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Law/policy on land in Burma/Myanmar
See also the section on Land in Law and Constitution

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Burma HLP Initiative
Date of publication: November 2009
Description/subject: "Since its establishment in 2006, Displacement Solutions has been active in exploring the housing, land and property rights situation in Burma. The Burma HLP Initiative aims to shed new light on the numerous HLP rights issues in Burma today by building capacity for enforcing these rights by citizens of the country. The Initiative works together with various groups within and outside Burma towards these ends. The Initiative explores key questions such as: * What are the characteristics and status of the legal regime in Burma as it relates to HLP rights issues? * How effective is the current legal regime in promoting human rights standards relevant to HLP rights? What are the key issues facing the HLP rights regime in Burma? * In what ways can the legal code more effectively address HLP rights in Burma, and how might it be reformed to avoid problems in the future transition process? This will draw on the many experiences of political transition since the end of the Cold War. * How can the capacity of the Burmese democratic opposition be enhanced to structurally address the HLP legal environment in Burma today? How can expert capacity be strengthened to better prepare the broader democratic opposition to address the HLP challenges that will arise during and after political transition?..." THIS LINK CONTAINS A HYPERLINKED SET OF BURMESE HLP-RELATED LAWS
Language: English
Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010

Date of publication: November 2009
Description/subject: A compilation of all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, plus commentary... "The deplorable human rights record of Burma’s military junta has been a key focus of international attention for many years. The military has ruled the country for half a century, and has presided over a collapse of the economy and of social services. At the same time, successive military regimes have perpetuated an almost feudal governance system – where the population is seen as a resource at the disposal of the rulers – that is in many respects unchanged since pre-colonial times. A combination of deliberate abuse, a general climate of impunity, and out-dated and ineffective social policies all contribute to a fundamental absence of basic human rights in this country of 55 million people. To date, the bulk of attention has focused on important questions of political prisoners, denial of basic freedoms, forced labour, forced displacement, as well as the other abuses related to the army’s brutal counter-insurgency policies. However, there are additional types of rights abuses that are not as frequently mentioned, but that have a critical impact on the daily lives of millions of people across Burma. And it is these – housing, land and property (HLP) rights – that form the contents of this important new book. This volume contains all of the existing housing, land and property laws in Burma, and makes a vital contribution to understanding the impact that these legal structures have on communities across the country. Being able to view the HLP legal code in its entirety for the first time reveals more clearly than ever before that supporters of democratic and governance reform within Burma need to better understand – and place greater emphasis on – HLP issues than they have to date. Understanding how these issues are dealt with in both law and practice will enable more creative thinking about Burma’s HLP future, in order that the peoples of the country can most fully enjoy their legitimate housing, land and property rights."
Author/creator: Scott Leckie and Ezekiel Simperingham (eds)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions & The HLP Institute
Format/size: pdf (3.42MB) - 1255 pages
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2009

Title: Laws related to land, property and planning (link to OBL sub-section)
Description/subject: Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to land, property and planning
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2011

Individual Documents

Title: Plan to amend land use policy every five years to be added to bill
Date of publication: 23 October 2014
Description/subject: A provision allowing a change to the land use policy every five years has been put in the draft of the National Land Bill, according to U Shwe Thein, a consultant with the Land Use MANAGEMENTCommittee. U Shwe Thein said, “Unlike a ‘crony-law’, a policy cannot be used for many years [without amendment]. In the bill, we systematically put in a provision to change the policy every five years, and for the change to the policy to be based on research findings.” The clauses setting the standards and procedures to protect the land rights of the people, including the national ethnic people, will be contained in the land use policy, according to U Shwe Thein.
Author/creator: Nan Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html, pdf (181K)
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2014

