Myanmar Human Rights Commission
          Date of publication: 09 May 2012
          Description/subject: "...'The Paris Principles are the international standard and that is what they should be aiming for,'... 'If they are heading in that direction, if that is what they are aiming for, then they have a long way to go. 'The commission is [currently] almost at the whim of the president. You need to sort out the legislative underpinning of the commission through an act of Parliament so it does have guaranteed funding. And then you figure out what function and role it is actually going to play.' So while a few seminars and consultations may help increase the legitimacy of the international community’s policy of reengagement, a fundamental overhaul including constitutionally enshrined independence, guaranteed funding and full transparency is necessary to prevent the MHRC remaining merely the butt of snide jibes from cynical observers."
          Author/creator: Charlie Campbell
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "the Irrawaddy"
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 13 May 2012


          Title: President sends message to Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Speaker stating issues related to low salaries of union level personnel, increased pensions of retired service personnel and establishing Myanmar National Human Rights Commission
          Date of publication: 29 April 2012
          Description/subject: Exchange of letters between Parliament and President on the legal status of, inter alia, the National Human Rights Commission and who would pay their salaries...See also the reports of the 27th and 28th days of the 3rd Session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Alternate URLs, below)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
          Format/size: pdf (209K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/PYIDH-NLM2012-04-25-day27.pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/PYIDH-NLM2012-04-27-day28.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


          Title: Burma’s NHRC: An Empty Gesture
          Date of publication: 10 January 2012
          Description/subject: "The international community should call on the regime to take the necessary steps to make the commission a truly independent and effective mechanism On 5 September 2011, Burma’s regime announced that it had established a National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) charged with promoting and safeguarding the fundamental rights of citizens in accordance with the 2008 Constitution. While the creation of a NHRC could be seen as a positive step, many welcomed the development with skepticism. We know very little about Burma’s new NHRC. No official information about the procedure, mandate, and responsibilities of the commission has been made accessible to the public and, in particular, victims of human rights violations. The information gathered is piecemeal, collected from a number of different statements and interviews. The entire process of establishing the NHRC has been everything but transparent, lending support to the argument that this is nothing more than an empty gesture designed to placate the international community at a time when the regime is seeking to have sanctions lifted..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
          Format/size: pdf (1.24MB)
          Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


          Title: Burma human rights body is not all that is needed
          Date of publication: September 2000
          Description/subject: "...The Australian government has decided to cooperate with the Burmese junta in providing human rights training courses for government officials. The decision was in response to the ruling State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC) indication that it intends to establish a national Human Rights Commission..."
          Author/creator: Khin Maung Win
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 6 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
          Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found on http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%206.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Military Regime to Establish Base on Mars ... or a Human Rights Commission
          Date of publication: April 2000
          Description/subject: "Recently, the military regime indicated it might establish a human rights commission in Burma...the article considers the practicalities of establishing an effective human rights commission under Burma's current governance. The human rights commission being contemplated is a type of body existing in many countries and internationally known as a National Human Rights Institution ('NHRI'). The article provides a general background of NHRIs, notes the existing NHRIs in the Asia-Pacific, and addresses some main features of an NHRI. Then, with this background, an analysis is made of the relevant factors in Burma. It is hoped this will provide a basic explanation about NHRIs, which may assist in the ongoing discussion on how such a body could feature in Burma's future..."
          Author/creator: John Southalan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 5 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Business and Human Rights (Burma/Myanmar-related)
      See also "Debate on Investment in Burma" (in Main Library > Economy > Foreign Investment in Burma > Debate on...)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Business and Human Rights, a resource website: Burma (Myanmar)
      Description/subject: A rich seam of news items, articles and long reports on Burma from 1996. Go to the Home page for more general material. "information from: · United Nations & ILO · companies · human rights, development, labour & environmental organisations · governments · academics · See the section on the UNOCAL case in "Lawsuits against companies: Selected major cases", journalists · etc..."
      Author/creator: Chris Avery
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Company responses (and non-responses) to "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" published by EarthRights International in March 2011
      Description/subject: "On 29 March 2011 EarthRights International released a report, entittled "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" [PDF], which "link[ed] major Chinese and Korean companies to widespread land confiscation, and cases of forced labor, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and violations of indigenous rights connected to the Shwe natural gas project and oil transport projects in Burma." The companies named in the report are: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Daewoo International [part of POSCO], GAIL (India), Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS), ONGC Videsh, and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2011


      Title: Multi-year Project in Myanmar (Burma)
      Description/subject: " The Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB) has embarked on a multi-year project to help ensure that existing and new investments in Myanmar are consistent with international human rights standards and best practices. As a result of political and economic changes in the country, the European Union, the United States, and other industrialised countries have eased sanctions on Myanmar. Trade and investment delegations have visited the country in recent months to explore economic opportunities. Myanmar’s President, Thein Sein, and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi have both stressed in public remarks that investments in the country should abide by local laws, uphold high standards, respect labour rights and the environment, and support democracy and human rights. In the past, insufficient clarity concerning expected business conduct in countries emerging from periods of sanctions has created uncertainty. The unanimous endorsement in 2011 of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights marks a significant step forward in providing necessary guidance for all stakeholders. The UN framework affirms the duty of all States to protect peoples from rights abuses involving non-state actors, including business; the independent responsibility for all business enterprises to respect human rights; and the importance of ensuring access to effective remedies for those whose rights have been abused. IHRB is working with the Danish Institute for Human Rights, the British Council, and other local and international partners to undertake activities in support of responsible investment in Myanmar consistent with the UN Guiding Principles and other relevant standards. These include: ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2013


      Title: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
      Description/subject: "The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business is a new initiative to encourage responsible business activities throughout Myanmar. The Centre is a joint initiative of the Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB) and the Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR). Based in Yangon, it aims to provide a trusted, impartial forum for dialogue, seminars, and briefings to relevant parties as well as access to international expertise and tools. Vicky Bowman is the first Director of the Centre. She draws on seven years of living in Yangon, is fluent in the Myanmar language and has many years' experience of working on responsible business issues, within the private sector and government. The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which were unanimously endorsed in June 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council, are key to the Centre’s mission and activities..."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 May 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: Business & human rights in Myanmar: A round-up of recent developments, August 2013
      Date of publication: 05 August 2013
      Description/subject: Introduction: "This briefing summarises major business and human rights developments in Myanmar (Burma) from November 2010, when the country held its first elections after 20 years and pro - democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi was released from hous e arrest, to the present. It covers the positive and negative impacts of companies operating in the country, and is based on reports from a range of sources that the Resource Centre has featured on its website and in its Weekly Updates. It also refers to responses we received from companies when we asked them to reply to concerns raised by civil society, and refers to the failure of certain companies to respond. This briefing provide s an overview of major issues, cases, developments and trends ; it is no t intended to be comprehensive . For more detail and more cases, see our website section: “ Myanmar ”. Part 3 presents key cases in the sectors that have ha d major impacts on human rights, namely oil & gas, construction, hydropower, mining and manufacturing. It summarises allegations of human rights impacts of specific projects, presents company responses to these allegations where available, and outlines co mmunity, NGO, and government actions. It also draws attention to freedom of association and child labour concerns. The briefing show s how Myanmar people affected by business activities have made use of newfound freedoms to raise their concerns before com panies and the Myanmar G overnment. It also shows that in some cases people have suffered retaliation for their efforts to protect human rights. Part 4 tracks key relevant domestic and international policy and legislative developments, and refers to civil society inputs and reactions. Part 5 presents a selection of commentaries and reports that provide guidance for companies in Myanmar and for those considering entry to Myanmar . These materials were developed in response to the easing and lifting of inte rnational trade sanctions"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
      Format/size: pdf (154K, press release, 63K)
      Alternate URLs: http://business-humanrights.org/media/documents/press-release-myanmar-briefing-aug-2013.pdf (press release)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/business&human_rights-myanmar-briefing-aug-2013-en-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 August 2013


      Title: Thaton Photo Set: Gold mining in Bilin Township, January 2013
      Date of publication: 28 June 2013
      Description/subject: "This photo set includes 18 still photographs selected from images taken by a community member from Bilin Township, Thaton District in January 2013. These photographs depict gold mining in Baw Paw Hta village and show village lands that were bought by the Mya Poo Company and subsequently damaged because of mining."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (317K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b38.html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


      Title: Thaton Situation Update: Hpa-an Township, January to June 2012
      Date of publication: 31 May 2013
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Thaton District, during the period between January to June 2012. Specifically, it describes villagers' education, their livelihood and explains how some of the villagers who have to go and work in other countries because of the lack of opportunities in their area. This report also presents detailed information about companies that have cooperated with KSDDP leaders (formerly DKBA) and BGF Battalion #1014 soldiers to confiscate land for rubber and teak plantations and, consequently, have forced the civilians to clear and plant tress in the plantation without providing wages. Also reported, is forced recruitment committed by one former DKBA leader, Moe Nyo. This report describes changes in the activity of the Tatmadaw and contains information on the villagers' concerns about Tatmadaw troop movement following the 2012 ceasefire.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (54K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b28.html
      Date of entry/update: 22 June 2013


      Title: Incident Report: Forced labour in Thaton District, April 2012
      Date of publication: 28 May 2013
      Description/subject: "The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses. The community member who wrote this report described an incident that occurred on April 24th 2012, where soldiers from BGF Battalion #1014 ordered the villagers of T---, W---, V--- and X---, in Hpa-an Township, Thaton District, to do forced labour on plantation land that they had confiscated for private companies, for three weeks without providing any pay, food or tools. The information was learned when the community member interviewed Saw B---, a 36 year-old chairman from W--- village. This report has been summarized along with three other Incident Reports received from this area in: “Border Guard #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012,” KHRG, May 2013."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (123K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b25.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2013


      Title: Incident Report: Land confiscation and forced labour in Thaton District, April 2012
      Date of publication: 27 May 2013
      Description/subject: The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses, which describes an incident that occurred on April 25th 2012, when BGF soldiers forced villagers from T--- village, Meh K'Na Hkee village tract, Hpa-an Township, Thaton District, to clear plantations owned by Thein Lay Myaing and Shwe Than Lwin companies, which were located on land confiscated from the villagers. The report identifies the perpetrators as Thein Lay Myaing and Shwe Than Lwin companies, KSDDP and a company affiliated with BGF Battalion #1014, commanded by Tin Win and based out of Law Pu village in Hpa-an Township. This report has been summarized along with three other Incident Reports received from this area in: "BGF Battalion #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012," KHRG, May 2013.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (125K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b24.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2013


      Title: Burma: Investors Need Robust Rights Safeguards - US Reporting Requirements Take Effect, More Needed
      Date of publication: 25 May 2013
      Description/subject: "American companies investing in Burma should not let new US government reporting requirements lull them into complacency on human rights concerns. The US “Reporting Requirements on Responsible Investment” in Burma went into effect on May 23, 2013. Doing business in Burma involves various human rights risks that the US rules do not fully address, Human Rights Watch said. These include the lack of rule of law and an independent judiciary, major tensions over the acquisition and use of land, and disregard of community concerns in government-approved projects. The military’s extensive involvement in the economy, use of forced labor, and abusive security practices in business operations heightens concerns. Corruption is pervasive throughout the country..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 May 2013


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, November 2012 to January 2013
      Date of publication: 24 May 2013
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in February 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District, during the period between November 2012 and January 2013. The community member discusses abuses that happened during the period, such as how private construction workers collected stones near P--- villagers' farmland without the consent of the local community. Consequently, there is an increased threat of flooding that could affect more than 20 or 30 acres of farmland from the damage to natural water barriers caused by the stone collection. Also discussed, is how frontline soldiers from Tatmadaw Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #434, which is based at Pa Heh army camp, forced four villagers from H--- village to porter unknown cargo between Papun town and Hsaw Bgeh Der. The community member also raised problems regarding destruction of the natural environment, such as how irregular rainfall and pests are damaging paddy crops."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (270K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b23.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2013


      Title: Reforming Telecommunications in Burma - Human Rights and Responsible Investment in Mobile and the Internet
      Date of publication: 19 May 2013
      Description/subject: "In January 2013, the Burmese government announced plans to liberalize the country’s telecommunications sector and invited bids for two nationwide telecommunications licenses. Successful bidders will be allowed to provide a range of services, including mobile and Internet services. The Burmese government has promised to significantly reduce the cost of mobile phones and has set an ambitious goal of 50 percent mobile penetration by 2016, a remarkable increase from current penetration estimated at 5-10 percent. Human Rights Watch has long believed that Internet and mobile technologies have an enormous potential to advance human rights. Developing Burma’s information and communications technology (ICT) and telecommunications sectors could enhance economic growth and civic participation in a country that has been closed for decades. Email, social media, and cell phones have become essential tools for journalists, human rights defenders, and civil society groups worldwide because these technologies support instant communication, access to information, and effective organization on the ground. However, these benefits may be jeopardized unless governments and corporations safeguard the ability of people to use new technologies freely and without fear of reprisal. Improved telecommunications networks can become powerful tools for censorship and illegal surveillance, absent protections for human rights and other critical measures. Yet Burma’s democratic reforms remain incomplete and the government and its security forces continue to commit serious human rights violations. Companies entering Burma face a significant risk of contributing to abuses, particularly in sectors, such as telecommunications and the Internet, that have been linked with past abuses and where rights-based reforms to date have been inadequate. Opening up these sectors to international investment raises the risk that the government may seek to involve technology companies in illegal surveillance, censorship, and other abuses. In this report, Human Rights Watch has outlined several steps necessary to promote adequate human rights protections for Internet and mobile phone users in Burma, and the actions needed to foster responsible investment in Burma’s telecommunications and Internet sectors. Telecommunications and ICT companies should not move forward in Burma until such measures are in place, in view of the human rights risks. The analysis and recommendations contained in this report are based on research conducted from February to April 2013. The report’s analysis focuses on laws most relevant to Burma’s telecommunications and ICT sectors, and does not provide a comprehensive treatment of Burma’s laws, legal system or constitution...To respect the rights of the people of Burma, international telecommunications and ICT companies should take meaningful steps at the outset to assess the human rights impact and address any harm that may result from their operations. They should conduct what is often referred to as “human rights due diligence” and adopt robust safeguards to prevent and address abuses, including with respect to the rights to freedom of expression, access to information, and privacy..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (295K-OBL version; 474K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma
      http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2013


      Title: Conducting Meaningful Stakeholder Consultation in Myanmar
      Date of publication: April 2013
      Description/subject: "The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights include guidance on the role of meaningful consultation by companies with their stakeholders, particularly those groups that their operations may impact directly. Meaningful consultation can assist companies both to gauge and to mitigate their risk of involvement with human rights impacts…Shift’s report is designed to assist companies with this challenge, as they consider or commence operations in Myanmar. The report (1) provides a survey of stakeholder views regarding the entry of companies into Myanmar; and (2) sets out key elements for companies to consider in their stakeholder engagement strategies. The report describes the high expectations interviewees have of the benefits that companies can bring to Myanmar, from building workers’ skills in labor-intensive sectors, to improving working conditions and reducing poverty. It also highlights their fears that their lands will be taken from them, their environment degraded, and their livelihoods destroyed…" (from the Business & Human Rights entry on this report)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shift
      Format/size: pdf (646K)
      Alternate URLs: http://shiftproject.org
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2013


      Title: Business and Human Rights in Burma (Myanmar) - Testimony of Marco Simons
      Date of publication: 28 February 2013
      Description/subject: Testimony of Marco Simons to the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission: "This submission describes the emerging landscape as U.S. businesses reengage in Burma and identifies specific human rights concerns associated with current and prospective corporate activities in Burma (Myanmar). A number of companies, including General Electric, have already invested in Burma, and U.S. oil supermajors are considering participation in upcoming auctions for oil blocks. Increased foreign investment has already been linked to large-scale displacement of local communities and loss of traditional livelihoods in Burma. The legal framework for land rights is inadequate to protect the fundamental human rights of those whose homes and fields stand in the way of economic development; indeed, it facilitates arbitrary and inadequately compensated alienation of land. Moreover, violence and gross human rights abuses continue to occur in association with natural resource development projects, as at the Letpadaung Copper Mine at Monywa, and in Shan State along the Shwe Gas Pipeline corridor. Having decided that public disclosure, rather than regulation, is a more appropriate tool to address the human rights and environmental concerns associated with Western investment in Burma, the U.S. Government has proposed Reporting Requirements for Responsible Investment in Burma that are expected to take effect prior to April 2013. While they may assist government and civil society to monitor the human rights implications of the relaxation of U.S. sanctions on Burma, these Reporting Requirements have a number of troubling weaknesses that may allow serious human rights risks to avoid detection. Moreover, while the U.S. is now allowing the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank to extend loans to Burma, such projects are already being met with complaints over lack of transparency and consultation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: pdf (4,7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2013


      Title: Burma an ‘Extreme Risk’ for Business and Rights Abuse
      Date of publication: 19 December 2012
      Description/subject: "Just two weeks after the violent police crackdown on peaceful copper mine protests, an international business investment assessor has included Burma in a top-10 league of countries at “extreme risk” for human rights abuses. Burma was ranked sixth in the bad league behind only Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, Afghanistan and Pakistan, the UK business advisory company Maplecroft said in its “Human Rights Risk Atlas 2013.” Despite reforms of the past 18 months in Burma, the risk to foreign investors concerned about their public image remains extremely high, Maplecroft said. The warning comes as Western and Japanese multinational businesses weigh up prospects for investing in Burma, especially in infrastructure development and mining, oil and gas exploration. So far, recorded abuses such as land confiscations and forced labor have been linked to Burmese military-connected firms or Chinese companies such as China National Petroleum Corporation, which is building controversial oil and gas pipelines through the length of the country. But as pressure mounts for economic growth, more cases are coming to light..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2012


      Title: Joint Comment on the Reporting Requirements on Responsible Investment in Burma
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: "After submitting a detailed comment [MAIN URL] to the US Department of State expressing concern over weak reporting requirements for US companies considering investing in Burma, EarthRights International, Freedom House, Physicians for Human Rights, U.S. Campaign for Burma and United to End Genocide issued the following statement: “We continue to be deeply concerned by the US government’s decision to lift all remaining sanctions, and allow corporations unrestricted investment access to Burma despite widespread corruption, ongoing human rights violations and a total lack of rule of law. Although US companies will be required to report on their investments, the current requirements lack specificity about enforcement and consequences for non-compliance. Furthermore, existing loopholes enable companies to designate information as ‘confidential’ as a way to avoid public scrutiny. The US government should take immediate steps to ensure that there is a strong regulatory framework that can effectively promote accountability and transparency..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) et al
      Format/size: pdf (135K; html)
      Alternate URLs: http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/press/press-releases/deplorable-weak-reporting-requirements-for-us-investment-in-burma.html
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


      Title: Responsible Investment in Myanmar: The Human Rights Dimension
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: About this Paper: "This is the first in a series of Occasional Papers by the Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB). Papers in this series will provide independent analysis and policy recommendations concerning timely subjects on the business and human rights agenda from the perspectives of IHRB staff members and research fellows. This paper was prepared by IHRB Policy Director, Salil Tripathi with input from IHRB's South East Asia Programme Manager, Donna Guest. Over the past year in particular, IHRB has been studying Myanmar's re-emergence in the global economy and believes political changes in the country represent an important opportunity in the area of business and human rights. IHRB staff members have visited Myanmar, most recently in July 2012 at the invitation of the British Government to present a round-table on business and human rights with Myanmar government and opposition leaders, as well as local and international business representatives. In collaboration with the Danish Institute for Human Rights, IHRB is working with local and international partners to establish a responsible investment resource centre in Myanmar and will be developing a number of activities aimed at fostering trade and investment in the country consistent with the United Nations (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and other international corporate responsibility standards. The resource centre will be open to all actors: local business, international business, government, parliamentarians, investors, civil society, trade unions and communities. From September 2012 a local co-ordinator is in place, based at the British Council in Yangon, to establish the resource centre and also to organize a series of thematic workshops on many of the issues discussed in this paper." For more details contact: myanmar@ihrb.org
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB) - Occasional Paper series, No. 1
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2013


      Title: Building sustainable investment in Myanmar: institutional investors report back EU guidelines for companies active in Burma expected shortly.
      Date of publication: 07 May 2012
      Description/subject: "...Extractive companies will be tempted by Myanmar’s rich reserves of oil, gas, minerals, and teak. In talks with another multinational company, we were reminded that it is possible to combine activities in the extractive industry with sound sustainable practices such as environmental and social impact assessments, grievance mechanisms and strategic social investments. Since extractive companies inevitably have to work closely with the government, they should leverage government relations to pursue sustainable development and the protection of human rights..."
      Author/creator: Kris Douma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: responsible-investor.com
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


      Title: As Country Opens, Myanmar Businesses Embrace the Global Compact
      Date of publication: 01 May 2012
      Description/subject: (Yangon, 1 May 2012) – "Speaking to more than 200 participants at a ceremony in Yangon, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon chaired the launch of the UN Global Compact in Myanmar today, underscoring heightened interest in corporate responsibility as the country is going through a process of political and economic reforms. “In order to deliver prosperity and opportunity widely, Myanmar needs strong and inclusive markets,” the Secretary-General said in his keynote remarks to participants, which also included nearly 50 representatives of the international community, including foreign investors. “Business has to be the backbone of growth. However, investment and business activity must be sustainable and responsible – upholding the highest standards of business ethics.” The meeting with business and government representatives came on the last day of the Secretary-General’s three-day visit to Myanmar. At the event, 14 companies and the Myanmar Chamber of Commerce formally joined the Global Compact in a signing ceremony..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Global Comact
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


      Title: The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy
      Date of publication: 29 March 2011
      Description/subject: "...This briefer focuses on the impacts of two of Burma’s largest energy projects, led by Chinese, South Korean, and Indian multinational corporations in partnership with the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), Burmese companies, and Burmese state security forces. The projects are the Shwe Natural Gas Project and the Burma-China oil transport project, collectively referred to here as the “Burma-China pipelines.” The pipelines will transport gas from Burma and oil from the Middle East and Africa across Burma to China. The massive pipelines will pass through two states, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shan, and two divisions in Burma, Magway and Mandalay, over dense mountain ranges and arid plains, rivers, jungle, and villages and towns populated by ethnic Burmans and several ethnic nationalities. The pipelines are currently under construction and will feed industry and consumers primarily in Yunnan and other western provinces in China, while producing multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese regime. This briefer provides original research documenting adverse human rights impacts of the pipelines, drawing on investigations inside Burma and leaked documents obtained by EarthRights and its partners. EarthRights has found extensive land confiscation related to the projects, and a pervasive lack of meaningful consultation and consent among affected communities, along with cases of forced labor and other serious human rights abuses in violation of international and national law. EarthRights has uncovered evidence to support claims of corporate complicity in those abuses. In addition, companies involved have breached key international standards and research shows they have failed to gain a social license to operate in the country. New evidence suggests communities in the project area are overwhelmingly opposed to the pipeline projects. While EarthRights has not found evidence directly linking the projects to armed conflict, the pipelines may increase tensions as construction reaches Shan State, where there is a possibility of renewed armed conflict between the Burmese Army and specific ethnic armed groups. The Army is currently forcibly recruiting and training villagers in project areas to fight. EarthRights has obtained confidential Production Sharing Contracts detailing the structure of multi-million dollar signing and production bonuses that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is required to pay to MOGE officials regarding its involvement in two offshore oil and gas development projects that, at present, are unrelated to the Burma- China pipelines. EarthRights believes the amount and structure of these payments are in-line with previously disclosed resource development contracts in Burma, and are likely representative of contracts signed for the Burma-China pipelines; contracts that remain guarded from public scrutiny. Accordingly, the operators of the Burma- China pipeline projects would have already made several tranche cash payments to MOGE, totaling in the tens of millions of dollars..."
      Language: English, Korean
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.23 - English; 1.9MB - Korean)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/documents/the-burma-china-pipelines-korean.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


      Title: Dam Nation
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: "Burma and China prepare to build seven hydroelectric dams in Kachin State that will not provide the people of Burma with jobs, security or even electricity Large-scale hydroelectric dams have long been decried for the immense damage they do to the environment and rural communities. Not everyone agrees, however, that the problems associated with mega-dams outweigh their benefits. After all, say pragmatists, dams are a reliable supply of electricity, without which no country can hope to survive in the modern world. (Illustration: Harn lay / The irrawaddy) But in Burma, such arguments fall flat. Not only do massive dam-building projects take an especially high toll on people’s lives—besides destroying villages and the environment, they result in intensifying human rights abuses and make diseases such as malaria more prevalent—they also come without a payoff for the general population. At the end of the day, the electricity they generate—the only benefit the Burmese people can expect to get from them—remains as scarce as ever..."
      Author/creator: David Paquette
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


      Title: Resisting the Flood: Communities taking a stand against the imminent construction of Irrawaddy dams
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Message from KDNG: "As a network of residents of Kachin State, we, the Kachin Development Networking Group, have been monitoring plans by the stateowned China Power Investment Corporation and Burma’s military regime to build seven dams on the Irrawaddy River and its two main tributaries. In 2007 we published the report, "Damming the Irrawaddy" which surveyed the environment and peoples in the affected area and analyzed the negative impacts of these dams. Today construction of the 2,000-megawatt Chibwe Dam on the N’Mai River is already underway. The forced relocation of 15,000 people to clear out the flood zone of the Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam has also begun. In August 2009 villagers were informed that they must begin to move out within two months. There have been no public assessments of the projects, no consultation with affected people within the flood zone or downstream, and no consent from local residents or the larger population of Burma. As a result, public resistance to the dams is growing. Despite the risks of arrest, torture or death for dissent in military-ruled Burma, brave people are demanding a halt to the dams. Mass prayer ceremonies calling for the protection of the rivers have been held along the river banks and in churches up and downstream. Posters, open letters, and graffi ti from students, elders and prominent leaders have objected to the dams. In a face-to-face meeting with the Burma Army’s Northern Commander, local residents made it clear that no amount of compensation will make up for the losses these dams will bring to their community and future generations. We stand with the people of Kachin State and throughout Burma who oppose these dams. The demand to stop this project has been made clear to our military rulers and now we specifically appeal to China Power Investment Corporation and the government of China to stop these dams..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
      Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network
      Format/size: pdf (1.37MB - English; 2.42MB - Burmese; 1.21MB - Chinese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/burmese/ResistingtheFlood-Burwebsite.pdf (Burmese)
      http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/chinese/ResistingtheFloodChinese.pdf (Chinese)
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2009


      Title: Under The Boot - A Village's Story of Burmese Army Occupation to Build a Dam on the Shweli River
      Date of publication: 03 December 2007
      Description/subject: "At night the Shweli has always sung sweet songs for us. But now the nights are silent and the singing has stopped. We are lonely and wondering what has happened to our Shweli?" ... "Exclusive photos and testimonies from a remote village near the China-Burma border uncover how Chinese dam builders are using Burma Army troops to secure Chinese investments. Under the Boot, a new report by Palaung researchers, details the implementation of the Shweli Dam project, China's first Build-Operate-Transfer hydropower deal with Burma's junta. Since 2000, the Palaung village of Man Tat, the site of the 600 megawatt dam project, has been overrun by hundreds of Burmese troops and Chinese construction workers. Villagers have been suffering land confiscation, forced labour, and restriction on movement ever since, and a five kilometer diversion tunnel has been blasted through the hill on which the village is situated. Photos in the report show soldiers carrying out parade drills, weapons assembly, and target practice in the village. "This Chinese project has been like a sudden military invasion. The villagers had no idea the dam would be built until the soldiers arrived," said Mai Aung Ko from the Palaung Youth Network Group (Ta'ang), which produced the report. Burma's Ministry of Electric Power formed a joint venture with Yunnan Joint Power Development Company, a consortium of Chinese companies, to build and operate the project. Electricity generated will be sent to China and several military-run mining operations in Burma. As the project nears completion, plans are underway for two more dams on the Shweli River, a tributary of the Irrawaddy..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
      Source/publisher: Palaung Youth Network Group
      Format/size: pdf (4.76MB - English; 1.35MB - Chinese; 4.41MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.salweenwatch.org/images/stories/downloads/brn/underthebootchinesewithcover_2.pdf (Chinese)
      http://www.salweenwatch.org/images/stories/downloads/brn/underthebootburmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2007


      Title: Chevron's links to Burma stir critics to demand it pull out
      Date of publication: 04 October 2007
      Description/subject: Chevron Corp. of San Ramon is drawing harsh criticism for its business ties to Burma, the Asian nation conducting a brutal military crackdown. The company owns part of a natural gas project in Burma, where soldiers crushed pro-democracy protests last week and killed at least 10 people. U.S. sanctions prevent most U.S. companies from working in Burma, but Chevron's investment there existed before the sanctions were imposed and continues under a grandfather clause. As a result, the company is one of the few large Western companies left in the country.
      Author/creator: David R. Baker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: San Francisco Bay Area
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/10/04/MNNBSIK4D.DTL&type=printable
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Teak statt Menschenrechte
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: Bis vor kurzer Zeit war Burma (Myanmar) das Land mit mehr intaktem Tropenwald als irgendein anderes Land auf dem südostasiatischen Festland. Es liefert das wertvollste Teakholz, das weltweit auf dem Markt ist - Holz aus den letzten primären Teakwäldern der Erde. Nachdem in den letzten Jahrzehnten die Primärwälder Indiens, Thailands und Kambodschas weitgehend geplündert wurden, sind seit einigen Jahren die Teakwälder Burmas an der Reihe. Vom Ausverkauf dieser bedeutenden (und extrem artenreichen) Wälder profitiert allein das burmesische Militärregime, das mit den Profiten aus dem Holzhandel den Krieg gegen die aufständischen Minderheiten im Süden des Landes finanziert. keywords: Logging, teak, military regime, human rights, forced labour
      Author/creator: Sabine Genz
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Robin Wood Magazin Jg. 98 Nr. 2; S.20
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


    • Business and Human Rights (global, thematic)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Business and Human Rights
      Description/subject: Overview: "The process of globalization and other global developments over the past decades have seen non-state actors such as transnational corporations and other business play an increasingly important role both internationally, but also at the national and local levels. The growing reach and impact of business enterprises have given rise to a debate about the roles and responsibilities of such actors with regard to human rights. Industrial Park Factory Workers © UN PhotoInternational human rights standards have traditionally been the responsibility of governments, aimed at regulating relations between the State and individuals and groups. But with the increased role of corporate actors, nationally and internationally, the issue of business’ impact on the enjoyment of human rights has been placed on the agenda of the United Nations. Over the past decade, the United Nations human rights machinery has been considering the scope of business’ human rights responsibilities and exploring ways for corporate actors to be accountable for the impact of their activities on human rights. As a result of this process, there is now greater clarity about the respective roles and responsibilities of governments and business with regard to protection and respect for human rights. Most prominently, the emerging understanding and consensus have come as a result of the UN “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework on human rights and business, which was elaborated by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, building on major research and extensive consultations with all relevant stakeholders, including States, civil society and the business community. On 16 June 2011, the UN Human Rights Council endorsed Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for implementing the UN “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework, providing – for the first time – a global standard for preventing and addressing the risk of adverse impacts on human rights linked to business activity."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 March 2012


      Title: Business and human rights - List of Tools
      Description/subject: The Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights: An Interpretive Guide (OHCHR, Advance Unedited Version, November 2011)...UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights 2011...Guide on How to Develop a Human Rights Policy 2011...A Human Rights Management Framework Poster 2010...Human Rights Translated - A Business reference guide, A joint publication of Global Compact Office and Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights 2008...OHCHR and Global Compact Human Rights and Business Learning Tool...A Guide for Integrating Human Rights into Business Management, 2nd Edition ...Guide for Integrating Human Rights into Business Management - A joint publication of BLIHR, Global Compact Office and Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights May 2006 ...Embedding Human Rights in Business Practice II...Embedding Human Rights in Business Practice I
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html. pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 March 2012


      Title: Business and Human Rights: a resource website
      Description/subject: Frequently-updated links to news items, guidelines, reports, articles, United Nations and ILO documents, company policies, lawsuits against companies, other websites. Plus 56 hits for Burma OR Myanmar (September 2001). Very rich and useful source. Recommended. Sectors: Agriculture Aircraft/Airline Apparel industry: General Clothing & textile Footwear Arms/Weapons Asbestos Auditing, consulting & accounting Auto rental Automobile & other motor vehicles Baby food & baby milk Battery Bicycle Biotechnology Carpet & rug Ceramics Chemical Chocolate Cleaning products Clothing & textile Coffee Construction & building equipment/materials Cookware Cosmetics Diamond Diversified/Conglomerates Dye Electrical appliance Energy & electricity Express delivery Fabric & yarn Fertiliser Finance & banking Fire extinguisher Fireworks Fishing Food & beverage Footwear Furniture Garden supply Glass Health care Hotel Industrial gases Insurance Jewelry Law firms Logging & lumber Machine tools Manufacturing Media Medical equipment Metals & steel Military/defence Mining Oil, gas & coal Packaging Paint Paper Pesticide Pharmaceutical Photographic Plastics Printing Publishing Railroad Real estate Refrigerator & refrigerant Restaurants Retail Rubber Shipping, ship-building & ship-scrapping Slaughterhouses Sporting goods Stone quarries Sugar Supermarkets Tanneries Tea Technology, telecommunications & electronics Tobacco Tourism Toy Trucking Waste disposal Water. See also the section on the UNOCAL case in "Lawsuits against companies: Selected major cases". Good section on tourism.
      Author/creator: Chris Avery
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Business and Human Rights: a resource website -- Tourism
      Description/subject: 452 items...Some Burma-specific links....narrow down from Advanced Search
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


      Title: Human rights guidelines for business links
      Description/subject: More than 200 links to agreements between labour unions and companies, international labour standards, Amnesty International's Human Rights Principles for Companies, various campaigns, model codes, codes of conduct from companies, international trade secretariats and the ICFTU. ILO documents etc.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Minnesota human rights library
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Institute for Human Rights and Business
      Description/subject: "...The Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB) is a global centre of excellence and expertise on the relationship between business and internationally proclaimed human rights standards. We provide a trusted, impartial space for dialogue and independent analysis to deepen understanding of human rights challenges and issues and the appropriate role of business. We seek to address problems where the law may be unclear, where accountability and responsibility may not be well-defined, and where legitimate dispute settlement mechanisms may be non-existent or poorly-administered. The Institute works to raise corporate standards and strengthen public policy to ensure that the activities of companies do not contribute to human rights abuses, and in fact lead to positive outcomes..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Human Rights and Business
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2014


      Title: Shift
      Description/subject: "Shift is an independent, non-profit center for business and human rights practice. We help governments, businesses and their stakeholders put the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights into practice. We share our learning by developing public guidance materials that help build the field globally. We were established in July 2011, following the unanimous endorsement of the Guiding Principles by the UN Human Rights Council, which marked the successful conclusion of the mandate of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie. Our team was centrally involved in shaping and writing the UN Guiding Principles, and Prof. Ruggie is Chair of our Board of Trustees..." .
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shift
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: FPIC Fever: Ironies and Pitfalls
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC)... Text box extracted from "Access Denied - Land Rights and Ethnic Conflict in Burma" by TNI/BCN, May 2013 at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/TNI-accesdenied-briefing11-red.pdf
      Author/creator: Jennifer Franco,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI), Burma Centre Netherlands
      Format/size: pdf (44K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/TNI-accesdenied-briefing11-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2013


      Title: Responsible Investment Reporting Requirements
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: "Pursuant to the authorities of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) and 31 C.F.R. part 537, on July 11, 2012, the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) issued Ge n e r a l L i ce nse No. 17 ( “ G L - 17 ” ). GL - 17 authorizes new investment in Burma ( a s de f i n e d in 31 C . F . R. § 537.311) by U.S. persons (a s d e fin e d in 31 C. F .R. § 537.321), subject to certain limitations and requirements set forth in that general license. Among those requirements is that any U.S. person engaging in new investment in Burma pursuant to GL - 17 submit reports to the Department of State. T his docum e nt sets fo r th those r e port i ng r e quir e ments. Th e r e a re two s e p a r a te r e port i ng r e quir e ments a ss o c iat e d with new investm e nt i n B u r ma that must be su b m i t t e d to t he D e p a rtme n t of S tate: (1) a re qu i r e ment t h a t a n y U.S. pe r son und e rt a king n e w inv e st m e nt p u r suant to an a g r ee ment, or pursu a nt t o the e x e r c ise o f r i g hts un d e r su c h a n a g r ee ment, that is e nte r e d in t o with M y a nma O il a nd G a s Ente r p r i s e ( MO G E ) not if y the D e p a rtme n t of S tate of such i n v e st m e nt ( “ MO G E I n v e st m e nt Notifi ca t i on ” ); and ( 2 ) a r e quir e ment that a n y U.S. pe r son whose a g g reg a te investm e nt i n B u r ma e x cee ds $500,000 p r ovi d e info r mation as s e t f o rth b e low (“ Ann u a l R e porting R e qui r e ment ” ) . T h e s ec ond re p o rting r e quir e ment e ntails t wo v e rsions: a v e rsion f or the U. S . Gov e rnm e nt a nd a v e rsion that will be re le a s e d publ i c l y ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Government (USG)
      Format/size: pdf (88K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 May 2013


      Title: THE CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY TO RESPECT HUMAN RIGHTS - AN INTERPRETIVE GUIDE
      Date of publication: November 2011
      Description/subject: In June 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights presented to it by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General (SRSG), Professor John Ruggie. This unprecedented move established the Guiding Principles as the global standard of practice that is now expected of all governments and businesses with regard to business and human rights. While they do not by themselves constitute a legally binding document, the Guiding Principles elaborate on the implications of existing standards and practices for States and businesses and include points covered variously in international and domestic law...This Guide in no way changes or adds to the provisions of the UN Guiding Principles, nor to the expectations that they set for businesses. Its purpose is to provide additional background explanation to the Guiding Principles that could not be included in the UN document itself due to space constraints, but which supports a full understanding of its meaning and intent. The Guide‟s content was the subject of numerous consultations during the six years of Professor Ruggie‟s mandate and was reflected in his many public reports and speeches, but has not previously been gathered together in one place..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB - OBL version; 2.99MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Business/RtRInterpretativeGuide.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 14 March 2012


    • Discussion on "Asian Values"

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Aliran (Justice Freedom Solidarity)
      Description/subject: Human rights publication/organization in Malaysia. Search for Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALIRAN
      Alternate URLs: http://aliran.com/?s=myanmar&submit.x=0&submit.y=0&submit=Search
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Asian Human Rights Charter (AHRC)
      Description/subject: The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) was founded in 1986 by a prominent group of jurists and human rights activists in Asia. The AHRC is an independent, non-governmental body, which seeks to promote greater awareness and realisation of human rights in the Asian region, and to mobilise Asian and international public opinion to obtain relief and redress for the victims of human rights violations. AHRC promotes civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. AHRC endeavours to achieve the following objectives stated in the Asian Charter "Many Asian states have guarantees of human rights in their constitutions, and many of them have ratified international instruments on human rights. However, there continues to be a wide gap between rights enshrined in these documents and the abject reality that denies people their rights. Asian states must take urgent action to implement the human rights of their citizens and residents."
      Language: English, Chinese, Korean, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Alternate URLs: http://material.ahrchk.net/charter/
      http://www.ahrchk.net/modules249a.html
      http://www.ahrc-thailand.net/index.php
      http://ahrcburmese.blogspot.com/ (Burmese site)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: International Movement for a Just World
      Description/subject: "The International Movement for a Just World is a non-profit international citizens' organisation which seeks to create public awareness about injustices within the existing global system. It also attempts to develop a deeper understanding of the struggle for social justice and human rights at the global level, which the International Movement for a Just World believes, should be guided by universal spiritual and moral values rooted in the oneness of God. In furtherance of these objectives, the International Movement for a Just World has undertaken a number of activities including conducting research, publishing books and monographs, organising conferences and seminars, networking with groups and individuals and participating in public campaigns."
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


