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The environment of Burma/Myanmar

Individual Documents

Title: The role of Community Forests in REDD+ implementation; Cases of Thailand and Myanmar
Date of publication: 27 April 2014
Description/subject: Overview: • Definition of CF and its significance to REDD+ objectives • CF in Thailand and Myanmar - Background &Characteristics - Existing challenges • Connecting CF and REDD+ • REDD+ progresses in Thailand and Myanmar • Risks and Opportunities to CF
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ratchada Arpornsilp and ZawWin Myint
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


  • Publications on the environment of Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Environment archive
    Description/subject: About 10 articles -- back to 2008
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


    Title: "Watershed"
    Description/subject: Archive online from 1995. Some issues have articles on Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Foundation for Ecological Recovery
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


    Title: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
    Description/subject: "The Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG) brings together Burma focused ethnic environmental and social organizations. Each member organization monitors Burma development policy and advocates for alternative development policies meeting their specific traditional and comprehensive understanding of local sustainability. BEWG provides a forum for member organizations to combine the successes, knowledge, expertise and voices of ethnic peoples in pursuit of not just local livelihoods, but sustainable and peaceful national, regional and international development policy. Members collaborate on research, reporting, advocacy campaigns, capacity-building initiatives and policy formulation. BEWG also networks with non-member organizations to encourage harmony and diversity in its own activities as well as strengthen democracy and civil society in Burma..."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2012


    Title: Burma Rivers Network
    Description/subject: Includes sections on the major rivers of Burma
    Language: Englis
    Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


    Title: Dag Hammarskjold Foundation -- Burma Seminars
    Description/subject: Another development for Burma: Strengthening the capacity within the Burmese democracy movement for meeting future development challenges has been a recent major initiative. New capacity building activities will seek to strengthen further the democratic forces in the world...plus other related material
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Dag Hammarskold Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 December 2009


    Title: EarthRights International: Burma Project
    Description/subject: "EarthRights International's Burma Project collects vital on-the-ground information about the human rights and environmental situation in Burma. Since 1995, ERI has worked in Burma to monitor the impacts of the military regime's policies and activities on local populations and ecosystems. ERI's staff has gathered a vast body of valuable, rare information about the state of the military regime's war on its peoples and its environment. Through gathering testimonies, grassroots organizing, and distributing information through campaign work, the Burma Project has made a significant contribution to human rights and environment protection in Burma. Where possible, we link our grassroots fact-finding missions and community organizing with regional and international level advocacy and campaigning. We work alongside affected community groups to prevent human rights and environmental abuses associated with large-scale development projects in Burma. Currently, the Burma Project focuses on large-scale dams, oil and gas development, and mining. We share experiences and resources with local communities, as well as provide assistance relevant to community needs. Over the past 10 years the Burma Project has raised awareness about the alarming depletion of resources in Burma and their relationship to a vast array of human rights abuses, as well as the local, national, and regional implications of these practices."...Sections on Dams, Mining, Oil & Gas and Other Areas of Work.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org
    http://www.earthrights.org/taxonomy/term/148
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Enviroburma
    Description/subject: Replaced the spammed-up Greenburma in August 2011. Greenburma still has a very useful archive, back to 2001 (see Alternate URL)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Yahoogroups
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.yahoogroups.com/group/greenburma
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: Environment-related articles from Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Greenburma
    Description/subject: Useful archive from 2001 to mid-August 2011 after which it is full of spam...Replaced by http://groups.yahoo.com/group/enviroburma .....Message from the moderator: "Dear Green Burma list members, Because the Green Burma Yahoo Group, in public operation since 2000, now has been attacked by spam, does not have a moderator and has many inactive "members" -- I have created a new, private Yahoo Group, which I will moderate, to cover the same topic. The new group is called Environment Burma -- http://groups.yahoo.com/group/enviroburma A summary of what the new group covers is below. As a private group, only members of Environment Burma will be able to receive group messages, look at them online or view the archive of messages. Environment Burma is the group to which I will post news of Burma environment topics from now on. Members of Green Burma can request (at Yahoo Groups site) to join the Environment Burma group. As long as a membership request is not from a spammer, it will be approved. If commercial spam is sent to the EB group (very unlikely, since it is private) the message & sender will be deleted. Any member of the new EB group can post messages and comments. Active participation is encouraged. thanks and best wishes, Edith Mirante Here are the details on enviroburma: Group home page: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/enviroburma Group email address: enviroburma@yahoogroups.com
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
    Description/subject: 432 results for a search for Myanmar AND environment (July 2012)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 July 2012