Date of publication: 23 October 2014
Description/subject: A joint preliminary assessment by TNI Myanmar Project and TNI Agrarian Justice Programme.....Summary: "October 18, 2014 saw the official unveiling by the government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar of its much-awaited draft national land use policy. Once it is finalized, the new policy will guide the establishment of a new overarching framework for the governance of tenure of land and related natural resources like forests for years to come. As such, it is of vital importance. This preliminary assessment aims to shed light on the key aspects of the draft policy and its potential implications for the country’s majority rural working poor, especially its ethnic minority peoples, although they are not the only ones whose future prospects hinge on how this policy making process will unfold. The scope of the policy is national and clearly intends to determine for years to come how land will be used – especially by whom and for what purposes – in lowland rural and urban areas as well. Focused critical engagement by civil society groups will likely be needed to ensure that the policy process addresses the concerns and aspirations of all rural working people system wide. Initial scrutiny suggests that those who see the land problem today as a problem of business and investment – e.g., how to establish a more secure environment particularly for foreign direct investments – are likely to be pleased with the draft policy. Those who think that the land problem goes deeper – e.g., implicating the social-ecological foundations of the country’s unfolding politi - cal-economic transition – are likely to be seriously concerned. This suggests that focused efforts at trying to influence the content and character of the draft policy are needed. The government’s decision to open the policy process to public participation is therefore a welcome one. Yet whether and to what extent this public consultation process will be truly free and meaningful remains to be seen"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (245K)
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2014

Title: Land Use Allocation and Scrutinizing Committee Consultation Meeting on Draft National Land Use Policy 18th October, 2014
Date of publication: 18 October 2014
Description/subject: Opening Speech by Director General of the Forest Department – Secretary of the Land Use Allotment Scrutinizing Committee... Presentation on draft national land use policy, U Aye Maung Sein, Director (retired) SLRD (Refer to Powerpoint)...Presentation on public consultation action plan and CSO pre-consultation, U Shwe Thein, LCG (Refer to Powerpoint)...Presentation on the framework of that national land law, U Aung Naing, Director Union Attorney General Office (Refer to Powerpoint)...Question and answer discussion 11.20 – 12.05...Overview on national land resource management plan – pilot projects – Dr Myat Su Mon (refer to powerpoint)...Presentation on One Map Myanmar Concept, Dr Myat Su Mon, AD, Forest Department (refer to presentation)...Presentation on collaboration on national land resource management related monitoring and evaluation – Rob Obendorf...Question and Discussion 14.30-15.30...Closing Remarks by Director General of the Forest Department – Secretary of the Land Use Allotment Scrutinizing Committee
Language: English
Source/publisher: Land Use Allocation and Scrutinizing Committee
Format/size: pdf (552K)
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2014

Title: National Land Use Policy (Draft)
Date of publication: 18 October 2014
Description/subject: "...[O]n 19th June, 2012, the President of the Union guided on the following land reform matters to draw and implement the national development long term and short term plans: (a) To manage, calculate, use and carry out systematically the Sustainable Development of natural resources such as land, water, forest, mines to enable to use them future generations; (b)To manage and carry out systematically the land use policy and land use management not to cause land problems such as land use, land fluctuation and land trespass; (c) To disburse, coordinate and carry out with the Union Government, the Land Use Allocation and Scrutinizing Committee, the Myanmar Investment Commission, the Privatization Commission, the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Committee and relevant departments for urban and rural development plans and investment plans; (d)To carry out to renegotiate, draw and enact the laws and matters relating to tax and custom duty administered by the various departments relating to land in accord with international standards or existing situations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar Land Use Allocation and Scrutinizing Committee
Format/size: pdf (269K)
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2014

Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: Farmers face prison sentences for trespassing and move to remote prisons
Date of publication: 25 July 2014
Description/subject: "President of Myanmar, U Thein Sein, announced that the government cannot give back over 30,000 acres of paddy land that the state has been using since it was confiscated by the army two decades ago. On the one hand the President ordered state and regional governments and land management committee to cooperate with members of the parliament to solve the problem of land grabbing cases. On the other hand he has announced the government cannot handover some land back. This is leading to prosecution and prison sentences for the farmers in conflict with the army regarding their land...On 27 and 28 May 2014, 190 farmers from Pharuso Township, Kayah State were prosecuted for ploughing in land confiscated by No.531 Light Infantry Battalion. Tanintharyi regional government seized farmland for Dawei New Town Plan Project in Dawai Township and the District Administrative Officer with his team began construction on the grabbed land. Twenty farmers who did not take compensation for their land tried to halt the team. As a result, all the farmers were prosecuted; 10 were sentenced to 3 to 9 months imprisonment and the others paid fines. There are 450 farmers from Kanbalu Township, Sagaing Region who are protesting against the military and have had cases filed against them for cultivating in the confiscated land..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2014