      Title: Working Group for an ASEAN Human Rights Mechanism
      Description/subject: The Working Group for an ASEAN Human Rights Mechanism’s (Working Group) primary goal is to establish an intergovernmental human rights commission for ASEAN. It is a coalition of national working groups from ASEAN states which are composed of representatives of government institutions, parliamentary human rights committees, the academe, and NGOs. Working Group follows a step-by-step, constructive and consultative approach when it engages governments and other key players in the region.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Human Rights Mechanism (Working Group)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Asian Human Rights Charter (Final Document)
      Date of publication: 30 March 1998
      Description/subject: # Preamble # Background to the Charter # General Principles # Universality and Indivisibility of Rights # The Responsibility for the Protection of Human Rights # Sustainable Development and the Protection of the Environment # Rights # The Right to Life # The Right to Peace # The Right to Democracy # The Right to Cultural Identity and the Freedom of Conscience # The Right to Development and Social Justice # Rights of Vulnerable Groups # Women # Children # Differently Abled Persons # Workers # Students # Prisoners and Political Detainees # The Enforcement of Rights # Principles for Enforcement # Strengthening the Framework for Rights # The Machinery for the Enforcement of Rights # Regional Institutions for the Protection of Rights # Appendix A: Groups and individuals who were involved with shaping this charter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Charter
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://material.ahrchk.net/charter/mainfile.php/eng_charter/
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Burma Tests Asian Values
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: If Asian values are about encouraging a harmonious relationship between the state and society, then ASEAN leaders have their work cut out in Burma. Now that Burma is a member of ASEAN, it would not be illogical to assume that ASEAN will now take some responsibility for the well-being of that unfortunate country - which is now an economic, political and social "basket case" in the regional forum.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Human Rights and Asian Values: What Lee Kuan Yew and Le Peng don't understand about Asia (extract)
      Date of publication: 14 July 1997
      Description/subject: "Abstract: A wide-ranging historical and economic survey of Asia reveals little substance in Singaporean prime minister Lee Kuan Yew's defense of authoritarianism: it is not helpful in rapid economic development. Civil rights and tolerance have roots in both Asian and Western traditions.
      Author/creator: Amartya Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The New Republic, v217 n2-3.
      Format/size: pdf (36.85 K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Human Rights and Asian Values
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: Nobel Prize-winning philosopher Amartya Sen argues that human rights are neither a uniquely Western phenomenon nor a hindrance to economic development, the charges usually leveled against those who seek to implement human rights in Asia. He points to intellectual strands within Asian thought that value human rights.
      Author/creator: Amartya Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs
      Format/size: pdf (1.30 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/resources/publications/morgenthau/254.html
      http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/resources/publications/morgenthau/254.html/_res/id=sa_File1/254_sen.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Position of Power and Notions of Empowerment: Comparing the Views of Lee Kuan Yew and Aung San Suu Kyi on Human Rights and Democratic Governance
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: "This essay compares the human rights views of two Asians who in their own ways have been influential not only on their own fellow countrypersons but whose influence extend beyond their national borders. It is submitted that both Lee Kuan Yew1, a Singaporean and Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese, have made their impact internationally And I further submit that their influence and impact are at least partly due to their ideas though of course, in the case of Lee Kuan Yew his influence is perhaps primarily due to Lee's role in the "miraculous transformation in Singapore's economy while maintaining tight political control over the country ... [resulting in] Singapore's per capita GNP [being] now higher than that of its erstwhile colonizer Great Britain". The comparison of Aung San Suu Kyi's and Lee's views on human rights and democracy should be of some relevance and interest in the light of increasingly substantial contemporary literature on democratisation and international law..."
      Author/creator: Myint Zan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Newcastle Law Review, Vol. 2, pp. 49-69, 1997
      Format/size: pdf (186K
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Myintzan-Suu-LKY.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


      Title: "Asian Values" and the Universality of Human Rights
      Description/subject: "Orientalist scholarship in the nineteenth century perceived Asians as the mysterious and backward people of the Far East. Ironically, as this century draws to a close, leaders of prosperous and entrepreneurial East and Southeast Asian countries are eager to stress Asia's incommensurable differences from the West and following from them, to demand special treatment of their human rights records by the international community. They reject the globalization of human rights and claim that Asia has a unique set of values, which, Singapore's ambassador to the United Nations argued, provide the basis for Asia's different understanding of human rights and justify the "exceptional" handling of rights by Asian governments..."
      Author/creator: Xiaorong Li
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: China Rights Forum
      Format/size: Fall 1996. Edited version of an article which first appeared in the Spring 1996 edition of Report from the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, Vol. 16, No. 2.
      Alternate URLs: http://www.igc.org/hric/crf/english/96fall/e11.html
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Asian Values vs. Human Rights
      Description/subject: The claim that "Asian Values" and Asian culture are at odds with Western concepts of human rights has been repeated widely in recent years. It presents one of the most serious challenges that the international human rights movement has confronted because it denies the universality of rights....
      Author/creator: Aryeh Neier (Open Society Institute)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FDL-AP
      Format/size: Undated
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • International Justice
      See also various headings under Law and Constitution > International Law in this Library

      • International Justice: standards, mechanisms and guides

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: International Criminal Court
        Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
        Source/publisher: International Criminal Court
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


        Title: Universal Jurisdiction -- Wikipedia page
        Description/subject: "Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. The state backs its claim on the grounds that the crime committed is considered a crime against all, which any state is authorized to punish, as it is too serious to tolerate jurisdictional arbitrage . The concept of universal jurisdiction is therefore closely linked to the idea that certain international norms are erga omnes, or owed to the entire world community, as well as the concept of jus cogens - that certain international law obligations are binding on all states and cannot be modified by treaty..."
        Language: English (others available)
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


        Individual Documents

        Title: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
        Date of publication: 16 January 2002
        Description/subject: Text of the Rome Statute circulated as document A/CONF.183/9 of 17 July 1998 and corrected by process-verbaux of 10 November 1998, 12 July 1999, 30 November 1999, 8 May 2000, 17 January 2001 and 16 January 2002. The Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Criminal Court
        Format/size: pdf (218K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


        Title: Hard cases: bringing human rights violators to justice abroad - A guide to universal jurisdiction
        Date of publication: October 1999
        Description/subject: "In late 1998 the Chilean Senator Augusto Pinochet was arrested in London, following a request for extradition by a Spanish prosecutor. He was charged under Spanish law for grave human rights abuses, under a universal jurisdiction rule that had rarely been used. Anticipating that this case would trigger others, in early 1999 the Council convened a meeting of human rights experts to discuss the implications of using the universal jurisdiction rule more widely. Hard cases is based on the meeting. Written for use by NGOs and for individuals interested in the ethical and legal issues, it sets out the arguments that support its use and examines some of the ethical, practical and legal problems that arise when it is applied..."
        Author/creator: Peggy Hicks and David Petrasek.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Council for Human Rights Policy
        Format/size: PDF (235K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • International Justice: Specialist bodies and organisations

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: UN SPECIAL ADVISER ON THE PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE
        Description/subject: "The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide acts as a catalyst within the UN system and more broadly within the international community, in order to alert to the potential of genocide in a particular country or region, to make recommendations towards preventing or halting it, and in order to open up space for partners to undertake preventive action in accordance with their mandates and responsibilities under international law."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 July 2009


      • International Justice - general studies

        Individual Documents

        Title: Hard cases: bringing human rights violators to justice abroad - A guide to universal jurisdiction
        Date of publication: October 1999
        Description/subject: "In late 1998 the Chilean Senator Augusto Pinochet was arrested in London, following a request for extradition by a Spanish prosecutor. He was charged under Spanish law for grave human rights abuses, under a universal jurisdiction rule that had rarely been used. Anticipating that this case would trigger others, in early 1999 the Council convened a meeting of human rights experts to discuss the implications of using the universal jurisdiction rule more widely. Hard cases is based on the meeting. Written for use by NGOs and for individuals interested in the ethical and legal issues, it sets out the arguments that support its use and examines some of the ethical, practical and legal problems that arise when it is applied..."
        Author/creator: Peggy Hicks and David Petrasek.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Council for Human Rights Policy
        Format/size: PDF (235K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • International Justice and Burma
        Proposals for international judicial action and reports alleging crimes against humanity in Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: FIDH / BLC Seminar Advancing Human Rights and ending impunity in Burma: which external leverages?
        Date of publication: May 2009
        Description/subject: FIDH Opening Remarks by Cynthia Gabriel, FIDH vice president... BLC Opening Remarks by Thein Oo, BLC president... Advances in International Law on Grave Crimes and the Security Council’s Role Janet Benshoof, President of the Global Justice Center... Past Referrals Experiences: The Referral of the Situation in Darfur and Current Developments (Article 16 of the ICC Statute) Mariana Pena, FIDH permanent representative to the ICC... Current Dynamics Within the Security Council, Past Security Council Reaction to NonCompliant Government and Prospects in 2009 with the New SC members Antoine Madelin, FIDH Director for Intergovernmental organisations... Crimes Under the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court and its Complementarity Principle Evelyn BalaisSerrano, Coordinator for AsiaPacific Coalition for the International Criminal Court... Role and Activities of the ICC Office of the Prosecutor Mariana Pena, FIDH Permanent Representative to the ICC... Documenting Crimes Against Humanity in Eastern Burma Dr. Yuval Ginbar, Legal Adviser, Amnesty International... International Criminal Law and Burma: A Brief Explanatory Note Magda Karagiannakis, Barrister, former UN legal advisor... The Value of Archives: An Example from Guatemala Youk Chhang, Director of Documentation Center of Cambodia... A Brief Analysis on the Constitution of Burma (2008) Aung Htoo, General Secretary of the Burma Lawyers’ Council... Existing Sanctions Against the Burmese Regime EU Stance Mark Farmaner, Burma Campaign United Kingdom... ASEAN and its approach to Human Rights within Myanmar Kalpalata Dutta, Asian Institute for Human Rights... The Democratization Process in Burma and the Role of India Mr. Kim, Coordinator, Shwe Gas Campaign Committee... List of Actors and Organisations Present at the Seminar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH); Burma Lawyers' Council (BLC)
        Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


        Title: CRIMINAL ACCOUNTABILITY -- Support the Call for a Commission of Inquiry on Crimes in Burma!
        Description/subject: "...In May 2009, five leading international jurists commissioned “Crimes in Burma”, a report from the International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School. The report highlights the widespread and systematic human rights violations committed by the SPDC. It calls for the UN Security Council to request that the UN Secretary-General establish a Commission of Inquiry to investigate crimes against humanity and war crimes in Burma. The Commission of Inquiry's findings would be relied upon by the UN Security Council to determine whether the situation in Burma should be referred to the International Criminal Court (ICC). Since its establishment, the ICC has been used to prosecute individuals, including heads of states and other government officials, responsible for human rights violations. It is currently investigating four situations which has resulted in the issuance of 13 arrest warrants and the detention of four individuals. You can support the international campaign to push for the establishment of a Commission of Inquiry into crimes against humanity and war crimes in Burma. This website provides information and suggested actions for citizens, activists, educators, media, and legislators interested in advocacy activities on behalf of Burma’s people..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 April 2010


        Title: THREAT TO THE PEACE - Support the Call for UN Security Council Action on Burma!
        Description/subject: "In September 2005, the global law firm DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary published "Threat to the Peace: A Call for the UN Security Council to Act in Burma", a report commissioned by Vacláv Havel, former President of the Czech Republic, and Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate. The report provides a detailed overview of the reasons why the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) needs to intervene in Burma to insure that Burma's people can live in an environment free from oppression. The UN Security Council is the political arm of the United Nations and is tasked with maintaining international peace and security. In order to do so, the UNSC must determine when a threat to the peace exists and recommend what action should be taken to bring resolution to the situation. "Threat to the Peace" does not call for UN-led military intervention or the deployment of a peacekeeping force in Burma. Rather, it makes recommendations on how to peacefully achieve democratic change. You can make a significant contribution to the international campaign to convince the UNSC to take appropriate action on Burma. This website provides information and suggested actions for citizens, activists, educators, media, and legislators interested in advocacy activities on behalf of Burma's people."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 August 2006


        Individual Documents

        Title: Life Under the Junta: Evidence of Crimes Against Humanity in Burma’s Chin State
        Date of publication: 2011
        Description/subject: "...Our data reveal that Government authorities have perpetrated human rights violations against the ethnic Chin population in Western Burma. Although other researchers have posited that a prima facie case exists for crimes against humanity in Burma, the current study provides the first quantitative data on these alleged crimes. At least eight of the violations that we surveyed fall within the purview of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and may constitute crimes against humanity. The ICC has jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community, including murder, extermination, enslavement, forced displacement, arbitrary detention, torture, rape, group persecution, enforced disappearance, apartheid, and other inhumane acts. For acts to be investigated by the ICC as crimes against humanity, three common elements must be established: (1) Prohibited acts took place after 1 July 2002 when the ICC treaty entered into force. (2) Such acts were committed by government authorities as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population. (3) The perpetrator intended or knew that the conduct was part of the attack. Our research demonstrates that the human rights violations we surveyed in Chin State meet these necessary elements. All reported human rights violations in our study occurred during the immediate 12 months before the interview in 2010 and thus fall within the temporal jurisdiction of the ICC. Additionally, our data show that 1,768 attacks were directed against a relatively large body of civilian victims. And although there is no threshold definition of what constitutes widespread, these data provide evidence that these reported abuses occurred on a large scale with numerous victims. Coupled with qualitative information that our team of investigators gathered, this quantitative data reveal patterns of abuse that constitute systematic targeting and executing of human rights violations against an ethnic and religious minority. While our data imply knowledge that would satisfy the third element of the definition of a crime against humanity, further evidence is needed to establish individual culpability. This evidence would likely stem from a U.N. Commission of Inquiry or another thorough investigation..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
        Format/size: pdf (1.5MB - OBL version; (2.63MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/documents/reports/Burma-full-rpt-Chin-state.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2011


        Title: Impunity or Reconciliation in Burma’s Transition
        Date of publication: December 2010
        Description/subject: Conclusion: "The election process and results demonstrate that Burma’s leadership is committed to maintaining both a formal role for the military in government, with no real checks on its power, as well as a murkier influence through its proxy party, the USDP. This election scenario was predictable. Less so was the reaction that large ceasefire groups had when pressured to transform into border guards. Ceasefire agreements are already breaking down, and the drums of war beat louder. In the often heated debate about the election process, several of the nonestablishment actors encouraged participation in the process as the only pragmatic, albeit severly flawed, path toward democratic transition. Before Aung San Suu Kyi’s release, no viable alternative to this military-dominated road map seemed to be available, and disengaging from the process equated to not doing anything. The possibility of utilizing domestic measures to combat impunity is miniscule, even though substantial, credible evidence shows that war crimes and crimes against humanity have occurred. ictj briefing Impunity or Reconciliation in Burma’s Transition 7 Her release has breathed new life into the many low-profile efforts to develop alternatives to the terms of the military’s tightly controlled transition. Tripartite dialogue may suddenly be back on the table. In one recent interview, the NLD leader stated, “It’s no use saying that you can choose freely between a rock and a hard place. We want meaningful choice.”8 Aung San Suu Kyi is not the only legitimate voice providing a vision for change. But because of her support from the Burmese people and her high profile internationally, she is the only one who seems capable of offering an alternative to the military’s road map. She has captured the imagination of the Burmese and the international community. Because of her legitimacy, her release provides the opportunity to imagine an alternative to the strict terms of transition that the military has insisted on since 1988."
        Author/creator: Patrick Pierce
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)
        Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL; 2MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ictj.org/static/Publications/ICTJ_MMR_transition_pb2010.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


        Title: THE SPDC’S CRIMES CONTINUE: A UN COMMISSION OF INQUIRY IS STILL NEEDED TO PROTECT BURMA’S PEOPLE
        Date of publication: 28 September 2010
        Description/subject: • In March, the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Burma Tomás Ojea Quintana said that the “gross and systematic” human rights abuses in Burma “were the result of state policy” and recommended that the UN consider establishing a Commission of Inquiry. • Following Ojea Quintana’s recommendation, Australia, the UK, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, the US, Canada, New Zealand, France, the Netherlands, and Ireland endorsed the establishment of a UN Commission of Inquiry on crimes against humanity and war crimes in Burma. EU and Indonesian MPs also have endorsed the creation of a Commission of Inquiry as well. • Since the publication of the SPDC election laws in March, the regime continued to perpetrate crimes against humanity and war crimes with total impunity. These grave human rights violations underscore the urgent need for a Commission of Inquiry. • A Commission of Inquiry, in addition to opening a door for victims’ rights to truth and justice, also has a preventive value to discourage more crimes from being perpetrated. • In the six-month period between March and August 2010, the following SPDC war crimes/crimes against humanity were documented: **At least 15 extrajudicial killings. **Systematic use of forced labor in ethnic areas. ** Six hundred people were forcibly displaced in military attacks that targeted civilians. ** At least 14 people subjected to arbitrary imprisonment. ** At least eight cases of rape and sexual violence. ** Systematic persecution of Rohingya communities. ** At least two children were recruited as child soldiers, and another child was killed for resisting. • Ongoing military tensions with armed groups, including anger over disenfranchisement of some ethnic groups over the election, has increased the likelihood of escalated armed conflict and related serious crimes after the 7 November polls.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: pdf (96K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 September 2010


        Title: Bringing Out the Stick
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: Having failed to induce change in Burma by dangling the carrot of reduced sanctions, the US is now calling for a war crimes investigation of the country’s military rulers... "Diplomatic eyebrows were raised in March when UN Special Rapporteur Tomás Ojea Quintana issued a report recommending that the UN form an international Commission of Inquiry (CoI) to investigate alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Burma. But other than the UK, Australia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, no country rushed to support the proposal. The silence of the US was particularly deafening, but in August the Obama administration officially threw its support behind a CoI..."
        Author/creator: Simon Roughneen
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


        Title: Than Shwe in the Hot Seat
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: Burma’s despised despot is on track to face some earthly justice, if the divine variety doesn’t catch up with him first... "Most Burmese regard themselves as fairly devout, regardless of what religion they practice. To some, this might seem like a case of seeking false consolation in the otherworldly. But to my mind, it makes perfectly good sense that Burmese people would want to cling to a belief in some sort of higher order. How else would you keep your sanity in a society so totally devoid of justice? If there is one thought that is likely to put a smile on the face of most Burmese, it is of Than Shwe, their self-appointed master, finally facing the music the moment he shuffles off his mortal coil. Burmese are not vindictive by nature, but they can’t countenance the thought of crimes going unpunished. Justice must be done—if not in the here and now, then in the hereafter. But as a wise man once said, justice must also be seen to be done—and in this respect, religion falls short of satisfying a basic human and social need. That is why news that the Obama administration has decided to back a UN Commission of Inquiry (CoI) into crimes against humanity in Burma has been greeted as a major breakthrough. After decades of living under the rule of ruthless thugs, Burmese now have reason to believe that this long, dark era could one day end in a reckoning for Than Shwe and his enablers..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: The Long Road to The Hague
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: James Ross is the legal and policy director at Human Rights Watch, where he has worked since 2001. In 1991 he wrote the report “Summary Injustice: Military Tribunals in Burma” for the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. He spoke with The Irrawaddy about calls for the formation of a United Nations Commission of Inquiry into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Burma, which has been supported by the US, the UK, Australia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia
        Author/creator: James Ross (interview)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


        Title: Crimes against Humanity in Western Burma: The Situation of the Rohingyas
        Date of publication: 16 June 2010
        Description/subject: "In August 2008 the Irish Centre for Human Rights received funding from Irish Aid to launch a project on the human rights situation of the Rohingyas/Muslims of Rakhine State in Western Burma/Myanmar. As part of the project a research unit was established at the Irish Centre for Human Rights to carry an open source research and take part in a fact-finding mission and the drafting of a report under the supervision of Prof. William Schabas. In 2009, Nancie Prudhomme (project manager and researcher) and Joseph Powderly (project researcher) undertook a 4-week fact-finding mission to gather more detailed, first-hand and new information about the situation of the Rohingyas in Western Burma. As part of their mission Nancie and Joseph visited Burma and Thailand. In Thailand, they had meetings on the situation of the Rohingya "boat people" pushed back to sea at the beginning of 2009 and on the status of the Rohingya issue within Asia generally and more specifically at the ASEAN level. As part of the fact-finding mission the researchers also spent two weeks in Bangladesh visiting refugee camps and interviewing Rohingya refugees and human rights and humanitarian workers. The researchers were joined in Bangladesh by Mr. John Ralston, Executive Director of the International Institution for Criminal Investigation and former Chief of Investigations at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and for the UN Independent Commission of Inquiry for Darfur. The team interviewed Rohingya victims in and around refugee camps in Bangladesh. The mission in Bangladesh provided detailed information on the causes for flight to Bangladesh and the current situation in Western Burma. The report of the Rohingya project was officially launched on June 16 th, 2010 by Micheál Martin, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, at Iveagh House"..... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The plight of the Rohingyas has become better known since the start of 2009, in particular because of world-wide media coverage of the case of the so-called “boat people”, consisting of hundreds of Rohingyas who attempted to reach Thailand by boat and were subsequently mistreated there. Despite this new interest in the Rohingya community, very little work has been done to examine the root causes behind their continuous suffering. The Rohingyas are a Muslim minority group residing in North Arakan State in Western Burma. It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 Rohingyas in Arakan State, and many hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees in other countries. There are disputes over the historical records, and whether the Rohingyas are an indigenous group or whether in fact they began entering Burma in the late 19th century. Even the very name ‘Rohingya’ has been disputed. Whatever position is taken on these questions, it is undeniable that the Rohingyas exist, and have done so for decades, as a significant minority group in North Arakan State. For many years, the Rohingyas have been enduring human rights abuses. These violations are on-going and in urgent need of attention and redress. Irish Aid provided funding for independent research to be conducted by the Irish Centre for Human Rights on the situation of the Rohingyas. The content and views expressed in the resulting Report by the Irish Centre for Human Rights are entirely those of the authors. This Report is based on a fact-finding mission to the region, including Burma, as well as on extensive open-source research, and confidential meetings with organisations working in the region. Much of the most important information came from the many interviews conducted with Rohingya individuals in and around refugee camps in Bangladesh, where they were able to speak more freely than they can in Burma itself about the violations they had endured and which had caused them to flee their homes. The Report examines the situation of the Rohingyas through the lens of crimes against humanity. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and international criminal law jurisprudence, especially that of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, are used to provide detailed and clear legal foundations for the examination. As becomes evident in the individual chapters, there is a strong prima facie case for determining that crimes against humanity are being committed against the Rohingyas of North Arakan State in Burma..."
        Author/creator: Nancie Prudhomme, Joseph Powderly, John Ralston...Supervised by Prof. William Schabas (
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Irish Centre for Human Rights
        Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ichr_rohingya_report_2010.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 June 2010


        Title: THE SPDC’S CRIMES CONTINUE IN 2010: A UNSC COMMISSION OF INQUIRY IS NEEDED TO PROTECT BURMA’S PEOPLE
        Date of publication: April 2010
        Description/subject: • Since the publication of our briefer “International crimes in Burma: the urgent need for a Commission of Inquiry,” in October 2009 the SPDC has continued to commit crimes against its own people. • In March, the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Burma Tomás Ojea Quintana said that the “gross and systematic” human rights abuses in Burma “were the result of state policy” and recommended that the UN consider establishing a Commission of Inquiry. • In the first three months of 2010, the SPDC continued to perpetrate crimes against humanity and war crimes with total impunity, highlighting the urgent need for a UN Security Council-mandated Commission of Inquiry into crimes against humanity and war crimes in Burma. • In the three-month period, the following SPDC war crimes/crimes against humanity were documented: *At least nine victims of extrajudicial killings. * At least four instances of forced labor. * An additional 4,100 people were forcibly displaced in military attacks that targeted civilians. * At least 11 people subjected to arbitrary imprisonment. * The continued use of torture. * At least one case of rape and sexual violence. * Systematic and widespread persecution of Muslim Rohingya communities. * At least two children were recruited as child soldiers.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: pdf (126K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


        Title: BURMA, An International Commission of Inquiry more urgent than ever
        Date of publication: 12 August 2009
        Description/subject: "In an advocacy note released today, FIDH, BLC and Altsean-Burma demonstrate that the widespread and systematic violations of international human rights and humanitarian law documented by numerous Burmese, regional and international NGOs and UN mechanisms over the past years amount to crimes against humanity and war crimes. FIDH, BLC and Altsean-Burma therefore call for the establishment of a Commission of Inquiry by the UN Security Council... Our objective in this briefing note is to present an overview of existing documentation on serious human rights violations perpetrated by Burma’s military regime, and demonstrate that international crimes have been – and are still being – perpetrated in Burma with total impunity. The violations and the relevant international crimes are analyzed and legally defined under the scope of Articles 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC). The documentation provided in this briefing note is not intended to be exhaustive. It is, however, sufficient to show that there is clear ground for further investigation. Based on existing findings, FIDH, ALTSEAN-Burma, and BLC are calling for the establishment of an international Commission of Inquiry mandated by the United Nations Security Council to investigate: allegations of crimes against humanity; war crimes committed against ethnic nationalities in Eastern Burma; and other widespread and systematic human rights violations perpetrated in other regions of Burma that may constitute crimes against humanity..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: – FIDH / ALTSEAN-Burma / BLC
        Format/size: pdf (3.62MB - original; 2.7MB - reduced)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/FIDH-BLC-Altsean-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2009


        Title: Crimes in Burma
        Date of publication: 21 May 2009
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma has been facing a grave human rights situation for years. Many of the organs of the United Nations have repeatedly denounced the ruling military regime for failing to cooperate with the international community and to take serious steps to end the ongoing grave violations of international law. In light of the seriousness of allegations concerning the destruction or displacement of more than 3,000 villages (more than the number relocated in Darfur), this report set out to review UN documentation of reports of human rights and humanitarian law violations in Burma. Specifically, the report sought to evaluate the extent to which UN institutions have knowledge of reported abuses occurring in the country that may constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity in the country. The report finds that UN bodies have indeed consistently acknowledged abuses and used legal terms associated with these international crimes, including for example that violations have been widespread, systematic, or part of a state policy. This finding necessitates more concerted UN action. In particular, despite the recognition of the existence of these violations by many UN organs, to date, the Security Council has failed to act to ensure accountability and justice. In light of more than fifteen years of condemnation from UN bodies for human rights abuses in Burma, the Security Council should institute a Commission of Inquiry to investigate grave crimes that have been committed in the country. This report evaluates Burma’s breaches in light of the Rome Statute, which provides one of the available sets of international criminal standards. Part I of the report provides a brief history of Burma. Part II summarizes the applicable international criminal law under the Rome Statute. Part III traces the discussion in UN documents of grave human rights and humanitarian violations identified as occurring in eastern Burma since 2002. In this geographic sampling, the report details forced displacement, sexual violence, extrajudicial killings, and torture, especially against ethnic nationalities though the UN documents chronicle many other severe violations as well. The recent temporal focus was chosen because it is most relevant to the Rome Statute. Part IV identifies precedents for further UN action from its response to other humanitarian crises in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Darfur. Part V presents the report’s conclusions. Findings: Findings In light of the repeated and consistent reports of widespread human rights violations in Burma outlined in UN documents, there is a prima facie case of international criminal law violations occurring that demands UN Security Council action to establish a Commission of Inquiry to investigate these grave breaches further..."
        Author/creator: Judge Richard Goldstone (South Africa), Judge Patricia Wald (United States), Judge Pedro Nikken (Venezuela), Judge Ganzorig Gombosuren (Mongolia) and Sir Geoffrey Nice (United Kingom).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Human Rights Clinic @ Harvard Law School
        Format/size: pdf (636K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 May 2009


        Title: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT BURMA AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
        Date of publication: March 2009
        Description/subject: "The backdrop of a Security Council referral under Chapter VII to the ICC are the ongoing systematic crimes against the people of Burma, including but not limited to extrajudicial killings, rape and other forms of sexual violence persistently carried out by members of the military regime. These crimes have been documented in all 31 United Nations Resolutions on Burma and in the reports of all 8 United Nations Envoys, which called upon the regime to end impunity. Yet, the military regime has ignored United Nations recommendations most of which include a call for an independent investigation of crimes such as the Depayin massacre, the monks killed in October 2007, the rapes by the military of ethnic women and have called for an end to the arbitrary jailing of Aung San Sui Kyi. Further, because the people of Burma have no access to a suitable judicial system, the ICC is the only avenue for bringing offenders to justice. In Burma there is no separation of powers between the executive and judicial branches of government. In fact, the junta uses the judiciary as one of its key weapons to commit crimes. For example, in November 2008, certain judges acting under the orders of Chief Justice U Aung Toe and Senior General Than Shwe convicted 280 political activists and issued sentences ranging from 4 to 104 years in prison.i The judges did not allow defendants to question prosecution witnesses, many defendants did not have legal representation and those that did were not permitted to meet with their lawyers in private. United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Burma, Tomás Ojea Quintana said in reference to these convictions that, “There is no independent and impartial judiciary system [in Burma].”ii The ICC was created to intervene in situations when the countries themselves are unable or unwilling to investigate or prosecute. Under the current conditions in Burma, one would be hard pressed to argue that the judiciary is at all capable of prosecuting those responsible for the atrocities perpetrated by the regime..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Lawyers' Council, Global Justice Center
        Format/size: pdf (99K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


        Title: After the Storm: Voices from the Delta
        Date of publication: 27 February 2009
        Description/subject: An independent, community-based assessment of health and human rights in the Cyclone Nargis response...DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: "To date, this report is the only community-based independent assessment of the Nargis response conducted by relief workers operating free of SPDC control. Using participatory methods and operating without the knowledge or consent of the Burmese junta or its affiliated institutions, this report brings forward the voices of those working “on the ground” and of survivors in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas of Burma. The data reveal systematic obstruction of relief aid, willful acts of theft and sale of relief supplies, forced relocation, and the use of forced labor for reconstruction projects, including forced child labor. The slow distribution of aid, the push to hold the referendum vote, and the early refusal to accept foreign assistance are evidence of the junta’s primary concerns for regime survival and political control over the well-being of the Burmese people. These EAT findings are evidence of multiple human rights violations and the abrogation of international humanitarian relief norms and international legal frameworks for disaster relief. They may constitute crimes against humanity, violating in particular article 7(1)(k) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and a referral for investigation by the International Criminal Court should be made by the United Nations Security Council".
        Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Mahn Mahn, Cynthia Maung, Brock Daniels, Noriyuki Murakami, Andrea Wirtz, Chris Beyrer
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Emergency Assistance Team (EAT BURMA), Center for Public Health and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
        Format/size: pdf (1.57MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2009.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/ASAZ-7PRKLM-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


        Title: Crimes against humanity in eastern Myanmar
        Date of publication: 05 June 2008
        Description/subject: "For two and a half years, a military offensive by the Myanmar army, known as the tatmadaw, has been waged against ethnic Karen civilians in Kayin (Karen) State and Bago (Pegu) Division, involving a widespread and systematic violation of international human rights and humanitarian law. These violations constitute crimes against humanity. Unlike previous counter-insurgency campaigns against the Karen National Union (KNU) and its armed wing (the Karen National Liberation Army, KNLA) for nearly 60 years, the current offensive has civilians as the primary targets. The current operation is the largest in a decade and is unique in that, unlike previous seasonal operations that have generally ended at the start of the yearly rains between May and October, this offensive has continued through two consecutive rainy seasons and shows no signs of stopping as a third season is underway. 2 An estimated 147,800 people are reported to have been, and remain, internally displaced in Kayin State and eastern Bago Division. Many of them have also been subjected to other widespread and systematic violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, including unlawful killings; torture and other illtreatment; enforced disappearances and arbitrary arrests; the imposition of forced labour, including portering; the destruction of homes and whole villages; and the destruction or confiscation of crops and food-stocks and other forms of collective punishment. Civilian Karen villagers told Amnesty International of living in fear for their lives, dignity, and property, after having been subjected to or witnessed torture, extrajudicial executions, forced labour and destruction of homes. Such violations were described as directed at civilians, simply on account of their Karen ethnicity or location in Karen majority areas, or retribution for activities by the KNLA. Amnesty International has documented how these violations of international human rights and humanitarian law have been preceded or accompanied by consistent threats and warnings by the tatmadaw that they would take place, and by statements by Myanmar government officials. The organization is thus concerned that the violations are the result of official State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, the Myanmar government) and tatmadaw policy. Moreover, the tatmadaw apparently enjoys impunity for violations committed against Karen civilians. The prevailing impunity for such crimes, with a lack of avenues for redress for victims, has contributed to Myanmar’s ongoing human rights crisis. Crimes against humanity are certain acts that, committed in times of war or peace, form part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population. According to Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, acts—including murder, enslavement, deportation or forcible transfer of population, imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law, torture, persecution, enforced disappearance, and other inhumane acts—may constitute crimes against humanity “when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack …” This definition reflects customary international law binding on all states, regardless of whether or not they are parties to the Statute..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/011/2008)
        Format/size: pdf (505K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


        Title: Threat to the Peace: A Call for the UN Security Council to Act in Burma
        Date of publication: 20 September 2005
        Description/subject: Report Commissioned By: The Honorable Vacláv Havel, Former President of the Czech Republic; Bishop Desmond M. Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (1984)... Prepared By: September 20, 2005...Table of Contents Foreword Map of Burma Table of Acronyms Executive Summary i I Background on the Situation in Burma 1 A Political History 1 1 Early History1 2 Independence 1 3 Military Coup1 4 8/8/88 2 5 Democratic Election3 6 Recent History 3 7 Current Situation7 B Economic Development8 1 Economic Mismanagement by the Burmese Government 8 2 Economic and Social Indicators 9 3 The Military’s Pervasive Role in the Economy 10 4 Health and Education11 5 Lack of Infrastructure 12 6 Foreign Investment and Trade 12 C Demographics of Population 13 1 Discrimination and Abuse against Ethnic Minority Groups 14 2 Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees 14 3 Ethnic Opposition Nationalities 15 4 Ceasefire Agreements 15 5 Renewed Ethnic Insurgency 15 II Burma’s Threat to Peace and Security in the Region and the Global Response 16 A Transnational Effects of the Conflict in Burma 16 1 Destruction of Villages 16 a Four Cuts Strategy and Modern Development Projects 17 b Human Rights Abuses Related to Forced Relocations 17 c Internal Displacement 18d External Displacement 20 2 Forced Labor21 3 Rape 22 4 Drugs 25 5 HIV/AIDS30 6 Child Soldiers32 B International Promotion of National Reconciliation in Burma 34 1 United Nations 34 2 ASEAN36 3 European Union 39 4 United States of America 40 5 International Support for UN Security Council Action 41 6 Response of the Government of Burma 42 III Burma and the UN Security Council 43 A Lessons from Past UN Security Council Interventions 43 1 Sierra Leone45 2 Afghanistan46 3 Haiti 47 4 Republic of Yemen 47 5 Rwanda 48 6 Liberia 49 7 Cambodia 50 B Application of UN Security Council Criteria to Situation in Burma 50 1 Overthrow of a Democratically-Elected Government 51 2 Conflict Between the Regime and Ethnic Groups 51 3 Widespread Internal Humanitarian / Human Rights Violations 52 4 Substantial Outflow of Refugees 55 5 Other Cross Border Problems 56 C Time for UN Security Council Action 57 Recommendations 59 Appendix: Background, Duties, and Operations of UN Security Council 60.
        Author/creator: Vacláv Havel, Desmond Tutu
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary US LLP
        Format/size: pdf (535K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmacampaign.org.uk/reports/Burmaunscreport.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 September 2005


        Title: Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: AN INVESTIGATION AND LEGAL ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INFLICTED IN BURMA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED, EASTERN PEOPLES..."For over a decade, the United Nations and Human Rights organisations have documented systematic and widespread human rights violations inflicted on the people of Burma generally, and on the ethnic people in particular. Most reports, however, with the exception of some references to Article Three of The Geneva Conventions, have refrained from conceptualizing the violations in terms of International Humanitarian Law. This report addresses that gap and, in the aftermath of the State organised ambush of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's convoy on May 30, 2003; the ongoing, widespread, systematic destruction of substantial parts of the eastern ethnic peoples; and the failure to end impunity, recommends a period of consultation, education and consensus building to explore the practicality, political appropriateness, and morality of applying and enforcing relevant International Humanitarian Law. This report analyses the human rights violations, identified by, amongst others, UN Special Rapporteurs for human rights and Amnesty International, and expressed in UN General Assembly Resolutions, that have been inflicted on the people of Burma for decades..." NOTE ON FORMAT: There is a glitch in the CD the online version is based on, with lines from the next page creeping onto the current page. This will be fixed eventually. There is also a plan to break the text up into managable chunks.
        Author/creator: Guy Horton
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Guy Horton, Images Asia
        Format/size: pdf (4.7MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2006


        Title: Unspeakable Crimes
        Date of publication: September 2003
        Description/subject: "Burma’s rulers need to be brought to account before they commit more political crimes and human rights abuses..." Two months after the May 30 ambush on political activists and leaders of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), the human rights group Amnesty International called on Burma’s military regime to bring the culprits to justice and permit an independent and impartial investigation. Amnesty said, "The events of 30 May show all too clearly the need for accountability and an end to impunity in Myanmar [Burma]." Other human rights organizations and several foreign governments also called Burma to answer. Burma’s military regime, however, remains mute, ignoring pressure from abroad while claiming they arrested pro-democracy supporters, including NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi and Vice Chairman Tin Oo, for the sake of stability in the country..."
        Author/creator: Thar Nyunt Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


        Title: Preliminary Report of the Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre
        Date of publication: 04 July 2003
        Description/subject: "The National Council of the Union of Burma and the Burma Lawyers' Council have formed a commission on June 25, 2003 to jointly deal with the alleged assassination attempt against the leaders of the National League for Democracy, including Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, with the following programmes: The Title of the Commission - The commission will be entitled as the Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre (Burma). Aim - (1) To find out the truth on the Depayin Massacre; (2) To facilitate the struggle of people, based on legal affairs, both inside Burma and in the international community, in connection with the Depayin Massacre; Programme Objectives - (1) To exert efforts to lodge a complaint with the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the event that it has jurisdiction over the Depayin Massacre case; (2) To lodge a complaint or complaints with other courts in the international community including the International Criminal Tribunal to be possibly established by the United Nations Security Council if the first objective is not possible; (3) To cooperate with the people inside Burma and the international community for the emergence of an official independent investigation commission in order to find out the truth on Depayin Massacre... Contents: ... Formation of Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacrr; Explanatory Statement of the Ad hoc Commission; Brief Background of Depayin Massacre; Depayin Massacre; Affidavits of the Eyewitnesses; SPDC’s Press Conference; Victims of Depayin Massacre (Pictures); Appendix I - Interview with Zaw Zaw Aung 50; Appendix II - Statement of Ko Aung Aung from Democratic Party for a New Society; Appendix III - The list of the vitims of Depayin Massacre.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 58 pages
        Date of entry/update: 17 July 2003


      • Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Burma/Myanmar

        Individual Documents

        Title: Defining Myanmar’s “Rohingya Problem”
        Date of publication: 23 July 2013
        Description/subject: "...The Rohingya problem has been referred to and described in different ways, and certainly it is more than a matter of nationality and discrimination, statelessness and displacement, and the Responsibility to Protect. Yet the initial two areas have assumed particular factual and legal significance over the past three decades, as persecution of the Rohingya within Myanmar and its effects regionally have continued unabated. The third area—not unrelated to the others—should assume equal importance and attention, but thus far it has not. All three issues are progressive in their application to the Rohingya: persecutory discrimination and statelessness includes and leads to forcible displacement, which combined constitute crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing and implicate the Responsibility to Protect. Primary responsibility rests with the Myanmar government to protect those whose right to a nationality the country has long denied, but its regional neighbors have legal and humanitarian obligations of their own vis-à-vis the Rohingya, as does the international community. The Rohingya problem begins at home—and could well end there with enough political will. Failing that, as has been the case since June 2012 if not decades, regional countries and the wider world should act to address the displacement and statelessness, and to stop the violence and violations."
        Author/creator: Benjamin Zawacki
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: American University Washington College of Law's Human Rights Brief,Volume 20 Issue 3, Spring 2013
        Format/size: pdf (516K-OBL version; 580K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Defining_Myanmar%27s_Rohingya_Problem-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 24 July 2013


        Title: Upholding the Responsibility to Protect in Burma/Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 August 2010
        Description/subject: Introduction: "The situation in Burma/Myanmar remains grave. With elections scheduled for 7 November 2010 international attention on the country has increased. Such attention, and any policy action taken, must focus not only on the goal of democratic transition, and concerns about the regimes nuclear collaboration with North Korea, but also on the plight of Burma’s ethnic minorities who continue to suffer atrocities at the hands of the government. These atrocities may rise to the level of crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing – crimes states committed themselves to protect populations from at the 2005 World Summit, as described in the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect policy brief dated 4 March 2010, “Applying the Responsibility to Protect to Burma/Myanmar.” International actors have a responsibility to protect Burma’s ethnic minorities from atrocities – atrocities that are often overshadowed by the attention focused on the pro-democracy movement. This brief assesses the current risk of atrocities and identifies measures that can be used to aid in preventing and halting these atrocities. The brief argues that pressure must be placed on the Burmese government to cease the commission of crimes and avoid the resort to violence against groups with which it currently has ceasefires..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
        Format/size: pdf (85K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


        Title: Applying the Responsibility to Protect to Burma/Myanmar
        Date of publication: March 2010
        Description/subject: Introduction: "The Burmese junta, its armed forces known as the “Tatmadaw,” and other armed groups under government control are committing gross human rights violations against ethnic and religious minorities. Extrajudicial killings, torture, and forced labor are prevalent; rape and sexual abuse by the Tatmadaw are rampant; and from August 2008 through July 2009 alone, 75,000 civilians in the east, where armed conflict is ongoing, were forcibly displaced. The Tatmadaw shows a complete disregard for the principle of distinction, intentionally targeting civilians with impunity. Reports indicate that these violations, perpetrated primarily by state actors on a widespread and systematic basis, rise to the level of crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing and war crimes ‐ three of the four crimes states committed themselves to protect populations from in endorsing the responsibility to protect (R2P) at the 2005 World Summit. All Burmese citizens are subject to government oppression. However, the above crimes appear to be targeted primarily at five ethnic groups: the Karen, Shan and Karenni in eastern Burma, and the Rohingya and Chin in western Burma. While international actors have focused on the repression of the pro‐democracy movement by the military government, crimes perpetrated against ethnic minorities for years have received little international attention and show no signs of subsiding. This brief seeks to clarify how R2P applies to Burma and draw attention to the plight of minorities by assessing the following: whether acts perpetrated against them could constitute R2P crimes; the risk of future atrocities; and the resulting responsibility of the international community..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
        Format/size: pdf (195K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