    Title: International Rivers
    Description/subject: Formerly International Rivers Network (IRN)..."International Rivers' mission is to protect rivers and defend the rights of communities that depend on them. We oppose destructive dams and the development model they advance, and encourage better ways of meeting people’s needs for water, energy and protection from damaging floods. To achieve this mission, we collaborate with a global network of local communities, social movements, non-governmental organizations and other partners. Through research, education and advocacy, International Rivers works to halt destructive river infrastructure projects, address the legacies of existing projects, improve development policies and practices, and promote water and energy solutions for a just and sustainable world. The primary focus of our work is in the global South..."...Some articles and reports on Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rivers
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://internationalrivers.org/
    Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


    Title: International Rivers Network Mekong Page
    Description/subject: Watches ADB projects in the Mekong region
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


    Title: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN)
    Description/subject: ABOUT KESAN: "KESAN is a community based organisation with a central office in Chiang Mai, Thailand. We implement project activities on the Thai Burma border and in Karen and Kachin states in Burma. For the past eight years we have been working towards improving rural livelihood security using an approach that empowers and educates communities and institutions to sustain existing indigenous knowledge and practices to use and manage forest resources for the long term benefit of the community. KESAN also plays a leading role in addressing environmental and development concerns in environmental law and policy formulation in preparation for the post transition period in Burma. KESAN networks with local, regional and international organisations towards increased recognition of local and indigenous peoples rights to use and manage their natural resources for sustainable development. Vision Karen indigenous people in Burma live peacefully in a healthy environment and actively participate in maintaining ecological balance and livelihood security. Mission KESAN is a local organization working alongside local communities in Karen State and Kachin State, Burma to build up capacities in natural resource management, raise public environmental awareness, support community-based development initiatives; and collaborate with organizations at all levels to advocate for environment policies and development priorities that ensure sustainable ecological, social, cultural and economic benefits and gender equity . Objectives 1. To enhance capacities of local communities and community-based organizations to enable activities for environmental protection and social development 2. To develop indigenous environmental education and materials to increase children and youth awareness and participation in environmental protection 3. To support community-based development initiatives to preserve our environment, cultures and traditional livelihoods 4. To advocate for environment policies and practices and development priorities that are environmentally friendly, socially equitable, culturally beneficial and economically viable 5. To systematize and scale up ongoing efforts to mainstream a gender perspective in all aspects of KESANs program of work."
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2009


    Title: MekongInfo
    Description/subject: A dozen or more useful reports on Burma. "MekongInfo is an interactive system for sharing information and knowledge about participatory natural resource management (NRM) in the Lower Mekong Basin. In addition to over 2,000 documents (full-text and abstract) in the Library, MekongInfo provides: a Contacts database of individuals, projects and organisations, news and Announcements of events, relevant Web Links, a Gallery of useful resource materials, a Forum for online discussions, and a free Web hosting service. Please take a moment to Register and/or Login to enjoy full access to MekongInfo."
    Language: English, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotian, Thai
    Format/size: Free registration for full access, but the contact details you enter are then visible to the world.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Country Profile
    Description/subject: Short abstract of a hard copy (sales?) doc
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Resources Inst.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rainforest Action Network
    Language: English
    Format/size: Search for "Burma"
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Terra
    Description/subject: Towards Ecological Recovery and Regional Alliances/Project for Ecological Recovery. Good on eco theory and the region. Not much online on Burma. Good links page.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The environment of Burma (Wikipedia)
    Description/subject: B ► Biota of Burma‎ (2 C, 3 P) C ► Conservation in Burma‎ (4 C) E ► Energy in Burma‎ (4 C, 4 P) N ► Natural history of Burma‎ (3 P) P ► Protected areas of Burma‎ (1 C, 20 P) W ► Water in Burma‎ (1 C) List of ecoregions in Burma H Hengduan Mountains N Northern Triangle temperate forest Y Yadanabon Zoological Gardens Categories: BurmaEnvironment by cou
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 July 2012