Date of publication: June 2014
Description/subject: "...Through research on Myanmar, we argue that in authoritarian settings where legality has drastically declined, the starting point for cause lawyering lies in advocacy for law itself, in advocating for the regular application of law’s rules. Because this characterization is liable to be misunderstood as formalistic, particularly by persons familiar with less authoritarian, more legally coherent settings than the one with which we are here concerned, it deserves some brief comments before we continue...By insisting upon legal formality as a condition of transformative justice, cause lawyers in Myanmar advocate for the inherent value of rules in the courtroom, but also incrementally build a constituency in the wider society. In advocating for faithful application of declared rules, in insisting on formal legality in the public domain, lawyers encourage people to mobilize around law as an idea, essential for making law meaningful in practice. They promote a notion of the legal system as once more an arena in which citizens can set up interests that are not congruent with those of the state; an arena in which cause lawyering is made viable and in which the cause lawyer has a distinctive role to play..." Includes description and discussion of the Kanma land-grab case.....The digitised version may contain errors so the original is included an an Alternate URL.
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman, Kyaw Min San
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wisconsin International Law Journal
Format/size: pdf (226K-digitised version; 1.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/Cheesman_KMS__Not_just_defending-orig.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2014

Date of publication: 14 March 2014
Description/subject: Report Summary: "This case study has been produced in response to a request made to the Evidence on Demand Helpdesk. The objective of the request was to write a detailed case study on land tenure reform in a fragile and post-conflict state, Burma, and provide the reader with an understanding of how land tenure reform can work under the country’s particular social, political and economic conditions. Burma is a fragile state undergoing a period of profound economic and political reform following a period of conflict and isolation. As the poorest country in South Asia, land is the main asset for many people, especially in rural areas where most of Burma’s population lives. However, most farmers have weak tenure security, and in the recent past have been exposed to land expropriation by the Burmese army and the other state institutions of a military dictatorship. Additionally, in conflict-affected border states, the strategy of government forces and non-state armed groups to finance military operations by leasing land to investors has led to land grabbing on both sides. The recent political changes that have put the country back on the road to civilian rule have profound implications for security of land tenure. Land legislation passed in 2012 is meant to strengthen the formal land administration and provide more rights for landholders, including the right to lease and sell land. It also introduces a system for issuing land use certificates, which the government plans to roll out swiftly over the next few years. At the same time, the government’s policy to open up to foreign investment for large-scale agriculture, mining and industrial zones threatens to place further pressure on access to land. How recent legal reforms translate into land tenure reform, i.e. into changes in the terms and conditions of how land is held and transacted, remains to be seen and depends on whether state institutions desist from, and prevent, further expropriation, and whether the new Farmland Management Boards that administer land at the local level function effectively. Commentators warn that weaknesses in the legal framework potentially disadvantage farmer’s tenure security in the face of powerful state-backed interests; however, evidence suggesting if these fears are confirmed is unavailable. This case study discusses the content of these legal reforms in the context of Burmese politics, noting how some of the changes intended in the laws may have an impact on the tenure security of landholders. Donors can support improved land administration by increasing dialogue on land issues with political leaders, by funding technical expertise to assist land administration functions and land governance processes, and by highlighting learning experiences from other countries with similar characteristics. They can help rural landholders to improve their security of tenure by funding civil society groups to carry out research and awareness-raising campaigns among landholders, by providing direct training to farmers to better negotiate land sales or leases, and by funding activities that raise the awareness of private sector entities on how to avoid poor practices associated with leasing land."
Author/creator: Giles Henley
Language: English
Source/publisher: ODI, DFID, CEIL PEAKS via Evidence on Demand
Format/size: pdf (387K)
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2014