        Title: Cyclone Nargis: Whose Responsibility to Protect?
        Date of publication: 12 June 2008
        Description/subject: "The June 12 panel--“Cyclone Nargis: Whose Responsibility to Protect?”--produced sharp disagreement not only about whether the Burmese regime’s dilatory response to the cyclone constituted a potential “R2P situation,” but also more broadly about the role of this new doctrine in the aftermath of natural disasters. While none of the panelists or audience members found much to praise in the junta’s humanitarian response, some sought to understand the “paranoia” that the country’s leaders bore to the outside world. They concluded that outsiders eager to help victims of the cyclone would have to either work around the barriers erected by the fearful and suspicious generals, or look for those in the regime more open to engagement with outsiders. The regime, one participant noted, was far less monolithic than it appeared from the outside. Others felt that the regime’s state of mind mattered far less than the effect of its behavior on its own beleaguered citizens. One participant catalogued the lethal diseases, including HIV and malaria, which had proliferated in Burma owing to a moribund public health system—at a time when the sale of natural resources was enriching members of the regime. The unnecessary death of perhaps 100,000 citizens made the regime criminal even before the cyclone struck, which meant that Burma had arguably been an R2P situation for years. This participant and others nevertheless did not view the regime’s neglect of its citizens in the aftermath of the cyclone as meriting the application of the 2 responsibility to protect. Another participant, however, said that the very real possibility of mass death from neglect meant that the Security Council should have taken up the issue and noted that the council had even rebuffed a proposed briefing by UN humanitarian coordinator John Holmes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
        Format/size: pdf (22K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


    • Asian human rights standards and mechanisms

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: ASEAN Charter on Wikipedia
      Description/subject: * 1 The Charter * 2 Enactment * 3 Launch * 4 References * 5 External links
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: Terms of Reference of ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights
      Date of publication: 29 October 2009
      Description/subject: "Pursuant to Article 14 of the ASEAN Charter, the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) shall operate in accordance with the following Terms of Reference (TOR):..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
      Format/size: pdf (34K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


      Title: The Asean Charter: A Human Rights Whitewash?
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "The new Asean charter will do little to improve the regional grouping’s human rights reputation as long as Burma continues to dictate the agenda..."
      Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


      Title: ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY (APSC) BLUEPRINT
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Several refernces to human rights, e.g."...ASEAN’s cooperation in political development aims to strengthen democracy, enhance good governance and the rule of law, and to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, with due regard to the rights and responsibilities of the Member States of ASEAN, so as to ultimately create a Rules-based Community of shared values and norms. In the shaping and sharing of norms, ASEAN aims to achieve a standard of common adherence to norms of good conduct among 2 ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY BLUEPRINT i. ii. iii. i. member states of the ASEAN Community; consolidating and strengthening ASEAN’s solidarity, cohesiveness and harmony; and contributing to the building of a peaceful, democratic, tolerant, participatory and transparent community in Southeast Asia..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
      Format/size: pdf (198K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


      Title: ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Blueprint
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Several references to human rights..."...The ASCC is characterised by a culture of regional resilience, adherence to agreed principles, spirit of cooperation, collective responsibility, to promote human and social development, respect for fundamental freedoms, gender equality, the promotion and protection of human rights and the promotion of social justice..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
      Format/size: pdf (272K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


      Title: The ASEAN Charter
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: This document, ratified by all ASEAN members, has language on respect for human rights standards and a future ASEAN human rights body. It entered into force in December 2008
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN Secretariat
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.aseansec.org/21069.pdf
      http://www.aseansec.org/21861.htm
      http://www.aseansec.org/AC.htm
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Asian Human Rights Charter
      Date of publication: 17 May 1998
      Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights People's Charter, Our Common Humanity, launched by NGOs in Kwangju, South Korea on 17 May reflects the growing strength and determination of the human rights movement in the Asia-Pacific region and the contribution it can make to the international debate on human rights. This initiative is especially appropriate during the 50th anniversary year of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The People's Charter affirms the universality of all human rights -- a principle often attacked by governments in the region, both rhetorically and in law and practice. Drawing upon a broad spectrum of civil society across the region, it shows that human rights, far from being an alien or foreign concept, are the legitimate aspiration and demand of people throughout Asia and the Pacific. It shows how these universal principles can be articulated powerfully from an Asian cultural, religious and philosophical perspective. The People's Charter is also an important expression of the indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights, a reminder that the process of development is about the realisation of all human rights and that one set of rights -- economic, social, cultural, civil or political -- cannot be enjoyed at the expense or in the absence of another. This message is particularly relevant at this time of economic crisis in the region, as some countries face the human rights and social fallout of decades of political repression and unsustainable economic development. Amnesty International welcomes the Charter's emphasis on legal and institutional protection of human rights, starting with the ratification of international human rights instruments and their full implementation in law and practice. It recognises the critical role the judiciary, legal profession and national human rights institutions can play in the protection and promotion of human rights. Amnesty International believes, however, that some aspects of the Charter need to be strengthened -- in particular, it should include an unreserved call for abolition of the death penalty. The People's Charter calls for the adoption by governments of a regional convention on human rights. While such a regional convention might be a positive development over the longer term, Amnesty International believes the overwhelming and immediate priority is broader ratification and implementation of existing international standards by governments in the Asia-Pacific region. Widespread adherence to international standards, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, should serve as the foundation stone for any future regional human rights mechanism." - Amnesty International
      Language: English, Chinese, Korean
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://material.ahrchk.net/charter/mainfile.php/eng_charter/ (English)
      http://material.ahrchk.net/charter/chinese /content_chinese.html (Chinese)
      http://material.ahrchk.net/charter/korean/index.html (Korean)
      Date of entry/update: 13 February 2009


    • Burma-related legislation and human rights issues in Thailand

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Human Rights Committee
      Description/subject: This page provides information on the procedures of the Human Rights Committee, the treaty body which administers the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It also has a link to the text of the Covenant.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


      Title: Search results for "Thailand" on the Amnesty International site
      Description/subject: Many of the victims of human rights violations in Thailand are refugees and migrants from Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2003


      Title: Thai legislation
      Description/subject: Various Thai laws and links to other sources
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Law Library of Congress
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2005


      Title: Thailand's core document
      Description/subject: This document forms part of the reports of Thailand to UN treaty bodies.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


      Individual Documents

      Title: FEELING SMALL IN ANOTHER PERSON’S COUNTRY - The situation of Burmese migrant children in Mae Sot Thailand
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "...There are an estimated 200,000 Burmese children living in Thailand, many of whom are working, with 20% of the migrant workforce thought to consist of children aged 15 to 17 years of age. It was seen to be a standard practice for parents to send children out to work, especially once they have reached the age of 13 years and seen to be physically capable of bringing in extra income for the family. Children may voluntarily leave or be taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factory or fields, as domestics or as service workers in shops and restaurants. Researchers have found that children working in Mae Sot factories and the agricultural area are subject to the worst forms of child labour, working long hours and being exposed to hazardous chemicals and conditions that are in direct violation of Thai labour law. The difficulty of obtaining registration and the work permit makes for a tenuous existence. Consequently, young people can be coerced or forced into bad employment situations... As parent’s lives are consumed by the need to work and make money, children can be denied the love, care and guidance essential to their healthy growth and development and may be separated from or even abandoned by parents. Some parents abuse and exploit their children by telling them not to come back home if they cannot earn a fixed amount per day. Consequently these children go out on the streets looking for daily work to survive; this can include begging, collecting recyclable rubbish and carrying heavy loads. This pressure is seen to change the moral character of children with some turning to stealing. Children who are unemployed, neglected, abandoned, or orphaned can end up permanently on the streets. Being out of school and on the streets increases the risk of being trafficked and recruitment by gangs, who physically threaten and may even kill children who try to escape... Statelessness is a real risk for children who are unable to receive identity registration in Burma and for those born in Thailand of migrants, especially unregistered parents. Despite the ratification of conventions, such as the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), and the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that stipulate birth registration of all children born in Thailand, in reality only registered migrants who hold a work permit can register their child’s birth. A change in the Civil Registration Act, effective from the 23rd August 2008, will allow all children born on Thai soil, regardless of their status, to register their births and obtain a birth certificate; however it remains to be seen how this will be implemented. In the meantime the Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma) (CPPCR), a Burmese CBO established in 2002, provides a registration service for children from Burma that in some cases, has been recognized by some Thai schools and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2009


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand 2006. Examination of Thailand's 2nd report: Summary Record (1)
      Date of publication: 30 January 2006
      Description/subject: COMITÉ DES DROITS DE L’ENFANT Quarante et unième session COMPTE RENDU ANALYTIQUE DE LA 1113e SÉANCE... Deuxième rapport périodique de la Thaïlande... FRENCH ONLY.
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/SR.1113)
      Format/size: pdf (121K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 February 2006


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand 2006. Examination of Thailand's 2nd report: Summary Record (2)
      Date of publication: 30 January 2006
      Description/subject: COMITÉ DES DROITS DE L’ENFANT Quarante et unième session COMPTE RENDU ANALYTIQUE DE LA 1115e SÉANCE... Deuxième rapport périodique de la Thaïlande... FRENCH ONLY.
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/SR.1115)
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 February 2006


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand 2006 -- Concluding Observations
      Date of publication: 27 January 2006
      Description/subject: These concluding observations contain a number of comments and recommendations on refugee and other migrant children in Thailand, including the question of birth registration, the situation of domestic migrant workers etc.
      Language: English, French, Spanish
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (96K - English; 176K - Spanish; 186K - French)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/%28Symbol%29/CRC.C.THA.CO.2.En?Opendocument
      http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/898586b1dc7b4043c1256a450044f331/88a0d5457061da2fc125715e0048d5f9/$FILE/G0640937.pdf (French)
      http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/898586b1dc7b4043c1256a450044f331/1fb69816b0194a92c125715e0048d66d/$FILE/G0640939.pdf (Spanish)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand 2006: list of Thai delegation and statement
      Date of publication: 04 January 2006
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 January 2006


      Title: The Mekong Challence - Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: "Migrant children in Mae Sot are faced with excessive working hours, lack of time off, and unhealthy proximity to dangerous machines and chemicals. They also endure the practice of debt bondage and the systematic seizure of their identification documents. Indeed many of these children in Mae Sot can most accurately be described as enduring the "worst forms of child labour, prohibited by the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 182 - a Convention that the Royal Thai Government ratified in February, 2001. These child workers reported that they were virtually forced to remain at the factory due to restrictions placed on their movements by factory owners, and by threats of arrest and harassment by police and other officials if they were stopped outside the factory gates. Put succinctly, Mae Sot has perfected a system where children are literally working day and night, week after week, for wages that are far below the legal minimum wage, to the point of absolute exhaustion..."
      Author/creator: Philip S. Robertson Jr., Editor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
      Format/size: pdf (4.45MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnight-english.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 April 2007


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child: Thailand 2006: Written replies to the list of issues from Thailand
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: WRITTEN REPLIES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THAILAND CONCERNING THE LIST OF ISSUES (CRC/C/THA/Q/2) RECEIVED BY THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD RELATING TO THE CONSIDERATION OF THE SECOND PERIODIC REPORT OF THAILAND (CRC/C/83/Add.15)*
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 January 2006


      Title: Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Thailand (2005)
      Date of publication: 28 July 2005
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CCPR/CO/84/THA)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2005


      Title: Human Rights Committee: List of Issues - Thailand 2005
      Date of publication: 13 April 2005
      Description/subject: The list of issues the Committee sent to the Thai Government. The response to these questions will be the starting point for the July examionation of Thailand's report to the HRC.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CCPR/C/84/L/THA.)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 May 2005


      Title: Selected documents on low levels of birth registration for certain groups in Thailand -- Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child regarding Articles 7 and 22 of the CRC.
      Date of publication: April 2005
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: A. Background: Birth registration and the Hill Tribes, Burmese migrants and trafficking... 1) Vulnerability of children lacking birth registration in Thailand; 2) Birth registration of hill tribe communities in Thailand ; 3) Extracts on Thailand from "Lives on Hold: The Human Cost of Statelessness”; 4) Extracts from “No Status: Migration, Trafficking & Exploitation of Women in Thailand”; 5) Extracts from an NGO document on Burmese migrants; 6) An article from the Bangkok Post on birth registration; 7) UN and NGO letter on birth registration and trafficking to the Minister of Foreign Affairs... Thai Government Proposals: 1) Stateless People: Govt. to revamp processing of nationality applications; 2) Registering babies is just a start in life... B. Analysis: Birth Registration of Migrant Children Born in Thailand... C. Suggestions for the List of Issues... Annexes: A) Relevant Thai legislation (links to selected texts): 1) Thailand’s Nationality Act; 2) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand; 3) Immigration Act of 1979; 4) Links to other Thai legislation... B) Thailand’s initial report to the Human Rights Committee - The section on Article 24 (paras 612-623)... C) The Committee on the Rights of the Child: its concerns about birth registration in Thailand: 1) Thailand’s reservation on Article 7; 2) The CRC on the reservation; 3) Discussion of the reservation in Thailand’s 2nd report to the CRC.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Peace Foundation
      Format/size: pdf (320K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 August 2006


      Title: Submission to the Human Rights Committee regarding Article 24 of the ICCPR - Selected documents on low levels of birth registration for certain groups in Thailand
      Date of publication: March 2005
      Description/subject: "This preliminary collection of documents is submitted to the Human Rights Committee in advance of its examination of Thailand’s initial report, to raise the issue of the groups in Thailand whose children, in violation of Article 24 of the Covenant, tend not to be registered at birth, and are thus exposed to statelessness and many forms of difficulties and abuse... CONTENTS: A. Background: Birth registration and the Hill Tribes, Burmese migrants and trafficking; 1) Vulnerability of children lacking birth registration in Thailand; 2) Birth registration of hill tribe communities in Thailand ; 3) Extracts on Thailand from "Lives on Hold: The Human Cost of Statelessness”; 4) Extracts from “No Status: Migration, Trafficking & Exploitation of Women in Thailand”; 5) Extracts from an NGO document on Burmese migrants; 6) An article from the Bangkok Post on birth registration; 7) UN and NGO letter on birth registration and trafficking to the Minister of Foreign Affairs... Thai Government Proposals: 1) Stateless People: Govt. to revamp processing of nationality applications; 2) Registering babies is just a start in life... B. Analysis: Birth Registration of Migrant Children Born in Thailand... C. Suggested orientation of the question(s) for the List of Issues... Annexes: A) Relevant Thai legislation (links to selected texts); 1) Thailand’s Nationality Act; 2) The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand; 3) Immigration Act of 1979; 4) Links to other Thai legislation... B) Thailand’s initial report to the Human Rights Committee -- The section on Article 24 (paras 612-623)... C) The Committee on the Rights of the Child: its concerns about birth registration in Thailand; 1) Thailand’s reservation on Article 7; 2) The CRC on the reservation; 3) Discussion of the reservation in Thailand’s 2nd report to the CRC.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Peace Foundation
      Format/size: pdf (321K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 August 2006


      Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
      Date of publication: 14 July 2004
      Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
      Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
      Format/size: pdf (853K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


      Title: Thailand's initial report to the Human Rights Committee
      Date of publication: 24 June 2004
      Description/subject: "Thailand has prepared this report to implement Art.40 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966. It deals with the legislative, administrative and judicial process that serve to efficiently implement various provisions of the Covenant and shall be in accordance to the spirit of the Covenant. This report should be read together with the core document of Thailand which already narrates the general conditions of Thailand on geographical, economical, political, governmental aspects, including the legal system and judicial process in detail..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CCPR/C/THA/2004/1)
      Format/size: pdf (491K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


      Title: Thailand’s Second State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: 07 June 2004
      Description/subject: Thailand’s Second Report On The Implementation of the Convention On the Rights of the Child Submitted to The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child... by The Sub-committee on the Rights of the Child; The National Youth Commission; The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups; Ministry of Social Development and Human Security... Contents: Introduction; 1. General Measures of Implementation; 2. Definition of the Child; 3. General Principles; 4. Civil Rights and Freedoms; 5. Family Environment and Alternative Care; 6. Basic Health and Welfare; 7. Education, Leisure and Cultural Activities; 8. Special Protection Measures.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/83/Add.15)
      Format/size: pdf (923K), Word (884K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


      Title: Hitmen Target Burmese Rights Champion
      Date of publication: June 2004
      Description/subject: "Angry Thai factory owners are “out to kill me” says a Burmese labor leader in Thailand. Moe Swe must die! That’s the chilling message this outspoken champion of Burmese workers’ rights in Thailand says is being put about by angry Thai factory owners..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


      Title: Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on Thailand's 1st report
      Date of publication: 26 October 1998
      Language: English, French, Francais, Espanol, Spanish
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/15/Add.97)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.15.Add.97.Fr?Opendocument (Francais)
      http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.15.Add.97.Sp?Opendocument
      (Espanol)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


      Title: Examination of Thailand's 1st report to the CRC: Summary Records
      Date of publication: 02 October 1998
      Description/subject: These Summary records of the 3 meetings contain: 3 in Spanish, 2 in English, 1 in French. The main URL is the 1st meeting (English version). The date given is for the last meeting.
      Language: English, French, Francais, French, Espanol, Spanish
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.SR.494.En?Opendocument (English) http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.SR.493.Sp?Opendocument (Spanish) http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.SR.494.Sp?Opendocument (Spanish) http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.SR.495.Sp?Opendocument (Spanish) http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.SR.494.Fr?Opendocument (French)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


      Title: The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand
      Date of publication: 11 October 1997
      Description/subject: 1997, 2006 and 2007 versions
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Govt. of Thailand
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.isaanlawyers.com/constitution%20thailand%202007%20-%202550.pdf (2007 version)
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Thailand's 1st State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: 30 September 1996
      Description/subject: I. GENERAL MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION 1 - 75:- A. Report preparation and dissemination of the Convention 2 - 16; B. The promotion of child rights 17 - 34; C. Implementing the provisions of the Convention 35 - 75... II. DEFINITION OF A "CHILD" 76 - 122:- A. The meaning of the word "child" 76 - 81; B. Age and criminal responsibility 82 - 88; C. Counselling services 89 - 95; D. Age of compulsory education 96 - 99; E. Age of sexual consent 100 - 103; F. Age of marriage 104 - 106; G. Age of military conscription 107 - 108; H. Age and imprisonment 109 - 112; I. Age for admission to employment 113 - 119; J. Discrimination between boys and girls 120 - 122... III. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 123 - 142:- A. Non-discrimination 124 - 125; B. Best interests of the child 126 - 127; C. The rights to life, survival and development 128; D. Respect for children's viewpoints 129 - 142... IV. CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS 143 - 193:- A. Nationality and birth registration 143 - 150; B. Publication and distribution of children's literature 151 - 154; C. Protecting children from media violence 155 - 160; D. Child protection procedures 161 - 167; E. Investigation and interrogation procedures in child cruelty cases and its prevention 168 - 182; F. Corporal punishment 183 - 193... V. THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND RELATED FACTORS 194 - 311:- A. Children in impoverished families 196 - 204; B. Children born out of wedlock 205 - 216; C. Children of separated or divorced parents 217 - 229; D. Child neglect, child abandonment, child abuse and family violence 230 - 278; E. Children in other types of care 279 - 295; F. Children with disabilities 296 - 311... VI. BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES 312 - 341... VII. EDUCATION, LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES 342 - 372:- A. Education 342 - 354; B. Leisure time 355 - 365; C. Cultural activities 366 - 372... VIII. SPECIAL PROTECTION MEASURES 373 - 529:- A. Children in emergency situations 373 - 389; B. Children in conflict with the law 390 - 434; C. Children in situations of exploitation 435 - 514; D. Children of minority or ethnic groups 515 - 529... IX. CONCLUSION 530 - 532.
      Language: English, Francais, French
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/11/Add.13)
      Format/size: html (299K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.11.Add.13.Fr?Opendocument (Francais)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


      Title: Thailand's Nationality Act
      Date of publication: 1992
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: “Nationality & Statelessness” Vol. II, IBHI Humanitarian Series, 1996
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2005


      Title: Asian Human Rights Commission - Thailand - [Thai Site]
      Description/subject: This site has articles and reports in Thai and English about the human rights situation in Thailand. Many victims of these violations are refugees and migrants from Burma.
      Language: Thai, English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2003


    • Various rights: reports of violations in Burma
      Not a comprehensive list. For more, including updates, go to the publishers' home pages and search, go to the specific rights area in the Human Rights section of OBL and also use the OBL search function.

      • Various rights: reports of violations against several ethnic groups

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION
        Date of publication: 24 March 2008
        Description/subject: The protests: Students and opposition activists protested after the unannounced 15 August decision to increase fuel prices by 500%. On 5 September, SPDC security forces used force against monks to break up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokku, Magwe Division. The military refused to apologize by the monks' 17 September deadline, and monks began to lead daily non-violent protests. Civilians joined as the protests quickly gained momentum and grew in size. Between 18 and 28 September, thousands of monks joined and led demonstrations. Between 19 August and 31 October, hundreds of thousands of monks, nuns, and citizens participated in over 150 protests spread across nearly every State and Division in the country. See complete list of protests...... The crackdown: The crackdown began on 26 September and involved the use of deadly force, raids on monasteries, and the arrest of thousands of protesters. The regime arrested over 3,000 people, killed at least 31 during the crackdown, and sentenced to prison at least 33. SPDC authorities detained 18 elected MPs, several thousand monks, 274 NLD members, and 25 88 Generation Students members. At least 18 detainees died in custody due to poor conditions and harsh interrogations. The regime continued to hunt for protesters in the months following the peak of the protests. As of 25 January 2008, 700 people involved in the protest remained in custody with 80 unaccounted for...... The international response: The international community was quick to condemn the arrests of protesters in August, and criticism intensified as calls for a peaceful approach to September protests and genuine political dialogue went unheeded. ASEAN expressed "revulsion"strongly deplored" the violent repression of demonstrators. ..... Worldwide demonstrations: People in over 35 countries organized rallies, vigils, marches, petitions, and protests during and following the Saffron Revolution. Some expressed their support for and solidarity with the peaceful protesters. Many demonstrations focused on the policies of Burma's military regime, with calls for the release of political prisoners and an end to the violent crackdown of the protests. Demonstrators also urged the UN and governments worldwide to intervene. See complete list of worldwide solidarity actions...... Related reports: • Saffron Revolution: Recap; • Fuel price hikes inflame Burmese people; • Face off in Burma: Monks vs SPDC; • Saffron Revolution: Update; • Burma Bulletin - August 2007; • Burma Bulletin - September 2007; • Burma Bulletin - October 2007; • Burma Bulletin - November 2007; • Burma Bulletin - December 2007......The documents include also a photo gallery of the events, maps of the demonstrations and crackdowns, a 12MB! Flash presentation of the background and photos of the international solidarity protests around the world and an invitation to buy the T-shirt.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: html etc.
        Date of entry/update: 28 March 2008


        Title: Advanced Search results for Myanmar Reports on the AI site
        Description/subject: Advanced Search results for "Myanmar" Reports. (for Urgent Actions, Media etc. go to Library from the home page, use Advanced Search -- type in Myanmar, and check the item(s) you want. The site has reports on Myanmar from 7 November 1990 up to the present.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: AHRC Burmese-language blog (Burmese and English) အာရွ လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး ေကာ္မရွင္
        Description/subject: Useful articles, videos and links..."The AHRC Burmese-language blog is also updated constantly for Burmese-language readers, and covers the contents of urgent appeal cases, related news, and special analysis pieces..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: html/pdf
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


        Title: AHRC Burmese-language blog (Burmese)
        Description/subject: Very useful page... "The AHRC Burmese-language blog is also updated constantly for Burmese-language readers, and covers the contents of urgent appeal cases, related news, and special analysis pieces..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2011


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Search for Myanmar
        Description/subject: 304 documents (June 2011)
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Association of Humanitarian Lawyers: Archive of Documents
        Description/subject: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law...Several written and oral statements on Burma to U. S. and U.N. bodies. Focus on international humanitarian law (laws of war, armed conflict. Keywords: Karen, Karenni, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, International law, violations of human rights law, violations of humanitarian law, armed conflict, Laws of War, Self-Determaination, United States Policy.
        Author/creator: Karen Parker
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.guidetoaction.org/parker/index.html
        http://www.guidetoaction.org/
        http://www.humanlaw.org/
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)
        Description/subject: Various reports on Burma, notably the reports of CSW vists to the border areas.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://dynamic.csw.org.uk/country.asp?s=id&urn=Burma
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Derechos: Human Rights in Burma
        Description/subject: Last updated about 1998. Some docs in Spanish
        Source/publisher: Derechos
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Forum of Democratic Leaders of the Asia/Pacific
        Description/subject: Lots of good human rights, academic and other links. The Burma-specific links were dead, August 2001, but we can hope...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: FDLAP
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human rights in Burma
        Description/subject: Contents: 1 Forced labour... 2 Freedom of speech and political freedom: 2.1 Trade Unions; 2.2 Freedom of the press... 3 Freedom of religion... 4 State-sanctioned torture and rape... 5 Children's rights... 6 Cases... 7 Minorities... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 External links.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
        Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma)
        Description/subject: DOCUMENTATION: The range of human rights violations in Burma is extensive, and each ND-Burma member organization focuses on certain violations that are particularly relevant to their mission. To provide a framework for collaboration among members, ND-Burma has developed a “controlled vocabulary” of the categories of human rights violations on which the network focuses... DOCUMENTATION MANUAL SERIES: Based on ND-Burma's controlled category list ND-Burma has developed a documentation manual series to support its members to effectively document human rights violations. 1. Killings & Disappearance 2. Arbitrary Arrest & Detention 3. Recruitment & Use of Child Soldiers 4. Forced Relocation 5. Rape & Other Forms of Sexual Violence 6. Torture & Other Forms of Ill-Treatment 7. Forced Labor 8. Obstruction of Freedom of Movement 9. Violations of Property Rights 10. Forced Marriage 11. Forced Prostitution 12. Human Trafficking 13. Obstruction of Freedoms of Expression and Assembly 14. General Documentation... TRAINING: ND-Burma's Training Team organises and provides training to its members, affiliates and invited organisations. Human Rights Documentation training and Martus software training is held regularly. Other traning provided includes; * International Human Rights legal systems * Project Management * Finance * Film Shooting/Editing Workshop * Taxation systems * Interview techniques * Advocacy * Training of Trainers... HUMAN RIGHTS DATA MANAGEMENT: All members use the same software for documentation, called “Martus”, allowing for analysis and storage of encrypted incident reports, called “bulletins,” on a secure common server. ND-Burma provides training and suppport on using Martus to its members... ADVOCACY: ND-Burma promotes its work and those of other Burmese human rights organizations through its website. ND-Burma provides human rights information to relevant advocacy campaigns and through publishing reports analyzing its data. ND-Burma is currently working on a report about Arbitary Taxation and its impact on the livilihoods of people in Burma. ND-Burma collaborates with its members and other human rights organizations’ campaigns.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: ND-Burma
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


        Title: Search results(Google) for "Burma" on the Asian Human Rights Commission site
        Description/subject: 511 results, March 2004
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 12 March 2004


        Title: Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights, Myanmar
        Description/subject: Reports, resolutions, press releases etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/AsiaRegion/Pages/MMIndex.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: UN human rights documents on Burma (Myanmar), by year (from 1991)
        Description/subject: Resolutions of the General Assembly and Commission on Human Rights; reports by the Secretary-General and the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar; written statements by NGOs; reports with references to Myanmar by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Special Rapporteur on toxic wastes, Special Rapporteur on Torture, Report of the High Commissioner on human rights and mass exoduses, Report of the Secretary-General on the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, Report of the Secretary-General on the national practices related to the right to a fair trial.
        Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US Department of State: Burma page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US Department of State: Semi-Annual Reports to Congress on Conditions in Burma and US Policy Towards Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY: ESTABLISH CLEAR BENCHMARKS TO ADDRESS CONTINUING ABUSES IN MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 09 October 2013
        Description/subject: "Wartime Abuses in Kachin State, “Ethnic Cleansing” in Rakhine State, Tens of Thousands Denied Access to Aid ...The United Nations General Assembly should adopt a strong and comprehensive resolution on the situation of human rights in Myanmar to promote much-needed human rights reform in the country, Fortify Rights said today. When it considers a forthcoming resolution on Myanmar, the UN General Assembly should condemn the wide range of ongoing human rights violations by the government and armed forces of Myanmar and provide clear benchmarks for measurable improvement, including establishing the presence of the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Myanmar. “Positive political changes have come to Myanmar but the human rights situation is deeply concerning,” said Matthew Smith, executive director of Fortify Rights. “The pending resolution should acknowledge Myanmar’s political progress but shouldn’t gloss over the immense amount of work that remains to be done.”..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


        Title: Myanmar: The slow road to democracy
        Date of publication: 22 June 2012
        Description/subject: While Aung San Suu Kyi's freedom marks a step towards normality, the fallout from ethnic conflict remains
        Author/creator: Donna Jean Guest
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 June 2012


        Title: New rights, old wrongs in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 May 2012
        Description/subject: "Amid myriad changes taking place in Myanmar, Amnesty International concluded its first official visit to the country in nearly a decade on May 23. Our two-week mission consisted of a diverse collection of 49 meetings with government officials, political parties and their members of parliament; members of the diplomatic community; lawyers and other civil society actors; ethnic minority activists; former political prisoners as well as the families of current political prisoners; and a representative of the National Human Rights Commission. The mission provided a preliminary opportunity to assess Myanmar's current human-rights situation, which Amnesty International has monitored for the past 25 years. What has improved since the new government came into power a little more than a year ago? What human rights violations have persisted or even worsened? And what new human-rights challenges have the country's recent reform efforts engendered or brought to the fore?...Our delegation was sometimes reminded that "Rome wasn't built in a day". To the extent that the only thing less desirable than a lack of legal reform is legal reform poorly done, this reminder was well-received. The same is true to varying degrees on matters of accountability; the full realization of social, economic, and cultural rights; and the determination of who is a political prisoner and who is not. Capacity is limited and the development of certain "human-rights infrastructure" is advisable before particular changes are made. But insofar as prisoners of conscience can be readily identified and set free, and as attacks against civilians can stop in response to clear orders, it takes less than a day to undertake some important human-rights changes. Myanmar should continue to improve its human-rights record accordingly."
        Author/creator: Benjamin Zawacki and Donna Jean Guest
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Asia Times Online"
        Format/size: html; pdf (69K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Ben+Donna-report-2012-05-23.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


        Title: Revisiting human rights in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 May 2012
        Description/subject: "On 23 May 2012, Amnesty International concluded its first official visit to Myanmar since 2003. During two missions that year, we spent the vast majority of our time either being escorted to and from meetings with government officials, or privately interviewing 35 political prisoners in Insein, Bago, and Moulmein prisons, where we actually felt most free. For fear of putting civil society at risk, we did not request to speak with those actors, while outreach to ethnic minority representatives was similarly cautious. In contrast, our recent two-week mission to Yangon and Naypyidaw consisted of a very diverse collection of 49 meetings, the majority of which, though confidential, were held in public places. Unfortunately, time did not permit us to travel to an ethnic minority state. We appreciated the opportunity to speak with government officials; political parties and their Members of Parliament; members of the diplomatic community; lawyers and other civil society actors; ethnic minority activists; former political prisoners as well as the families of current political prisoners; and a representative of the National Human Rights Commission. Amidst a myriad of changes taking place in Myanmar, dating back to the late 2010 national elections, these meetings afforded Amnesty a preliminary opportunity to assess Myanmar’s current human rights situation. What has improved since the new government came into power a little more than a year ago? What human rights violations have persisted or even worsened? And what new human rights challenges have the country’s recent reform efforts engendered or brought to the fore? In addition to general impressions, we consider these questions under five broad and sometimes overlapping headings most relevant to Amnesty’s work on Myanmar over the last 25 years..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/003/2012)
        Format/size: pdf (115K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2012


        Title: Human Rights and Democracy: The 2011 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Report (Burma section)
        Date of publication: April 2012
        Description/subject: Extract on Burma/Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office
        Format/size: pdf (82K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


        Title: Report on the Human Rights Situation in Burma, March 2011-March 2012
        Date of publication: March 2012
        Description/subject: "The periodic report of the Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma) documents the human rights situation in Burma from March 2011 - March 2012 the period marking President Thein Sein and his government being in office. The ND-Burma periodic report provides up-to-date information on human rights violations (HRVs) and highlights pressing issues and trends within the country. The information gathered covers 16 categories of human rights violations (HRV's), documented in all 14 states and regions across Burma...There is still a serious concern for the human rights situation in Burma. The ongoing civil war in ethnic areas has directly resulted in killings, land confiscation, forced labour, child soldiers, forced relocation, torture and ill treatment. Fighting in Karen State intensified after the 2010 election, until a ceasefire agreement was reached between the KNU and the government's peace negotiation team in January 2012. The Burmese armed forces continue to launch offensives against the Shan State Army (south) and the Shan State Army (North) even though a ceasefire agreement was signed more than four months ago. Finally, a seventeen year ceasefire agreement between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Burmese armed forces fell apart when the military attacked a strategic KIA post on June 9 2011, despite President Thein Sein ordering the army to haft offensives in Kachin State..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma)
        Format/size: pdf (382K - OBL version; 1.6MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.nd-burma.org/reports/item/download/89.html
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/HRsituation2011-2012.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


        Title: The serious human rights situation in Myanmar requires the Human Rights Council’s continued attention
        Date of publication: 13 February 2012
        Description/subject: "Amnesty International’s written statement to the 19th session of the UN Human Rights Council (27 February – 23 March 2012) Over the past year, Myanmar’s human rights situation has improved notably in some respects but has significantly worsened in others. Freedoms of assembly and expression remain restricted; there still are hundreds of political prisoners and many prisoners of conscience. In several ethnic minority areas the army continues to commit violations of international human rights and humanitarian law against civilians, including acts that may constitute crimes against humanity or war crimes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: pdf (108K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/001/2012/en/8859ff1c-28c9-4143-ae91-3463e3ab86f8/asa160012012en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


        Title: Burma: From blinkered to market-oriented despotism?
        Date of publication: 10 December 2011
        Description/subject: "Since a new quasi-parliamentary government led by former army officers began work in Burma (Myanmar) earlier this year, some observers have argued that the government is showing a commitment to bring about, albeit cautiously, reforms that will result in an overall improvement in human rights conditions. The question remains, though, as to whether the new government constitutes the beginning of a real shift from the blinkered despotism of its predecessors to a new form of government, or simply to a type of semi-enlightened and market-oriented despotism, the sort of which has been more common in Asia than the type of outright military domination experienced by Burma for most of the last half-century. "
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: pdf (457K - OBL version; 516K - original )
        Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights.asia/resources/hrreport/2011/AHRC-SPR-004-2011.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 December 2011


        Title: Request for Inquiry: Service history of Myanmar Ambassador to South Africa
        Date of publication: 25 November 2011
        Description/subject: "This briefing document summarises research conducted by KHRG regarding the service history of Tatmadaw Brigadier General Myint Naung, and documented incidents of abuse reported to have been perpetrated by units Brigadier General Myint Naung may have commanded as Operation Commander of Tatmadaw Military Operation Command (MOC) #4. This information raises serious questions and concerns regarding the background of the current Myanmar Ambassador U Myint Naung. The South Africa government should therefore seek to obtain further information from the Myanmar government that can clarify the Ambassador's service record in the Tatmadaw, and follow up with inquiries regarding any specific incidents of serious abuse perpetrated by units under his command. Such steps are within South Africa's rights under international law governing diplomatic relations, and consistent with all states' duty under customary international humanitarian law to ensure respect for international humanitarian law erga omnes. KHRG believes that such an inquiry would contribute to raising opportunity costs for potential perpetrators of serious abuse in Burma as well as supporting domestic reforms, potentially precipitating positive changes in abusive Tatmadaw practices that could ultimately reduce the frequency with which certain abuses occur, while supporting the strategies used by local communities in Burma to claim their human rights on a day-to-day basis. This document was compiled by KHRG in response to queries by journalists and advocacy organisations in South Africa regarding the background of the Myanmar Ambassador."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: html, pdf (842K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1104.html
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


        Title: The State of Human Rights in Burma in 2010
        Date of publication: 09 December 2010
        Description/subject: BURMA: Government by confusion & the un-rule of law: "The first elections held in Burma for two decades on 7 November 2010 ended as most people thought they would, with the military party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party, taking a vast majority in the national parliament through rigged balloting. Almost a week later, after days of disgruntlement and debate about the outcome of the elections, the military regime released the leader of the National League for Democracy, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, from house arrest. Although Aung San Suu Kyi’s release was expected, since November 13 was the deadline on the period of imprisonment imposed through a fraudulent criminal case against her in 2009, it perplexed many foreign observers, who asked questions about why the military would acquiesce to her release at a time that it may provoke and create unnecessary problems during the planned transition from full-frontal army dictatorship to authoritarian clique in civilian garb. What most of these persons have not yet understood about the nature of the state in Burma is that government by confusion is an operating principle. For them, as military strategists and planners who think in terms of threats and enemies, the most effective strategies and plans are those where both outside observers and as many people in the domestic population as possible are left uncertain about what has happened and why, what may or may not happen next, and what it all means. This principle of government by confusion underpins the un-rule of law in Burma to which the Asian Human Rights Commission has pointed, described and analyzed through careful study of hundreds of cases and attendant information over the last few years. Whereas the rule of law depends upon a minimum degree of certainty by which citizens can organize their lives, the un-rule of law depends upon uncertainty. Whereas rule of law depends upon consistency in how state institutions and their personnel operate, the un-rule of law depends upon arbitrariness. Whereas rule of law is intimately connected to the protection of human rights, the un-rule of law is associated with the denial of rights, and with the absence of norms upon which rights can even by nominally established. In this annual report, the AHRC points more explicitly to the links between this operating principle and the un-rule of law..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC-SPR-002-2010)
        Format/size: pdf (307K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: Annual Report on Human Rights 2009
        Date of publication: March 2010
        Description/subject: "...The human rights situation in Burma continued its downward trend in 2009. Daily life in Burma continues to be characterised by the denial of almost all fundamental rights, and a pervasive military and security presence. Expressions of opposition to the regime often result in arrest and extended detention without trial. Despite international pressure, the regime made no attempt in 2009 to engage in substantive political dialogue with the democratic opposition and ethnic groups. Both were disenfranchised by the National Convention process and flawed referendum in May 2008 on the new Constitution, which is designed to ensure continued military control of the country. The key event in Burma in 2010 will be elections, based on the Constitution, that form the final step in the military authorities’ seven-step “Roadmap” towards “disciplined democracy”. Opposition and ethnic groups now have to decide whether to participate in a skewed electoral process, which offers them little prospect of any real power, or to stand aside. We expect further human rights abuses in 2010 as the regime maintains a tight grip on internal security in the months leading up to elections..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office
        Format/size: pdf (1MB - Burma section; 5.35MB - full report)
        Alternate URLs: http://centralcontent.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/pdf/human-rights-reports/human-rights-report-2009
        http://books.google.co.th/books?id=PTomVxWT74UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Annual+Report+on+Human+Rights+2009&source=bl&ots=GIjbBzdr4B&sig=ogq1Dws_4-z3wO5texVasQXxvaE&hl=en&ei=7wXmTMaqAo-SuwPGx4TDCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
        http://www.humansecuritygateway.com/showRecord.php?RecordId=32512
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


        Title: The repression of ethnic minority activists in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 February 2010
        Description/subject: "...Planning this year to hold its first national and local elections since 1990, the Myanmar government has prepared itself in many ways, including, as Amnesty International’s findings indicate, by repressing ethnic minority political opponents and activists. While these human rights violations certainly preceded the February 2008 announcement that elections would be held—as the late 2007 crackdown on the Saffron Revolution showed—the coming elections have given the government new resolve in repressing political dissent in all of Myanmar’s seven ethnic minority states and among its ethnic minority peoples. This repression has included arbitrary arrests and detention; torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment; unfair trials; rape; extrajudicial killings; forced labour; violations of freedom of expression, assembly, association, and religion; intimidation and harassment; and discrimination. This repression of political opponents and activists has also run completely contrary to the Myanmar government’s repeated claims since 2004, to be embarking and continuing on a ‘Roadmap to Democracy’ and increasing the level of political participation in the country. With almost no exception, authorities and officials have enjoyed impunity for their violations. The repression of political opponents and activists has resulted in the violation of ethnic minorities’ human rights, and the violation of international human rights and humanitarian law: Myanmar is bound by its legal obligations under the Conventions on the Rights of the Child and on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the 1949 Geneva Conventions; and customary international law. It is also obliged, as a member of the United Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), to uphold the provisions of both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the ASEAN Charter..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: pdf (758K), html (258K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/001/2010/en/183ebaaa-6f76-4d61-952b-8555034d56fd/asa160012010en.html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2010


        Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
        Date of publication: 23 December 2009
        Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
        Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 18: Ethnic Minority Rights
        Date of publication: 23 November 2009
        Description/subject: "...Under British Colonial rule, Burma was divided into two zones: the centrally located ‘Ministerial Burma’, which mostly consisted of the Buddhist Burman ethnic group, and the ‘Frontier Areas’, located in the mountainous regions situated along what are recognized today as Burma’s international borders. These Frontier Regions were where most of the ethnic minorities resided. While the British essentially destroyed the local government systems in Ministerial Burma and employed their own systems of administration and government, the area also received some development and investment. On the other hand, while the Frontier Areas retained their systems of governance and some autonomy, their natural resources were exploited by the British and they received little in regard to health, education, economic development, or political representation at the national level.1 Even though Burma has long been free of British rule, this system of exploitation and neglect continues to this day..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (872K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


        Title: U.S. Policy Toward Burma (video)
        Date of publication: 21 October 2009
        Description/subject: Witnesses Panel: The Honorable Kurt M. Campbell Assistant Secretary Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State... Mr. Tom Malinowski Advocacy Director Human Rights Watch... Chris Beyrer, M.D., MPH Professor of Epidemiology, International Health, and Health, Behavior, and Society Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health... Mr. Aung Din Executive Director U.S. Campaign for Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs
        Format/size: Webcast [Real Player] (2.5hours)
        Date of entry/update: 28 October 2009


