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Sustainable/ethical (?) tourism (Burma/Myanmar)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "Responsible Tourism Policy" für Myanmar
Description/subject: "Am 27. September 2012 fanden in Nay Pyi Taw, der Hauptstadt Myanmars, unter dem Titel „Tourism & Sustainable Energy: Powering Sustainable Development“ erstmals offizielle Feierlichkeiten zum jährlichen Welttourismustag der Vereinten Nationen statt. Die Veranstaltung eröffnete der Vizepräsident der Republik der Union Myanmar, Dr. Sai Mauk Kham. Neben Kabinettsministern und ranghohen Beamten waren auch Vertreter ausländischer Botschaften und Nichtregierungsorganisationen anwesend. Der Welttourismustag der Vereinten Nationen macht aufmerksam auf das Potential von Tourismus und die Auswirkungen auf politische, soziale und kulturelle sowie wirtschaftliche Werte. Für Myanmar, das über 50 Jahre von der internationalen Gemeinschaft isoliert war und zu einem der ärmsten Länder der Erde zählt, ist der Tourismus eine der wichtigsten Einnahmequellen. Wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt und die Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen für mehr als 54 Millionen Burmesen sind auch eine Voraussetzung für die Demokratisierung..."
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Hanns Seidel Foundation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) 46271-001:
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan 2013 - 2020
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "As a result of sweeping political and economic reforms, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is enjoying unprecedented tourism growth. Between 2011 and 2012, visitor arrivals increased by 29.7% and, for the first time in its history, Myanmar received over 1 million international visitors. Other key drivers of growth include the rapid expansion of scheduled inbound flights, eased tourist visa-on-arrival privileges at gateway airports, improving business and investment conditions, and the growing demand for international travel among regional and long-haul markets. Although Myanmar possesses diverse and extensive cultural, natural, and historic assets, it has only begun to develop its enormous tourism potential. Due to the income- and employment-generating opportunities it creates, tourism is a global industry with special economic significance to developing countries. Consequently, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has prioritized tourism development in its Framework for Economic and Social Reforms. To help ensure that tourism growth delivers broad and equitable social, economic, and environmental benefits, GOM adopted the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy in 2012. The policy is also endorsed by the Myanmar Tourism Federation (MTF), and is highly acclaimed by both civil society and development partners. The vision for tourism in Myanmar, as set out in the Responsible Tourism Policy is “we intend to use tourism to make Myanmar a better place to live in—to provide more employment and greater business opportunities for all our people, to contribute to the conservation of our natural and cultural heritage and to share with us our rich cultural diversity. We warmly welcome those who appreciate and enjoy our heritage, our way of life, and who travel with respect.” In this context, the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (MOHT)—the agency mandated by GOM to oversee the systematic development of tourism—prepared the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan (the Master Plan). The Master Plan adopts this vision for tourism in Myanmar and the nine aims of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy as its guiding principles. It sets out strategic programs, priority projects, and activities in a long-term implementation framework covering 2013–2020 and a short-term action plan for 2013–2015. The goal of the Master Plan is to maximize tourism’s contribution to national employment and income generation, and ensure that the social and economic benefits of tourism are distributed equitably. Key objectives for each strategic program are listed below."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, The R epublic of the Union of Myanma
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB-reduced version; 4.32-0rigtinal)
Alternate URLs: http://www.harrison-institute.org/Myanmar%20Tourism%20Master%20Plan%202013-2020.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 October 2013


Title: Responsible Tourism in Myanmar: Current Situation and Challenges
Date of publication: 10 December 2012
Description/subject: "...There is an urgent need for a critical debate on mass tourism in Myanmar, particularly the viability and frailty of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy that is soon to be framed by the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan. ‘One of the most fascinating aspects of travel in Myanmar is the opportunity to experience a corner of Asia that, in many ways, has changed little since British colonial times,’ says the Lonely Planet. It remains to be seen how this place of authenticity will be reshaped by mass tourism as a force of globalisation in the near future, and how the state of Myanmar will responsibly respond to the challenges brought about by mass tourism..."
Author/creator: Ko Ko Thet
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Center Prague.
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ecoburma.com
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