Title: A political anatomy of land grabs
Date of publication: 03 March 2014
Description/subject: The phrase “land grab” has become common in Myanmar, often making front page news. This reflects the more open political space available to talk about injustices, as well as the escalating severity and degree of land dispossession under the new government. But this seemingly simple two-word phrase is in fact very complex and opaque. It thus deserves greater clarity in order to better understand the deep layers of meaning to farmers in the historical political context of Myanmar. Understanding the deeper significance and meaning that farmers attach to the words “land grab” entails frank discussions of formerly taboo subjects related to the country’s history of armed conflict, illicit drugs, cronyism and racism. Various state and non-state armed actors have been responsible for land grabs in Myanmar during the past several decades, mirroring recent historical periods.
Author/creator: Kevin Woods
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://farmlandgrab.org/post/view/23224
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2014

Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small - scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small - scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (266K-OBL version; 314K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/ib-equitable-growth-myanmar-040613-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013

Title: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return
Date of publication: 02 June 2013
Description/subject: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return: Preliminary Recommendations to the Government of Myanmar, Ethnic Actors and the International Community.....Executive Summary: "Of the many challenging issues that will require resolution within the peace processes currently underway between the government of Myanmar and various ethnic groups in the country, few will be as complex, sensitive and yet vital than the issues comprising housing, land and property (HLP) rights. Viewed in terms of the rights of the sizable internally displaced person (IDP) and refugee populations who will be affected by the eventual peace agreements, and within the broader political reform process, HLP rights will need to form a key part of all of the ongoing moves to secure a sustainable peace, and be a key ingredient within all activities dedicated to ending displacement in Myanmar today. The Government Myanmar (including the military) and its various ethnic negotiating partners – just as with all countries that have undergone deep political transition in recent decades, including those emerging from lengthy conflicts – need to fully appreciate and comprehend the nature and scale of the HLP issues that have emerged in past decades, how these have affected and continue to affect the rights and perspectives of justice of those concerned, and the measures that will be required to remedy HLP concerns in a fair and equitable manner that strengthens the foundations for permanent peace. Resolving forced displacement and the arbitrary acquisition and occupation of land, addressing the HLP and other human rights of returning refugees and IDPs in areas of return, ensuring livelihood and other economic opportunities and a range of other measures will be required if return is be sustainable and imbued with a sense of justice. There is an acute awareness among all of those involved in the ongoing peace processes of the centrality of HLP issues within the context of sustainable peace, however, all too little progress has thus far been made to address these issues in any detail, nor have practical plans commenced to resolve ongoing displacement of either refugees or IDPs. Indeed, the negotiating positions of both sides on key HLP issues differ sharply and will need to be bridged; many difficult decisions remain to be made..."
Author/creator: Scott Leckie
Language: English
Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org
Date of entry/update: 17 June 2013

Title: Scott Leckie: ‘Burma could very easily become the displacement capital of Asia’
Date of publication: 05 November 2012
Description/subject: "...In the last six to eight months there’s been a lot of commotion made about land disputes in Burma. Legally speaking, what’s setting the precedent for this to happen now? Well the whole phenomenon needs to be looked at in terms of the history of the country when it comes to land ever since independence, whereby a system of law, which essentially gave all power to the state when it came to the control, use and allocation of land, was used and very often abused by those who were members of the state or closely associated with the state to acquire land for personal benefit. That process may take a slightly different form today and may manifest itself in slightly different ways than it did in the past, but the environment now – with greater openness and greater commercial possibilities, business possibilities and investment possibilities – has put ever greater and increasing pressure on land with the net result being that values go up, expectations go up, and therefore the incentives to acquire land and benefit from it personally have also consequentially expanded. That of course leaves those who reside on the land in an extremely difficult position, particularly in a country which traditionally has not taken housing, land and property (HLP) rights of the citizenry very seriously..."
Author/creator: David Stout
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2012