        Title: U.S. Policy Toward Burma - Testimony of Chris Beyrer MD, MPH
        Date of publication: 21 October 2009
        Description/subject: Testimony of Chris Beyrer MD, MPH Professor of Epidemiology and International Health Director, Center for Public Health and Human Rights Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U. S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs
        Format/size: pdf (50K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.internationalrelations.house.gov/
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Animal Farm
        Date of publication: August 2009
        Description/subject: "...Below are some excerpts from my interviews with inmates at Rangoon zoo. A nervous elephant, the only tusker in the zoo willing to talk to me, shivered as he remembered an incident on September 27, 2007:..."
        Author/creator: Satya Sagar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=16449&page=1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2009 - Events of 2008: Burma section
        Date of publication: 14 January 2009
        Description/subject: Burma’s already dismal human rights record worsened following the devastation of cyclone Nargis in early May 2008. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) blocked international assistance while pushing through a constitutional referendum in which basic freedoms were denied. The ruling junta systematically denies citizens basic freedoms, including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. It regularly imprisons political activists and human rights defenders; in 2008 the number of political prisoners nearly doubled to more than 2,150. The Burmese military continues to violate the rights of civilians in ethnic conflict areas and extrajudicial killings, forced labor, land confiscation without due process and other violations continued in 2008....Cyclone Nargis...Constitutional Referendum...Human Rights Defenders...Child Soldiers...Continuing Violence against Ethnic Groups...Refugees and Migrant Workers...Key International Actors
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: THE STATE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN BURMA ‐ 2008 -- A DOUBLE‐DISASTER IN THE 2007 PROTESTS’ AFTERMATH
        Date of publication: 10 December 2008
        Description/subject: "Perhaps the two most significant features of the human rights landscape in Burma during 2008 were the morally bankrupt and blatantly repressive response of the country’s military regime to the Cyclone Nargis disaster in May, and the continued detaining, charging and sentencing of persons involved in last September’s nationwidut also domestic law...WORLD’S WORST RESPONSE TO A NATURAL DISASTER..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: pdf (675K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2008


        Title: Saffron Revolution Imprisoned, law demented
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: Contents: SPECIAL EDITION: SAFFRON REVOLUTION IMPRISONED, LAW DEMENTED... Foreword: Dual policy approach needed on Burma Basil Fernando... Introduction: Saffron Revolution imprisoned, law demented Editorial board, article 2... Ne Win, Maung Maung and how to drive a legal system crazy in two short decades, Burma desk, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong... Ten case studies in illegal arrest and imprisonment..... APPENDIX: Nargis: World’s worst response to a natural disaster, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Article 2 (Vol. 7, No. 3)
        Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
        Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


        Title: BULLETS IN THE ALMS BOWL - An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acronyms and Abbreviations... Maps... Map of Burma Showing Protest Locations... Map of Rangoon... I Executive Summary... II Government by Exploitation: The Burmese Way to Capitalism?... Macroeconomic Policy... Fiscal Policy... Monetary Policy... The Economic Cost of Militarization... The Straw that Broke the Camel’s Back... III Growing Discontent: The Economic Protests... Early Signs of Dissatisfaction... Protesting the Fuel Price Rise....... IV The Saffron Revolution... The SPDC and the Sangha... Interdependence of the Monastic and Lay Communities... Pakokku and the Call of Excommunication... Nationwide Protests Declared... V Crackdown on the Streets... Wednesday, 26 September 2007... Shwedagon Pagoda... Downtown Rangoon... Thakin Mya Park... Yankin Post Office... Thursday, 27 September 2007... South Okkalapa Township... Sule Pagoda... Pansodan Road Bridge... Thakin Mya Park... Tamwe Township State High School No3... Friday, 28 September 2007... Pansodan Road... Pazundaung Township... Latha Township ... Saturday, 29 September 2007, onwards... VI The Monastery Raids... Invitations to ‘Breakfast’ ... Maggin Monastery ... Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery ... Additional Raids in Okkalapa ... Thaketa Township... Raids in Other Locations around the Country...Arakan State Mandalay Division... Kachin State... Continued Raids... VII A Witch Hunt... Night Time Abductions... Arrested for Harbouring... Arrests in Lieu Of Others... Collective Punishment of Entire Neighbourhoods... Release of Detainees... Continuing Arrest and Detention of Political Activists... VIII Judicial Procedure and Conditions of Detention... Prolonged Detention without Charge... Judicial Procedure... Conditions of Detention... Interrogation and Torture of Detainees.... Denial of Medical Care... Deaths in Custody... Treatment of Monks... IX Analysis of the Crackdown: Intent to Brutalise, Cover Up and Discredit... Hired Thugs... Targeted and Intentional Killings... Removal of the Dead and Wounded... Treatment of the Injured... Secret Cremations... Suppression of Information... The Internet... Telephone Networks Severed... The National Press... Deliberate Targeting of Journalists... Providing Information to the Media... Defamation of the Sangha... The Pro-SPDC Rallies... X Conclusion... XI Recommendations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 13 March 2008


        Title: Arbitrary Confiscation of Farmers’ Land by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Military Regime in Burma
        Date of publication: February 2008
        Description/subject: Abstract" "This research was framed by a human rights approach to development as pursued by Amartya Sen. Freedoms are not only the primary ends of development but they are the principle means of development. The research was informed by international obligations to human rights and was placed within a context of global pluralism and recognition of universal human dignity. The first research aim was to study the State Peace and Development Council military regime confiscation of land and labour of farmers in villages of fourteen townships in Rangoon, Pegu, and Irrawaddy Divisions and Arakan, Karenni, and Shan States. Four hundred and sixty-seven individuals were interviewed to gain understanding of current pressures facing farmers and their families. Had crops, labour, household food, assets, farm equipment been confiscated? If so, by whom, and what reason was given for the confiscation? Were farmers compensated for this confiscation? How did family households respond and cope when land was confiscated? In what ways were farmers contesting the arbitrary confiscation of their land? A significant contribution of this research is that it was conducted inside Burma with considerable risk for all individuals involved. People who spoke about their plight, who collected information, and who couriered details of confiscation across the border into Thailand were at great risk of arrest. Interviews were conducted clandestinely in homes, fields, and sometimes during the night. Because of personal security risks there are inconsistent data sets for the townships. People revealed concerns of health, education, lack of land tenure and livelihood. Several farmers are contesting the confiscation of their land, but recognise that there is no rule by law or independent judiciary in Burma. Farmers and their family members want their plight to be known internationally. When they speak out they are threatened with detention. Their immediate struggle is to survive. The second aim was to analyse land laws and land use in Burma from colonial times, independence in 1948, to the present military rule by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The third aim was to critically review international literature on land tenure and land rights with special focus on research conducted in post-conflict, post-colonial, and post-socialist nations and how to resolve land claims in face of no documentation. We sought ideas and practices which could inform creation of land laws, land and property rights, in democratic transition in Burma."
        Author/creator: Dr. Nancy Hudson-Rodd; Sein Htay
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Burma Fund
        Format/size: pdf (11MB)
        Date of entry/update: 29 March 2008


        Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: AFTER THE CRACKDOWN
        Date of publication: 31 January 2008
        Description/subject: "The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General's special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the U.S. and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar's neighbours and the West must press together for a sustainable process of national reconciliation. This will require a long-term effort by all who can make a difference, combining robust diplomacy with serious efforts to address the deep-seated structural obstacles to peace, democracy and development. The protests in August-September and, in particular, the government crackdown have shaken up the political status quo, the international community has been mobilised to an unprecedented extent, and there are indications that divergences of view have grown within the military. The death toll is uncertain but appears to have been substantially higher than the official figures, and the violence has profoundly disrupted religious life across the country. While extreme violence has been a daily occurrence in ethnic minority populated areas in the border regions, where governments have faced widespread armed rebellion for more than half a century, the recent events struck at the core of the state and have had serious reverberations within the Burman majority society, as well as the regime itself, which it will be difficult for the military leaders to ignore. While these developments present important new opportunities for change, they must be viewed against the continuance of profound structural obstacles. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. The immediate challenges are to create a more durable negotiating process between government, opposition and ethnic groups and help alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, longer-term efforts are needed to encourage and support the emergence of a broader, more inclusive and better organised political society and to build the capacity of the state, civil society and individual households alike to deal with the many development challenges. To achieve these aims, all actors who have the ability to influence the situation need to become actively involved in working for change, and the comparative advantages each has must be mobilised to the fullest, with due respect for differences in national perspectives and interests..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°144)
        Format/size: pdf (806K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2008 - Events of 2007: Burma section
        Date of publication: 31 January 2008
        Description/subject: Burma’s deplorable human rights record received widespread international attention in 2007 as anti-government protests in August and September were met with a brutal crackdown by security forces of the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Denial of basic freedoms in Burma continues, and restrictions on the internet, telecommunications, and freedom of expression and assembly sharply increased in 2007. Abuses against civilians in ethnic areas are widespread, involving forced labor, summary executions, sexual violence, and expropriation of land and property......Violent Crackdown on Protests...Lack of Progress on Democracy...Human Rights Defenders...Continued Violence against Ethnic Groups...Child Soldiers...Humanitarian Concerns, Internal Displacement, and Refugees...Key International Actors.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Burma’s "Saffron Revolution” is not over - Time for the international community to act
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: Executive summary" "The situation in Burma after the “Saffron Revolution” is unprecedented. The September 2007 peaceful protests and the violent crackdown have created new dynamics inside Burma, and the country’sfuture is still unknown. This led the FIDH and the ITUC to conduct a joint mission along the Thai-Burma border between October 13th-21st 2007 to investigate the events and impact of the September crackdown, and to inform our organizational strategies and political recommendations. The violence and bloodshed directed at the monks and the general public who participated in the peace walks and protests have further alienated the population from its current military leaders. The level of fear, but also anger amongst the general population is unprecedented, as even religious leaders are now clearly not exempt from such violence and repression. This is different from the pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988, when monks were not directly targeted. In present-day Burma, all segments of the population have grown hostile to the regime, including within the military’s own ranks. The desire for change is greater than ever. Every witness -from ordinary citizens to monks, and Generation ‘88 leaders- told mission participants the movement was not over, despite the fear of reprisals and further repression. The question is what will happen next, and when? The future will depend of three factors: the extent to which the population will be able to organize new rounds of a social movement, the reaction of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the influence the international community can exert on the junta. What happened in Burma since the crackdown has proven that the international community has influence on the regime. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari’s good offices mission was accepted. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, Sergio Pinheiro was allowed access to the country for the first time in four years, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were given permission to meet with each other for the first time since Daw Suu was placed under renewed house arrest, in May 2003. Yet these positive signs are still weak: a genuine process of political change has not started yet. Such a process, involving the democratic parties and ethnic groups, is fundamental to establishing peace, human rights and development in Burma. To achieve that, the international community must keep its focus on Burma, and maximise its efforts and capacity to help bring about political transition..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
        Format/size: pdf (388K)
        Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/FIDH-ITUC-Saffron-rev..pdf
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2007


        Title: Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: "In August and September 2007, Burmese democracy activists, monks and ordinary people took to the streets of Rangoon and elsewhere to peacefully challenge nearly two decades of dictatorial rule and economic mismanagement by Burma’s ruling generals. While opposition to the military government is widespread in Burma, and small acts of resistance are an everyday occurrence, military repression is so systematic that such sentiment rarely is able to burst into public view; the last comparable public uprising was in August 1988. As in 1988, the generals responded this time with a brutal and bloody crackdown, leaving Burma’s population once again struggling for a voice. The government crackdown included baton-charges and beatings of unarmed demonstrators, mass arbitrary arrests, and repeated instances where weapons were fired shoot-to-kill. To remove the monks and nuns from the protests, the security forces raided dozens of Buddhist monasteries during the night, and sought to enforce the defrocking of thousands of monks. Current protest leaders, opposition party members, and activists from the ’88 Generation students were tracked down and arrested – and continue to be arrested and detained. The Burmese generals have taken draconian measures to ensure that the world does not learn the true story of the horror of their crackdown. They have kept foreign journalists out of Burma and maintained their complete control over domestic news. Many local journalists were arrested after the crackdown, and the internet and mobile phone networks, used extensively to send information, photos, and videos out of Burma, were temporarily shut down, and have remained tightly controlled since. Of course, those efforts at censorship were only partially successful, as some enterprising and brave individuals found ways to get mobile phone video footage of the demonstrations and crackdown out of the country and onto the world’s television screens. This provided a small window into the violence and repression that the Burmese military government continues to use to hold onto power..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (1.88MB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 December 2007


        Title: Myanmar: Briefing Paper: No Return to "Normal"
        Date of publication: 09 November 2007
        Description/subject: "The violent suppression by the Myanmar authorities of peaceful demonstrations in 66 cities country-wide from mid-August through September 2007 provoked international condemnation. Amnesty International continues to document serious human rights violations. The situation has not returned to normal. Based on numerous first-hand accounts from victims and eye-witnesses, this briefing paper outlines some key human rights abuses committed since the start of the crackdown."
        Language: English, Francais, Espanol
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/037/2007)
        Format/size: pdf (55.7K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/037/2007
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/55be999b-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa160372007fr.pdf (Francais)
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/53392708-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa160372007es.pdf (Espanol)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar - Von der Kolonie zum Armenhaus
        Date of publication: 07 September 2007
        Description/subject: Die knapp 60 Jahre mit ständigem Wechsel von bewaffneten Konflikten, BürgerInnenkriegen und "sozialistischer" Militärdiktatur sind der Grund für die heutige Lage eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt. Der Artikel schildert die ethnischen KOnflikte, den Terror des Militärs und die Lage der Menschenrechte in Myanmar; Ethnic minorities; terror; human rights; education; Karen;
        Author/creator: Sebastian Nagel
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Grüne Jugend
        Format/size: Html (47kb)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.gruene-jugend.de/show/382223.html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2007 - Events of 2006: Burma section
        Date of publication: 11 January 2007
        Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Burma’s international isolation deepened during 2006 as the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continued to restrict basic rights and freedoms and waged brutal counterinsurgency operations against ethnic minorities. The democratic movement inside the country remained suppressed, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political activists continued to be detained or imprisoned. International efforts to foster change in Burma were thwarted by the SPDC and sympathetic neighboring governments..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


        Title: BURMA: The Human Rights Situation in 2006
        Date of publication: 21 December 2006
        Description/subject: "The myth of state stability & a system of injustice During 2006 Burma continued to be characterised by wanton criminality of state officers at all levels, and the absence of the rule of law and rational government. Throughout the year, the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) documented violent crimes caused by state officers, and the concomitant lack of any means for victims to complain and have action taken against accused perpetrators..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
        Format/size: pdf (447K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 February 2007


        Title: Toungoo District: The civilian response to human rights violations
        Date of publication: 15 August 2006
        Description/subject: "Attacks on villages in Toungoo and other northern Karen districts by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) since late 2005 have led to extensive displacement and some international attention, but little of this has focused on the continuing lives of the villagers involved. In this report KHRG's Karen researchers in the field describe how these attacks have been affecting local people, and how these people have responded. The SPDC's forced relocation, village destruction, shoot-on-sight orders and blockades on the movement of food and medicines have killed many and created pervasive suffering, but the villagers' continued refusal to submit to SPDC authority has caused the military to fail in its objective of bringing the entire civilian population under direct control. This is a struggle which SPDC forces cannot win, but they may never stop trying..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F8)
        Format/size: pdf (588 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f8.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


        Title: KHRG's 300th Report: Cause for Celebration?
        Date of publication: 01 August 2006
        Description/subject: "On July 29th the Karen Human Rights Group released our 300th report. Though this is a milestone for the organisation, we see this as cause for reflection rather than celebration, on how the situation and our work have evolved in the 14 years since our formation in 1992..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Commentaries (KHRG #2006-C3)
        Format/size: pdf (40 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06c3.html
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2009


        Title: Pa'an District: Land confiscation, forced labour and extortion undermining villagers' livelihoods
        Date of publication: 11 February 2006
        Description/subject: "Villagers in northern Pa'an District of central Karen State say their livelihoods are under serious threat due to exploitation by SPDC military authorities and by their Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) allies who rule as an SPDC proxy army in much of the region. Villages in the vicinity of the DKBA headquarters are forced to give much of their time and resources to support the headquarters complex, while villages directly under SPDC control face rape, arbitrary detention and threats to keep them compliant with SPDC demands. The SPDC plans to expand Dta Greh (a.k.a. Pain Kyone) village into a town in order to strengthen its administrative control over the area, and is confiscating about half of the village's productive land without compensation to build infrastructure which includes offices, army camps and a hydroelectric power dam - destroying the livelihoods of close to 100 farming families. Local villagers, who are already struggling to survive under the weight of existing demands, fear further forced labour and extortion as the project continues..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F1)
        Format/size: pfd (739 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f1.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - Events of 2005: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2006
        Description/subject: Events of 2005..."Despite promises of political reform and national reconciliation, Burma’s authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to operate a strict police state and drastically restricts basic rights and freedoms. It has suppressed the democratic movement represented by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, under detention since May 30, 2003, and has used internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority groups. Hundreds of thousands of people, most of them from ethnic minority groups, continue to live precariously as internally displaced people. More than two million have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances as asylum seekers or illegal immigrants. The removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt in October 2004 has reinforced hard-line elements within the SPDC and resulted in increasing hostility directed at democracy movements, ethnic minority groups, and international agencies..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


        Title: The Misery Goes On - An Interview with Brad Adams
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: A senior human rights official outlines Burmese ethnic minority communities’ ongoing horrors... In June, New York-based Human Rights Watch issued a damning and all too resonant report on the plight of an estimated 650,000 internally displaced persons in eastern Burma, most from the large Karen minority. The Karen are part of a very grim overall picture. “The human rights situation in Burma is horrible,” says Brad Adams, HRW’s director for Asia. “Gross violations of international humanitarian law are regularly committed by government forces, including the continued recruitment and use of child soldiers, extrajudicial executions, rape of women and girls, torture, and forced relocation.” Adams was recently interviewed by Dominic Faulder for The Irrawaddy.
        Author/creator: Dominic Faulder/Brad Adams
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


        Title: Amnesty International Report 2005 (events of 2004) - Section on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 May 2005
        Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2004... "In October the Prime Minister was placed under house arrest and replaced by another army general. Despite the announcement of the release of large numbers of prisoners in November, more than 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison, and arrests and imprisonment for peaceful political opposition activities continued. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency operations in the Mon, Shan and Kayin States, and in Tanintharyi Division. Restrictions on freedom of movement in states with predominantly ethnic minority populations continued to impede farming, trade and employment. This particularly impacted on the Rohingyas in Rakhine State. Ethnic minority civilians living in all these areas continued to be subjected to forced labour by the military..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: AN INVESTIGATION AND LEGAL ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INFLICTED IN BURMA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED, EASTERN PEOPLES..."For over a decade, the United Nations and Human Rights organisations have documented systematic and widespread human rights violations inflicted on the people of Burma generally, and on the ethnic people in particular. Most reports, however, with the exception of some references to Article Three of The Geneva Conventions, have refrained from conceptualizing the violations in terms of International Humanitarian Law. This report addresses that gap and, in the aftermath of the State organised ambush of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's convoy on May 30, 2003; the ongoing, widespread, systematic destruction of substantial parts of the eastern ethnic peoples; and the failure to end impunity, recommends a period of consultation, education and consensus building to explore the practicality, political appropriateness, and morality of applying and enforcing relevant International Humanitarian Law. This report analyses the human rights violations, identified by, amongst others, UN Special Rapporteurs for human rights and Amnesty International, and expressed in UN General Assembly Resolutions, that have been inflicted on the people of Burma for decades..." NOTE ON FORMAT: There is a glitch in the CD the online version is based on, with lines from the next page creeping onto the current page. This will be fixed eventually. There is also a plan to break the text up into managable chunks.
        Author/creator: Guy Horton
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Guy Horton, Images Asia
        Format/size: pdf (4.7MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2006


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2005 - Events of 2004: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2005
        Description/subject: Events of 2004..."Burma remains one of the most repressive countries in Asia, despite promises for political reform and national reconciliation by its authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The SPDC restricts the basic rights and freedoms of all Burmese. It continues to attack and harass democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, still under house arrest at this writing, and the political movement she represents. It also continues to use internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority rebel groups. Burma has more child soldiers than any other country in the world, and its forces have used extrajudicial execution, rape, torture, forced relocation of villages, and forced labor in campaigns against rebel groups. Ethnic minority forces have also committed abuses, though not on the scale committed by government forces. The abrupt removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt, viewed as a relative moderate, on October 19, 2004, has reinforced hardline elements of the SPDC. Khin Nyunt’s removal damaged immediate prospects for a ceasefire in the decades-old struggle with the Karen ethnic minority and has been followed by increasingly hostile rhetoric from SPDC leaders directed at Suu Kyi and democracy activists. Thousands of Burmese citizens, most of them from the embattled ethnic minorities, have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances, or live precariously as internally displaced people..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: www.hrw.org/wr2k5/wr2005.pdf
        http://books.google.co.th/books?id=dYXStZToKggC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Human+Rights+Watch+World+Report+2005+-+Events+of+2004:+Burma&source=bl&ots=A9xtmHnfym&sig=W1C8lLRGKhGswUtLWFgsPXhsmhg&hl=en&ei=HxbmTIufAYKkvgP0usjCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Christian Solidarity Worldwide Visit to the Chin and Kachin Refugees in India March 2nd-9th, 2004
        Date of publication: 19 March 2004
        Description/subject: Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Itinerary; 3. Personnel; 4. Aid; 5. Religious Persecution; 6. Cultural Genocide; 7. Forced Labour; 8. Economic oppression; 9. Political oppression and torture of political detainees; 10. Health Care; 11. The Kachin; 12. Refugees in India; 13. The Chin Diaspora; 14. Conclusions and Recommendations; 15. Bibliography... APPENDIX: Testimony of a Defector.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://dynamic.csw.org.uk/article.asp?t=report&id=45
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: CHR 2004 (60th Session): Briefing Paper on the Human Rights Situation in Burma, Year 2003-2004
        Date of publication: March 2004
        Description/subject: For the 60th Session of the UN Commission Human Rights resolution on ‘The human rights situation in Myanmar’...- 1 - Contents: Recommendations; Summary; The Judicial System: Unjust Laws and Orders; The Depayin Massacre; Political Prisoners; MPs, NLD members arrested for organizing trip of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi; Extension of Prison Terms Under Section 10 (A); Hunger Strikes in Prison; The Aging Political Prisoners; Members of Parliament in Prison and in Exile; Women, Children, Racial, Ethnic & Religious Minorities in Burma:- Women: Rape as a Systematic Tool; The License to Rape Report; Military's Response to the Report; Responses to the Report; Recommendations to the United Nations; Other Tragedies Suffered by Women... Children: Burmese Children in Armed Conflict; Health and Education of Children... Racial, Ethnic and Religious Minorities: Restrictions on Religious Practices and Freedom... Forced Labor, Forced Displacement, Land Mines and Refugees and IDPs:- Forced Labor: The ILO and the Regime; Forced Displacement; Landmines; Refugees and IDPs: Bangladest Border; Indian Border; Thai Border... Land Confiscation and Forced Relocation... Economic Situation... Appendix I: Members of Parliament in Prison; Appendix II: Over 65 years Old Political Prisoners... Appendix III: Update Tables on Political Prisoners... Summary:- "The human rights situation in Burma has worsened again this year. While the military junta claims that it is working to bring "disciplined democracy" to the country through a "seven-point roadmap", political arrests continue unabated and leaders of the election-winning party, the National League for Democracy, remain under detention. High-ranking officials of the military junta try to paint a rosy picture of the political future of the country while they refuse to cooperate with the United Nations' call for an independent investigation into the use of rape as a weapon against Shan women by the military or to permit an inquiry into the massacre of National League for Democracy members who came under the "premeditated attack" of the military and its affiliated thugs near Tabayin [Depayin] during the tour of the region by Aung San Suu Kyi and her party members. The junta also continues to ignore the resolutions of the past years passed by the General Assembly and relevant bodies and blatantly ignores the efforts of the United Nations' Secretary General and his envoy to facilitate a national reconciliation process in Burma. Violations of human rights, including arbitrary killings, rape, looting, force relocation, and destruction of villages continue particularly in the border areas where large-scale military offensives are launched against ethnic nationalities. The Burmese people continue to be held hostage under the military's corrupt, brutal, inhumane, and undemocratic policies. This briefing paper, along with many other reports compiled by prominent human rights and intergovernmental organizations, should serve as a testimony to the fact that human rights violations in Burma are continuous, as they have tragically been for many years; that the regime has no regard for the protection and promotion of its people’s human rights and only cares about instilling fear in the minds of the people through the use of brute force so as to preserve military rule. * This paper has been prepared by the Burma UN Service Office of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma UN Service Office of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)
        Format/size: pdf (286K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 March 2004


        Title: Unspeakable Crimes
        Date of publication: September 2003
        Description/subject: "Burma’s rulers need to be brought to account before they commit more political crimes and human rights abuses..." Two months after the May 30 ambush on political activists and leaders of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), the human rights group Amnesty International called on Burma’s military regime to bring the culprits to justice and permit an independent and impartial investigation. Amnesty said, "The events of 30 May show all too clearly the need for accountability and an end to impunity in Myanmar [Burma]." Other human rights organizations and several foreign governments also called Burma to answer. Burma’s military regime, however, remains mute, ignoring pressure from abroad while claiming they arrested pro-democracy supporters, including NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi and Vice Chairman Tin Oo, for the sake of stability in the country..."
        Author/creator: Thar Nyunt Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


        Title: SPDC & DKBA ORDERS TO VILLAGES: SET 2003-A
        Date of publication: 22 August 2003
        Description/subject: "This report presents the direct translations of 783 order documents and letters, selected from a total of 1,007 such documents. The orders dictate demands for forced labour, money, food and materials, place restrictions on movements and activities of villagers, and make threats to arrest village elders or destroy villages of those who fail to obey. Over 650 of those selected were sent by military units and local authorities of Burma’s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) junta to village elders in Toungoo, Papun, Nyaunglebin, Thaton, Pa’an and Dooplaya Districts, which together cover most of Karen State and part of eastern Pegu Division and Mon State (see Map 1 showing Burma or Map 2 showing Karen State). The remainder were sent by the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) or the Karen Peace Army (KPA), groups allied with the SPDC. All but a few of the orders were issued between January 2002 and February 2003..." Papun, Pa’an, Thaton, Nyaunglebin, Toungoo, & Dooplaya Districts General Forced Labour (Orders #1-150); Forced Labour Supplying Materials (#150-191); Set to a Village I: Village A, Papun District (#192-200); Set to a Village II: Village B, Papun District (#201-226); Set to a Village III: Village C, Thaton District (#227-241); Set to a Village IV: Village D, Dooplaya District (#242-251); Extortion of Money, Food, and Materials (#252-335); Crop Quotas (#336-346); Restrictions on Movement and Activity (#347-354); Demands for Intelligence (#355-426); Education, Health (#427-442); Education (#427-439); Health (#440-442); Summons to ‘Meetings’ (#443-652); DKBA & KPA Letters (#653-783); DKBA Recruitment (#653); DKBA General Forced Labour (#654-685); DKBA Demands for Materials and Money (#686-719); DKBA Restrictions (#720-727); DKBA Meetings (#728-771); KPA Letters (#772-783); Appendix A: The Village Act and the Towns Act; Appendix B: SPDC Orders ‘Banning’ Forced Labour.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group ( KHRG #2003-01)
        Format/size: html, pdf (5.4MB) 405 pages
        Date of entry/update: 17 November 2003


        Title: Uncounted: political prisoners in burma's ethnic areas
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Description/subject: Contents: 1. Executive Summary; 2. Introduction; 2a. Scope of report; 3. Background; 4. Definitions and Regulations; 4a. What is a political prisoner?; 4b. International and domestic regulations governing treatment; 4c. Conflict zones; 4d. Cease-fire and "Pacified Areas"; 4e. Support and perceived support for armed groups; 5. Politically Motivated Detentions in the Conflict Zones; 5a. Accusations; 5b. Places of detention; 5c. Were charges laid?; 6. Treatment of Detainees and Outcomes of Detention; 6a. Arbitrary detention; 6b. Torture; 6c. Extrajudicial killings; 6d. Disappearances; 7. Political Motivations Behind Detentions; 7a. Weakening/destruction of the People's Movement; 7b. Power and absolute control; 7c. Eradication of armed forces; 7d. Other motivations; 7e. Secondary Effects; 8. Inclusion in Existing Reporting; 9. The Bigger Picture; 10. Conclusion; 11. Recommendations... 12. Appendixes: a. Summary of cases; b. Ethnic Armed and political groups; c. Relevant international laws and regulations; 13. Glossary; Map of Burma; Map of Locations of Detention... Executive Summary: In Mr Paulo Sergio Pinheiro's report to the 59th Commission on Human Rights he stated, "Political arrests since July 2002 have followed the pattern of un-rule of law, including arbitrary arrest, prolonged incommunicado detention and interrogation by military intelligence personnel, extraction of confessions of guilt or of information, very often under duress or torture, followed by summary trials, sentencing and imprisonment." This report presents a sample of 46 cases that comply with the description in Pinheiro's statement but remain unrecognised as political arrests. They are people mostly in Burma's ethnic areas detained on accusations of supporting non-Burman ethnic nationality opposition groups. The accusations range from offering support through food and accommodation, to knowledge of opposition group movements, to actually being a member of a non-Burman ethnic nationality opposition group..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Issues", Altsean-Burma
        Format/size: pdf (796K) 82 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/En/reports/uncounted.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 21 September 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2003 (events of 2002) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 28 May 2003
        Description/subject: Events of 2002 "...Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was released from de facto house arrest in May. There was no reported progress in confidential talks about the future of the country, begun in October 2000, between the ruling military government – the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) – and Aung San Suu Kyi. However, over 300 political prisoners were released during the year, bringing the total of those released since January 2001 to over 500. Some 1,300 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison and some 50 people were arrested for political reasons, despite the SPDC's stated commitment to release political prisoners as part of their undertaking to work with the NLD. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in most of the seven ethnic minority states, particularly the Shan and Kayin states. Civilians continued to be the victims of human rights violations in the context of the SPDC's counter-insurgency tactics in parts of the Shan and Kayin states..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2002)
        Date of publication: 31 March 2003
        Description/subject: Events of 2002. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962 General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority ethnic group. In 1988 the armed forces brutally suppressed prodemocracy demonstrations, and a junta composed of military officers, called the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, took control. Since then the SPDC has ruled by decree. The judiciary was not independent, and there was no effective rule of law. The regime reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI). Control was implemented through surveillance of government employees and private citizens, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The SPDC justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Myanmar: Amnesty International welcomes first visit, calls for further improvements
        Date of publication: 10 February 2003
        Description/subject: Press statement at end of AI's first visit to Burma. "After its first ever visit to Myanmar, Amnesty International called upon the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, Myanmar's military government), to release immediately and unconditionally all prisoners of conscience still held throughout the country. "The continued imprisonment of between 1200 - 1300 political prisoners, many of whom we believe are prisoners of conscience, held solely for their peaceful political activities, was one of the key issues discussed with the local authorities," Amnesty International said during a press conference held today in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization, which had been requesting access to Myanmar since 1988, welcomed the efforts made by the government officials in Myanmar to accommodate the delegation's requests and the frank discussions it held with Ministers, police and prison officials...."
        Author/creator: Publisher and translator of Japanese version: Burma Coordination Team of Amnesty International - Japan
        Language: English, Français
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/007/2003)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/fr/library/asset/ASA16/007/2003/fr/0eed2dbd-d746-11dd-b024-21932cd2170d/asa160072003fr.html (Français)
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2003/en
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2003 - Events of 2002: Burma section
        Date of publication: 15 January 2003
        Description/subject: With the release of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in May after nineteen months of de facto house arrest, hope arose that the military junta might take steps to improve its human rights record. However, by late 2002, talks between Suu Kyi and the government had ground to a halt and systemic restrictions on basic civil and political liberties continued unabated. Ethnic minority regions continued to report particularly grave abuses, including forced labor and the rape of Shan minority women by military forces. Government military forces continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers.....Human Rights Developments...Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html (89K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/EBO2003-HRW.htm
        Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


        Title: Myanmar: Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas
        Date of publication: 17 July 2002
        Description/subject: "...In February and March 2002 Amnesty International interviewed some 100 migrants from Myanmar at seven different locations in Thailand. They were from a variety of ethnic groups, including the Shan; Lahu; Palaung; Akha; Mon; Po and Sgaw Karen; Rakhine; and Tavoyan ethnic minorities, and the majority Bamar (Burman) group. They originally came from the Mon, Kayin, Shan, and Rakhine States, and Bago, Yangon and Tanintharyi Divisions.(1) What follows below is a summary of human rights violations in some parts of eastern Myanmar during the last 18 months which migrants reported to Amnesty International. One section of the report also examines several cases of abuses of civilians by armed opposition groups fighting against the Myanmar military. Finally, this document describes various aspects of a Burmese migrant worker's life in Thailand..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced labour, refugees, land confiscation, forced relocation, forced removal, forced resettlement, forced displacement, internal displacement, IDP, extortion, torture, extrajudicial killings, forced conscription, child soldiers, porters, forced portering, house destruction, eviction, Shan State, Wa, USWA, Wa resettlement, Tenasserim, abuses by armed opposition groups.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: PDF version (126K) 48pg
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2002/en
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/007/2002/en/7471b112-d81a-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/asa160072002fr.pdf (French)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Jahresbericht 2002
        Date of publication: 28 May 2002
        Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2001
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
        Format/size: html (28K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2002 (events of 2001) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2002
        Description/subject: "Events of 2001" ...... In January the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Myanmar announced that a confidential dialogue had been taking place since October 2000 between the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD). The dialogue was believed to have continued for most of 2001. However, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under de facto house arrest, although international delegations were permitted to visit her. Some 1,600 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison. Almost 220 people were released. Three people were sentenced to death for drug trafficking. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in the ethnic minority states, particularly Shan and Kayin states.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