    Title: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
    Description/subject: 38,600 search results for "Myanmar" (July 2012)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: World Rainforest Movement (WRM)
    Description/subject: A major resource. Several articles on Burma (use the Search and Info by country). Extremely good links page: NGOs, Intergovernmental Sites, Research Institutes; Other links. "The World Rainforest Movement is an international network of citizens' groups of North and South involved in efforts to defend the world's rainforests. It works to secure the lands and livelihoods of forest peoples and supports their efforts to defend the forests from commercial logging, dams, mining, plantations, shrimp farms, colonisation and settlement and other projects that threaten them..."
    Language: English, Espanol (WRM Bulletin)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar is well endowed with natural resources on which economic development and people’s livelihoods are largely dependent. Despite the low levels of industrialization and the relatively low population density, the country’s environment is under threat from both human activities and climate change. Natural resources and environment status and trends as documented in Myanmar’s current National Environmental Performance Report 2007- 2010 prepared under ADB’s GMS CEP-BCI are summarized hereinafter..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (65K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-environment.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: BURMA’S ENVIRONMENT: PEOPLE, PROBLEMS, POLICIES (English; Executive Summary in Burmese)
    Date of publication: June 2011
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Burma has extensive biodiversity and abundant natural resources, which have in recent years been threatened by militarization, large-scale resource extraction, and infrastructure development. Burma has some laws and policies related to protecting people and the environment, but the country lacks the necessary administrative and legal structures, standards, safeguards and political will to enforce such provisions. The country is also a party to several international treaties relating to the environment, including those on protection of biodiversity and indigenous peoples, wildlife, and countering climate change. It is unclear, however, how the contents of those treaties that have been ratified have been incorporated into domestic law. Many organizations are active in Burma on projects and programs related to environmental protection and sustainable development. This includes a broad range of community-based organizations, grassroots organizations, national and international NGOs, UN agencies, and church groups both based in government-controlled areas of Burma (‘inside’) and those based in the Thai and Chinese border regions (‘border groups’). Many organizations take the ‘traditional’ conservation approach or the rights-based approach or both. Organizations that are using a rights-based approach work from a perspective of sustainable development and livelihoods and subsequently focus on issues such as food security, land tenure and rights, and community development and organizing. Conservation organizations tend to focus specifically on environmental protection, although with varying strategies to achieve their common goal. Organizations working on environmental issues also focus on environmental awareness, education and training, policy development, advocacy and networking. Communities continue to be excluded from protected forest areas, threatening their forestbased livelihoods. The 1990s and 2000s witnessed severe logging, first along the Thai-Burma border and then along the China border in northern Burma. Although the logging rush has somewhat subsided along these borders, the government and military continue to allocate logging concessions to Chinese and Burmese business people, irrespective of national and local laws regulating sustainable forestry practices. Timber, however, contributes much less to GDP as other resource sectors boom. Community forestry is positioned to challenge the manner in which timber resources are managed, providing some promising devolutionii trends. Land tenure remains very weak in Burma. The state owns all the land and resources in Burma, with most villagers having no formal land title for their customary agricultural land. New policies have been put in place allocating land concessions to private entities which do not respect customary land rights or informal land holdings. There are no safeguards to protect farmers from the onslaught of capitalism or mechanisms to help them benefit. Control over natural resources is a major cause of conflict in ethnic areas, where the majority of Burma’s natural resources remain. Foreign direct investment in Burma is concentrated in energy and extractive sectors and often results in militarization and displacement. Recently ii a delegation of authority by a central government to local governing units The Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG) 08 there has been heightened interest from countries in the region for more investment opportunities. Given the lack of sound economic policy and unwillingness of the state to reconcile with ethnic armed groups, an increase in foreign investment could have a major impact on the environment and communities living in these areas. While they do not provide loans, international financial institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund remain engaged in Burma. The Asian Development Bank in particular provides assistance through various channels and facilitates private investment. Burma is currently facing many threats to the natural environment and sustainable livelihoods, such as construction of large dams, oil and gas extraction, mining, deforestation, large-scale agricultural concessions, illegal wildlife trade and climate change. The majority of Burma’s income comes from selling off natural resources, including billions of dollars from gas and hydropower development. Investment comes from countries within the region– most significantly China, India and Thailand. Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, Vietnam and Korea are also key investors looking to increase investments after the elections. These resource extractive investments damage the environment and threaten local resource-based livelihoods, particularly in ethnic areas. In order to take steps towards ecologically and socially responsible development in Burma, Burma must have a sound policy framework for environmental protection and sustainable development that enables citizens to take part in decision making about their own development, and ensures responsible private sector investment. Until then, new foreign investors investing in energy, extractive and plantation sectors should refrain from investing. Existing investors should immediately cease all project-related work - particularly in sensitive areas throughout Burma - until adequate safeguards are in place to ensure investment does not lead to unnecessary destruction of the natural environment and local livelihoods. At the same time, International NGOs and UN agencies should ensure people are recognized as key actors in their own development, rather than passive recipients of commodities and services; and civil society organizations should empower communities throughout Burma to understand their rights..."
    Language: English, Burmese (Executive Summary)
    Source/publisher: The Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
    Format/size: pdf (3.4MB, Burmese E.S 69K))
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/bewg-2011-burmas-environment(ES-bu).pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/bewg-2011-burmas-environment(EN).pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2011