Title: Legal Review of Recently Enacted Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law - Improving the Legal & Policy Frameworks Relating to Land Management in Myanmar
Date of publication: November 2012
Description/subject: "The Farmland Law and the VFV Law were approved by Parliament on March 30th, 2012. There have been a few improvements compared to previous laws such as recognition of non-rotational taungya as a legitimate land-use and recognition that farmers are using VFV lands without formal recognition by the Government. However overall the Laws lack clarity and provide weak protection of the rights of smallholder farmers in upland areas and do not explicitly state the equal rights of women to register and inherit land or be granted land-use rights for VFV land. The Laws remain designed primarily to foster promotion of large-scale agricultural investment and fail to provide adequate safeguards for the majority of farmers who are smallholders. In particular tenure security for farmland remains weak due to the Government retaining power to rescind farm land use rights leaving smallholders vulnerable to dispossession of their land-use rights. In addition there remains some unnecessary de-facto government control over the crop choices of farmers. In particular it is recommended that recognition of land-use rights under customary law and the creation of mechanisms for communal registration of land-use rights, be included in the Farmland and VFV Laws. There needs to be a comprehensive process of re-classifying land in the country to reflect land-use changes resulting from conversion of forests and VFV land into agricultural land, loss of agricultural land due to development projects, urban expansion and population growth. This will serve to reduce land conflict in the countryside and provide genuine tenure security for smallholders. Furthermore the specific and independent rights of women must be explicitly stated in the Laws. Added to this the fundamental principle of free, prior and informed consent should be enshrined, especially in regard to removal of land-use rights in the national interest. It is also necessary that the Government works in partnership with civil society and farmers associations to revise the Farmland and VFV Laws..."
Author/creator: Robert B. Oberndorf, J. D.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Trends, Food Security Working Group’s Land Core Group
Format/size: pdf (236K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Legal_Review_of_Farmland_Law&VFV_Land_Law.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013

Title: Myanmar at the HLP Crossroads (final version)
Date of publication: 25 October 2012
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Few issues are as frequently discussed and politically charged in transitional Myanmar as the state of housing, land and property (HLP) rights. The effectiveness of the laws and policies that address the fundamental and universal human need for a place to live, to raise a family, and to earn a living, is one of the primary criterion by which most people determine the quality of their lives and judge the effectiveness and legitimacy of their Governments. Housing, land and property issues undergird economic relations, and have critical implications for the ability to vote and otherwise exercise political power, for food security and for the ability to access education and health care. As the nation struggles to build greater democracy and seeks growing engagement with the outside world, Myanmar finds itself at an extraordinary juncture; in fact, it finds itself at the HLP Crossroads. The decisions the Government makes about HLP matters during the remainder of 2012 and beyond, in particular the highly controversial issue of potentially transforming State land into privately held assets, will set in place a policy direction that will have a marked impact on the future development of the country and the day-to-day circumstances in which people live. Getting it right will fundamentally and positively transform the nation from the bottom-up and help to create a nation that consciously protects the rights of all and shows the true potential of what was until very recently one of the world's most isolated nations. Getting it wrong, conversely, will delay progress, and more likely than not drag the nation's economy and levels of human rights protections downwards for decades to come. Myanmar faces an unprecedented scale of structural landlessness in rural areas, increasing displacement threats to farmers as a result of growing investment interest by both national and international firms, expanding speculation in land and real estate, and grossly inadequate housing conditions facing significant sections of both the urban and rural population. Legal and other protections afforded by the current legal framework, the new Farmland Law and other newly enacted legislation are wholly inadequate. These conditions are further compounded by a range of additional HLP challenges linked both to the various peace negotiations and armed insurgencies in the east of the country, in particular Kachin State, and the unrest in Rakhine State in the western region. The Government and people of Myanmar are thus struggling with a series of HLP challenges that require immediate, high-level and creative attention in a rights-based and consistent manner. As the country begins what will be a long and arduous journey toward democratization, the rule of law and stable new institutions, laws and procedures, the time is ripe for the Government to work together with all stakeholders active within the HLP sector to develop a unique Myanmar- centric approach to addressing HLP challenges that shows the country's true potential. And it is also time for the Government to begin to take comprehensive measures - some quick and short-term, others more gradual and long-term - to equitably and intelligently address the considerable HLP challenges the country faces, and grounding these firmly within the reform process.Having thoroughly examined the de facto and de jure HLP situation in the country based on numerous interviews, reports and visits, combined with an exhaustive review of the entire HLP legislative framework in place in the country, this report recommends that the following four general measures be commenced by the Government of Myanmar before the end of 2012 to improve the HLP prospects of Myanmar:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2.55MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org/files/documents/MyanmarReport.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012