        Title: US State Dept.: Burma - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2001)
        Date of publication: 04 March 2002
        Description/subject: Events of 2001. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. Repressive military governments dominated by members of the majority Burman ethnic group have ruled the ethnically Burman central regions and some ethnic-minority areas continuously since 1962, when a coup led by General Ne Win overthrew an elected civilian government. Since September 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), a junta composed of senior military officers, has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The Government is headed by armed forces commander Senior General Than Shwe, although Ne Win, who retired from public office during the 1988 prodemocracy demonstrations, continued to wield informal influence..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 2002: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 January 2002
        Description/subject: This report is based on the Special Rapporteur's October 2001 fact-finding mission to Burma/Myanmar and information received by him up to December 2001, and should be read in conjunction with his report to the General Assembly (A/56/312)of 21 August 2001. CONTENTS: I. ACTIVITIES OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR: A. Fact-finding mission; B. Other activities. II. HUMAN RIGHTS-RELATED DEVELOPMENTS: A. Activities of the governmental Committee on Human Rights; B. Civil and political; rights: 1. Freedom of political association; Freedom of expression and information; 3. Political prisoners; 4. Conditions in prisons; 5. Freedom of religion; 6. Forced labour. C. Economic, social, and cultural rights: 1. Tertiary education; 2. HIV/AIDS. III. OTHER ISSUES: A. Ceasefires; B. Refugees and internally displaced persons; C. Child soldiers; d. Violence against women; E. Humanitarian aid. IV. CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. Annexes: I. Program for the fact-finding mission of the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar of the UN Commission on Human Rights. II. List of humanitarian cases. III. List of persons who reportedly received prison terms for communicating, trying or intending to communicate, or being suspected of communicating human rights information to the United Nations. IV. List of persons interviewed by the Special Rapporteur during his visits to Lashio and Mandalay.
        Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2002/45)
        Format/size: Word (for download) and pdf (187K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/e6876ab7119ec9dfc1256b8f0058e50a/$FILE/G0210065.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2002 - Events of 2001: Burma section
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: There were signs of a political thaw early in the year and, for the first time in years, hopes that the government might lift some of its stifling controls on civil and political rights. By November, however, the only progress had been limited political prisoner releases and easing of pressures on some opposition politicians in Rangoon. There was no sign of fundamental changes in law or policy, and grave human rights violations remained unaddressed.....Human Rights Developments... Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Looted Land, Proud People: The Case for Canadian Action in Burma
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: A useful and balanced overview. FACTS ABOUT BURMA... BURMA: A CHRONOLOGY... CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND TO 1988: Rise of Nationalism; Ne Win and Isolationism; Growth of Heroin Industry... CHAPTER 2: THE MEN BEHIND THE MASSACRES: The Ordeal of Aung San Suu Kyi... CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN COSTS OF MILITARY RULE: Refugees; Political Prisoners; Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Forced Relocation; Forced Labour; Students and Education; Political Prisoners; Freedom of the Press; The Militarization of Society; Women Living under a Military Dictatorship; Political Prisoners... CHAPTER 4: THE CRIMINAL ECOMONY: Sectors Complicit with Forced Labour; Opium, Heroin and a Drug Economy... CHAPTER 5: FORCED LABOUR AND THE ILO: ILO Commission of Inquiry, 1998 Report; Follow-up to the 1998 Report; CHAPTER 6: GEOPOLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES: Neighbouring Countries; Malaysia,Singapore and ASEA; Canada and Other International Influences; The United Nations; Other National Governments; How Does Canada Measure Up?; Civil Society... CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS: Canada’s Role; Development Assistance; Trade and Investment... FURTHER READING... WEB CONNECTIONS.
        Author/creator: Clyde Sanger
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Canadian Friends of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (1.35MB) 52 pages
        Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: Separate clickable chapters on: Forced Labor; Extra-judicial, Summery, or Arbitrary Executions; Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; Torture and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading treatment or punishment; Deprivation of Livelihood; Rights of the Child; Rights of Women; Rights of Ethnic Minorities; Rights to Education and Health; Freedom of Religious Belief and Practice; Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Freedom of Assembly and Association; Freedom of Movement; Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; The Situation of Refugees; The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; Special Report #1 Landmines in Burma; Special Report #2 Tourism and Human Rights Violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project; List of Resources and Contributors.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) Human Rights Documentation Unit
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights of Ethnic Minorities
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: "...Burma is a country rich in ethnic diversity. Yet although the SPDC attempts to promote this diversity, and the existence of its 135 "national races" (SPDC term for the countrys ethnic minority groups), the rights of ethnic minority people remain in violation...n areas where cease-fire agreements have been reached, human rights abuses continue to take place. In fact, in these "national reconciliation" areas human rights abuses have increased rather than abated. There has been no move on the part of the SPDC to engage in political discussions with opposition groups to reinforce the military cease-fire agreements. Under the terms of the cease-fire, some ethnic groups have been allowed to keep their arms and soldiers, however, SPDC had vastly increased the number of its soldiers in those areas... The continuing armed conflicts in the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Chin States have been accompanied by massive human rights violations..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: Main page of Yearbook: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2001 (56th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteur’s initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteur’s assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Government’s endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned."
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
        Format/size: PDF (195K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/53F25867FD928877C1256AD9004B8E15/$File/N0151752.doc?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2001 (events of 2000) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 June 2001
        Description/subject: Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2001: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 30 May 2001
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
        Format/size: html (28K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 2001 (57th session): Resolution on the situation of human rights in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 April 2001
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/RES/2001/15)
        Format/size: Adopted by consensus
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts: Internally displaced villagers cornered by 40 SPDC Battalions; Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.
        Date of publication: 09 April 2001
        Description/subject: Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.Based on new interviews and reports from KHRG field researchers, this update summarises the increasingly desperate situation for villagers in these two districts. In the hills, the people of several hundred villages are still in hiding, their villages destroyed by SPDC troops. Their survival situation is now desperate as 40 SPDC Battalions continue to systematically destroy their rice supplies and crops and landmine their fields, and shoot them on sight. In the villages under SPDC control, people suffer under an impossible burden of many kinds of forced labour and extortion.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (Information Update #2001-U3)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Thaton District: SPDC using violence against villagers to consolidate control
        Date of publication: 20 March 2001
        Description/subject: Information from KHRG researchers in Thaton District, which spans the border of northern Mon State and Karen State. SPDC troops already have a relatively strong hold on the area, but they have been intimidating and torturing villagers in an effort to wipe out any remaining support for the Karen resistance, and forcing villagers to join militia-like SPDC paramilitary groups.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #2001-U2)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Northeastern Pa'an District: Villagers Fleeing Forced Labour Establishing SPDC Army Camps, Building Access Roads and Clearing Landmines
        Date of publication: 20 February 2001
        Description/subject: Information on a new flow of refugees from northeastern Pa'an District into Thailand. The villagers say that they fled their village in mid-January 2001 because SPDC troops are using them as porters, forced labour on an access road, and Army camp labour in order to strengthen the regime's control over this contested area. Worst of all, the villagers say they are being ordered to clear landmines in front of the SPDC Army's road-building bulldozer, and to make way for new Army camps.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #2001-U1)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 2001: The situation in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 13 February 2001
        Description/subject: Written statement submitted by the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. "1. In the year 2000, as in the past 12 years, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), Burma's ruling military junta, continues to be among the worst human rights violators of our times. Reported human rights violations included: extra-judicial, summary and arbitrary executions, enforced disappearances, rape, torture, inhuman treatment, mass arrests, forced labour, forced relocation, and denial of freedom of assembly, association, expression and movement..." ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
        Author/creator: Rights & Democracy (ICHRDD)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations ((E/CN.4/2001/NGO/124)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept.- Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices (2000)
        Date of publication: February 2001
        Description/subject: Events of 2000
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2001 - Events of 2000: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2001
        Description/subject: Events November 1999-October 2000..."The Burmese government took no steps to improve its dire human rights record. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to pursue a strategy of marginalizing the democratic opposition through detention, intimidation, and restrictions on basic civil liberties. Despite international condemnation, the system of forced labor remained intact. In the war-affected areas of eastern Burma, gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law continued. There, the Shan State Army-South (SSA-S), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Karen National Union (KNU), as well as some other smaller groups, continued their refusal to agree to a cease-fire with the government, as other insurgent forces had done, but they were no longer able to hold significant territory. Tens of thousands of villagers in the contested zones remained in forced relocation sites or internally displaced within the region. Human Rights Developments The SPDC continued to deny its citizens freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement. It intimidated members of the democratic opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) into resigning from the party and encouraged crowds to denounce NLD members elected to parliament in the May 1990 election but not permitted to take their seats. The SPDC rhetoric against the NLD and its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, became increasingly extreme. On March 27, Senior Gen. Than Shwe, in his Armed Forces Day address, called for forces undermining stability to be eliminated. It was a thinly veiled threat against the NLD. On May 2, a commentary in the state-run Kyemon (Mirror) newspaper claimed there was evidence of contact between the NLD and dissident and insurgent groups, an offense punishable by death or life imprisonment. In a May 18 press conference, several Burmese officials pointed to what they said were linkages between the NLD and insurgents based along the Thai-Burma border, and on September 4 the official Myanmar Information Committee repeated this charge in a press release after Burmese security forces raided the NLD headquarters in Rangoon..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International: Myanmar Country Report 2001
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2000 ..... Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar Country Report 2001
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2000
        Language: Japanese
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: KHRG Commentary #2000-C2
        Date of publication: 17 October 2000
        Description/subject: The worsening situation of the internally displaced in all northern Karen districts, forced labour and convict porters, rice quotas, the desperate situation of rank-and-file SPDC soldiers, forced repatriation of refugees in Thailand, and the SPDC's persistence in denying that there is any problem whatsoever.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
        Date of publication: 15 October 2000
        Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: SPDC & DKBA Orders to Villages: Set 2000-B
        Date of publication: 12 October 2000
        Description/subject: Pa'an, Dooplaya, Toungoo, Papun, & Thaton Districts. Over 250 orders dating from mid-1999 through late September 2000, the vast majority of them from the latter half of that period. Includes restrictions on the movement of villagers, forced relocation, demands for forced labour, extortion of money, food, and materials, threats to villagers and other demands, as well as documents related to rice quotas which farmers are forced to give, education and health. Also contains one order #174 which directly shows the role of a Dutch timber importing company in causing the SPDC to threaten all non-government controlled timber traders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG #2000-04)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2000 (55th Session) Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
        Format/size: PDF (98K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/6f93e36e7c6843ccc1256983002e3c40/$FILE/0063504e.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1999
        Date of publication: 25 February 2000
        Description/subject: Events of 1999
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 2000: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 24 January 2000
        Description/subject: Good section on economic, social and cultural rights.
        Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2000/38)
        Format/size: PDF (58K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/ce1abcf0fa86d72f802568a20060e3ae/$FILE/G0010351.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2000: Myanmar
        Date of publication: January 2000
        Description/subject: "Events of 1999" .... Scores of people were arrested for political reasons and 200 people, some of them prisoners of conscience, were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced in May that it had begun to visit prisons and other places of detention. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities not taking an active part in hostilities, during counter-insurgency operations, particularly in the Kayin State. Forcible relocation continued to be reported in the Kayin State, and the effects of massive forcible relocation programs in previous years in the Kayah and Shan States continued to be felt as civilians were still deprived of their land and livelihood and subjected to forced labour and detention by the military.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/myanmar_burma/document.do?id=7276C685032E6793802568E400729F20
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2000 - Events of 1999: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2000
        Description/subject: Events of November 1998-October 1999)..."The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) offered no signs during the year that fundamental change was on the horizon. The SPDC's standoff with the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued. No progress was made on ending forced labor. Counterinsurgency operations by the Burmese military in several ethnic minority areas, accompanied by extrajudicial executions, forced relocation, and other abuses, led to the displacement of thousands inside Burma and the flight of yet more refugees across the border into Thailand. In one of the few positive developments during the year, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reopened its office in Rangoon in May and was able to visit Burmese prisons on a regular basis. Bilateral and multilateral policies towards Burma remained largely unchanged during the year, with sanctions in place from much of the industrialized world. Various governments tried combinations of diplomatic carrots and economic sticks to improve human rights and encourage negotiations between the SPDC and the opposition, but none had succeeded by late October. Arrests and intimidation of supporters of the NLD continued, part of a campaign that began in August 1998 after the NLD announced its intention to convene a parliament in line with the 1990 election result. This was foiled by mass arrests, and the NLD subsequently established a ten-member Committee Representing People's Parliament (CRPP), a kind of parallel parliamentary authority whose creation was seen as a direct challenge to the government. Some sixty parliamentarians remained under detention while thousands of NLD registered voters were forced to resign their party membership..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1999 (54th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-fourth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 1999/17 of 23 April 1999 and Economic and Social Council decision 1999/231 of 27 July 1999.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/54/440)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: I have to work harder
        Date of publication: July 1999
        Description/subject: "...The human rights violations still continue in every area of Burma especially in the ethnic areas of Burma. Burmans are not being treated like ethnic people, but because of the civil war and the four cuts system in the ethnic areas the ethnic people suffer a lot. More than the Burman people. But Burmese people also suffer other kinds of human rights violations. In the ethnic areas there is forced portering and forced relocation on a massive scale, but at the same time inside Burma there is political detention and arrest of political activist still going on. We can not compare what is worse and which one is the better one, but the human rights situation is as bad as before like ten years ago. I would say that in some areas its getting worse and in some areas its getting better. Even after we get democracy or even after the SPDC is overthrown so people with the kind of basic knowledge can be helpful for the foundation of civil society for the future of Burma...I decided to do some kind of training to give the knowledge about human rights and give a chance for people to think about their basic rights. This is good for the future of Burma so that people know about their rights, so they know how to prevent abuses. If they know how to advocate then they can protect their human rights. Even after we get democracy or even after the SPDC is overthrown so people with the kind of basic knowledge can be helpful for the foundation of civil society for the future of Burma..."
        Author/creator: Aung Myo Min
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998
        Date of publication: 26 February 1999
        Description/subject: Events of 1998
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Dept. of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1999: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 January 1999
        Description/subject: Long section on IDPs; also on prison conditions and the suppression of the NLD.
        Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1999/35)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1999: Myanmar
        Date of publication: January 1999
        Description/subject: This report covers the period January to December 1998. ..... More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons. Political prisoners were tortured and ill-treated, and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions, torture, ill-treatment during forced portering, and other forms of forced labour and forcible relocations. Six political prisoners were sentenced to death. No executions were known to have taken place.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1999 - Events of 1997-98: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1999
        Description/subject: Events December 1997-early November 1998..."Ten years after the 1988 pro-democracy uprising was crushed by the army, Burma continued to be one of the world’s pariah states. A standoff between the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), and other expressions of nonviolent dissent resulted in more than 1,000 detentions during the year. Many were relatively brief, others led eventually to prison sentences. Human rights abuses, including extrajudicial executions, rape, forced labor, and forced relocations, sent thousands of Burmese refugees, many of them from ethnic minority groups, into Thailand and Bangladesh. The change in November 1997 from the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to the gentler-sounding State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) had little impact on human rights practices and policies; the SPDC’s euphemism for continued authoritarian control—”disciplined democracy”— indicated no change. In addition to pervasive human rights violations, an economy in free fall made life even more difficult for the beleaguered population..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Karen Human Rights Group Commentary #98-C2
        Date of publication: 24 November 1998
        Description/subject: "..."Things are getting more difficult every day. Even the Burmese leaders capture each other and put each other in jail. If they can capture and imprison even the people who have authority, then how are the villagers supposed to tolerate them? That’s why the villagers are fleeing from Burma." - Dta La Ku elder (M, 44) from Dooplaya district (Report #98-09) There is no doubt that life is currently becoming worse for the vast majority of people in Burma, in both urban and rural areas. In urban areas, people are plagued by high inflation, rapidly increasing prices for basic commodities such as rice and basic foodstuffs, the tumbling value of the Kyat, wages which are not enough to feed oneself, corruption by all arms of the military and civil service, and the ever-present fear of arbitrary arrest for the slightest act or statement that betrays opposition to the State Peace & Development Council (SPDC) junta..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG #98-C2)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


        Title: GA 1998 (53rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997
        Date of publication: 30 January 1998
        Description/subject: Events of 1997
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1998: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 15 January 1998
        Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1998/70)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1998: Myanmar
        Date of publication: January 1998
        Description/subject: (This report covers the period January-December 1997) ..... More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons; although most were released, 31 – five of them prisoners of conscience – were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Two people were sentenced to death.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1998 - Events of 1996-1997: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1998
        Description/subject: Events December 1996-November 1997..." Respect for human rights in Burma continued to deteriorate relentlessly in 1997. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued to be a target of government repression. NLD leaders were prevented from making any public speeches during the year, and over 300 members were detained in May when they attempted to hold a party congress. There were no meetings during the year of the government's constitutional forum, the National Convention, which last met in March 1996; the convention was one of the only fora where Rangoon-based politicians and members of Burma's various ethnic movements could meet. The government tightened restrictions on freedom of expression, refusing visas to foreign journalists, deporting others and handing down long prison terms to anyone who attempted to collect information or contact groups abroad. Persecution of Muslims increased. Armed conflict continued between government troops and ethnic opposition forces in a number of areas, accompanied by human rights abuses such as forced portering, summary executions, rape, and torture. The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) continued to deny access to U.N. Special Representative to Burma Rajsoomer Lallah. Despite its human rights practices, however, Burma was admitted as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in July..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1997 (52nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-second session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/117 of 12 December 1996 and Economic and Social Council decision 1997/272 of 22 July 1997. Good section on citizenship and citizenship legislation (paras 119-142), mainly relating to the Rohingyas, a Muslim group in Rakhine (Arakan) state; statelessness and the conformity of the different forms of citizenship [in Burma] with international norms. Also, the rights pertaining to democratic governance, the right to form and join trade unions, forced labour, violations against ethnic minorities, including violations of civil rights.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/52/484)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1997: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 06 February 1997
        Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1997/64)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996
        Date of publication: 30 January 1997
        Description/subject: Events of 1996
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html (84K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/USDOS-CR1996.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1997: Myanmar
        Date of publication: January 1997
        Description/subject: "Events of 1996" ..... More than 1,000 people involved in opposition political activities, including 68 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Almost 2,000 people were arrested for political reasons, including at least 23 prisoners of conscience. Although most were released, 45 were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials and 175 were still detained without charge or trial at the end of the year. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Seven people were sentenced to death.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1997 - Events of 1996: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1997
        Description/subject: Any hope that the July 1995 release of opposition leader and Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi might be a sign of human rights reforms by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) government were destroyed during 1996 as political arrests and repression dramatically increased and forced labor, forced relocations, and arbitrary arrests continued to be the daily reality for millions of ordinary Burmese. The turn for the worse received little censure from Burma's neighbors, who instead took the first step towards granting the country full membership in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and welcomed SLORC as a member of the Asian Regional Forum, a security body.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: GA 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 October 1996
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-first session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Commission resolution 1996/80 of 23 April 1996.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/51/466)
        Format/size: pdf (94K), html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Dacoits Inc.
        Date of publication: June 1996
        Description/subject: "Human rights violations committed by units/personnel of Burma's SLORC armed forces 1994-1995". A 100 or so pages of summaries of incidents, classified by Burma army units, with date, army unit, name of commanding officer (where available), short description of incident. Important document. See also "A Swamp Full of Lilies" (1994) which covers 1992-1993.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: PDF (2939K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: New Internationalist: Burma, a Cry for Freedom
        Date of publication: June 1996
        Description/subject: Special issue of the magazine. Several articles
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: New Internationalist
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: KHRG Intervention at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights
        Date of publication: 14 April 1996
        Description/subject: "...Mr. Chairman, Many dictatorial regimes argue that human rights take second place to economic development, that as long as government figures claim some kind of "economic growth" the world should ignore serious and systematic human rights abuses. [In reality, economic growth is meaningless without an improvement in the lives of the people, and there can be no such improvement where systematic human rights abuses prevail.] Some regimes claiming to create peace and economic stability actually carry out abuses which destroy the economic, social and cultural fabric of the country. For several years the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs has been following the situation in Burma, where the ruling military junta, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC, is such a regime..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1995
        Date of publication: March 1996
        Description/subject: Events of 1995
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (61K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 05 February 1996
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1996/65)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1996 - Events of 1995: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1996
        Description/subject: Events of 1995..."The most significant human rights event in Burma in 1995 was the release on July 10 of Nobel laureate and opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi after six years of house arrest. Paradoxically, the governing military State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took an increasingly hard-line stance during the year, and there was no overall improvement in the human rights situation. In some areas abuses increased, notably in the Karen, Karenni and Shan States where there was fighting, while throughout the country thousands of civilians were forced to work as unpaid laborers for the army. The SLORC continued to deny basic rights such as freedom of speech, association and religion and the right of citizens to participate in the political process..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1995: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1995
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fiftieth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/72 of 8 March 1995, and Economic and Social Council decision 1995/283 of 25 July 1995.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/50/568)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Country Report on Human Rights: Burma
        Date of publication: 01 October 1995
        Description/subject: "Burma is a country where many nationalities live together. Half of the population is Burman, who live in the central plains and valleys, and the rest are from about 15 main ethnic groups, most of whom live in more hilly regions. Historically, Burma was never a single country until the British annexed it in 1886. After independence in 1948, the Burman leaders started making policies favouring the Burmans and making everyone else into second-class citizens. So one by one the non-Burman peoples went into revolution demanding equal rights. By the 1970s, there were more than 12 ethnic groups fighting against the Burmese government. They had their own governments and controlled alot of the territory outside of central Burma..." _Report on: Civil and Political Rights, Economic, Social & Cultural Rights, Women, children and the elderly, Ethnic / Indigenous Rights, Problems of Human Rights Defence and Proposals / Recommendation.
        Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Current Human Rights Situation in Burma
        Date of publication: 05 September 1995
        Description/subject: The Military and Political Situation, The Human Rights Situation and Conclusions and Recommendations.
        Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Current Human Rights Situation in Burma: Executive Summary
        Date of publication: 05 September 1995
        Description/subject: "...SLORC is using the release of Aung San Suu Kyi to divert attention away from what is really happening in Burma right now: resumed and intensified offensives against ethnic peoples, further expansion of the army, intensified repression and clampdowns against people nationwide, and the further collapse of the economy. The human rights situation is rapidly worsening, with rapid increases in forced labour as military porters and servants, forced labour on development and infrastructure projects, extortion which is driving villagers further into destitution, land confiscation for military-run farms operated with forced labour, and other abuses connected with these activities such as killings, torture, rape, arbitrary detention, and abuse against children, women, and the elderly. The rural areas are being systematically targetted for further repression and extortion in order to support cosmetic and superficial "improvements" in urban areas - for example, more urban people are giving money in lieu of forced labour, causing more rural villagers to be taken for forced labour. Urban people are poorer than ever due to spiralling inflation, partly caused by foreign investment. Rural people are being hit the hardest due to spiralling demands for extortion money by military officers. Tens of millions of Kyat per month is stolen from rural villages and sent by officers to their families in the cities; their families can then set up urban businesses, and foreign visitors mistake this for economic improvement and open market reform. SLORC still rigidly controls the economy. Rural villages can no longer pay and are falling apart as people flee to avoid arrest for failure to pay money and crop quotas. Forced labour is increasing exponentially in some areas in hurried attempts to finish infrastructure in preparation for "Visit Myanmar Year 1996"..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


        Title: Report to the Senate Foreign Operations Subcommittee
        Date of publication: 25 July 1995
        Description/subject: Testimony of Karen Parker J.D. before the Foreign Operations Sub-Committee Senate Appropriations Committee. " The three features of the situation of human rights in Burma described in my 1993 statement are still valid today: (1) the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) regime is illegitimate yet continues in power; (2) the regime continues to be particularly brutal; and (3) armed conflict continues, primarily involving the ethnic nationalities who have been fighting against the SLORC regime and its predecessor governments. Violations of armed conflict law, as set out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and all customary humanitarian law, continue to be violated. Thus, the SLORC regime continues to commit grave war crimes..." Keywords: Karen, Karenni, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, International law, violations of human rights law, violations of humanitarian law, armed conflict, Laws of War, United States Policy.
        Author/creator: Karen Parker
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Burma: Entrenchment or Reform? Human Rights Developments and the Need for Continued Pressure
        Date of publication: July 1995
        Description/subject: I SUMMARY � Summary of Recommendations� II THE PATTERN OF ABUSE: Political Prisoners; The Political Process; The National Convention; Forced Labor; Discrimination Against Minorities� III HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES DURING COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS: The Renewed Offensive in the Karen State; The Offensive Against Khun Sa; IV THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE: The United Nations; China; India; The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN); Japan; The United States� V RECOMMENDATIONS: To the State Law and Order Restoration Council; To the International Community; APPENDIX I � APPENDIX II.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html (463K), pdf (332K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/legacy/summaries/s.burma957.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2004


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1994
        Date of publication: February 1995
        Description/subject: Events of 1994
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (123K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1995: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 12 January 1995
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1995/65)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1995 - Events of 1994: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1995
        Description/subject: Events of 1994..."The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), a military body established as a temporary government in Burma after the pro-democracy uprising in 1988, continued to be responsible for forced labor, especially on infrastructure projects; arbitrary detention; torture; and denials of freedom of association, expression, and assembly. Fighting with armed ethnic groups along the Thai and Chinese borders continued to diminish, as the SLORC reached a cease-fire agreement with the Kachin Independence Organization in February and opened talks with others. Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the democratic opposition, remained under house arrest but for the first time since her detention in July 1989 was permitted to meet with visitors outside her family. On September 21, as the U.N. General Assembly opened in New York, she was allowed out of her house for a televised meeting with the chair and secretary-1 of the SLORC, Senior General Than Shwe and Lieutenant General Khin Nyunt. A second meeting took place on October 28..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Addendum - Government Response)
        Date of publication: 09 November 1994
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-ninth session. 1. The Special Rapporteur submitted to the Government of Myanmar, on 5 October 1994, a summary of allegations he had received concerning human rights violations in Myanmar (for the text, see A/49/594, para. 9). In his accompanying letter, the Special Rapporteur requested the Government of Myanmar's responses to five specific questions (see A/49/594, para. 8). 2. By note verbale dated 4 November 1994, the Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations Office at Geneva transmitted the responses of the Government of Myanmar to both the Special Rapporteur's summary of allegations received and the five specific questions put in his letter of 5 October 1994. 3. The following is the full text of the Government of Myanmar's response to the summary of allegations received by the Special Rapporteur: "OBSERVATIONS AND REBUTTALS ON THE SUMMARY OF ALLEGATIONS"
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594/Add.1)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Myanmar: human rights still denied
        Date of publication: November 1994
        Description/subject: "In the sixth year of government by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), there has been no fundamental change in its attitude towards respecting the basic human rights of its citizens. Whereas the SLORC took a number of tentative steps to indicate to the international community a willingness to address the human rights situation in Myanmar, it at the same time reinforced its repressive hold within the country..." Keywords: prisoners of conscience, house/town arrest, death in custody, death penalte, minorities, politically-motivated criminal charges, ill-health, torture, ill-treatment, prison conditions, solitary confinement, long-term imprisonment, forced labour, transportation, extrajudicial execution, women, farmers, aged, lawyers, political activists, journalists, parliamentarians, writers, editors, publishers, students, dentists, scientists, military as victims, doctors, refugees, armed conflict, military, impunity, constitutional change, political background, release, photographs, UN
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/18/94)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 1994
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forthy-ninth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar in accordance with paragraph 20 of Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/85 of 9 March 1994 and Economic and Social Council decision 1994/269 of 25 July 1994.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Testimony of SLORC Army Defectors
        Date of publication: 07 August 1994
        Description/subject: "TOPIC SUMYARY:SLORC recruiting methods (p.2,5,7,8,10111), drafting old men and teenagers (p.2,6,7,8,10), abuse during military training (p.3,6,8), theft of food, medicines & salary by officers (p.3,6,9,11), censorship of letters (p.4,6-7,8), beating/torture of soldiers (p.3,6,8,9,10), officers ordering their own wounded shot (p.4,6,10), execution Karen POWs (p.4), execution, enslavement and abuse of villagers (p.4-5,7,9,10,11,), using porters in battle (p.4), situation inside Burma (p.5,7,9,10)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Comments by SLORC Army Defectors
        Date of publication: 20 June 1994
        Description/subject: "The following comments were made recently in independent interviews with defectors from the SLORC Army in Mergui/Tavoy District, in the Tenasserim Division of southern Burma. Some of them defected earlier this year, while others defected over a year ago. However, all of their comments still apply because as the SLORC Army continues to rapidly expand, conditions continue to deteriorate for both civilians and rank-and-file soldiers. In fact, as the comments of these former soldiers make clear, it seems that only the senior officers are deriving any benefit at all from the systematic oppression of the civilian population. The monthly salary before deductions of a private soldier, 450 Kyat, is not even enough to buy milled rice for two people for a month at current prices - not to mention that people also need other food to eat with their rice. Meanwhile, inflation continues to rage throughout the country as the Kyat becomes increasingly worthless..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 February 1994
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1994/57)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: A Swamp Full of Lillies
        Date of publication: February 1994
        Description/subject: "Human rights violations committed by units/personnel of Burma's Army, 1992-1993". 60 pages of summaries of incidents, classified by Burma army units, with date, army unit, name of commanding officer (where available), short description of incident. Important document. See also "Dacoits Inc." (1996) which covers 1994-1995.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: PDF (2897K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept.:Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1993
        Date of publication: 31 January 1994
        Description/subject: Events of 1993
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (110K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1994 - Events of 1993: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1994
        Description/subject: Events of 1993... "The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC continued to be a human rights pariah, despite its cosmetic gestures to respond to international criticism. Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize, was permitted visits from her family but remained under house arrest for the fifth year. SLORC announced the release of nearly 2,000 political prisoners, but it was not clear that the majority had been detained on political charges, nor could most of the releases be verified. At least one hundred critics of SLORC were detained during the year, and hundreds of people tried by military tribunals between 1989 and 1992 remained in prison. Torture in Burmese prisons continued to be widespread. Foreign correspondents were able to obtain visas for Burma more easily, but access by human rights and humanitarian organizations remained tightly restricted. A constitutional convention met throughout the year, but over 80 percent of the delegates were hand-picked by SLORC..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: MYANMAR: Human rights developments July to December 1993
        Date of publication: 31 December 1993
        Description/subject: "While there are signs of relaxation of restrictions and some progress in economic, social and cultural rights, many civil and political rights are still severely restricted. Particularly, the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedoms from slavery, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment, freedoms of thought, opinion, expression, peaceful assembly and association are widely violated and ignored especially in connection with forced labour, forced relocation, political activities including activities related to political parties and the National Convention."... "Amnesty International welcomes certain incremental improvements which the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar's military authorities, have made in regards to the human rights situation. However the organization remains concerned that a system of repression is still in place which is being used to violate the fundamental human rights of the people of Myanmar. During 1993 non-violent critics of the SLORC were arrested and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, and ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen, were still at grave risk of repressive measures by the Myanmar security forces in the course of their counterinsurgency operations. Torture and ill-treatment of both ethnic minorities during forced portering and of political prisoners in Myanmar's jails continues to be a common occurrence. Some 70 prisoners of conscience remain in detention, most of whom have been sentenced after blatantly unfair trials. Other prisoners of conscience who have been released are routinely subjected to intimidation, which takes the form of surveillance, threats, and interrogation. Delegates to the SLORC-controlled National Convention have also been subject to similar repressive measures which have denied them the rights to freedom of expression and assembly..." Developments at the National Convention, Political Detention, Recent Arrests, Human rights violations against members of the Karen ethnic minority, Burmese Muslim refugees. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Other International Organizations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/myanmar_burma/document.do?id=A059B998242172D4802569A6006044AF
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2005


        Title: GA 1993: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 November 1993
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-eighth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Professor Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with paragraph 16 of the Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/73 of 10 March 1993 and Economic and Social Council decision 1993/278 of 28 July 1993.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/48/578)
        Format/size: PDF (88K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/026307f31845840dc125699000591d47/$FILE/9361495E.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHR 1993: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 17 February 1993
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1993/37)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 - Events of 1992: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1993
        Description/subject: Events of 1992...Human Rights Developments Burma (Myanmar) in 1992 remained one of the human rights disasters in Asia. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi continued under house arrest, and an unknown number of political dissidents remained in prison. Reports of military abuses against members of ethnic minority groups were frequent. Certain positive measures were taken by Burma's military junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (slorc), such as the release of several hundred alleged political prisoners and slorc's accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. But the changes were largely superficial, and human rights violations persisted unchecked. ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Report to the U.S. House Subcomittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs(1993)
        Date of publication: 1993
        Description/subject: Testimony of Karen Parker J. D. before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee on Asian and Pacific Affairs. Main headings: Illegitimacy of SLORC; G ross violatoins of human rights; Armed Conflict; The NDF/DAB-SLORC War; The Karenni-SLORC War; U.S. Policy. "I am pleased to have this opportunity to provide the Sub- Committee with information regarding Burma and my views on what United States policy should be towards that country... This statement will set out the situation in Burma from the point of view of international law norms. It will also present actions taken at the United Nations and its human rights bodies, including a review of Aung San Suu Kyi's case at the Working Group. It will conclude with recommendations regarding United States policy. There are three salient features of the situation of human rights in Burma: (1) the current regime is illegitimate; (2) the regime is particularly brutal; and (3) there is wide scale armed conflict, primarily involving the ethnic nationalities who have been fighting against the SLORC regime and its predecessor governments..."
        Author/creator: Karen Parker
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar: 'No law at all' Human rights violations under military rule
        Date of publication: 28 October 1992
        Description/subject: "I would like to explain about this martial law according to records that I have studied... martial law is neither more nor less than the will of the general who commands the army; in fact, martial law means no law at all." (Major General Khin Nyunt, Secretary-1 of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and head of military intelligence, 15 May 1991.)... "Human rights are grossly and persistently violated throughout Myanmar. The victims come from every section of society, and every ethnic and religious group. Opposition to the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) has been systematically suppressed; over 1,500 political activists have been jailed, sometimes following unfair trials and sometimes with no trial at all. Many have been tortured or have suffered other forms of ill-treatment. The military continues to detain civilians to work as porters or as labourers who are routinely ill-treated and even summarily killed when they become too exhausted to continue working. In ethnic minority areas where the military confronts armed insurgency, defenceless civilians have been arbitrarily arrested, tortured and killed. Minorities in areas where there is little or no armed opposition, like the Muslims of Rakhine (Arakan) State, have also fallen victim to gross violations of their basic rights, including arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial execution..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA16/11/92)
        Format/size: pdf (602K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 June 2006


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1992 - Events of 1991: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1992
        Description/subject: Events of 1991..." Refusing to respect the results of the 1990 general elections, Burma's military leaders intensified their crackdown on political dissent throughout the country in 1991. Repression was worse than any other time in recent years, marked by a complete lack of basic freedoms and the continuing imprisonment of thousands of suspected opponents of the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). By the middle of the year, the crackdown extended beyond members of the main opposition parties to include a massive purge of those employed in the civil service, schools and universities. In late 1990 and early 1991, SLORC also heightened its offensive against ethnic minority insurgent groups, resulting in widespread civilian casualties and the displacement of tens of thousands of people along Burma's borders. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi helped to focus attention on SLORC's disastrous human rights record. The crackdown on members and supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi's party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was especially severe..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "Dying for Democracy" Journal of the British Section of Amnesty International No. 48 Dec/Jun 1990/1
        Date of publication: January 1991
        Description/subject: This is an article from Journal of the British Section of Amnesty International No. 48 Dec/Jun 1990/1... Myanmar, once known as a green and gentle land of golden pagodas, is now a country of blood and terror...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The British Section of Amnesty International
        Format/size: pdf (124K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Recent developments related to human rights
        Date of publication: 01 November 1990
        Description/subject: This report describes some of the human rights violations which have taken place in Myanmar between May and September 1990, including the arrest of political activists and ill-treatment of political prisoners. It reports the continuing detention of members and leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD), namely: Aung San Suu Kyi, Tin U, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing, Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Ye Myint Aung, Sein Kla Aung, Kyi Hla, Sein Hlaing, Myo Myint Nyein, and Nyan Paw. Three leaders of the Democratic Party for a New Society have also been arrested: Kyi Win, Ye Naing, Ngwe Oo.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/28/90)
        Format/size: pdf (10K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/028/1990/en
        Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Prisoners of Conscience, Torture, Extrajudicial Executions (Amnesty International Briefing)
        Date of publication: October 1990
        Description/subject: Profile of Myanmar... The iron road... War on the borders... Silencing the democracy movement... Prisoner of conscience... Cultural activists imprisoned... Prisoner of conscience... The vocabulary of torture... 'See how we deal with insurgents'... Riding a motor-cycle... 'Nothing but an ambush'... 'Nothing but an ambush'... The soldiers gave no warning... Laws restricting basic rights... Martial law summary justice... Recommendations... Information from Amnesty International...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/09/90)
        Format/size: pdf (2.91MB)
        Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


        Title: MYANMAR: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE AND TORTURE
        Date of publication: 02 May 1990
        Description/subject: "The 26-year rule of General Ne Win's Burma Socialist Programme Party came to an end when Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Saw Maung led a military coup on 18 September 1988. The coup followed months of pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country - and the deaths of thousands of mostly peaceful demonstrators as a result of shootings by the army. Since the coup, severe human rights violations, including mass arrests of prisoners of conscience and possible prisoners of conscience, widespread torture, summary trials, and extrajudicial executions continued to occur at a very high level. Recent testimonies obtained by Amnesty International describe these human rights abuses and indicate that real or imputed critics of Myanmar's military government run a high risk of being imprisoned, interrogated, and tortured for the peaceful expression of their political views. The new military government pledged political and economic reforms that appeared to go some way towards meeting the demands of pro-democracy protesters. The authorities announced that elections to a new parliament would take place in May 1990, following which a new constitution would be drawn up to lay the foundation for a multi-party, parliamentary democracy. For the first time since 1962 political opposition parties were permitted to organize and were recognized by the government. However, the promised transition to parliamentary democracy was marred by renewed repression even as the new military government established itself. Hundreds of people were shot in the weeks following the coup by troops who fired on demonstrators without warning. Possibly thousands had been detained by the military government by March 1990, many of them prisoners of conscience. Prisoners of conscience included the main opposition leaders, many of whom were arrested in July 1989 and officially disqualified by the SLORC from standing in the elections. Evidence based on interviews conducted in November and December 1989 by Amnesty International from recently released political prisoners and refugees who have fled the country suggests not only that torture and unlawful killings of civilians in ethnic minority areas continue to be widespread but that torture of political suspects occurs in other parts of the country (i.e. non-ethnic minority areas). Several of those interviewed had been prisoners of conscience, arrested, interrogated and tortured for the peaceful exercise of their fundamental human rights. In the light of this new information, Amnesty International is seriously concerned that any person arrested for political reasons in Myanmar must be considered to be at risk of torture by government security forces..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16-04-90)
        Format/size: pdf (68K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2005


        Title: HUMAN RIGHTS IN BURMA (MYANMAR)
        Date of publication: May 1990
        Description/subject: "Burma's people go to the polls on May 27, 1990, in the first election to be held in the country in thirty years. However, human rights violations are so widespread and restrictions on political expression so severe as to render impossible a free and fair election. An Asia Watch mission to Burma and Thailand in April 1990 confirmed that the Burmese military authorities continue to engage in a consistent pattern of gross human rights abuses both in the interior and along the border. In Rangoon and other major cities, political dissidents have been jailed or placed under house arrest, torture of political detainees is widespread, martial law remains in effect throughout most of the country, criticism of the military is banned, and hundreds of thousands have been forcibly relocated to outlying areas lacking basic amenities. In its recent offensive against ethnic minority guerrilla forces on the Thai border, the Burmese army has indiscriminately killed or wounded hundreds of civilians and looted or burned homes and private property. Thousands of civilians have been compelled to serve as porters for the army. As such, they are brutally mistreated and are forced to carry supplies or to serve as human mine-sweepers. Porters have been shot or beaten for trying to escape, and those who become exhausted or ill are routinely left to die..."
        Author/creator: James A. Goldston
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asia Watch (A Committee of Human Rights Watch)
        Format/size: pdf (505K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 June 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1990 - Events of 1989: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1990
        Description/subject: Events of 1989... "The military government in Burma, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, intensified political repression in the wake of the opposition's landslide victory in elections for a new National Assembly held in May 1990. Soon after taking power in September 1988, following an unprecedented nationwide uprising against the 26-year-old rule of General Ne Win and his Burma Socialist Programme Party in which security forces are believed to have killed an estimated 3,000 to 10,000 protestors, SLORC promised to deliver power to a civilian government as soon as elections could be organized..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1989 - Events of 1988: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1989
        Description/subject: Events of 1988... "The Bush administration's stance on Burma (Myanmar) was generally positive, although the U.S. embassy in Thailand has been slow to respond to requests for refugee status by Burmese students fleeing repression. The human rights situation in Burma continued to deteriorate sharply throughout 1989, following the bloody end in September 1988 of Burma's pro-democracy demonstrations, when at least 3000 students and other largely unarmed civilians on the streets of the capital and other cities were massacred. The Reagan administration was quick to suspend its small military and economic aid program, and the Bush administration continued to speak out against Burmese rights violations. As one diplomat in Rangoon told the Washington Post in March, "Since there are no U.S. bases and very little strategic interest, Burma is one place where the United States has the luxury of living up to its principles." ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: BURMA THE 18 SEPTEMBER 1988 MILITARY TAKEOVER AND ITS AFTERMATH
        Date of publication: December 1988
        Description/subject: "Widespread human rights violations have taken place throughout the country since March 1988 as security forces have moved to suppress unprecedented popular unrest that culminated in August in a huge uprising demanding an end to authoritarian military rule and the establishment of multi-party democracy. Several thousand mostly non-violent demonstrators including women and children were reportedly killed by government security forces in March, June and August in Rangoon, the capital, and in Mandalay, Moulmein, Pegu, Prome, Taunggyi, Sagaing and other towns. During the same period a thousand others, including prisoners of conscience, were arrested and held for long periods, mostly in incommunicado detention. Although many of them were reportedly released after, sometimes brutal, interrogation, hundreds, including prisoners of conscience, were reported, in early September, to be still in prison, many without charge or trial. On 18 September 1988 the army staged a coup and brutally re-imposed government control over the administration of the country which had been almost paralysed by a series of general strikes that had involved an enormous number of people throughout the country. The coup and its immediate aftermath prompted a fresh outburst of street violence that resulted in hundreds more mostly peaceful, unarmed demonstrators being killed and wounded and thousands of others being arrested. Although no official figure was available, by December 1988 hundreds of political prisoners nationwide (including possible prisoners of conscience) arrested since or before 18 September, were believed to be in detention, most of them without charge or trial..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/00/88, ASA 16/15/88)
        Format/size: pdf (83K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


        Title: BURMA: EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION AND TORTURE OF MEMBERS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES
        Date of publication: May 1988
        Description/subject: "Thousands of ethnic minority people have fled Burma to escape the indiscriminate brutality of the army's counter-insurgency operations. Most of the refugees are from the Karen State, a mountainous area bordering on Thailand. Others come from the Mon and Kachin States and other parts of Burma. Their plight has received little attention from the international community. In this report Amnesty International publishes, for the first time, a detailed account of the widespread extrajudicial executions, and torture and harsh treatment inflicted on these people by soldiers operating in defiance of both Burmese and international law...Since 1984 the Burmese army has waged intensive counter-insurgency campaigns against various armed opposition groups, including minority movements fighting for greater autonomy in the Karen, Kachin and Mon States. The civilian population has suffered heavily in counter-insurgency drives. Most of the people living in these remote and mountainous states are illiterate villagers making a living out of rice farming or petty trading. To deny the insurgents any possible logistical or other support the army has imposed harsh restrictions on the villagers' lives, including controls on their movement, residence and wealth. Whole villages have been regrouped in "strategic hamlets" - fenced settlements - under strict curfew. These restrictions impose intolerable hardships on rice farmers, whose livelihood depends on free movement to tend their crops in often far-off fields, and on itinerant traders who ply their wares between villages. People are forced to risk their lives in order to survive. If they are found in places declared off-limits by the army, or on roads or in fields after curfew, they are suspected of links with the insurgents and may be summarily shot or taken into custody and tortured. Mutilated bodies are sometimes left by roadsides and in the fields...1. SUMMARY 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1 SOURCES AND THE SCALE OF ABUSES 2.2 BACKGROUND 2.2.1 HISTORICAL SKETCH 2.2.2 KAREN INSURGENCY 2.2.3 KACHIN AND MON INSURGENCIES 2.3 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S POSITION ON ABUSES BY ARMED OPPOSITION FORCES 12 3. EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION OF KAREN BY THE ARMY 3.1 CIRCUMSTANCES AND METHODS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION 3.2 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION FOR DISOBEYING RESTRICTIONS ON LIVELIHOOD 3.3 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION OF PORTERS AND GUIDES 3.4 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION FOR OTHER REASONS 4. TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF KAREN BY THE ARMY 4.1 CIRCUMSTANCES AND METHODS OF TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT 4.2 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT DURING INTERROGATION 4.3 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT AS PUNISHMENT 4.4 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF WIVES TAKEN AS HOSTAGES 5. TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF KACHIN AND MON BY THE ARMY AND POLICE 5.1 KACHIN CASES 5.2 MON CASES 6. BURMESE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW AND AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 BURMESE LEGAL SAFEGUARDS AND REMEDIES RELATED TO HUMAN 6.1.1 PROVISIONS AGAINST TORTURE AND UNLAWFUL KILLING 6.1.2 FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST AND DETENTION 6.1.3 THE JUDICIARY 6.1.4 POLITICAL OFFENCES INVOLVING VIOLENCE 6.1.5 EMERGENCY ABRIDGEMENT OF RIGHTS 6.1.6 INSPECTION AND COMPLAINTS PROCEDURES 6.2 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 6.3 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE GOVERNMENT 6.4 GOVERNMENT REJECTION OF ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION 6.5 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE GOVERNMENT 6.5.1 HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT STATEMENTS AGAINST HUMAN RIGHTS 6.5.2 FULL GOVERNMENT INQUIRY/PROSECUTION OF RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITIES 6.5.3 LEGISLATIVE REFORM AND ENFORCEMENT 6.5.4 IMPROVED TRAINING OF SECURITY FORCES 6.5.5 COMPENSATION FOR VICTIMS AND THEIR RELATIVES 6.5.6 PROVIDING ACCESS AND INFORMATION TO INTERNATIONAL BODIES 6.5.7 RATIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS 6.5.8 DIVISION OF DETENTION AND INTERROGATION RESPONSIBILITIES 6 5.9 COMPREHENSIVE PUBLIC RECORDS OF ARREST AND DETENTION..... APPENDIX 1: REPORTED VICTIMS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS; APPPENDIX 2: REPORTED VICTIMS OF TORTURE OR OTHER SEVERE ILL-TREATMENT.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16-05-88)
        Format/size: pdf (428K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2005


        Title: ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND ILLTREATMENT IN THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF BURMA
        Date of publication: September 1987
        Description/subject: "Over the past two and half years, Amnesty International has been increasingly concerned about the growing number of reports it has received of serious human rights violations in the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. These violations have allegedly been committed by Burmese government armed forces and security agencies against mostly non-combattant civilians of ethnic minority origin living in regions where armed insurgent groups are active, notably in Burma's eastern Karen and Kayah States. Similar information has, however, come out of the Shan State in the east, the Rakhine (Arakan) State in the west, the Mon State in the south and, more recently, the Kachin State in the north (see Amnesty International's Reports 1985, 1986 and 1987). The alleged violations include the frequent practice of arbitrary arrest and short-term detention without charge or trial of suspected political offenders and the torture and ill-treatment of political detainees, particularly of civilian villagers taken into military custody during military operations. They also include persistent allegations that civilian villagers suspected of supporting or sympathizing with ethnic rebels, porters and traders travelling through restricted areas as well as prisoners of war captured in combat have been extrajudicially executed for political, ethnic or other reasons...".....APPENDIX: SOME ILLUSTRATIONS OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S CONCERNS IN EASTERN BURMA (1985-EARLY 1987): ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF CIVILIAN VILLAGERS IN THE KAREN STATE
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/03.87)
        Format/size: pdf (51K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2005


        Title: "I am Still Alive" -- Report of a Survey of Human Rights Abuse in Frontier Areas of Burma, 1983-1986
        Date of publication: 1986
        Description/subject: Introduction, maps, methodology, interviews.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: pdf (976K) 42 pages
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Amnesty International annual reports (Myanmar section) from 1994