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 9: Environmental Degradation
    Date of publication: 23 November 2009
    Description/subject: "Burma is a country rich in biodiversity, with a wealth of natural resources. This biodiversity however, is under threat in many ways, but particularly from the impacts of the projects which exploit natural resources for energy. Oil, gas and hydroelectric projects are all a valuable source of income for the regime, which exploits the country’s abundant natural resources by signing deals with neighbouring countries for the extraction and export of these resources. Seldom do those Burmese citizens living in the areas of the projects see any benefits. Instead, they are often subjected to a wide variety of human rights abuses associated with increased militarization around the projects; abuses including forced labour, land confiscation and resettlement, among others. In addition, their drinking water supplies are threatened, as is the fertility of their farmlands..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (976K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


    Title: A Natural Disaster in the Making
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: Burma’s rulers have shown little inclination to learn from the environmental mistakes of their neighbors... "WHILE the world ponders the continuing repressive policies of the Burmese junta, a different crisis is looming across the country. The health and welfare of large numbers of the country’s 50 million or so population is endangered by the consequences of a deteriorating natural environment. Scavengers collect garbage floating on a sewage pool in central Rangoon in order to earn their livelihood. (Photo: AFP) A combination of water pollution, land degradation through forest slashing, and badly thought out infrastructure projects is threatening to displace hundreds of thousands of people and put the lives of many others in danger, say environmentalists. The lawless pursuit of profit is wrecking good farm land, poisoning drinking water and depleting natural resources such as fish, on which millions depend for food. Several international NGOs have sent out warnings that years of wanton plunder by the military and its business affiliates—plus massive new projects being pursued without proper technical assessments—are coalescing to create an ecological disaster..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Myanmar National Environmental Performance Assessment Report (2008)
    Date of publication: January 2008
    Description/subject: A report on the first environmental performance assessment (EPA) conducted in Myanmar. The assessment covers seven environmental concerns: forest resources, biodiversity, land degradation, management of water resources, waste management, air pollution from mobile sources, and climate change....EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Like its Greater Mekong Subregion neighbors, Myanmar has been trying to reconcile the demands of economic growth with the integrity of its physical environment and the long-term health of its citizens. This Environmental Performance Assessment (EPA) report evaluates the degree of success that national stakeholders have had in achieving this objective, expressed in a number of different ways in official policy documents. The assessment is confined to seven key environmental concerns, viz., forest resources, biodiversity, land degradation, management of water resources, waste management, air pollution from mobile sources and climate change. The assessment uses a structure of performance indicators and is supported by detailed statistical information. Reinforced by policy and institutional support, progress has been made towards safeguarding the forest resources despite evidence of increased pressure on them during the last three decades. Following a period of rapid loss between 1975 and 1995, the forest cover stabilized around 51 per cent at the turn of the last decade. The expansion of the Permanent Forest Estate is a strong positive feature. It is too early to say what the effect of recent re-orientation of forest management towards community management and greater attention to reducing fuelwood consumption has been. Myanmar’s exceptionally rich biodiversity could not escape the effect of the pressure on habitats during the last two