Title: Farmland Rules - Notification No 62/2012 (English)
Date of publication: 31 August 2012
Description/subject: Notification No 62/2012 - 14 Waxing Wagaung 1374 ME (31, August, 2012) - Designating the Date of Coming into Force of Farm Land Law...The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation promulgated the following rules by using the power vested by the section-42, sub-section (a) of farm land law with the approval of Pyidaungsu Government.... 1. These rules shall be called farm land rules. 2. The words and expressions contained in these rules shall mean as contained in Farm Land Law. And the following words shall mean as described..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar President Office
Format/size: pdf (159K)
Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013

Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Rules - Notification No. 1/2012 (English)
Date of publication: 31 August 2012
Description/subject: The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, exercising its given rights, and with the approval of the Union Government, has issued the following rules in accordance with Section 34, Subsection (a) of the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law - 1. These rules shall be called the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Rules. 2. The terms and expressions used in these rules shall have the same meaning as used in the Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Law. In addition, the following expressions shall have the meanings as stated below:
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (Unofficial Translation by UN-Habitat)
Format/size: pdf (295K)
Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013

Title: Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012 (English)
Date of publication: 30 March 2012
Description/subject: Farmland Act (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No.ll of 2012) Day of 8th Waxing of Tagu 1373 ME (30th March, 2012).....The translation has some notable shortcomings...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (GRUM) via UN Habitat
Format/size: pdf (62K)
Date of entry/update: 14 May 2013

Title: Farmland Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 11/2012 / ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု လႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒ အမွတ္ ၁၁လယ္ယာေျမ ဥပေဒ (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ မ
Date of publication: 30 March 2012
Description/subject: agrarian
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 3 April 2012
Format/size: pdf (44K, 143K-"Mirror" version; 125K, Alternate URL))
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Farmland_Act%28bu%29.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012

Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 10/2012 (၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ (၁၀) မလြတ္၊ ေျမလပ္ႏွ
Date of publication: 30 March 2012
Description/subject: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: "The Mirror" ("Kyemon") ေၾကးမံု 2 April 2012
Format/size: pdf (86K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Vacant_Fallow_and_Virgin_Land_Management_Act%28bu%29.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012

Title: Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Act - Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 10/2012 (English)
Date of publication: 30 March 2012
Description/subject: Unofficial translation by UN-Habitat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
Format/size: pdf (292K)
Date of entry/update: 17 June 2012

Title: More warnings over land bills
Date of publication: 26 February 2012
Description/subject: Experts say two pieces of draft legislation have 'major gaps' that could be exploited for land grab..."Harvard academics, farmers, activists, politicians, United Nations agencies and a Nobel Prize-winning economist have joined the debate on land rights reform, warning that two proposed land laws could lead to increased poverty and inequality if approved in their current form. The Farmland Bill and Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Land Management Bill were submitted to parliament during the second session but had not been passed when the session ended in late November. Activists and land rights experts say the bills are inadequate and require further consultation, and in late 2011 quietly began campaigning to have both of the draft laws amended. With as much as two-thirds of the population relying on agriculture for their livelihoods, the issue is considered critical to efforts to alleviate poverty and promote inclusive and sustainable development..."
Author/creator: Thomas Kean
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times" Volume 31, No. 615
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012

Title: Guidance Note on Land Issues (Myanmar)
Date of publication: June 2010
Description/subject: "This note is meant to serve as a quick reference for local authorities and NGOs to acquire an understanding of relevant land laws and the context of land-use in Myanmar. All land and all natural resources in Myanmar, above and below the ground, above and beneath the water, and in the atmosphere is ultimately owned by the Union of Myanmar. Although the socialist economic system was abolished in 1988, the existing Land Law and Directions were not changed in parallel, and thus these are still in use today in accordance with the ‘Adaptation of Expression of Law’ of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 8/88..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Habitat, UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2011