        Individual Documents

        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 (events of 2011) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 24 May 2012
        Description/subject: "The government enacted limited political and economic reforms, but human rights violations and violations of international humanitarian law in ethnic minority areas increased during the year. Some of these amounted to crimes against humanity or war crimes. Forced displacement reached its highest level in a decade, and reports of forced labour their highest level in several years. Authorities maintained restrictions on freedom of religion and belief, and perpetrators of human rights violations went unpunished. Despite releasing at least 313 political prisoners during the year, authorities continued to arrest such people, further violating their rights by subjecting them to ill-treatment and poor prison conditions..."....Background....Internal armed conflict ....Forced displacement and refugees....Forced labour....Freedom of religion or belief....Impunity....International scrutiny
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2011 (events of 2010) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: Elections-related violations ...Repression of ethnic minority activists ...Political prisoners ...Forced displacement...Development-related violations...International scrutiny.....Reports: Myanmar: End repression of ethnic minorities; Myanmar’s 2010 elections: A human rights perspective; Myanmar elections will test ASEAN’s credibility; India’s relations with Myanmar fail to address human rights concerns in run up to elections; Myanmar opposition must be free to fight elections, 10 March 2010; ASEAN leaders should act over Myanmar’s appalling rights record, 6 April 2010; Myanmar: Political prisoners must be freed, 26 September 2010; Myanmar government attacks on freedoms compromise elections, 5 November; Myanmar should free all prisoners of conscience following Aung San Suu Kyi release, 13 November 2010
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2010 (events of 2009) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 27 May 2010
        Description/subject: Background: In August, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was permitted to meet a US Senator, and in October met with her government liaison officer for the first time since January 2008. In November, she met a high-level mission from the US. In April, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, the military government) proposed that the ethnic minority armed groups that had agreed ceasefires with the government become border guard forces under SPDC command. This was in preparation for national elections in 2010 – the first since 1990 – but negotiations and fighting with such armed groups followed throughout the year. By the end of the year only nine groups agreed to the proposal, most citing a feared loss of territory or control as reasons for their refusal. Relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction in the wake of the 2008 Cyclone Nargis continued, while serious food shortages struck Chin and Rakhine States. Myanmar began building a fence on the border with Bangladesh, which increased tensions between the two countries. The international community raised concerns that the Myanmar government may be seeking nuclear capability.....Political prisoners ...Prison conditions ...Targeting ethnic minorities ...Cyclone Nargis-related arrests and imprisonment ...Armed conflict and displacement ...Development-related violations ...Child soldiers ...International scrutiny ...Death penalty ...Amnesty International reports: Open letter to the governments of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand on the plight of the Rohingyas... Myanmar: Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s new sentence “shameful”, 11 August 2009
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2009 (events of 2008) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 27 May 2009
        Description/subject: "In February, the government announced that a referendum would be held later in the year on a draft constitution, followed by elections in 2010. In May -- only a week before the scheduled day for the referendum -- Cyclone Nargis devastated parts of southern Myanmar, affecting approximately 2.4 million people. More than 84,500 people died and more than 19,000 were injured, while nearly 54,000 remained unaccounted for. In its aftermath the government delayed or placed conditions on aid delivery, and refused international donors permission to provide humanitarian assistance. Following a visit by the UN Secretary-General in late May, access improved, but the government continued to obstruct aid and forcibly evict survivors from shelters. Also in May the government extended the house arrest of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party. By the end of the year there were more than 2,100 other political prisoners. Many were given sentences relating to the 2007 mass demonstrations after unfair trials. In eastern Myanmar, a military offensive targeting ethnic Karen civilians, amounting to crimes against humanity, continued into its fourth year. The government's development of oil, natural gas and hydropower projects in partnership with private and state-owned firms led to a range of human rights abuses..."
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2008 (events of 2007) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2008
        Description/subject: "The human rights situation in Myanmar continued to deteriorate, culminating in September when authorities staged a five-day crackdown on widespread protests that had begun six weeks earlier. The peaceful protests voiced both economic and political grievances. More than 100 people were believed to have been killed in the crackdown, and a similar number were the victims of enforced disappearance. Several thousands were detained in deplorable conditions. The government began prosecutions under anti-terrorism legislation against many protestors. International response to the crisis included a tightening of sanctions by Western countries. At least 1,150 additional political prisoners, some arrested decades ago, remained in detention. A military offensive continued in northern Kayin State, with widespread and systematic violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. In western Rakhine State, the government continued negotiations on a large-scale Shwe gas pipeline, preparations for which included forced displacement and forced labour of ethnic communities..."
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2007
        Date of publication: 25 May 2007
        Description/subject: Die Menschenrechtslage in Myanmar verschlechterte sich im Lauf des Berichtsjahrs weiter, da die Behörden ihre Maßnahmen zur Unterdrückung der bewaffneten und der gewaltfreien politischen Opposition im ganzen Land verstärkten. Der UN-Sicherheitsrat setzte die Situation in Myanmar auf seine Tagesordnung. Im Zuge militärischer Operationen im Unionsstaat Kayin und im Verwaltungsbezirk Bago kam es zu systematischen Verstößen gegen die Menschenrechte und das humanitäre Völkerrecht, die möglicherweise Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit darstellten. Während die Regierung ihre Pläne zur Erarbeitung einer neuen Verfassung weiter verfolgte, wurde auf politisch engagierte Bürger massiver Druck ausgeübt, die politischen Parteien zu verlassen. Im Verlauf des Jahres wurden Hunderte Menschen in Haft genommen, die sich an friedlichen politischen Aktivitäten beteiligt oder auf andere Weise gewaltfrei ihre Rechte auf freie Meinungsäußerung und Vereinigungsfreiheit wahrgenommen hatten. Ende des Berichtsjahrs saßen die meisten führenden Persönlichkeiten der Opposition im Gefängnis oder in Verwaltungshaft. Im ganzen Land wurden mehr als 1185 politische Gefangene unter immer schlechter werdenden Haftbedingungen festgehalten. Politische Häftlinge, Zwangsarbeit; Folter und Misshandlungen; Vereinigungs- und Versammlungsfreiheit; Poltical Prisoners, Forced labour; Torture and Maltreatment; Liberty of opinion; Karen; KNU
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: Html (29K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2007 (events of 2006) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2007
        Description/subject: "Following a steep rise in fuel prices in August which in turn affected people's access to food and basic supplies, Myanmar has seen an escalation in mass peaceful protests nationwide since 21 September 2007. Led by Buddhist monks, clergy and ordinary people have taken to the street, protesting against the government, calling for a reduction in commodity prices, release of political prisoners and national reconciliation. Beginning 21 September 2007, the numbers of demonstrators increased considerably, with estimated numbers ranging from 10,000 to 100,000. Demonstrations on this scale have not been seen since the nationwide protests in 1988, which were violently suppressed by the authorities with the killing of approximately 3,000 peaceful demonstrators. In the evening of 25 September 2007, the authorities began a crackdown on the protesters, introducing a 60-day 9pm-5am curfew and issuing public warnings of legal action against protesters. Arrests of reportedly at least 700 people have followed in the former capital Yangon, the second-biggest city, Mandalay, and elsewhere. Among those arrested in Yangon were monks, members of parliament from the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), other NLD members and other public figures. Amnesty International believes these and other detainees are at grave risk of torture or other ill-treatment. The full extent of the violent crackdown is not yet known. State television reported the killing of at least nine people, eight protesters and a Japanese journalist, amidst the clampdown. This number was widely believed to be an under-estimate. There were reportedly hundreds of injuries. Websites and internets blogs carrying information and photographs of the demonstrations were blocked; internet lines were cut. Telephone lines and mobile phone signals to prominent activists and dissidents were reportedly also cut. The crisis was discussed at the United National Security Council on 26 September 2007 and a day later the Myanmar authorities agreed to a mission to the country by the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative Ibrahim Gambari..."
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2006
        Date of publication: 24 May 2006
        Description/subject: Mehr als 1100 politische Gefangene kamen in Haft oder verbüßten weiterhin ihre Freiheitsstrafen, darunter Hunderte gewaltlose politische Gefangene, die die Behörden wegen ihrer friedlichen oppositionellen Aktivitäten festgenommen hatten. Mindestens 250 politische Gefangene wurden auf freien Fuß gesetzt. Die Streitkräfte begingen erneut schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen, indem sie unter anderem Zivilisten ethnischer Minderheiten im Zuge der Aufstandsbekämpfung zu Zwangsarbeit heranzogen. Die Internationale Arbeitsorganisation (International Labour Organization – ILO) und andere UN-Organe ebenso wie internationale Hilfsorganisationen sahen sich mit zunehmenden Beschränkungen ihrer Hilfsprogramme für gefährdete Bevölkerungsgruppen konfrontiert. Zwangsarbeit; Ethnische Minderheiten; Politische Gefangene; Folter und Misshandlungen Amnesty International Report on Myanmar 2006; Forced Labor; Ethnic Minorities; Political prisoners; Torture and Maltreatment
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Format/size: Html (29K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2006 (events of 2005) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2006
        Description/subject: "Over 1,100 political prisoners were arrested or remained imprisoned. They included hundreds of prisoners of conscience, held for peaceful political opposition activities. At least 250 political prisoners were released. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations, including forced labour, against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency activities. The International Labour Organization (ILO), other UN agencies and international aid organizations faced increasing restrictions on their ability to assist vulnerable populations..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Report 2005 (events of 2004) - Section on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 May 2005
        Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2004... "In October the Prime Minister was placed under house arrest and replaced by another army general. Despite the announcement of the release of large numbers of prisoners in November, more than 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison, and arrests and imprisonment for peaceful political opposition activities continued. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency operations in the Mon, Shan and Kayin States, and in Tanintharyi Division. Restrictions on freedom of movement in states with predominantly ethnic minority populations continued to impede farming, trade and employment. This particularly impacted on the Rohingyas in Rakhine State. Ethnic minority civilians living in all these areas continued to be subjected to forced labour by the military..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2004 (events of 2003) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 26 May 2004
        Description/subject: On 30 May, while travelling in Upper Myanmar, leaders and supporters of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, including General Secretary Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, were attacked by pro-government supporters. At least four people were killed and scores of government critics were arrested. Many of those arrested after 30 May were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. Discussions between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), the military government, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi did not progress during the year. Ethnic minority civilians continued to suffer extensive human rights violations, including forced labour, in SPDC counterinsurgency operations in parts of the Shan, Kayin, Kayah, and Mon States.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2004
        Date of publication: May 2004
        Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2003
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
        Format/size: html (27K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 June 2004


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2003 (events of 2002) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 28 May 2003
        Description/subject: Events of 2002 "...Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was released from de facto house arrest in May. There was no reported progress in confidential talks about the future of the country, begun in October 2000, between the ruling military government – the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) – and Aung San Suu Kyi. However, over 300 political prisoners were released during the year, bringing the total of those released since January 2001 to over 500. Some 1,300 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison and some 50 people were arrested for political reasons, despite the SPDC's stated commitment to release political prisoners as part of their undertaking to work with the NLD. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in most of the seven ethnic minority states, particularly the Shan and Kayin states. Civilians continued to be the victims of human rights violations in the context of the SPDC's counter-insurgency tactics in parts of the Shan and Kayin states..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2003: Myanmar
        Date of publication: January 2003
        Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2002
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
        Format/size: html (29K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Jahresbericht 2002
        Date of publication: 28 May 2002
        Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2001
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
        Format/size: html (28K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Myanmar: Hausarrest von Daw Aung San Suu Kyi aufgehoben
        Date of publication: 07 May 2002
        Description/subject: amnesty international begrüßt den Schritt. Hintergrundinformation über die Menschenrechtslage im Land Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir eine Presseerklärung von amnesty international anlässlich der Aufhebung des Hausarrests für die Oppositionspolitikerin Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar vom 7. Mai 2002 sowie einen Auszug aus dem Länderbericht Myanmar aus dem ai Jahresbericht 2002, der Ende Mai veröffentlicht wurde.
        Author/creator: Pressemitteilung ai
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: AG Friedensforschung an der Uni Kassel
        Format/size: html (18,9k)
        Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2002 (events of 2001) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: May 2002
        Description/subject: "Events of 2001" ...... In January the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Myanmar announced that a confidential dialogue had been taking place since October 2000 between the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD). The dialogue was believed to have continued for most of 2001. However, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under de facto house arrest, although international delegations were permitted to visit her. Some 1,600 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison. Almost 220 people were released. Three people were sentenced to death for drug trafficking. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in the ethnic minority states, particularly Shan and Kayin states.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2001 (events of 2000) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 June 2001
        Description/subject: Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2001: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 30 May 2001
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
        Format/size: html (28K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2000 (events of 1999) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 June 2000
        Description/subject: "Scores of people were arrested for political reasons and 200 people, some of them prisoners of conscience, were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced in May that it had begun to visit prisons and other places of detention. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities not taking an active part in hostilities, during counter-insurgency operations, particularly in the Kayin State. Forcible relocation continued to be reported in the Kayin State, and the effects of massive forcible relocation programs in previous years in the Kayah and Shan States continued to be felt as civilians were still deprived of their land and livelihood and subjected to forced labour and detention by the military..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1999 (events of 1998) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1999
        Description/subject: "More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons. Political prisoners were tortured and ill-treated, and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions, torture, ill-treatment during forced portering, and other forms of forced labour and forcible relocations. Six political prisoners were sentenced to death. No executions were known to have taken place..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1998 (events of 1997) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1998
        Description/subject: "More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons; although most were released, 31 _ five of them prisoners of conscience _ were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Two people were sentenced to death..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Archive.org
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1997 (events of 1996) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1997
        Description/subject: "More than 1,000 people involved in opposition political activities, including 68 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Almost 2,000 people were arrested for political reasons, including at least 23 prisoners of conscience. Although most were released, 45 were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials and 175 were still detained without charge or trial at the end of the year. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Seven people were sentenced to death..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1996 (events of 1995) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1996
        Description/subject: "At least 1,000 people involved in opposition political parties remained imprisoned, including hundreds of prisoners of conscience and possible prisoners of conscience. At least 32 people were arrested for political reasons; 17 were still detained at the end of the year. At least 163 political prisoners, including six prisoners of conscience, were released. Prisoners were tortured and held in conditions which amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to be subjected to human rights violations which included torture and ill-treatment and possible extrajudicial executions. Thousands of ethnic Burmans, in particular those convicted of criminal offences, were also forced to act as porters and labourers. One person was sentenced to death. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar’s military government chaired by General Than Shwe, continued to rule by decree in the absence of a constitution. Martial law decrees severely restricting the rights to freedom of expression and assembly remained in force throughout the year..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1995 (events of 1994) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1995
        Description/subject: "Hundreds of government opponents remained imprisoned, including dozens of prisoners of conscience. Some were detained without trial, but most had been sentenced after unfair trials. At least 17 people were arrested for political reasons, including five prisoners of conscience. Prisoners of conscience and other political prisoners were held in conditions amounting to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Persistent human rights violations continued to be reported from many parts of the country, with members of ethnic minorities particularly targeted. The violations included: arbitrary seizure of civilians to serve as military porters and labourers; demolition of homes; ill-treatment; and possible extrajudicial executions. Five people were sentenced to death..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld (UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


        Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1994 (events of 1993) - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 01 January 1994
        Description/subject: "Hundreds of government opponents remained imprisoned, including dozens of prisoners of conscience, despite the release of some 2,000 others in the last 20 months, and at least 40 new political arrests were made. Some of those held were detained without trial, but most had been sentenced after unfair trials. Persistent human rights violations continued to be reported from many parts of the country, with members of ethnic minorities particularly targeted. The violations included arbitrary seizure of civilians to serve as military porters or labourers, ill-treatment and extrajudicial executions..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld (UNHCR)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


      • Amnesty International reports on Burma/Myanmar
        These reports include older reports not on the Amnesty site...For recent reports, go to www.amnesty.org then to Library, then to the Advanced Search...Search for Myanmar

        Individual Documents

        Title: MYANMAR: CONDITIONS IN PRISONS AND LABOUR CAMPS
        Date of publication: September 1995
        Description/subject: "Amnesty International has recently received new information about appalling conditions in labour camps and prisons in Myanmar. Unofficial sources have provided details about the treatment of prisoners, including torture, prolonged shackling, lack of proper medical care, and insufficient food. Torture techniques include beatings, sometimes to the point of unconsciousness; being forced to crawl over sharp stones; and being held in the hot sun for prolonged periods. Such practices are used by Myanmar's security forces to punish and intimidate prisoners. Conditions in labour camps are so harsh that hundreds of prisoners have died as a result. Many prisoners who have been forced to work as porters for the army have also died as a result of ill-treatment. In the material which follows, Amnesty International has omitted details which could identify imprisoned individuals, for fear of placing them at even greater risk of torture and illtreatment. Most of the information below concerns Insein Prison, Myanmar's largest detention facility, where at least 800 political prisoners are held along with thousands of people imprisoned under criminal charges. Insein Prison is located in the outskirts of Yangon (Rangoon, the capital). Thousands of other political prisoners are held in prisons throughout the country; however it is much more difficult to obtain information about conditions in these facilities..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/22/95)
        Format/size: pdf (23.9K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


        Title: Myanmar: FURTHER INFORMATION ON IMPRISONED DOCTOR- Dr Ma Thida
        Date of publication: 15 August 1995
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/20/95)
        Format/size: pdf (13.42KB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


        Title: Myanmar: The climate of fear continues, members of ethnic minorities and political prisoners still targeted
        Date of publication: August 1993
        Description/subject: "The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar's military rulers, continues to commit grave human rights violations against the Burmese people with impunity. Members of political opposition parties and ethnic minorities alike live in an atmosphere of fear which pervades all areas of the country. Some improvements have been made in the human rights situation, but the SLORC has not instituted more fundamental changes which would provide the population of Myanmar with protection from ongoing and systematic violations of human rights. Amnesty International welcomes these limited improvements, but it believes that the degree and scope of human rights violations in Myanmar continue to warrant serious international concern. In the material which follows, Amnesty International's concerns in the period from September 1992 until July 1993 are described in detail. Although over 1700 political prisoners have been released since April 1992, hundreds of others are believed to remain imprisoned after unfair trials or are detained without charge or trial. The rights to freedom of expression and assembly are still denied, although the tactics the SLORC uses to restrict them have changed. Because most perceived critics of the military have been silenced and remain behind bars, the SLORC now uses the Military Intelligence Services (MIS) to intimidate and harrass any real or impugned government critics who have been released or who remain at liberty. However, people who openly criticize the SLORC are still being arrested and sentenced to terms of imprisonment after unfair trials, and conditions of detention remain very poor, particularly for students and young people. Gross human rights violations against ethnic minority groups systematically committed by the Myanmar armed forces constitute a pattern of repression and state-sanctioned violence which has been ongoing since at least 1984. The army, known as the tatmadaw, continues to torture, ill-treat, and extrajudicially execute members of ethnic minorities, including the Karen, Mon, Shan, and Kayah groups. Whole villages are subject to being arbitrarily seized as porters or unpaid labourers where they are routinely severely mistreated or even killed by the tatmadaw. Ethnic minorities are also accused of supporting insurgent groups and have been ill-treated and extrajudicially killed on the spot in their villages or fields. For the past two years women and children have been subject to a wide range of human rights violations, including rape and murder, as they have been left behind in their villages after men have fled in the face of tatmadaw abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnsty International USA (ASA 16/06/93)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2005


        Title: 1993_Women's_Action [AUNG SAN SUU KYI MYANMAR (BURMA)]
        Date of publication: 1993
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: pdf (95.89KB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


        Title: MYANMAR: THOUSAND OF PEOPLE VICTIMS OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
        Date of publication: 28 October 1992
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/12/92)
        Format/size: pdf (5K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: RE: MYANMAR REFUGEES IN BANGLADESH, URGENT NEWS RELEASE
        Date of publication: 19 March 1992
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/92)
        Format/size: pdf (5K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: Myanmar: A long-term human rights crisis
        Date of publication: January 1992
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/03/92)
        Format/size: pdf (22K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: BANGLADESH: Threat of forcible return of refugees to Myanmar (Burma)
        Date of publication: 12 December 1991
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 13/11/91)
        Format/size: pdf (40.41KB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


        Title: Myanmar: AUNG SAN SUU KYI PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE, NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER
        Date of publication: 10 December 1991
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/12/91)
        Format/size: pdf (5K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: MYANMAR: HUNDREDS MORE ARRESTED IN CAMPAIGN TO "DESTROY" OPPOSITION
        Date of publication: 10 December 1991
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/11/91)
        Format/size: pdf (5K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: UNION OF MYANMAR (BURMA): Arrests and trials of political prisoners January-July 1991
        Date of publication: December 1991
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/10/91)
        Format/size: pdf (136K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: MYANMAR (BURMA): Continuing killings and ill-treatment of minority peoples
        Date of publication: August 1991
        Description/subject: "According to evidence gathered by Amnesty International in June and July 1991, the Myanmar (Burma)1 armed forces, officially known by their Burmese name tatmadaw, continue to seize arbitrarily, ill-treat and extrajudicially execute members of ethnic and religious minorities in rural areas of the country. The victims include people who were detained or targeted for shooting because soldiers suspect they may sympathize with or support ethnic minority guerrilla groups that have been fighting the tatmadaw for many years. They also include people seized by the tatmadaw and compelled to perform porterage - carrying food, ammunition and other supplies - or mine-clearing work. Among those who allegedly have been killed or ill-treated are members of the Karen, Mon and "Indian"2 ethnic minorities, which groups include people belonging to the Christian, animist3 and Muslim religious minorities..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/91)
        Format/size: pdf (113K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/005/1991/en
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Update on human rights violations
        Date of publication: 01 December 1990
        Description/subject: This document reports the repression of peaceful opponents of Myanmar's Military Government (SLORC), including political party activists and buddhist monks. Unofficial reports suggest that some 90 National League for Democracy (NLD) members were arrested in late October, along with the entire leadership of the Democratic Party for a new Society. Amongst those imprisoned for political activities are Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing and Nita Yin Yin May. Among the buddhist monks and lay religious supporters arrested for involvement in a boycott of the military are: U Laba, alias U Layama, Ma Khin Mar Swe, Daw Nan, Maung Aye alias Khin Maung Aye and U Soe Myint. Ill-treatment of hunger-strikers is also reported, including the death of Maung Ko.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/39/90)
        Format/size: pdf (16K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/039/1990/en
        Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


        Title: Myanmar: "In the national interest": Prisoners of conscience, torture, summary trials under martial law.
        Date of publication: 07 November 1990
        Description/subject: This report provides compelling evidence that real or imputed critics of Myanmar's military government continue to be imprisoned for the peaceful expression of their views. It contains graphic accounts of widespread torture, both of those detained for participation in the pro-democracy movement and of people held in connection with the activities of armed opposition groups representing Myanmar's ethnic minorities. AI's concerns about arrest, detention and judicial procedures under martial law are also described. Profiles of the following prisoners are given: Nay Min, Nan Zing La, Ba Thaw, Ma Theingi, Dr Tin Myo Win, U Aung Khin, Tin Nain Tun, and U Than Nyunt. Testimonies from former and current prisoners, relatives, friends or associates are also included.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/10/90)
        Format/size: pdf (1.05MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/010/1990/en
        Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Recent developments related to human rights
        Date of publication: 01 November 1990
        Description/subject: This report describes some of the human rights violations which have taken place in Myanmar between May and September 1990, including the arrest of political activists and ill-treatment of political prisoners. It reports the continuing detention of members and leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD), namely: Aung San Suu Kyi, Tin U, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing, Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Ye Myint Aung, Sein Kla Aung, Kyi Hla, Sein Hlaing, Myo Myint Nyein, and Nyan Paw. Three leaders of the Democratic Party for a New Society have also been arrested: Kyi Win, Ye Naing, Ngwe Oo.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/28/90)
        Format/size: pdf (10K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/028/1990/en
        Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


        Title: EVIDENCE OF UNLAWFUL KILLING AND TORTURE OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN BURMA SAYS AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
        Date of publication: 11 May 1988
        Description/subject: Amnesty International said today (Wednesday, 11 May 1988) it has evidence of serious human rights violations in Burma by army units engaged in counter-insurgency operations. The victims are mainly members of Burma's ethnic minorities, civilian villagers living in remote and mountainous states where the Burmese army has been fighting various armed opposition groups. In a new report Amnesty International includes testimonies describing nearly 200 cases of apparent unlawful killing, torture and ill-treatment by government forces. The evidence comes from some of the thousands of Karen, Mon, and Kachin ethnic minority people who have fled across Burma's borders in search of safety.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/06/88)
        Format/size: pdf (323K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


        Title: SIX DEATH SENTENCES IN BURMA
        Date of publication: November 1985
        Description/subject: On 10 September 1985, six people were sentenced to death under the 1974 Narcotic Drugs Law by the Mandalay South-West Township Court No. 1. The six, named as Tun Nyan, Maung Lay (alias Tin Oo), Ma Shan Sein, Li Kya-Shin (alias Aung Pe), Ma Saw Yin and William (alias Ai Lin), were accused of trafficking in heroin. According to Amnesty International's information, these are the first persons known to have been sentenced to death in Burma for drug offences. In view of its unconditional opposition to the imposition and implementation of the death penalty, Amnesty International is appealing for the commutation of these death sentences
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/02/85)
        Format/size: pdf (31K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


        Title: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE IN BURMA
        Date of publication: December 1965
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/000/65)
        Format/size: pdf (125K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


      • Asian Human Rights Commission and Asian Legal Resources Centre

        Individual Documents

        Title: BURMA: Court issues landmark ruling on death in police custody
        Date of publication: 05 December 2012
        Description/subject: "In a landmark ruling, a court in Burma has rejected the police version of events that led to the death of a man in their custody, and has opened the door to a charge of murder to be brought against the officers involved. In its findings of 9 November 2012, a copy of which the Asian Human Rights Commission has obtained, the Mayangone Township Court ruled in the case of the deceased Myo Myint Swe that the death was unlikely to have been natural. Despite attempts by the police of the Bayinnaung Police Station to cover up the torture and murder of Myo Myint Swe, whom they had arrested over the death of a young woman, Judge Daw Aye Mya Theingi found that even though the investigating doctor had been equivocal about whether or not extensive external injuries caused by torture had resulted in the death, on the basis of the testimonies, written records and photographs submitted to the court, it was "difficult to conclude that the death was natural"..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


      • Human Rights Watch Reports on Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
        Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Reports Archive
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 May 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: World Report 2013: Burma (events of 2012)
        Date of publication: 01 February 2013
        Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained poor in 2012 despite noteworthy actions by the government toward political reform. In April, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy party won 43 of 44 seats it contested in a parliamentary by-election; the parliament consists of 224 seats in the upper house and 440 in the lower house, the majority of which remain under the control of military representatives or former military officers. President Thein Sein welcomed back exiles during the year, and released nearly 400 political prisoners in five general prisoner amnesties, although several hundred are believed to remain in prison. Freed political prisoners face persecution, including restrictions on travel and education, and lack adequate psychosocial support. Activists who peacefully demonstrated in Rangoon in September have been charged with offenses. In August 2012, the government abolished pre-publication censorship of media and relaxed other media restrictions, but restrictive guidelines for journalists and many other laws historically used to imprison dissidents and repress rights such as freedom of expression remain in place. Armed conflict between the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) continued in Kachin State in the north, where tens of thousands of civilians remain displaced. The government has effectively denied humanitarian aid to the displaced Kachin civilians in KIA territory. In conflict areas in Kachin and Shan States, the Burmese military carried out extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, torture, forced labor, and deliberate attacks on civilian areas, all which continue with impunity. Ceasefire agreements in ethnic conflict areas of eastern Burma remain tenuous. Deadly sectarian violence erupted in Arakan State in June 2012 between ethnic Arakanese Buddhists and ethnic Rohingya Muslims, a long-persecuted stateless minority of approximately one million people. State security forces failed to protect either community, resulting in some 100,000 displaced, and then increasingly targeted Rohingya in killings, beatings, and mass arrests while obstructing humanitarian access to Rohingya areas and to camps of displaced Rohingya around the Arakan State capital, Sittwe. Sectarian violence broke out again in 9 of the state’s 17 townships in October, including in several townships that did not experience violence in June, resulting in an unknown number of deaths and injuries, the razing of entire Muslim villages, and the displacement of an additional 35,000 persons. Many of the displaced fled to areas surrounding Sittwe, where they also experienced abuses, such as beatings by state security forces. Despite serious ongoing abuses, foreign governments—including the United States and the United Kingdom—expressed unprecedented optimism about political reforms and rapidly eased or lifted sanctions against Burma, while still condemning the abuses and violence..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/2013/02/world-report-2013-burma/
        Date of entry/update: 05 February 2013


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2012 - Events of 2011: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2012
        Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained dire in 2011 despite some significant moves by the government which formed in late March following November 2010 elections. Freedoms of expression, association, and assembly remain severely curtailed. Although some media restrictions were relaxed, including increased access to the internet and broader scope for journalists to cover formerly prohibited subjects, official censorship constrains reporting on many important national issues. In May and October the government released an estimated 316 political prisoners in amnesties, though many more remain behind bars. Ethnic conflict escalated in 2011 as longstanding ceasefires with ethnic armed groups broke down in northern Burma. The Burmese military continues to be responsible for abuses against civilians in conflict areas, including forced labor, extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, the use of “human shields,” and indiscriminate attacks on civilians. Despite support from 16 countries for a proposed United Nations commission of inquiry into serious violations of international humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s internal armed conflicts, no country took leadership at the UN to make it a reality. Foreign government officials expressed their optimism about government reforms despite abundant evidence of continuing systematic repression..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
        Format/size: html, pdf (64K-Burma section; 4.22MB - full report)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/wr2012.pdf (full report)
        http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-burma
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


        Title: Burma’s Continuing Human Rights Challenges
        Date of publication: 07 November 2011
        Description/subject: "One year ago Burma conducted tightly controlled elections that transferred power from a ruling military council to a nominally civilian government in which the president and senior government officials are all former generals. In 2011 the new government has taken a number of positive actions, enacted new laws that purport to protect basic rights, and promised important policy changes. The real test, however, will be in the implementation of new laws and policies and how the government reacts when Burmese citizens try to avail themselves of their rights. Meanwhile, the main elements of Burma’s repressive security apparatus, and the laws underpinning it, remain in place. In ethnic areas, the human rights situation remains dire. While there are grounds for hope that fundamental change will come to Burma, it is too early to conclude that it has in fact begun..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (105K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 November 2011


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2011 - Events of 2010: Burma section (English and Burmese)
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained dire in 2010, even after the country’s first multiparty elections in 20 years. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to systematically deny all basic freedoms to citizens and sharply constrained political participation. The rights of freedom of expression, association, assembly, and media remained severely curtailed. The government took no significant steps during the year to release more than 2,100 political prisoners being held, except for the November 13 release of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi. Calls mounted for an international commission of inquiry into serious violations of international law perpetrated by all parties to Burma’s ongoing civil conflict. The Burmese military was responsible for ongoing abuses against civilians in conflict areas, including widespread forced labor, extrajudicial killings, and forced expulsion of the population. Nonstate armed ethnic groups have also been implicated in serious abuses such as recruitment of child soldiers, execution of Burmese prisoners of war, and indiscriminate use of antipersonnel landmines around civilian areas..."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
        Format/size: pdf (43K - English; 58K - Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/HRW-WR2011-Burma(bu).pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2010 - Events of 2009: Burma section
        Date of publication: 20 January 2010
        Description/subject: "Burma's human rights record continued to deteriorate in 2009 ahead of announced elections in 2010. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) systematically denies citizens basic freedoms including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. More than 2,100 political prisoners remain behind bars. This, and the politically-motivated arrest and trial of Aung San Suu Kyi only to send her back to house arrest for another 18 months, confirmed that Burma's military rulers are unwilling to allow genuine political participation in the electoral process. The Burmese military continues to perpetrate violations against civilians in ethnic conflict areas, including extrajudicial killings, forced labor, and sexual violence..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2009 - Events of 2008: Burma section
        Date of publication: 14 January 2009
        Description/subject: Burma’s already dismal human rights record worsened following the devastation of cyclone Nargis in early May 2008. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) blocked international assistance while pushing through a constitutional referendum in which basic freedoms were denied. The ruling junta systematically denies citizens basic freedoms, including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. It regularly imprisons political activists and human rights defenders; in 2008 the number of political prisoners nearly doubled to more than 2,150. The Burmese military continues to violate the rights of civilians in ethnic conflict areas and extrajudicial killings, forced labor, land confiscation without due process and other violations continued in 2008....Cyclone Nargis...Constitutional Referendum...Human Rights Defenders...Child Soldiers...Continuing Violence against Ethnic Groups...Refugees and Migrant Workers...Key International Actors
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2008 - Events of 2007: Burma section
        Date of publication: 31 January 2008
        Description/subject: Burma’s deplorable human rights record received widespread international attention in 2007 as anti-government protests in August and September were met with a brutal crackdown by security forces of the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Denial of basic freedoms in Burma continues, and restrictions on the internet, telecommunications, and freedom of expression and assembly sharply increased in 2007. Abuses against civilians in ethnic areas are widespread, involving forced labor, summary executions, sexual violence, and expropriation of land and property......Violent Crackdown on Protests...Lack of Progress on Democracy...Human Rights Defenders...Continued Violence against Ethnic Groups...Child Soldiers...Humanitarian Concerns, Internal Displacement, and Refugees...Key International Actors.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2007 - Events of 2006: Burma section
        Date of publication: 11 January 2007
        Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Burma’s international isolation deepened during 2006 as the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continued to restrict basic rights and freedoms and waged brutal counterinsurgency operations against ethnic minorities. The democratic movement inside the country remained suppressed, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political activists continued to be detained or imprisoned. International efforts to foster change in Burma were thwarted by the SPDC and sympathetic neighboring governments..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - Events of 2005: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2006
        Description/subject: Events of 2005..."Despite promises of political reform and national reconciliation, Burma’s authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to operate a strict police state and drastically restricts basic rights and freedoms. It has suppressed the democratic movement represented by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, under detention since May 30, 2003, and has used internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority groups. Hundreds of thousands of people, most of them from ethnic minority groups, continue to live precariously as internally displaced people. More than two million have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances as asylum seekers or illegal immigrants. The removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt in October 2004 has reinforced hard-line elements within the SPDC and resulted in increasing hostility directed at democracy movements, ethnic minority groups, and international agencies..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2005 - Events of 2004: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2005
        Description/subject: Events of 2004..."Burma remains one of the most repressive countries in Asia, despite promises for political reform and national reconciliation by its authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The SPDC restricts the basic rights and freedoms of all Burmese. It continues to attack and harass democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, still under house arrest at this writing, and the political movement she represents. It also continues to use internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority rebel groups. Burma has more child soldiers than any other country in the world, and its forces have used extrajudicial execution, rape, torture, forced relocation of villages, and forced labor in campaigns against rebel groups. Ethnic minority forces have also committed abuses, though not on the scale committed by government forces. The abrupt removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt, viewed as a relative moderate, on October 19, 2004, has reinforced hardline elements of the SPDC. Khin Nyunt’s removal damaged immediate prospects for a ceasefire in the decades-old struggle with the Karen ethnic minority and has been followed by increasingly hostile rhetoric from SPDC leaders directed at Suu Kyi and democracy activists. Thousands of Burmese citizens, most of them from the embattled ethnic minorities, have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances, or live precariously as internally displaced people..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: www.hrw.org/wr2k5/wr2005.pdf
        http://books.google.co.th/books?id=dYXStZToKggC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Human+Rights+Watch+World+Report+2005+-+Events+of+2004:+Burma&source=bl&ots=A9xtmHnfym&sig=W1C8lLRGKhGswUtLWFgsPXhsmhg&hl=en&ei=HxbmTIufAYKkvgP0usjCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: World Report 2004 - Human Rights and Armed Conflict
        Date of publication: January 2004
        Description/subject: This report, covering human rights and armed conflict, has no specific Burma section, but there are a number of references to the country, which can be found with the pdf search.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
        Format/size: pdf (1.62MB)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2003 - Events of 2002: Burma section
        Date of publication: 15 January 2003
        Description/subject: With the release of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in May after nineteen months of de facto house arrest, hope arose that the military junta might take steps to improve its human rights record. However, by late 2002, talks between Suu Kyi and the government had ground to a halt and systemic restrictions on basic civil and political liberties continued unabated. Ethnic minority regions continued to report particularly grave abuses, including forced labor and the rape of Shan minority women by military forces. Government military forces continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers.....Human Rights Developments...Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html (89K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/EBO2003-HRW.htm
        Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2002 - Events of 2001: Burma section
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: There were signs of a political thaw early in the year and, for the first time in years, hopes that the government might lift some of its stifling controls on civil and political rights. By November, however, the only progress had been limited political prisoner releases and easing of pressures on some opposition politicians in Rangoon. There was no sign of fundamental changes in law or policy, and grave human rights violations remained unaddressed.....Human Rights Developments... Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2001 - Events of 2000: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2001
        Description/subject: Events November 1999-October 2000..."The Burmese government took no steps to improve its dire human rights record. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to pursue a strategy of marginalizing the democratic opposition through detention, intimidation, and restrictions on basic civil liberties. Despite international condemnation, the system of forced labor remained intact. In the war-affected areas of eastern Burma, gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law continued. There, the Shan State Army-South (SSA-S), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Karen National Union (KNU), as well as some other smaller groups, continued their refusal to agree to a cease-fire with the government, as other insurgent forces had done, but they were no longer able to hold significant territory. Tens of thousands of villagers in the contested zones remained in forced relocation sites or internally displaced within the region. Human Rights Developments The SPDC continued to deny its citizens freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement. It intimidated members of the democratic opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) into resigning from the party and encouraged crowds to denounce NLD members elected to parliament in the May 1990 election but not permitted to take their seats. The SPDC rhetoric against the NLD and its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, became increasingly extreme. On March 27, Senior Gen. Than Shwe, in his Armed Forces Day address, called for forces undermining stability to be eliminated. It was a thinly veiled threat against the NLD. On May 2, a commentary in the state-run Kyemon (Mirror) newspaper claimed there was evidence of contact between the NLD and dissident and insurgent groups, an offense punishable by death or life imprisonment. In a May 18 press conference, several Burmese officials pointed to what they said were linkages between the NLD and insurgents based along the Thai-Burma border, and on September 4 the official Myanmar Information Committee repeated this charge in a press release after Burmese security forces raided the NLD headquarters in Rangoon..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2000 - Events of 1999: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 2000
        Description/subject: Events of November 1998-October 1999)..."The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) offered no signs during the year that fundamental change was on the horizon. The SPDC's standoff with the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued. No progress was made on ending forced labor. Counterinsurgency operations by the Burmese military in several ethnic minority areas, accompanied by extrajudicial executions, forced relocation, and other abuses, led to the displacement of thousands inside Burma and the flight of yet more refugees across the border into Thailand. In one of the few positive developments during the year, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reopened its office in Rangoon in May and was able to visit Burmese prisons on a regular basis. Bilateral and multilateral policies towards Burma remained largely unchanged during the year, with sanctions in place from much of the industrialized world. Various governments tried combinations of diplomatic carrots and economic sticks to improve human rights and encourage negotiations between the SPDC and the opposition, but none had succeeded by late October. Arrests and intimidation of supporters of the NLD continued, part of a campaign that began in August 1998 after the NLD announced its intention to convene a parliament in line with the 1990 election result. This was foiled by mass arrests, and the NLD subsequently established a ten-member Committee Representing People's Parliament (CRPP), a kind of parallel parliamentary authority whose creation was seen as a direct challenge to the government. Some sixty parliamentarians remained under detention while thousands of NLD registered voters were forced to resign their party membership..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1999 - Events of 1997-98: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1999
        Description/subject: Events December 1997-early November 1998..."Ten years after the 1988 pro-democracy uprising was crushed by the army, Burma continued to be one of the world’s pariah states. A standoff between the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), and other expressions of nonviolent dissent resulted in more than 1,000 detentions during the year. Many were relatively brief, others led eventually to prison sentences. Human rights abuses, including extrajudicial executions, rape, forced labor, and forced relocations, sent thousands of Burmese refugees, many of them from ethnic minority groups, into Thailand and Bangladesh. The change in November 1997 from the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to the gentler-sounding State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) had little impact on human rights practices and policies; the SPDC’s euphemism for continued authoritarian control—”disciplined democracy”— indicated no change. In addition to pervasive human rights violations, an economy in free fall made life even more difficult for the beleaguered population..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1998 - Events of 1996-1997: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1998
        Description/subject: Events December 1996-November 1997..." Respect for human rights in Burma continued to deteriorate relentlessly in 1997. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued to be a target of government repression. NLD leaders were prevented from making any public speeches during the year, and over 300 members were detained in May when they attempted to hold a party congress. There were no meetings during the year of the government's constitutional forum, the National Convention, which last met in March 1996; the convention was one of the only fora where Rangoon-based politicians and members of Burma's various ethnic movements could meet. The government tightened restrictions on freedom of expression, refusing visas to foreign journalists, deporting others and handing down long prison terms to anyone who attempted to collect information or contact groups abroad. Persecution of Muslims increased. Armed conflict continued between government troops and ethnic opposition forces in a number of areas, accompanied by human rights abuses such as forced portering, summary executions, rape, and torture. The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) continued to deny access to U.N. Special Representative to Burma Rajsoomer Lallah. Despite its human rights practices, however, Burma was admitted as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in July..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1997 - Events of 1996: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1997
        Description/subject: Any hope that the July 1995 release of opposition leader and Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi might be a sign of human rights reforms by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) government were destroyed during 1996 as political arrests and repression dramatically increased and forced labor, forced relocations, and arbitrary arrests continued to be the daily reality for millions of ordinary Burmese. The turn for the worse received little censure from Burma's neighbors, who instead took the first step towards granting the country full membership in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and welcomed SLORC as a member of the Asian Regional Forum, a security body.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1996 - Events of 1995: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1996
        Description/subject: Events of 1995..."The most significant human rights event in Burma in 1995 was the release on July 10 of Nobel laureate and opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi after six years of house arrest. Paradoxically, the governing military State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took an increasingly hard-line stance during the year, and there was no overall improvement in the human rights situation. In some areas abuses increased, notably in the Karen, Karenni and Shan States where there was fighting, while throughout the country thousands of civilians were forced to work as unpaid laborers for the army. The SLORC continued to deny basic rights such as freedom of speech, association and religion and the right of citizens to participate in the political process..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1995 - Events of 1994: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1995
        Description/subject: Events of 1994..."The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), a military body established as a temporary government in Burma after the pro-democracy uprising in 1988, continued to be responsible for forced labor, especially on infrastructure projects; arbitrary detention; torture; and denials of freedom of association, expression, and assembly. Fighting with armed ethnic groups along the Thai and Chinese borders continued to diminish, as the SLORC reached a cease-fire agreement with the Kachin Independence Organization in February and opened talks with others. Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the democratic opposition, remained under house arrest but for the first time since her detention in July 1989 was permitted to meet with visitors outside her family. On September 21, as the U.N. General Assembly opened in New York, she was allowed out of her house for a televised meeting with the chair and secretary-1 of the SLORC, Senior General Than Shwe and Lieutenant General Khin Nyunt. A second meeting took place on October 28..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1994 - Events of 1993: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1994
        Description/subject: Events of 1993... "The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC continued to be a human rights pariah, despite its cosmetic gestures to respond to international criticism. Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize, was permitted visits from her family but remained under house arrest for the fifth year. SLORC announced the release of nearly 2,000 political prisoners, but it was not clear that the majority had been detained on political charges, nor could most of the releases be verified. At least one hundred critics of SLORC were detained during the year, and hundreds of people tried by military tribunals between 1989 and 1992 remained in prison. Torture in Burmese prisons continued to be widespread. Foreign correspondents were able to obtain visas for Burma more easily, but access by human rights and humanitarian organizations remained tightly restricted. A constitutional convention met throughout the year, but over 80 percent of the delegates were hand-picked by SLORC..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 - Events of 1992: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1993
        Description/subject: Events of 1992...Human Rights Developments Burma (Myanmar) in 1992 remained one of the human rights disasters in Asia. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi continued under house arrest, and an unknown number of political dissidents remained in prison. Reports of military abuses against members of ethnic minority groups were frequent. Certain positive measures were taken by Burma's military junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (slorc), such as the release of several hundred alleged political prisoners and slorc's accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. But the changes were largely superficial, and human rights violations persisted unchecked. ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "CHANGES IN BURMA?"
        Date of publication: 06 September 1992
        Description/subject: CHANGES IN BURMA?... I. INTRODUCTION... II. CHANGES AT THE TOP... III. RELEASE OF POLITICAL PRISONERS... IV. FAMILY VISITS ALLOWED FOR AUNG SAN SUU KYI... V. PLANNING MEETINGS FOR CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION... The Meetings... VI. SITUATION ON THE BURMA-BANGLADESH BORDER... The Repatriation Agreement... The Aftermath... Effect on Refugees... Deteriorating Conditions and Ongoing Abuses... Ongoing Negotiations... VII. SLORC'S SUSPENDED FIGHTING WITH THE KAREN... VIII. ACADEMIC FREEDOM... X. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE... United States... Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)... Japan... Australia/Canada... Poland... United Nations... XL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS... United Nations... The United States, On ASEAN:, On Investment:, On Trade:, On China:... Japan... APPENDIX A: Members of Parliament recently released from prison:... APPENDIX A: Members of Parliament (MPs) still known to be in prison:... APPENDIX C: Disqualified MPs by the General Election Commission of SLORC:... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
        Format/size: pdf (205K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1992 - Events of 1991: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1992
        Description/subject: Events of 1991..." Refusing to respect the results of the 1990 general elections, Burma's military leaders intensified their crackdown on political dissent throughout the country in 1991. Repression was worse than any other time in recent years, marked by a complete lack of basic freedoms and the continuing imprisonment of thousands of suspected opponents of the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). By the middle of the year, the crackdown extended beyond members of the main opposition parties to include a massive purge of those employed in the civil service, schools and universities. In late 1990 and early 1991, SLORC also heightened its offensive against ethnic minority insurgent groups, resulting in widespread civilian casualties and the displacement of tens of thousands of people along Burma's borders. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi helped to focus attention on SLORC's disastrous human rights record. The crackdown on members and supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi's party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was especially severe..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "BURMA: TIME FOR SANCTIONS"
        Date of publication: 15 February 1991
        Description/subject: BURMA: TIME FOR SANCTIONS... Introduction... Recommendations... APPENDIX I... Arrest and Torture of NLD officials and other dissidents... Arrest of Diplomatic Staff... List of other NLD National Assembly representatives arrested... APPENDIX II... Continuing Detention of Opposition Leaders... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
        Format/size: pdf (270K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: "BURMA: POST-ELECTION ABUSES"
        Date of publication: 14 August 1990
        Description/subject: BURMA: POST-ELECTION ABUSES... Background... Recent Demonstrations... Arrest and Torture of Political Prisoners Since the Elections... Execution of Political Prisoners... Continued Detention of Political Prisoners... Abuses of Civil Liberties... Abuses Against Refugees Returning from Thailand... Recommendations...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Human Right Watch/ Asia"
        Format/size: pdf (67K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: "BURMA (MYANMAR): WORSENING REPRESSION"
        Date of publication: 11 March 1990
        Description/subject: Arrests of Opposition Party Leaders and Candidates... The Ruling Against Aung San Suu Kyi... Restrictions on Freedom of Speech and Assembly... Forced Relocations of Civilians... Restrictions on Freedom of the Press... The Border Conflict... Forced Porterage... Student Refugees in Thailand... U.S. Policy... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
        Format/size: pdf (89K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1990 - Events of 1989: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1990
        Description/subject: Events of 1989... "The military government in Burma, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, intensified political repression in the wake of the opposition's landslide victory in elections for a new National Assembly held in May 1990. Soon after taking power in September 1988, following an unprecedented nationwide uprising against the 26-year-old rule of General Ne Win and his Burma Socialist Programme Party in which security forces are believed to have killed an estimated 3,000 to 10,000 protestors, SLORC promised to deliver power to a civilian government as soon as elections could be organized..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "Testimony of Holly Burkhalter, Asia Watch"
        Date of publication: 13 September 1989
        Description/subject: Testimony of Holly Burkhalter, Asia Watch... before the Asia and Pacific Affairs and Human Rights and International Organizations Subcommittees...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
        Format/size: pdf (411K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1989 - Events of 1988: Burma section
        Date of publication: January 1989
        Description/subject: Events of 1988... "The Bush administration's stance on Burma (Myanmar) was generally positive, although the U.S. embassy in Thailand has been slow to respond to requests for refugee status by Burmese students fleeing repression. The human rights situation in Burma continued to deteriorate sharply throughout 1989, following the bloody end in September 1988 of Burma's pro-democracy demonstrations, when at least 3000 students and other largely unarmed civilians on the streets of the capital and other cities were massacred. The Reagan administration was quick to suspend its small military and economic aid program, and the Bush administration continued to speak out against Burmese rights violations. As one diplomat in Rangoon told the Washington Post in March, "Since there are no U.S. bases and very little strategic interest, Burma is one place where the United States has the luxury of living up to its principles." ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • US State Dept. - reports on human rights in Burma