Title: Myanmar tourism after the boycott
Date of publication: 23 November 2012
Description/subject: "The touristification of Myanmar has begun. The Ministry of Hotels and Tourism declared tourism the country’s ‘national priority sector’ in its Responsible Tourism Policy (RTP), released in September. In the same month, the Ministry had signed the Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam Tourism Cooperation (CLMV), which aims to welcome 25 million visitors in the region, with four million ‘exchange visitors’ in each country, over the period 2013-2015. Myanmar’s tourism infrastructure was already strained by half a million tourists in the first half of 2012, compared to almost 400,000 in 2011. Myanmar’s membership of CLMV is not only un-legislated and un-democratic but it also ignores ‘value over volume’ advice by the UNWTO. As the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party is widely expected to be voted out in the 2015 elections, the CLMV is seen as the former generals’ unscrupulous attempt to make hay while the sun shines..."
Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


Title: ADB, Norway to Help Myanmar Manage Tourist Boom
Date of publication: 11 October 2012
Description/subject: MANILA, PHILIPPINES – The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Norway will help Myanmar cope with an exploding tourism sector with a $225,000 grant designed to generate a sustainable tourism master plan. “Myanmar is undergoing a period of dramatic change, and the skyrocketing number of tourists visiting the country is already putting existing tourism infrastructure under enormous strain,” said Putu Kamayana, Head of ADB’s Extended Mission in Myanmar. “To ensure benefits of the burgeoning tourism industry are sustainable and extend to more of Myanmar’s people, the country needs a comprehensive plan that respects culture and the environment.”
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy (English and Burmese)
Date of publication: 27 September 2012
Description/subject: Contents: Minister's Introduction... Background... Responsible Tourism... Statement of Commitment... Our Vision... Our Aims... Action Points... Map of Myanmar... Stakeholder Involvement... Monitoring, Reporting and Revision
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, Myanmar Touriam Federation, Hanns Seidel Foundation (Germany)
Format/size: pdf (English: 1.8MB-OBL version; 5.16MB-original. Burmese-3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Myanmar_Responsible_Tourism_Policy-bu-red.pdf
http://www.tourismtransparency.org/sites/default/files/Myanmar%20Responsible%20Tourism%20Policy%202...
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


Title: The Draft Responsible Tourism Policy for Myanmar formulated successfully
Date of publication: June 2012
Description/subject: "From the 22nd of May to the 5th of June in workshops all over Myanmar and in a Concluding Conference more than 350 participants from public and private tourism sector expressed that tourism should be developed in a responsible and sustainable way. Local communities, local authorities and local initiatives should be integrated as much as possible. Additionally it was articulated to raise awareness campaigns about the (negative) impacts of tourism, especially focusing on child sex tourism and human trafficking. The Deputy-Minister for Hotels and Tourism, H.E. U Htay Aung, opening the concluding conference said in Nay Pyi Taw on 5th June: “The Ministry has repeatedly stated its commitment to uphold the principles of Responsible Tourism. We are fully aware that the success of tourism can be judged by the net benefit to the country and its people.” The aim he said: “ is a simple one – to encourage every travel company, operator, hotel and destination to take real action and show consumers that they not only care about the sustainability of the tourism industry in Myanmar but also the communities that are so often negatively affected by mass tourism. Responsible Tourism can be used to get competitive advantage..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Hanns Seidel Foundation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: Nay Pyi Taw Responsible Tourism Statement Taking Responsibility for Tourism – A working week on responsible tourism planning in Myanmar
Description/subject: "This statement is the outcome of the Taking Responsibility for Tourism – A working week on responsible tourism planning in Myanmar. Prepared by Professor Harold Goodwin, Nicole Haeusler, Achim Munz and the public and private sector of the Myanmar tourism industry."
Author/creator: Professor Harold Goodwin, Nicole Haeusler, Achim Munz
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://mekongtourism.org
Format/size: pdf (81K)
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012