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: US State Dept, human rights page
        Description/subject: Links to the annual country reports on human rights
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


        Title: US State Dept. Information on Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1077.html
        Date of entry/update: 18 November 2010


        Title: US State Dept: Semi-Annual Reports to Congress on Conditions in Burma and US Policy Towards Burma
        Description/subject: Reports from 1997-2000
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2013
        Date of publication: 27 February 2014
        Description/subject: "...During the year the government’s human rights record continued to improve, although authorities had not fully or consistently implemented legal and policy revisions at all levels, particularly in ethnic-minority areas. Observers reported marked decreases in systemic human rights abuses committed by the government, such as torture, disappearances, and the forced use of civilians to carry military supplies in some ethnic border areas. On February 6, President Thein Sein announced the formation of a committee to identify and release political prisoners. By December 31, the committee had identified and released an estimated 330 political prisoners, bringing the total number of political prisoners released since reforms began to more than 1,100. In addition, in January the government allowed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) access to all of the country’s prisons and labor camps. The government also took significant steps to combat corruption, including the passage of anticorruption legislation, firing of six high-ranking government officials for mismanagement or corruption, and taking administrative action against corrupt civil servants. The continuing humanitarian and human rights crisis in Rakhine State was the most troubling exception – and threat – to the country’s progress during the year. Although the government provided some short-term humanitarian support to affected populations, it did little to address the root causes of the violence or to fulfill its 2012 pledge to take steps to provide a path for citizenship for the Rohingya population. Authorities in Rakhine State made no meaningful efforts to help Rohingya and other Muslim minority people displaced by violence to return to their homes and continued to enforce disproportionate restrictions on their movement. As a result, tens of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) remained confined in camps and commonly were prevented by security forces from exiting in order to gain access to livelihoods, markets, food, places of worship, and other services. This policy further entrenched the increasingly permanent segregation of the Rohingya and Rakhine communities. There were credible reports of extrajudicial killings, rape and sexual violence, arbitrary detentions and torture and mistreatment in detention, deaths in custody, and systematic denial of due process and fair trial rights, overwhelmingly perpetrated against the Rohingya. There were reports of local and state government and security officials, acting in conjunction with Rakhine and Rohingya criminal elements, smuggling and trafficking thousands of Rohingya out of the country, often for profit. In July the government disbanded the NaSaKa – the notorious security force responsible for gross human rights violations – in an effort to begin addressing the situation; however, no security or government officials were investigated or held to account. At year’s end an estimated 140,000 persons remained displaced in Rakhine State. Meanwhile, attacks on Muslim minorities spread to other parts of the country at various points throughout the year..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
        Format/size: pdf (249K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220182
        - See more at: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2014


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2012
        Date of publication: 19 April 2013
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Burma’s parliamentary government is headed by President Thein Sein. On April 1, the country held largely transparent and inclusive by-elections in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) party, chaired by Aung San Suu Kyi, won 43 of 45 contested seats out of a total 664 seats in the legislature. The by-elections contrasted sharply with the 2010 general elections, which were neither free nor fair. The ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) continued to hold an overwhelming majority of the seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies, and active-duty military officers continued to wield authority at each level of government. Military security forces reported to military channels, and civilian security forces, such as the police, reported to a nominally civilian ministry headed by an active-duty military general. In 2012 the government’s continued reform efforts resulted in significant human rights improvements, although legal and policy revisions had yet to be implemented fully or consistently at the local level, particularly in ethnic nationality areas. On January 13, President Thein Sein released an estimated 300 political prisoners, including top figures of the prodemocracy movement and all imprisoned journalists, and amnestied an estimated 140 political prisoners in subsequent releases, though none of the 2012 releases were unconditional. The government eased longstanding restrictions imposed on its citizens, including by relaxing censorship laws governing the media, expanding labor rights and criminalizing forced labor, and returning professional licenses to practice law for the majority of lawyers who had been disbarred for political activities or for their representation of political activists. The government also eased restrictions on dissidents both from within and outside the country, including removal of more than 2,000 names from a government blacklist of persons barred from entering or leaving the country based on their suspected political activity. An outbreak of communal violence in June between predominantly Buddhist Rakhine and predominantly Muslim Rohingya in Rakhine State claimed the lives of an estimated 100 civilians and displaced tens of thousands before the central government reestablished calm. Violence broke out again in October and resulted in deaths estimated to exceed 100 and the burning of more than 3,000 houses in predominantly Rohingya villages. The central government took positive steps by deploying security forces to suppress violence, granting the international community access to the conflict areas, forming an investigative commission into the causes of the violence, and engaging international experts on reconciliation. Intercommunal tensions remained high. At the end of the year, there were more than 100,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) resulting from the violence in Rakhine State. The Burma Army escalated the use of force against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in December, including through the use of air power. In July the government stopped issuing travel permission for UN humanitarian aid convoys to travel to Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)-controlled areas, effectively cutting off an estimated 40,000 IDPs from access to international humanitarian assistance. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were generally able to access these populations during this period. KIA forces allegedly destroyed civilian infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and trains, and targeted attacks on police officials in Kachin State. Significant human rights problems in the country persisted, including conflict-related abuses in ethnic minority border states; abuse of prisoners, continued detention of more than 200 political prisoners and restrictions on released political prisoners; and a general lack of rule of law resulting in corruption and the deprivation of land and livelihoods. Government security forces were allegedly responsible for cases of extrajudicial killings, rape, and torture. The government abused some prisoners and detainees, held some persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, and failed to protect civilians in conflict zones. The government undertook some legal reforms during the year, and in practice restrictions on the exercise of a variety of human rights lessened markedly, if unevenly and unreliably, compared to past years. Nevertheless, a number of laws restricting freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement remained. The government allowed for greater expression by civil society, and NGOs were able to operate more openly than in previous years; however, the mandatory registration process for NGOs remained cumbersome and nontransparent. The government signed an action plan with the UN to end illegal child soldiers. Though there were several well publicized demobilizations of child soldiers during the year, recruitment of child soldiers continued. Discrimination against ethnic minorities and stateless persons continued, as did trafficking in persons--particularly of women and girls--although the government took actions to combat this problem. Forced labor, including that of children, persisted. The government generally did not take action to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses, with a few isolated exceptions. Abuses continued with impunity. Ethnic armed groups also committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers, and failed to protect civilians in conflict zones"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
        Format/size: pdf (207K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/USDOS-Country-rep2012-Burma.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2011
        Date of publication: 25 May 2012
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Burma’s government is headed by President Thein Sein; the military-run State Peace and Development Council was officially dissolved in 2011, although former and active military officers continued to wield authority at each level of government. In November 2010 the then-military regime held the country’s first parliamentary elections since 1990, which were neither free nor fair. The government’s main party, the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), claimed an overwhelming majority of seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies. Military security forces report to military channels, and civilian security forces, such as the police, report to a nominally civilian ministry headed by an active-duty military general. Significant developments during the year included the emergence of a legislature that allowed opposition parties to contribute substantively to debates; democratic reforms such as the amendment of laws allowing opposition parties to register and Aung San Suu Kyi to announce her bid for Parliament; the release of hundreds of political prisoners; the relaxation of a number of censorship controls, the opening of some space in society for the expression of dissent; and an easing of restrictions on some internal and foreign travel for citizens. Significant human rights problems in the country persisted, including military attacks against ethnic minorities in border states, which resulted in civilian deaths, forced relocations, sexual violence, and other serious abuses. The government also continued to detain hundreds of political prisoners. Abuses of prisoners continued, including the alleged transfer of civilian prisoners to military units. These units reportedly were often engaged in armed conflict in the border areas where they were forced to carry supplies, clear mines, and serve as human shields. Government security forces were responsible for extrajudicial killings, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. The government abused some prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The government infringed on citizens’ privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government impeded the work of many domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). International NGOs continued to encounter a difficult--although somewhat improved--environment. Recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons--particularly of women and girls--continued. Forced labor, including that of children, persisted. The government generally did not take action to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses, with a few isolated exceptions. Abuses continued with impunity. Rampant corruption and the absence of due process undermined the rule of law. Ethnic armed groups also committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
        Format/size: pdf (193K-OBLversion; 166K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/186475.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2010
        Date of publication: 08 April 2011
        Description/subject: "Burma, with an estimated population of 56 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. In 2008 the regime held a referendum on its draft constitution and declared the constitution had been approved by 92.48 percent of voters, a figure no independent observers believed was valid. The government held parliamentary elections on November 7, the first elections since 1990. The government-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) claimed an overwhelming majority of seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies. Democracy activists and the international community widely criticized both the constitutional referendum and the elections process as seriously flawed. Parliament was scheduled to convene on January 31, 2011, with a special joint session of the upper and lower houses to follow within 15 days. The constitution was to go into effect when that joint session was convened. The constitution specifies that the SPDC will continue to rule until a new government is formed. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces were responsible for extrajudicial killings, custodial deaths, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment and abuse of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers, resulting in deaths, forced relocation, and other serious abuses. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups and some cease-fire groups (armed ethnic guerillas) allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers. The government released Aung San Suu Kyi--general secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD)--from house arrest on November 13, the date her sentence (for allegedly having violated the terms of her confinement) expired..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: pdf (229K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/USDOS-Country-rep2010-Burma.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 April 2011


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2009
        Date of publication: 11 March 2010
        Description/subject: "Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. In May 2008 the regime held a referendum on its draft constitution and declared the constitution had been approved by 92.48 percent of voters, a figure no independent observers believed was valid. The constitution specifies that the SPDC will continue to rule until a new parliament is convened, scheduled to take place following national elections in 2010. The military government controlled the security forces without civilian oversight. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces allowed custodial deaths to occur and committed extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers. The government sentenced Aung San Suu Kyi--general secretary of the country's independence movement, the National League for Democracy (NLD)--to 18 additional months of house arrest for violating the terms of her confinement. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2008
        Date of publication: 25 February 2009
        Description/subject: Events of 2008..."Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government controlled the security forces without civilian oversight. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces allowed custodial deaths to occur and committed other extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers. Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and NLD Vice-Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor. Some cease-fire groups reportedly committed abuses. Armed insurgent groups and cease-fire groups also recruited child soldiers..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2009


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2007
        Date of publication: 11 March 2008
        Description/subject: "Since 1962 Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government totally controlled the country's security forces without civilian oversight. The government's human rights record worsened during the year. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government. Government security forces killed at least 30 demonstrators during their suppression of prodemocracy protests in September, and they continued to allow custodial deaths to occur and commited other extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. In addition, regime‑sponsored, mass-member organizations such as the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) and regime-backed "private" militias increasingly engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government continued to detain civic activists indefinitely and without charges, including more than 3,000 persons suspected of taking part in prodemocracy demonstrations in September and October, at least 300 members of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and at least 15 members of the 88 Generation Students prodemocracy activists. The government continued to prohibit the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from working unhindered in conflict areas and visiting prisoners privately. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers in Bago Division and Karen and Shan states to drive them from their traditional land. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life‑threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. NLD General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor, although to a much lesser extent than the government. Some cease‑fire groups also reportedly committed abuses, including forced relocation of villagers in their home regions. Armed insurgent groups and cease‑fire groups also recruited child soldiers..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2006
        Date of publication: 06 March 2007
        Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Since 1962 Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government, with subordinate peace and development councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government totally controlled the country's armed forces, excluding a few active insurgent groups. The government's human rights record worsened during the year. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government. The government detained five leaders of the 88 Generation Students prodemocracy activists. The government refused to allow the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to visit prisoners privately. The army increased attacks on ethnic minority villagers in Bago Division and Karen State designed to drive them from their traditional land. In addition, the government continued to commit other serious abuses, including extrajudicial killings, custodial deaths, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. National League for Democracy (NLD) General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. Governmental authorities routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and resorted more frequently to forced relocations. The government restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a hostile environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did forced recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers rights remained restricted, and forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor, although reportedly to a much lesser extent than the government. Some cease fire groups also reportedly committed abuses, including forced relocation of villagers in their home regions. Armed insurgent groups and cease fire groups also practiced forced conscription of child soldiers..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2005
        Date of publication: 08 March 2006
        Description/subject: "...The government's human rights record worsened during the year, and the government continued to commit numerous serious abuses. The following human rights abuses were reported: * abridgement of the right to change the government * extrajudicial killings, including custodial deaths * disappearances * rape, torture, and beatings of prisoners and detainees * arbitrary arrest without appeal * politically motivated arrests and detentions * incommunicado detention * continued house arrest of National League for Democracy (NLD) General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice * Chairman U Tin Oo, and the continued closure of all NLD offices, except the Rangoon headquarters * imprisonment of members of the United Nationalities Alliance, including Hkun Htun Oo and Sai Nyunt Lwin, both leaders of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy * infringement on citizens' right to privacy * forcible relocation and confiscation of land and property * restriction of freedom of speech, press, assembly, association and movement * restriction of freedom of religion * discrimination and harassment against Muslims * restrictions on domestic human rights organizations and a failure to cooperate with international human rights organizations * violence and societal discrimination against women * forced recruitment of child soldiers * discrimination against religious and ethnic minorities * trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls for the purpose of prostitution and as involuntary wives restrictions on worker rights * forced labor (including against children), chiefly in support of military garrisons and operations in ethnic minority regions..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 March 2006


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2004
        Date of publication: 28 February 2005
        Description/subject: "Since 1962, Burma has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. In 1990, pro-democracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats during generally free and fair parliamentary elections, but the junta refused to recognize the results. The current controlling military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), is the country's de facto government, with subordinate Peace and Development Councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. On October 19, hardliners further consolidated their power by ousting former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt and appointing Soe Win. From May through July, the SPDC reconvened a National Convention (NC) as part of its purported "Road Map to Democracy." The NC excluded the largest opposition party and did not allow free debate. The judiciary was not independent and was subject to military control. The Government reinforced its rule with a pervasive security apparatus. Until its dismantling in October, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI) exercised control through surveillance, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. After October, the Government's new Military Affairs Security (MAS) assumed a similar role, though apparently with less sweeping powers. The Government justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous serious human rights abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US State Dept., Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2005


        Title: International Religious Freedom Report 2004: Burma
        Date of publication: 15 September 2004
        Description/subject: "The country has been ruled since 1962 by highly repressive, authoritarian military regimes. Since 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, a junta composed of senior military officers has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. Although there is currently no constitution in place, the principles laid out by the Government for its reconvened constitutional convention allow for "freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess and practice religion subject to public order, morality, or healthE" Most adherents of religions that are registered with the authorities generally are allowed to worship as they choose; however, the Government imposes restrictions on certain religious activities and frequently abuses the right to freedom of religion. There was no change in the limited respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report. Through its pervasive internal security apparatus, the Government generally infiltrated or monitored the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations. It systematically restricted efforts by Buddhist clergy to promote human rights and political freedom, discouraged or prohibited minority religions from constructing new places of worship, and in some ethnic minority areas coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, particularly among members of the minority ethnic groups. Under the principles that are to guide the drafting of the constitution, "the State recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the State." Christian groups continued to experience difficulties in obtaining permission to repair existing churches or build new ones in most regions, while Muslims reported that they essentially are banned from constructing any new mosques or expanding existing ones anywhere in the country. Anti-Muslim violence continued to occur during the period covered by this report, as did monitoring of Muslims' activities and restrictions on Muslim travel and worship countrywide. There were flare-ups of Muslim-Buddhist violence during the period covered by this report. Persistent social tensions remained between the Buddhist majority and the Christian and Muslim minorities, largely due to old British colonial and contemporary government preferences. There is widespread prejudice against Burmese of South Asian origin, most of whom are Muslims. The U.S. Government promoted religious freedom with all facets of society, including government officials, religious leaders, private citizens, scholars, diplomats of other governments, and international business and media representatives. Embassy staff offered support to local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and religious leaders and acted as a conduit for information exchange with otherwise isolated human rights NGOs and religious leaders. Since 1999, the U.S. Secretary of State has designated Burma as a "Country of Particular Concern" under the International Religious Freedom Act for particularly severe violations of religious freedom. ..."
        Language: English, Japanese
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
        Format/size: HTML (English: 65KB, Japanese: 50KB) , PDF (Japanese: 316KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/usa/usds_irfr2004-burma_jp.html (Japanese, HTML)
        http://www.burmainfo.org/usa/usds_irfr2004-burma_jp.pdf (Japanese, PDF)
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2004


        Title: Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy Toward Burma for the the Period September 28, 2003 – March 27, 2004
        Date of publication: 13 April 2004
        Description/subject: Introduction and Summary: "The overall situation in Burma has changed little over the past six months. The Burmese government released most persons arrested during the government’s May 2003 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy. However, many pro-democracy supporters rounded up in the aftermath of the attack remain in detention; National League for Democracy (NLD) offices remain closed; senior opposition party leaders, including Aung San Suu Kyi and U Tin Oo, remain largely incommunicado under house arrest; and the government refuses to investigate the May attack. The Government of Burma (GOB) also has arrested more people for their peaceful political activities over the past six months, while over a thousand persons remain jailed for their political beliefs. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has focused efforts on promoting its own seven-step “road map” to a "genuine and disciplined democratic system." Although the SPDC unveiled the plan in August 2003 following the announcement of new U.S. sanctions, the junta has yet to set a timetable for the transition or give assurances that all political parties and ethnic groups will be included in a transparent and democratic process. In recent months, the SPDC and the Karen National Union (KNU) entered into serious cease-fire negotiations, which could bring an end to decades of conflict. The U.S. consults with the European Union and others to maintain pressure on the Burmese junta to make progress toward a political transition. Following the events of May 30, the EU expanded the scope of its asset freeze and visa restrictions; Canada imposed visa restrictions; and Japan froze new development assistance to the junta. The UK has frozen over 3500 pounds of assets while other countries have blocked only minimal amounts; Japan is now providing assistance to some projects. No other country has adopted the economic sanctions imposed by the U.S. The SPDC’s dismal economic policies have led to widespread poverty and the flight of most foreign investors. New U.S. economic sanctions have also had an impact on at least one sector of the economy; dozens of garment factories that had relied on exports to the United States have now closed. In addition, sanctions have caused the Burmese to rely more on euros than on dollars for trade. We have no statistics on the impact of sanctions on tourism. The Burmese government abruptly reversed its ten-month old rice liberalization policy in January 2004, banning all exports of rice and other staple commodities. The 31-country member Financial Action Task Force (FATF), recommended countermeasures on the GOB, since the GOB had not implemented money-laundering legislation. Most countries imposed additional reporting requirements, and the U.S. banned correspondent relations with Burmese financial institutions. The SPDC continued to abuse severely the human rights of its citizens. Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and association remain greatly restricted. Burmese citizens are not free to criticize their government. Egregious abuses of ethnic minority civilians by the Burmese military including rape, torture, execution and forced dislocation continue. Forced labor, trafficking in persons, and religious discrimination remain serious problems. Immediate U.S. policy objectives in Burma are the release of Aung San Suu Kyi, other NLD officials, and all political prisoners, as well as the start of genuine dialogue on democracy and political reform, including the re-opening of NLD party headquarters and all NLD regional offices. Overall U.S. policy goals include establishment of constitutional democracy, respect for human rights, cooperation in fighting terrorism, regional stability, a full accounting of missing U.S. servicemen from World War II, combating HIV/AIDS, combating trafficking in persons and increased cooperation in eradicating the production and trafficking of illicit narcotics. The U.S. will continue to urge other nations to use sanctions and diplomacy to press the junta to release Aung San Suu Kyi and all political prisoners and to allow all political parties to operate. The U.S. also encourages all countries with a major interest in Burma, particularly Burma’s immediate neighbors, ASEAN, and Japan, to use their influence to convince the government to undertake immediate steps on political reform and human rights. We will continue to urge the international community to support the UN Secretary General in his efforts to start genuine talks on a political transition in Burma..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 April 2004


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2003
        Date of publication: 25 February 2004
        Description/subject: Events of 2003. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962, General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. In 1988, the armed forces brutally suppressed pro-democracy demonstrations, and a group composed of 19 military officers, called the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took control, abrogated the 1974 Constitution, and has ruled by decree since then. In 1990, pro-democracy parties won over 80 percent of the seats during generally free and fair parliamentary elections, but the Government refused to recognize the results. In 1992, then-General Than Shwe took over the SLORC and in 1997 changed its name to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The 13-member SPDC is the country's de facto government, with subordinate Peace and Development Councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. Several long-running internal ethnic conflicts continued to smolder. The judiciary was not independent and was subject to military control. The Government reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus. The Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI) exercised control through surveillance of the military, government employees, and private citizens, and through harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The Government justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses. Though resource-rich, the country is extremely poor; the estimated annual per capita income was approximately $300. Most of the population of more than 50 million was located in rural areas and lived at subsistence levels. Four decades of military rule, economic mismanagement, and endemic corruption have resulted in widespread poverty, poor health care, declining education levels, poor infrastructure, and continuously deteriorating economic conditions. During the year, the collapse of the private banking sector and the economic consequences of additional international sanctions further weakened the economy. The Government's extremely poor human rights record worsened, and it continued to commit numerous serious abuses. Citizens still did not have the right to change their government. Security forces continued to commit extrajudicial killings and rape, forcibly relocate persons, use forced labor, conscript child soldiers, and reestablished forced conscription of the civilian population into militia units. During the year, government-affiliated agents killed as many as 70 pro-democracy activists. Disappearances continued, and members of the security forces tortured, beat, and otherwise abused prisoners and detainees. Citizens were subjected to arbitrary arrest without appeal. Arrests and detention for expression of dissenting political views occurred on numerous occasions. During the year, the Government arrested over 270 democracy supporters, primarily members of the country's largest pro-democracy party, the National League for Democracy (NLD). The Government detained many of them in secret locations without notifying their family or providing access to due legal process or counsel. During the year, the Government stated it released approximately 120 political prisoners, but the majority of them had already finished their sentences, and many were common criminals and not political prisoners. By year's end, an estimated 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison. Prison conditions remained harsh and life threatening, although in some prisons conditions improved after the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was allowed access. The Government did not take steps to prosecute or punish human rights abusers. On May 30, government-affiliated forces attacked an NLD convoy led by party leader Aung San Suu Kyi, leaving several hundred NLD members and pro-democracy supporters missing, under arrest, wounded, raped, or dead. Following the attack, Government authorities detained Aung San Suu Kyi, other NLD party officials, and eyewitnesses to the attack. As of year's end, the Government has not investigated or admitted any role in the attack. The Government subsequently banned all NLD political activities, closed down approximately 100 recently reopened NLD offices, detained the entire 9-member NLD Central Executive Committee, and closely monitored the activities of other political parties throughout the country. The Government continued to restrict severely freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, and movement. During the year, persons suspected of or charged with pro-democratic political activity were killed or subjected to severe harassment, physical attack, arbitrary arrest, detention without trial, incommunicado detention, house arrest, and the closing of political and economic offices. The Government restricted freedom of religion, coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, and imposed restrictions on religious minorities. The Government's control over the country's Muslim minority continued, and acts of discrimination and harassment against Muslims continued. The Government regularly infringed on citizens' privacy; security forces continued to monitor systematically citizens' movements and communications, search homes without warrants, and relocate persons forcibly without just compensation or legal recourse. The SPDC also continued to forcibly relocate large ethnic minority civilian populations in order to deprive armed ethnic groups of civilian bases of support. The Government continued to restrict freedom of movement and, in particular, foreign travel by female citizens under 25 years of age. The Government did not permit domestic human rights organizations to function independently and remained hostile to outside scrutiny of its human rights record. However, it allowed the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Human Rights (UNSRHR) in Burma to conduct two limited missions to the country, but the Government did not allow the UNSRHR to visit all sites requested or stay for as long as he requested. It also allowed the International Labor Organization (ILO) to operate a liaison office in Rangoon; however, after the May 30 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi the ILO deferred finalizing a draft agreement with the Government on forced labor. Violence and societal discrimination against women remained problems, as did discrimination against religious and ethnic minorities. The Government continued to restrict worker rights, ban unions, and use forced labor for public works and for the support of military garrisons. Forced child labor remained a serious problem, despite recent ordinances outlawing the practice. The forced use of citizens as porters by SPDC troops--with the attendant mistreatment, illness, and sometimes death--remained a common practice, as did Government forced recruitment of child soldiers. Trafficking in persons, particularly in women and girls primarily for the purposes of prostitution, remained widespread, despite some efforts to address the problem. Ethnic armed groups including the Karen National Union (KNU), the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and the Shan State Army-South (SSA-South) also may have committed human rights abuses, including killings, rapes, forced labor, and conscription of child soldiers, although on a lesser scale than the Government..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2004


        Title: International Religious Freedom Report 2003: Burma
        Date of publication: 18 December 2003
        Description/subject: "Burma has been ruled since 1962 by highly repressive, authoritarian military regimes. Since 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive pro-democracy demonstrations, a junta composed of senior military officers has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The most recent constitution, promulgated in 1974, permits both legislative and administrative restrictions on religious freedom: "the national races shall enjoy the freedom to profess their religion, provided that the enjoyment of any such freedom does not offend the laws or the public interest." Most adherents of religions that are registered with the authorities generally are allowed to worship as they choose; however, the Government has imposed restrictions on certain religious activities and frequently abused the right to freedom of religion. There was no change in the limited respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report. Through its pervasive internal security apparatus, the Government generally infiltrated or monitored the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations. It systematically restricted efforts by Buddhist clergy to promote human rights and political freedom, discouraged or prohibited minority religions from constructing new places of worship, and, in some ethnic minority areas, coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, particularly among members of the minority ethnic groups. Christian groups continued to experience increasing difficulties in obtaining permission to build new churches in most regions, while Muslims reported that they essentially are banned from constructing any new mosques, or expanding existing ones anywhere in the country. Anti-Muslim violence continued to occur. Restrictions on Muslim travel as well as monitoring of Muslims' activities and worship countrywide have increased in recent years. There are social tensions between the Buddhist majority and the Christian and Muslim minorities, largely due to colonial and contemporary government preferences. There is widespread prejudice against Muslims. Since 1988, a primary objective of U.S. Government policy toward the country has been to promote increased respect for human rights, including the right to freedom of religion. In March, the Secretary of State designated Burma a "country of particular concern" (CPC) under the International Religious Freedom Act for particularly severe violations of religious freedom. The Secretary of State also designated Burma a CPC in 1999, 2000, and 2001. During the period covered by this report, the U.S. Embassy promoted religious freedom during contacts with all facets of Burmese society, including officials, private citizens, scholars, representatives of other governments, international media representatives, and international business representatives, as well as leaders of Buddhist, Christian, and Islamic religious groups..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
        Format/size: html (65KB)
        Date of entry/update: 18 December 2003


        Title: Report on Activities to Support Democracy Activists in Burma as Required by the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003
        Date of publication: 30 October 2003
        Description/subject: "The restoration of democracy in Burma is a priority U.S. policy objective in Southeast Asia. To achieve this objective, the United States has consistently supported democracy activists and their efforts both inside and outside Burma. However, programming aimed at organizing the democratic opposition in Burma has been difficult in the face of the military junta's tactics of terror, torture, intimidation, and censorship. As conditions have deteriorated inside Burma, especially since the events of May 30, 2003, it has become increasingly difficult to meet growing needs; many opposition leaders are detained and isolated. Addressing these needs requires flexibility and creativity. Despite the challenges that have arisen, United States Embassies Rangoon and Bangkok as well as Consulate General Chiang Mai are fully engaged in pro-democracy efforts. The United States also supports organizations, such as the National Endowment for Democracy, the Open Society Institute, and Internews, working inside and outside the region on a broad range of democracy promotion activities. U.S.-based broadcasters supply news and information to the Burmese people, who lack a free press. U.S. programs also fund scholarships for Burmese who represent the future of Burma. The United States is committed to working for a democratic Burma and will continue to employ a variety of tools to assist democracy activists..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


        Title: Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy Toward Burma for the Period March 28, 2003 - September 27, 2003
        Date of publication: 27 October 2003
        Description/subject: "Efforts to foster peaceful democratic change in Burma, already encumbered by an increasingly confrontational military regime, were dealt a severe blow on May 30 when government-affiliated thugs carried out a premeditated ambush on democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy of National League for Democracy (NLD) party members and supporters. Since the May 30 attack, Burma’s military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has held Aung San Suu Kyi and all members of the NLD’s Central Executive Committee in indefinite "protective custody," arrested dozens of NLD members, and shuttered the party’s headquarters and all of its regional offices. The violent attack and its aftermath dominate the political scene in Burma. Despite significant pressure from the United States, the European Union, Japan, and, to a lesser degree, ASEAN, the Burmese junta has not taken any constructive steps to resolve the crisis or to begin a real dialogue with the NLD and other political parties, including ethnic minority groups, on substantive political issues. In July, President Bush signed the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 and the U.S. imposed significant additional economic sanctions on Burma. These new measures, which complement a ban on new investment in Burma and other existing sanctions, prohibit the import of any Burmese product into the United States, ban the provision of financial services to Burma, and freeze the assets of designated Burmese institutions, including the State Peace and Development Council. In addition, in June, the Department of State expanded the scope of an existing visa ban that targets Burmese officials and others who inhibit a transition to democracy to include all officials of the government-affiliated Union Solidarity and Development Association and the managers of state-owned enterprises and their immediate family members. On September 9, President Bush imposed further trafficking in persons-related sanctions on Burma, barring U.S. funding for Burmese government officials or employees in educational and cultural exchange programs. Absent significant progress toward a political transition, the U.S. will coordinate with the European Union and others to maintain pressure on the Burmese junta to make such progress. The European Union has expanded the scope of its asset freeze and visa restrictions; Canada has also imposed visa restrictions. Japan has frozen new development assistance to the junta. Should the SPDC fail to release a significant number of political prisoners or improve its human rights record, and should it continue to inhibit a meaningful political dialogue with the democratic opposition, the U.S. will consider additional measures in conjunction with the international community..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 October 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2002)
        Date of publication: 31 March 2003
        Description/subject: Events of 2002. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962 General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority ethnic group. In 1988 the armed forces brutally suppressed prodemocracy demonstrations, and a junta composed of military officers, called the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, took control. Since then the SPDC has ruled by decree. The judiciary was not independent, and there was no effective rule of law. The regime reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI). Control was implemented through surveillance of government employees and private citizens, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The SPDC justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept.: Burma - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2001)
        Date of publication: 04 March 2002
        Description/subject: Events of 2001. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. Repressive military governments dominated by members of the majority Burman ethnic group have ruled the ethnically Burman central regions and some ethnic-minority areas continuously since 1962, when a coup led by General Ne Win overthrew an elected civilian government. Since September 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), a junta composed of senior military officers, has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The Government is headed by armed forces commander Senior General Than Shwe, although Ne Win, who retired from public office during the 1988 prodemocracy demonstrations, continued to wield informal influence..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept.- Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices (2000)
        Date of publication: February 2001
        Description/subject: Events of 2000
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1999
        Date of publication: 25 February 2000
        Description/subject: Events of 1999
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998
        Date of publication: 26 February 1999
        Description/subject: Events of 1998
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Dept. of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997
        Date of publication: 30 January 1998
        Description/subject: Events of 1997
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996
        Date of publication: 30 January 1997
        Description/subject: Events of 1996
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
        Format/size: html (84K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/USDOS-CR1996.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1995
        Date of publication: March 1996
        Description/subject: Events of 1995
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (61K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1994
        Date of publication: February 1995
        Description/subject: Events of 1994
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (123K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: US State Dept.:Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1993
        Date of publication: 31 January 1994
        Description/subject: Events of 1993
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
        Format/size: html (110K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Burma Human Rights Yearbooks (1994-2008)
        These compilations of reports of human rights violations in Burma were published annually from 1994 to 2008 by the Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB).

        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008
          Date of publication: 23 November 2009
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances...2. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment...3. Extra-judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions...4. Landmines and Other Explosive Devices...5. Production and Trade of Illicit Drugs...6. Trafficking and Smuggling...7. Forced Labour and Forced Conscription...8. Deprivation of Livelihood...9. Environmental Degradation...10. Cyclone Nargis – From natural disaster to human catastrophe...11. Right to Health...12. Freedom of Belief and Religion...13. Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press...14. Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement...15. Right to Education...16. Rights of the Child...17. The Rights of Women...18. Ethnic Minority Rights...19. Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation...20. The Situation of Refugees...21.The Situation of Migrant Workers...EACH OF THESE CHAPTERS CAN HE INDEPENDENTLY READ AND DOWNLOADED
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html (21K - hyperlinked index ); pdf (13MB) 1092 pages - full pdf text
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/HRYB2008.pdf (full pdf text - 13MB)
          Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


        • Archive 1994-2007 of the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Archive 1994-2007 of the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks
          Description/subject: This is a collection of all the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks from 1994-2007 (the date refers to events of that year, though the Yearbook is published a year or so later). This collection complements the individual Yearbooks included in this section of OBL. It contains better layout and graphics than the earlier versions, and provides a choice between html and pdf. However, apart from the 2007 Yearbook, the individual chapters are not hyperlinked, and thus have no separate URLs. For this feature, which users may need to extract or link to particular chapters, use the individual Yearbooks.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007
          Date of publication: September 2008
          Description/subject: Use the main link to access a version containing hyperlinks to individual chapters.... PREFACE: "The year 2007 represented a turbulent year in the history of Burma. It was a year in which we witnessed people from all walks of life coming together in the largest public display of dissatisfaction with the military regime in almost 20 years. Regrettably, it was also a year in which we witnessed the brutal and bloody crackdown on those peaceful protests, including the unforgivable and unforgettable attacks on and killings of Buddhist monks. In reference to the colour of the robes worn by the monks, the international media named this peaceful mass movement the “Saffron Revolution”. These protests represented the biggest demonstrations conducted in Burma since the popular democratic uprising of 8.8.88.... Responding to the brutality visited upon the protestors and dedicated to the memory of the monks and laypersons who lost their lives during the Saffron Revolution, late in the year, the Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) commenced work on a report documenting the events leading up to, during, and following the September protests. This comprehensive report, entitled: Bullets in the Alms Bowl: An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, was based on over 50 eyewitness testimonies to the protests who had fled the country following the crackdowns as well as information gathered by a team of researchers working clandestinely within Burma. The situation of human rights in Burma largely disappeared from the international limelight for about a year during the transition from UN Human Rights Commission into UN Human Rights Council in 2006. Meanwhile, human rights violations in Burma continued unabated without the notice of the new UN Human Rights Council. It was not until images of the brutality visited upon the participants of the Saffron Revolution were broadcast worldwide by local and international media that the Council was compelled to act and convened a Special Session on 2 October 2007, thus bringing the human rights situation in Burma back onto agenda again.... The year 2007 also witnessed the first time in almost four years in which the regime had permitted the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation on Human Rights in Burma, Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, to return to the country. However, by his own admission, little was accomplished in what was to become his final visit to the country in his role in the mandate. Professor Pinheiro resigned as the Special Rapporteur on Burma in early 2008. Perhaps reflecting some of the frustration associated with the mandate, in his final report to the UN Human Rights Council, Pinheiro stated that the systematic and widespread human rights violations that have continued to be committed in Burma “are not simply isolated acts of individual misconduct by middle- or low-ranking officers, but rather the result of a system under which individuals and groups have been allowed to breach the law and violate human rights without being called to account”.... The consistent non-compliance of the Burmese military regime to the 30 consecutive resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly and UN Human Rights Council (previously Commission) undermines the credibility of the UN system and the prevalence of international law. However, since the international community bore witness to the ruthless crackdown on the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, we have heard the voices of increasingly more of the world’s respectable citizens and leading human rights advocates advocating for international intervention from the perspective of the Responsibility to Protect principle.... The systematic and widespread perpetration of rape and sexual violence against women, enslavement (forced labour), religious persecution and torture in combination of the litany of other human rights abuses being committed in Burma with near complete impunity constitute crimes against humanity according to Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court....The Burmese Generals should no longer be permitted to hide behind the wall of national sovereignty as they have done so for years. It is time for the United Nations and the international community to draw the legal conclusion that the human rights violations being committed in Burma are tantamount to crimes against humanity and that the SPDC’s leaders must be held to account for these crimes...."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: pdf (8MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU2007.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 09 September 2008


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: html and pdf version
          This is the main link to the 2006 Yearbook, with html, pdf and photo files.

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: html and pdf version
          Date of publication: June 2007
          Description/subject: This is the main link to the 2006 Yearbook, with integrated html, pdf and photo files..."The Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 is available in two formats: HTML for online viewing; and PDF format for download. Use the following Table of Contents to navigate each chapter of the Yearbook sequentially. Each chapter may also be downloaded individually by using the links in the table below. Alternatively, the whole Yearbook may be downloaded in its entirety as a single file..."...N.B. the full pdf version is 7.16MB rather than the 716MB given in the TOC.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html, pdf, jpg (58MB total)
          Date of entry/update: 10 September 2007


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 -- pdf versions of individual chapters

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Children in Armed Conflict: Violence against Children; Abduction of Children... Child Soldiers: Child Soldiers in Armed Ethnic Groups; Conscription of Child Soldiers... Sexual Assault against Children... Right to Education: Education in Ethnic Minority and Conflict Areas; Gender Equality... Right to Health: Children and HIV/AIDS... Arrest and Detention of Children: Children in Prison with Their Mothers... Child Labour: Children and Forced Labour... Child Trafficking.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (465K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 00. Full text
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: 1. Forced Labour and Forced Conscription; 2. Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. The Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; 12. Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association; 13. Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma; Appendices: Acronyms; Glossary of Terms and Units of Measurement; Abbreviations; Spelling Conventions; Karen State Disputed Areas of Demarcation; Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; Resources and Contributors...Rather a difficult document to download and navigate. Use the Adobe thumbnail bookmarks.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: pdf (7.2MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ncgub.net
          Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 01. Front cover
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: pdf (180K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 02. Preface, Table of Contents and map
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (730K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 03. Historical and Political Background
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (59K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 05. Chapter 2: Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Execution - Partial List of Incidents for 2006.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (164K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 06. Chapter 3: Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Recent History: 2006; Arbitrary and Politically-Motivated Arrests, Detention and Disappearances in 2006: Arrest and Pre-Trial Interrogation and Detention; Denial of Fair and Public Trials and Appeals; Sentences... Arbitrary or Politically-Motivated Arrests of Ethnic Minorities; Arbitrary or Politically-Motivated Arrests of Civilians; Foreigners Arrested and Detained in 2006; Prolonged Detention... Conditions of Detention: Living Conditions; Medical Concerns;Torture; Deteriorating Conditions: Cessation of the International Committee of the Red Cross visits; Women in Prison; Monks in Prison... Political Prisoners in Poor Health; Deaths of Political Prisoners in 2006; Release of Political Prisoners: List of Releases in 2006... List of MP-Elects who remain Imprisoned in 2006.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (365K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 07. Chapter 4: Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background; Torture during Detention; Torture of Villagers in Ethnic Minority Areas; Torture during Forced Portering and Forced Labour... Methods of Torture: Physical Torture; Psychological Torture; Sexual Torture... Prison Conditions; Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment – Partial List of Incidents for 2006.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (365K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 08. Chapter 5: Deprivation of Livelihood
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Inflation; Economic Sanctions; Additional Factors Affecting the Cost of Living... Situation Facing Farmers in Burma: Right to Own Land; Forced Sale of Crops... Dry Season Paddy Crops; Physic Nut Agricultural Development Project; Situation of Labour in Burma... Other Factors Contributing to the Deprivation of Livelihood: Forced Labour; Fees, Taxes and Extortion; Looting and Expropriation of Food and Possessions; Land Confiscation; Destruction of Property; Restrictions on Trade, Travel and Cultivation.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 10. Chapter 7: Rights of Women
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Women in Politics; Health of Women from Burma: HIV/AIDS... Women and Forced Labour; Trafficking and Prostitution; Violence against Women; Forced Marriage; Detention in Lieu of Men.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (359K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 11. Chapter 8: Rights of Ethnic Minorities
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background; Ethnic Politics, Armed Resistance, and Ceasefire Agreements: Arakan State; Chin State; Kachin State; Karen State; Karenni State; Mon State; Shan State; Multilateral Resistance Organizations... SPDC Campaign of Abuses Against Ethnic Minority Villagers; Abuse of Ethnic Minorities by Ceasefire Groups; Official List of Ethnic Minority Groups in Burma; Ceasefire Status of Ethnic Groups.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (427K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 12. Chapter 9: Rights to Education and Health
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background... Situation of Education; Corruption and Extortion in the Education System; Primary Education; Secondary Education; Tertiary Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Educational Opportunities for Ethnic Minorities... Situation of Health: Access to Healthcare; HIV/AIDS; Avian Influenza; Malaria; Dengue Fever; Tuberculosis; Diarrhoea; Cholera; Typhoid; Lymphatic filariasis; Polio; Measles; Foot and Mouth Disease; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (368K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 13. Chapter 10: The Freedom of Belief and Religion
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Religious Discrimination against Christians; Religious Discrimination against Muslims; SPDC Promotion of and Control over Buddhism.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (222K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 14. Chapter 11: Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background; SPDC Laws Restricting Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; The National Convention: Increased Control over Expression; State of Freedom of the Press in 2006; The State of Publications in 2006 569 Continuing Detention of Journalists; Academic Freedom; Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Expression... Freedom of Expression in the Arts: Censorship of Film and Television; Censorship of Music; Censorship of Visual and Performance Arts. Control of Computer Technology and Communications.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (451K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 15: Chapter 12: Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Restrictions on Villagers in Border Conflict Areas; Restriction on the Movement of the Rohingya; Restrictions on International Travel and Migration; Restrictions on the Movement of Women; Restrictions on Foreigners in Burma: Humanitarian and Aid Agencies... Restrictions on the Freedoms of Assembly; Restrictions on Freedom of Association; Restrictions on Political Parties; Restrictions on and Harassment of the NLD; Prohibition of Free and Independent Trade Unions; Other Social Organisations in Burma... The Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA): Recruitment; USDA as an Approximation and Manipulation of Civil Society; USDA as a Security Apparatus; USDA as a Political Party.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (536K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 16. Chapter 13: Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background; Causes of Displacement in Burma: Conflict-Induced Displacement; Landmines; Development-Induced Displacement; Human Rights-Induced Displacement... Destinations of the Displaced and Forcibly Relocated: Relocation Sites; IDP Hiding Sites; Ceasefire Areas... Humanitarian Assistance; Situation in Arakan State; Situation in Chin State; Situation in Kachin State; Situation in Karen State; Situation in Karenni State; Situation in Mon State; Situation in Shan State; Situation in Tenasserim Division; Statistics of IDPs in Eastern Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 17. Chapter 14: The Situation of Refugees
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background: Burmese Refugees in Thailand: 2006 Demographics of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand ; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; Change of the Thai Government; Policy for Refugees in the Camps; Detained, Arrested and Deported Refugees; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Children in Refugee Camps; Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population; Timeline of Major Refugee-Related Events on the Thai-Burma Border in 2006... Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Rohingya Refugees in Nayapara and Kutupalong Refugee Camps; UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; Unofficial Rohingya Refugees; Arakanese Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese Refugees in Bangladeshi Prisons... Burmese Refugees in India: Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi; Chin Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Northeastern India; Crackdown on Chin Opposition Groups... Burmese Refugees in Malaysia... Burmese Refugees in Other Locations: Australia; Canada; Finland; Indonesia: Japan; South Korea; United States.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (443K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 18. Chapter 15: The Situation of Migrant Workers
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Background... Situation of Burmese Migrants in Thailand: Patterns of Migration and Trafficking; Thai Migration Policy and Legal Registration of Migrant Workers; Working Conditions and Labour Law; Migrant Health; Situation for Migrant Children; Deportation of Migrants; The Tsunami; Timeline of Events Relating to Migrant Workers in Thailand... The Rohingya Boat People; Situation of Burmese Migrants in Malaysia; Situation of Burmese Migrants in India; Situation of Burmese Migrants in Other Places.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (457K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 19. Chapter 16: Landmines in Burma
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Introduction; Landmine Devices; De-mining; Human Minesweepers; Mine Risk Education; Situation in the Ethnic Minority Territories; Thai-Burma Border; Bangladesh-Burma Border; India-Burma Border.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (419K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 20. Appendices
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: Acronyms; Glossary of Terms and Units of Measurement; Abbreviations; Spelling Conventions; Karen State Disputed Areas of Demarcation; Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; Resources and Contributors.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
          Format/size: pdf (225K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: Forced Labour and Forced Conscription
          Date of publication: 25 June 2007
          Description/subject: 1.1 Introduction: Forced Portering; Forced Labour; Forced Convict Labour; Forced Military Conscription...1.2 ILO Activities in Burma: Construction of the New Capital [box]... 1.3 Forced Labour Resulting from International Joint Ventures: The Settlement of the Total Lawsuit; Potential Use of Forced Labour on Internationally Sponsored Projects; Salween Dams; Shwe Gas Development; Road and Rail Projects...1.4 Forced Portering – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Buthidaung Township; Chin State - Matupi Township; Karen State - Dooplaya District, Mergui/Tavoy District, Nyaunglebin District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Mon State - Ye Township; Shan State - Kae-See Township, Murng Kerng Township, Murng-Nai Township, Namkhan Township, Nam-Zarng Township...1.5 Forced Labour – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Buthidaung Township, Kyaukpru Township, Maungdaw Township, Palawa Township, Ponna Kyunt Township, Rathidaung Township; Chin State - Falam Township, Hakha Township, Matupi Township, Paletwa Township, Tedim Township, Thantlang Township; Kachin State - Hopin Township, Sinbo Township; Karen State - Dooplaya District, Nyaunglebin District, Pa’an District, Papun District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Karenni State; Mon State - Khaw Zar Sub-Township, Mudon Township, Thanbyuzayat Township, Ye Township; Pegu Division; Sagaing Division; Shan State - Kae-See Township, Kun Hing Township, Lai-Kha Township, Lashio Township, Muse Town, Murng-Ton Township, Tachilek Township; Tenasserim Division…1.6 Forced Prison Labour – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State; Chin State; Karen State - Papun District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Mandalay Division…1.7 Forced Conscription and Forced Military Training – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Manaung Township, Maungdaw Township, Ponna Kyunt Township, Yathetaung Township; Chin State - Paletwa Township, Matupi Township; Kachin State; Karen State - Nyaunglebin District, Pa’an District; Mon State; Tenasserim Division…1.8 Interviews and Personal Accounts [20 interviews].
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: pdf (626K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006-CD/
          Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005 (Hyperlinked Table of Contents)
          Date of publication: July 2006
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations... Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2005: 1. Forced Labor, Portering, and Military Conscription; 2. Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; 12. Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; 13. Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Yearbook2005/Burma%20Human%20Righ/
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU-archive/Burma%20Human%20Righ/former/YB2005.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 12 December 2006


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004
          Date of publication: 01 October 2005
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2004; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8). Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9). Rights to Education and Health; (10). Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers; (16). Landmines in Burma; List of Resources and Contributors; All Photos.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 October 2005


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook, 2003-2004
          Date of publication: December 2004
          Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2003; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8). Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9). Rights of Education and Health; (10). Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; (16). Landmines in Burma; (17). List of Resources and Contributors.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 04 December 2004


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03
          Date of publication: November 2003
          Description/subject: 1. Forced Labor; 2. Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. The Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; 12. The Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association; 13. Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002
          Date of publication: September 2002
          Description/subject: Clickable access to the following sections: Preface; Acknowledgments ; Co-Ordinator's Commentary ; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures:- Map of Burma; Historical Background; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2000; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8) Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9) Rights of Education and Health; (10). The Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). The Freedom of Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; (16). Landmines in Burma; (17). List of Resources and Contributors.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
          Date of publication: October 2001
          Description/subject: Separate clickable chapters on: Forced Labor; Extra-judicial, Summery, or Arbitrary Executions; Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; Torture and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading treatment or punishment; Deprivation of Livelihood; Rights of the Child; Rights of Women; Rights of Ethnic Minorities; Rights to Education and Health; Freedom of Religious Belief and Practice; Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Freedom of Assembly and Association; Freedom of Movement; Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; The Situation of Refugees; The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; Special Report #1 Landmines in Burma; Special Report #2 Tourism and Human Rights Violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project; List of Resources and Contributors.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) Human Rights Documentation Unit
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1995

          Individual Documents

          Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1995
          Date of publication: May 1996
          Description/subject: * Preface; * Acknowledgements; * Acronyms and Abbreviations, Terms and Measurements; * Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; * Ethnic Peoples of Burma; * Headlines in Review: Events of 1995; * The State of the Burmese Econonomy under Military Mangement; * Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Burma; Facts on Human Right Violations in Burma 1995; (I) Extra-judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions; (II) Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (III) Rights of the Child; (IV) Forced Labour and Slavery; (V) Forced Relocation and Internally Displaced Persons; (VI) Deprivation of Livelihood; (VII) Minority Protection; (VIII) Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, Degrading Treatment or Punishment; (IX) Freedom of Belief: Discrimination Against the Right to Practice Religion and Intolerance; (X) Freedom of Opinion and Expression; (XI) Freedom of Assembly and Association; (XII) Freedom of Movement; (XIII) Abuse of Women; (XIV) The Refugees Situation and Forced Repatriation; * Personal Accounts; * Selected SLORC Orders; * Selected Bibliography; * List of Resources and Contributors.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 28 July 2004


  • Children's Rights

    • Children's rights: standards and mechanisms

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
      Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: COMMUNIQUÉ: Burma/Myanmar: The KNU/KNLA commits to the protection of children and the prohibition of conflict - related sexual and gender - based violence
      Date of publication: 24 July 2013
      Description/subject: "After seven years of dialogue with Geneva Call on international humanitarian norms, a ground - breaking step has been taken by the Karen National Union/Karen National Liberation Army (KNU/KNLA). KNU/KNLA has signed Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment for the Prohibition of Sexual violence in Situations of Armed Conflict and towards the Elimination of Gender Discrimination and the Deed of Commitment for the Protection of Children from the Effects of Armed Conflict. The ceremony took place in Pa’an in Karen/Kayin State on 21 July 2013 and gathered representatives of the senior leadership of the KNU/KNLA and Government officials, as well as representatives of the diplomatic community, NGOs and UN agencies..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Appel de Geneve, Geneva Call
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 July 2013


      Title: Children and war. Summary table of IHL provisions specifically applicable to children
      Date of publication: January 2003
      Description/subject: Summary table of provisions of international humanitarian law and other provisions of international law specifically applicable to children in war .....
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/5fflj5.htm
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2010


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child: Myanmar, Initial State Party Report
      Date of publication: 18 September 1995
      Description/subject: CRC/C/8/Add.9.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Child Law - SLORC Law No. 9/93 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 July 1993
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Child Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 9/93)- The 11th Waning Day of 1st Waso, 1355 ME (14 July, 1993)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (285K, 110K) 21 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1993-SLORC_Law1993-09-The_Child_Law-en.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
      Date of publication: 20 November 1989
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989; entry into force 2 September 1990. For the jurisprudence of the Convention, visit the site of CRC Committee. Myanmar accession: 15 July 1991.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Deed of commitment under Geneva Call for the prohibition of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict and towards the elimination of gender discrimination
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Appel de Geneve, Geneva Call
      Format/size: pdf (400K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 July 2013


    • Children's rights: resources and organisations

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: ECPAT
      Description/subject: "ECPAT is a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. It seeks to encourage the world community to ensure that children everywhere enjoy their fundamental rights free from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation... The ECPAT acronym stands for ' End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes'... ECPAT has Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC)."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ECPAT
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ecpat.org.uk/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
      Description/subject: The NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a coalition of international non-governmental organisations, which work together to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It was originally formed in 1983 when members of the NGO Group were actively involved in the drafting of the Convention. An organisational brochure is available [html format]. The NGO Group has a Liaison Unit that supports participation of the NGOs, particularly national coalitions, in the reporting precess to the Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as other activities to ensure the implementation of the Convention. One important area is the management of Alternative Reports that have been submitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (as per Article 45a). The NGO Group has the following aims: * To be an advocate on behalf of children by raising awareness about the Convention. * To promote and facilitate, through specific programmes and actions, the full implementation of the Convention. * To facilitate a flow of information between the Committee on the Rights of the Child, concerned United Nations bodies and the NGO community. * To facilitate co-operation and information sharing regarding the monitoring and implementation of the Convention within the NGO community. * To draw up policies and strategies and undertake action in fields covered by the Convention * To contribute to the monitoring work of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. * To facilitate the creation and support the work of National Coalitions for the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Child Rights Information Network
      Description/subject: List of organisations working on children's rights
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Children's rights: reports of violations in Burma
      Not a comprehensive list. For more, including updates, go to the publishers' home pages and search. Also use the OBL search function.

      • Children's rights: reports of violations in Burma against more than one ethnic group

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers
        Description/subject: International law, campaigns, conferences, excellent links page etc. relating to child soldiers. Also the 2001 report on child soldiers in Burma, according to which Myanmar is estimated to have one of the largest numbers of child soldiers of any country in the world, with up to 50,000 children serving in both government armed forces and armed opposition groups. The ILO has condemned the forced recruitment of children in Myanmar and has taken measures to address the government's use of forced labour. The activities of God's Army, a breakaway Karen group led by young twins, focused world attention on the use of child soldiers by ethnic armed groups. Armed groups in the Shan State have declared they will not recruit children below 18.
        Format/size: Search for Myanmar
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) - Myanmar
        Description/subject: The state party reports, CRC Concluding Observations, Summary Records etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html, pdf, Word
        Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


        Title: Karen Human Rights Group - search for "Children"
        Description/subject: 52 results (December 2009) from a search for "Children" in the drop-down menu of Database Search under Advanced Search -- KHRG home page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2009


        Title: UNICEF
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar. 464 results (November 2001). 819 in May 2005. Lots of pics but some substantial documents.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations Children's Fund
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: UNICEF Myanmar Page
        Description/subject: The most substantial material on the site is in the Media Centre, and includes: a pdf document in Burmese: "Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS"... "The State of the World's Children 2005 - Children under threat" in English, (and in the same box a link to what should be a Burmese version, but since this is 56 pages rather than the 164 of the English, I have doubts)... "Progress For Children A Child Survival Report Card" in English, with The Foreword, Child Survival, and the East Asia and Pacific sections in Burmese... a "Myanmar Reporter's Manual" (65 pages)in English and Burmese versions: "This manual provides instruction on international-standard reporting skills, child-focused reporting and ethics for Myanmar journalists in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child." then there is a glossy, 28-page "UNICEF in Myanmar - Protecting Lives, Nurturing Dreams" in English.....In the For Children and Youth section is an illustrated and simplified aticle-by-article version of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and a couple of illustrated online books for young children and their families in English and Burmese. Under Youth Web Links there English language animations (I suppose) called "Top 10 Cartoons for Children's Rights" but I could not get them to work. Also links to several other UNICEF and UN young people's sites. The "Activities" and "Real Lives" sections deal with UNICEF's activities in the country.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNICEF
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Coercion, Cruelty and Collateral Damage: An assessment of grave violations of children’s rights in conflict zones of southern Burma
        Date of publication: January 2012
        Description/subject: "Research by the Women and Child Rights Project (WCRP) has demonstrated that grave violations of children’s rights continue to occur in southern Burma despite the creation, by the United Nations, of the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) pursuant to United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1612 on Children and Armed Conflict passed in 2005. The Burmese government has failed to meet the time-bound action plan under Resolution 1612, demonstrated by the fact that WCRP researchers found numerous accounts of ‘grave violations’ under United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1612 on children and armed conflict. These violations, committed by Burmese soldiers against children in southern Burma, include recruitment of child soldiers, killing and maiming, rape and sexual abuse, and forced labor. Though the Burmese government agreed to the implementation of a monitoring and reporting mechanism (MRM), pursuant to Resolution 1612, to report on instances of these grave violations, WCRP has found that abuses have continued unabated since 2005. The data detailed below provide evidence of widespread and systematic abuses, the vast majority of which were committed by soldiers from the Tatmadaw, the Burmese military. These confirmed cases of grave violations, taken from just 15 villages in two townships, committed over a period of 5 years, suggest that the Burmese government has failed to live up to its obligations under international law to protect children during situations of armed conflict. Limitations imposed by the Burmese government on the UN country team has made it difficult for them to receive, or verify, accounts of grave violations, in turn preventing the MRM from making a noticeable impact on the continued widespread abuse of children in southern Burma. WCRP’s data strongly suggests that the real numbers of abuses against children is vastly greater than officially recognized. Additionally, despite the fact that WCRP’s primary research covered only the period from 2005 through November 2010, recent updated reports suggest that all of the violations documented by WCRP have continued to occur over the course of the past year. Despite the political changes that may be underway in Naypyidaw, children in areas where armed conflict is ongoing continue to suffer grave violations. Thus, the international community must take further action to ensure that the MRM can effectively protect the rights of Burma’s children and realize the objective put forth in Resolution 1612, an end to the grave violations of children’s rights..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Woman and Child Rights Project (WCRP)
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB - OBL version; 2.1MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://rehmonnya.org/archives/2182
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2012


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 16: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: 23 November 2009
        Description/subject: "Children comprise a highly vulnerable segment of any society and this is especially the case in a country marred by conflict, such as Burma. In the case of Burma especially, children form a large percentage of the total population, with UNICEF estimating the under-18 population of Burma to be 15,772,000 out of a total population of 48,379,000 in 2006. Thus, children comprise around 33 percent of the people of Burma.1 Despite Burma having ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1991 under the then ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the rights of children in Burma today remain as tenuous as ever. Over the course of 2008, various civil society actors such as exile media and International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) provided accounts of the rights of children being violated both in urban and rural environments. The CRC states clearly that children require “special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection.” This proved to be a luxury that was not afforded to Burma’s children over the course of 2008. The Burmese regime was furthermore in breach of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in its treatment of the rights of children throughout the year, in another example of the State Peace and Development Council showing scant concern for either the rights of its citizenry or for the stipulations of international law. Patterns of abuse in Burma are strongly connected to patterns of military control, thus the nature of abuse which children face in Burma largely depends on the extent to which they live under State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military control. For those living under consolidated SPDC control, the intensive militarisation of Burmese society, which relies on abusive mechanisms of civilian control and exploitation of their resources, undermines almost every aspect of children’s rights. Militarisation requires extensive national budgetary spending on the military. Such expenditures come at the expense of other areas, such as health and education. According to figures released by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in 2007, the SPDC was spending around 40 percent of the national budget on the military, opposed to 0.4 percent and 0.5 percent on health and education respectively..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (1.23MB)
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007 - Chapter 13: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: "...As can be seen in all of the chapters of this, the current, as well as in all previous editions of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook, all human rights abuses committed in Burma which affect the general population have additional impacts upon the lives of children. For instance, children in Burma often become orphans when their parents are killed, and when they lose their parents, many children also lose their primary (if not only) benefactors, caregivers, and educators. Moreover, the family unit breaks down, causing often disastrous consequences on the development of the child. Similarly, whenever adults are subjected to arrest or exploited as forced labour, their children again suffer in much the same way as just described. Moreover, issues which have adverse affects upon the health and well being of the general population have further supplementary impacts upon the health of children. Furthermore, in many cases of economic hardship, children are often pulled out of school and sent to work in the informal market, on the streets or to beg so that they can help support the family, yet all of these environments increase their exposure to illicit drugs, petty crime, violence, the risk of arrest and detention, sexual abuse, and exploitation.5 One of the most pervasive features of contemporary Burma is the level to which its society has been militarized. It is within this context the usual mechanisms that normally protect children can be undermined or neglected due to prioritization of alternative goals. Of all the areas in which Burmese children grow up, perhaps the political environment of greatest concern is that related to children in ethnic and armed conflict areas, for it are in these areas that children face the most severe and systematic abuses..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (659K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2009


        Title: Nirgendwo gibt es so viele Kindersoldaten
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: Was die Ausbeutung Minderjähriger angeht, ist Myanmar die unangefochtene Nummer eins. Ein Gespräch mit Ralf Willinger, Referent für Kinderrechte bei terre des hommes, Rolle der Kindersoldaten bei den Aufständen 2007; Rekrutierung von Kindersoldaten; gesetzliche Regelungen zu Kindersoldaten; Interview with Ralf Willinger; Role of child-soldiers during the uprisings 2007; recruitment of child soldiers; laws and reglementations on child soldiers
        Author/creator: Helen Sibum
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International / Terre des Hommes
        Format/size: Html (20kb)
        Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: 25 June 2007
        Description/subject: Introduction; Children in Armed Conflict: Violence against Children; Abduction of Children... Child Soldiers: Child Soldiers in Armed Ethnic Groups; Conscription of Child Soldiers... Sexual Assault against Children... Right to Education: Education in Ethnic Minority and Conflict Areas; Gender Equality... Right to Health: Children and HIV/AIDS... Arrest and Detention of Children: Children in Prison with Their Mothers... Child Labour: Children and Forced Labour... Child Trafficking.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (465K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: July 2006
        Description/subject: "...Years of ongoing civil war and poor governance have led to widespread poverty, low levels of education, poor healthcare, and systematic human rights abuses. Children, who comprise approximately 40 percent of the population, are disproportionately affected by all of these factors. Decreased national spending on education has resulted in the deterioration of the quality of primary education, coinciding with increased illiteracy and dropout rates. Similarly, lack of spending on healthcare has resulted in Burma’s healthcare system being ranked 190 out of 191 countries by the World Health Organization in 2000. According to UNICEF, of the 1.3 million children born every year in Burma, more than 92,500 will die before they reach age one. The majority of infant mortality has been attributed to insufficient medical knowledge and services. As poverty has consumed the population, children are frequently required to contribute to their family’s livelihood either by participating in family businesses, seeking external employment, or fulfilling a family’s obligations to participate in regime forced labor projects. Children are not exempted from serving as porters for the military or being recruited to serve in the armed forces. Ethnic minority children are particularly vulnerable, not only suffering from severe discrimination but also suffering from the consequences of protracted armed conflict. Children living in ethnic minority areas, like other members of their communities, are subject to physical injury, torture, rape, murder, forced labor, and forced relocation as the SPDC attempts to suppress any opposition, both armed and unarmed. Children in these areas also often witness atrocities carried out against their family and community members; endure separation from their families and communities; and suffer from extremely limited access to healthcare, education, housing, and food. There can be no improvement in the situation for the children of Burma without a radical change in the regime and progress towards democracy..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2009


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Description/subject: Years of ongoing civil war and poor governance have led to widespread poverty, low levels of education, poor healthcare, and systematic human rights abuses. Children, who comprise approximately 40% of the population, are disproportionately affected by all of these factors. Decreased government spending on education has resulted in the deterioration of standards of primary education, which have coincided with increased illiteracy and dropout rates. Likewise, lack of spending on healthcare has resulted in Burma’s healthcare system being ranked 190 out of 191 countries by the World Health Organization in 2000. According to UNICEF, of the 1.3 million children born every year in Burma, more than 92,500 will die before they reach one year of age. The majority of infant mortality has been attributed to insufficient medical knowledge and attention. As poverty has consumed the population, children are frequently required to contribute to their family’s livelihood either by participating in family businesses, seeking external employment, or fulfilling a family’s obligations to participate in government forced labor projects. Children are not exempted from serving as porters for the military or being recruited to serve in the armed forces, fighting against ethnic minority populations and forced to perpetrate human rights abuses themselves. Ethnic minority children are often more vulnerable due to the fact that ongoing civil war is fought in ethnic minority areas. In addition to contending with the discrepancy between access to social services available to the military and civilian populations, ethnic minorities face the more direct consequences of internal conflict. Children living in ethnic minority areas, like other members of their communities, continued to be subjected to physical injury, torture, rape, murder, forced labor, and forced relocation as the government attempts to suppress any opposition, both armed and unarmed. Children in these areas are also forced to witness atrocities carried out against their family and community members; to endure separation from their families and communities; and to suffer from extremely limited access to healthcare, education, housing, and food. There can be no improvement in the situation for the children of Burma without a radical change in the government and progress towards democracy.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2009


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: "...A large segment of Burma’s population is made up of children, with 42% under the age of 18 years. While according to traditional culture children are valued and cherished in Burma, the ruling military dictatorship does not regard children’s development and welfare as a priority. As Burma became a signatory party to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on 15 August 1991, they are bound to uphold its mandates. The CRC affirms that every child has the right to protection, the right to life, and the right to survival and development. The CRC also specifically refers to the protection of children in armed conflict and mandates that no child under 15 should take part in hostilities; that children should not be separated from their parents except for their own well-being; that States should protect children from harm and neglect; and that all children should be entitled to the rights enshrined in the convention, without discrimination The SPDC, (then SLORC) established a new Child Law on 14 July 1993, in order to "implement the rights of the child recognized in the Convention." The child law states, "The State recognized that every child has the right to survival, development, protection and care, and to achieve active participation in the community." (Chapter 5, paragraph 8) However there is striking evidence that the SPDC continually flouts both the CRC and their own Child Law. Almost half of the state budget is allocated to the army, despite the fact that the country is not exposed to any external threats, leaving very little for the vital education and health care systems. Decades of military mismanagement of the economy has resulted in a catastrophic economic situation and is forcing the vast majority of parents to rely on the contribution of their children working in order to feed their families. The worst forms of child labor – whether in the army, the construction industry, domestic work, the mines or elsewhere – are present throughout Burma. Children are by no means exempt from the forced labor imposed on hundreds of thousands of the Burmese population by the Tatmadaw or armed forces. Moreover, the SPDC continues unabated to forcibly recruit children into the army, some as young as eleven years old. Boys are not the only ones exposed to abuse by the military as young girls are frequently forced to serve as porters and sexual slaves for army troops. Ethnic minority children are often more vulnerable to abuse due to the fact that the on-going civil war is often fought in ethnic minority areas. In addition to contending with the discrepancy between access to social services available to the military and civilian populations, ethnic minorities face the more direct consequences of internal conflict. Children living in ethnic minority areas, like other members of their communities, continued to be subjected to physical injury, torture, rape, murder, forced labor, and forced relocation. Children in these areas were also forced to witness atrocities carried out against their family and community members; to endure separation from their families and communities; and to suffer from extremely limited access to health care, education, housing, and food. There can be no improvement in the situation for the children of Burma without a radical change in the government and progress towards democracy..."
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: English
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2009


        Title: End the use of Children as soldiers
        Date of publication: June 2004
        Description/subject: "Section I of this primer covers "The Situation of Children and their Communities in Burma". Section II, "Responding to the Situation of Child Soldiers" includes sub-sections on (1) What is a child soldier? (2) Why do children become child soldiers? How are they recruited by the armed forces? (3) What roles do children play in the armed forces? (4) Effect on children who get involved, and (5) Why should Burma stop the use of children as soldiers? Section III, "Finding Solutions," includes sub-sections on (A) International Standards, (B) Recommendations for the State Peace and Development Council, (C) Recommendations for the Non-state armed groups, (D) Recommended actions for civil society stakeholders, and (E) Children as Partners for Peace."
        Language: Burmese, Karen, Karenni
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
        Format/size: pdf (2.97 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hreib.com/images/pb/CS%20Karen%20PMG.pdf (Karen)
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2005


        Title: Les enfants sacrifiés de la junte birmane
        Date of publication: 10 February 2004
        Description/subject: "Réunis à Genève, plusieurs ONG ont dénoncé le sort réservé aux enfants qui grandissent sous la dictature birmane..."
        Author/creator: Simon Petite
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Le Courrier
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 February 2004


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03: Children's Rights
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "...Burma has seen almost constant conflict since independence from Britain in 1948. Internal civil war and poor governance has brought about widespread poverty, poor health care, low educational standards and systematic human rights abuses. Children, who are among the most vulnerable members of society, have been disproportionately affected by all these factors. Decreasing levels of government spending on education have caused standards of primary education to deteriorate, with corresponding rises in illiteracy and drop out rates. At present, it is estimated that less than 50% of all school-aged children in Burma attend school. Paradoxically, government military spending has grown to consume over 40% of the national budget. According to the US Department of State, the SPDC’s spending education is less than 1% of the GDP and spending on health is less than .3% of the GDP (source: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2002, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US State Department). The World Health Organization’s 2000 report rated Burma’s healthcare system 190th overall, out of 191 countries surveyed. The regime’s failure to invest in children has had direct and visible consequences. According to UNICEF, out of the 1.3 million children born every year in Burma, more than 92,500 will die before they are one year old. Another 138,000 children will die before they reach the age of five. Children in Burma are also increasingly vulnerable to exploitation for dangerous labor. Approximately one quarter of children between the ages of 10-14 are engaged in paid work and there are a growing number of street children in concentrated urban areas. (Source: ICRC, 2002) In particular, street children, runaways and orphans are particularly vulnerable to forced recruitment into the armed forces. The SPDC is believed to be one of the world’s largest single users of child soldiers with more than 70,000 children serving in the national army alone. In addition, some armed opposition forces also recruit children, but in smaller numbers (source: Human Rights Watch, 2002). Burmese children are also victimized when forced into the sex industry, and the trafficking of children has become increasingly prevalent throughout the country, and especially in border areas. Ethnic minority children are often more vulnerable to abuse due to the fact that civil war is often drawn along ethnic lines and fought in ethnic minority areas. In addition to contending with the discrepancy between access to social services available to the military and civilian populations, ethnic minorities face the more direct consequences of internal conflict. Throughout 2002 children living in ethnic minority areas, like other members of their communities, continued to be subjected to physical injury, torture, rape, murder, forced labor, and forced relocation. Children in these areas were also forced to witness atrocities carried out against their family and community members; to endure separation from their families and communities; and to suffer from extremely limited access to health care, education, housing, and food..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


        Title: GRANDIR SOUS LA DICTATURE BIRMANE
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Description/subject: "Ce rapport se concentre sur la situation des enfants birmans en Birmanie et dans leur principal pays d’exil, la Thaïlande. Il fait suite à deux voyages effectués en Thaïlande et en Birmanie pour y rencontrer des dizaines d’intervenants dans le domaine de l’enfance : parents, enfants, enseignants, médecins, syndicats, ONG, etc. Nous avons aussi eu l’occasion, tant en Birmanie qu’en Thaïlande, de visiter plusieurs hôpitaux, écoles et usines où travaillent des enfants. La plupart de nos interlocuteurs ont demandé de ne pas les citer nommément dans ce rapport car ils craignent pour leur sécurité. Nous les remercions tous pour le temps qu’ils ont bien voulu nous accorder, avec une reconnaissance toute particulière pour les personnes qui, en Birmanie même, ont pris des risques pour nous montrer la réalité de leur pays."
        Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Confederation International des syndicats libres (CISL)
        Format/size: pdf (112K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


        Title: GROWING UP UNDER THE BURMESE DICTATORSHIP
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Description/subject: The situation facing children after 41 years of military rule in Burma... Some facts and figures on Burma; Historical background: 41 years of dictatorship; Standard of living in Burma; Children in Burma: 1) Education; 2) Child labour; 3) Forced child labour 18; 4) Health 19: Burmese children in Thailand; 1) Burmese people in Thailand; 2) Education of Burmese children in Thailand; 3) Child labour; 4) Health; Burmese children in Bangladesh; Conclusions.
        Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
        Format/size: pdf (216K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 August 2003


        Title: "MY GUN WAS AS TALL AS ME" - Child Soldiers in Burma
        Date of publication: 16 October 2002
        Description/subject: "Burma is believed to have more child soldiers than any other country in the world. The overwhelming majority of Burma's child soldiers are found in Burma's national army, the Tatmadaw Kyi, which forcibly recruits children as young as eleven. These children are subject to beatings and systematic humiliation during training. Once deployed, they must engage in combat, participate in human rights abuses against civilians, and are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. Refused contact with their families and facing severe reprisals if they try to escape, these children endure a harsh and isolated existence. Children are also present in Burma's myriad opposition groups, although in far smaller numbers. Some children join opposition groups to avenge past abuses by Burmese forces against members of their families or community, while others are forcibly conscripted. Many participate in armed conflict, sometimes with little or no training, and after years of being a soldier are unable to envision a future for themselves apart from military service. Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), claims that all of its soldiers are volunteers, and that the minimum recruitment age is eighteen.4 However, testimonies of former soldiers interviewed for this report suggest that the vast majority of new recruits are forcibly conscripted, and that 35 to 45 percent may be children. Although there is no way to establish precise figures, data taken from the observations of former child soldiers who have served in diverse parts of Burma suggests that 70,000 or more of the Burma army's estimated 350,000 soldiers may be children..."
        Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html (in sections); pdf (570K) 214 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/burma/Burma0902.pdf
        http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/burma-1016.htm (press release and other links)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: Children's Rights
        Date of publication: September 2002
        Description/subject: "...while national laws to protect children may be in place, little is done to enforce them. Exploitative and dangerous forms of child labor have been widely reported, including working on infrastructure development projects, in military support operations, as child soldiers and in the sex industry. The military government continues to prioritize strengthening the military over improving the heath and education systems the civilian population has little or no access to quality health and education services. In a 2000 report the United Sates Department of Labor cited the SPDCs apparent lack of commitment to primary education and widespread poverty as factors contributing to child labor in Burma. Almost half of all children get no education. According to UNICEF, out of 1.3 million children born in Burma every year, 92,500 die before their first birthday and 1 in 3 children under 5 are malnourished. .."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: "On April 23, 1999, the U.N. Commission on Human Rights passed a resolution deploring the "continuing violations of the rights of children, in particular through the lack of conformity of the existing legal framework with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, through conscription of children into forced labor programs, through their military and sexual exploitation and through discrimination against children belonging to ethnic and religious minority groups." There is little reason to believe that the situation has changed since then. According to UNICEF, out of the 1.3 million children born in Myanmar every year, 92,500 die before their first birthday and 1:3 children under 5 are malnourished and almost half of all children get no education. While national laws to protect children are in place, little is done to enforce them, and exploitative and dangerous forms of child labor had been widely reported, including work on infrastructure development projects, in military support operations, as child soldiers, and in the sex industry. The military government continues to prioritize strengthening the military over improving the education system and there are dramatic differences between the quality of education received by civilian children and the children of the military..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: Main page of the Yearbook: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
        Date of publication: May 2001
        Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
        Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
        Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
        Date of entry/update: May 2003


        Title: Victims Or Players?
        Date of publication: February 2001
        Description/subject: "Are young Burmese girls working in the brothels of Thailand victims or players in the lucrative sex trade? Perhaps a look at two typical cases can shed light on this question..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw in Mae Sai, Chiang Mai & Min Zin in Ranong
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
        Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
        Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
        http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
        Date of entry/update: May 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1999-2000 - Chapter 3: Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: August 2000
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: pdf (29K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2003


        Title: Sexually Abused and Sexually Exploited Children and Youth in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A qualitative assessment of their health needs and available services
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) initiated a project entitled “Strengthening National HRD Capabilities through the Training of Social Service and Health Personnel to Combat Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Youth in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)” in January 1998. The participating countries in the four-year project include Cambodia; China (Yunnan Province); Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; and Viet Nam. The project is being funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), with supplemental funding by UNFPA, UNDCP and UNAIDS.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/esid/hds/projects/csec/pubs/gms.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2010


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1998-1999: 12 - Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: July 1999
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: pdf (31K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2003


        Title: Report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry: customised version highlighting violence against children
        Date of publication: 02 July 1998
        Description/subject: Extracts on children from the Report of the Commission of Inquiry appointed under article 26 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization to examine the observance by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ILO Commission of Inquiry
        Format/size: html (536K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1997-1998: 10 - The Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: July 1998
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: pdf (34K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2003


        Title: Slaughter of the Innocent Soldiers
        Date of publication: September 1997
        Description/subject: Recruitment • Roles And Duties • Treatment and experiences. They are about 13 or 15 years old, wear army uniforms and carry war weapons. By all other measures they are still children, but it is not war games they play. Burmese history is full of stories of different kings at war with each other and the modern period since 1948 -- when the British surrendered their colonial rule -- has been little different. Almost from the day the British lowered the Union Jack, Burma has been home to a continuous civil war described by some observers as one of the most complicated conflicts in the world.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1996: 07 - Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: July 1997
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: pdf (40K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 December 2003


        Title: Examination of Myanmar's Initial Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 16-17 January, 1997
        Date of publication: February 1997
        Description/subject: Edited transcript of an exchange between members of the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Delegation of Myanmar on citizenship, education, child soldiers, the conduct of the military in ethnic minority areas, forced relocation, followed by oral conclusions. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol.. IV, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003