decades, in particular the rapid loss of natural forest in the 1980s (and its continuation to this day), and loss of mangroves. The authorities’ response has been to expand the protected area system to about 6.5 per cent of the total land area by 2004. Although the country is well endowed with land suitable for agriculture, it is not immune to different forms of land degradation. Soil erosion is serious in the uplands on about 10 per cent of the country’s cultivated areas. The authorities’ land rehabilitation schemes have not kept pace with new cultivation by the upland farmers, the trend sustained by high rates of population growth. Myanmar is perceived as a low water stress country. Nonetheless, the dominant role of rice in the cropping systems and several other factors has made irrigation a priority concern. The volume of irrigation water storage capacity has increased 27 times since 1988. Given the continued policy and strategic preference for more paddies, the pressure on supplying more water for irrigated farming is set to remain high in the foreseeable future. Sustained funding of the irrigation water storage capacity and irrigation management has made it possible to improve the percentage of total lands effectively irrigated. The country has achieved substantial progress in providing its population with safe drinking water and Myanmar scores well in comparison to other GMS countries. In rural areas, access increased from 50% in 1995 to 74% in 2003. In urban areas the increase was from 78% in 1995 to 92% in 2003. Solid waste management in Myanmar presents a mixed picture of clear improvements in the country’s two premier cities (Yangon and Mandalay) combined with stagnating or deteriorating collection and disposal in other States and Divisions. In Yangon, a reduced volume of waste per capita has resulted in an overall decline in the volume of waste generated. The authorities’ greater efforts at collecting the waste disposal fees are believed to be largely responsible for this outcome. Unsystematic and insufficient information on air quality in Myanmar limits the authorities’ and the public’s knowledge about the principal trends and the contributions that vehicles make to atmospheric pollution in the principal cities. What can be said with a greater degree of confidence is that the “vehicle density” has been on the rise in Yangon and Mandalay. At the same time, it appears that the fuel consumed per vehicle has been declining. The National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA) is the central body tasked to manage the environment in concert with sectoral agencies such as the Ministry of Forestry. Since its establishment NCEA has achieved some progress in integrating environmental concerns into the economic development mainstream. This included the ormulation of the national environmental policy (1994), and drafting of ‘Myanmar Agenda 21’ as a framework for a multi-pronged approach to sustainable development. However, NCEA requires more administrative and financial support to further increase its effectiveness. The enactment of the draft national environment protection law might be a key step in that direction."
    Author/creator: U Win Myo Thu, U Maung Maung Than
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Govt of Union of Myanmar (NCEA), ADB, UNEP, ETC,
    Format/size: pdf (OBL version-5.1MB; original, 6.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.gms-eoc.org/uploads/resources/22/attachment/Myanmar%20EPA%20Report.pdf
    http://www.gms-eoc.org/resources/myanmar-epa-report
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Gaining Ground: Earth Rights Abused in Burma Exposed
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: This collection of reports is the result of the hard work and dedication of fourteen young men and women from diverse ethnic groups and regions in Burma who attended EarthRights International’s year-long leadership school for human rights and environmental advocacy, the EarthRights School of Burma (ERSB). The students are eager to expose ongoing human rights abuses and environmental destruction in Burma under the ruling State Peace and Develop­ment Council (SPDC). While conducting research the students took great risks, often placing themselves in danger, to reveal the truth about Burma and the perspectives of the people directly affected by abuses. The students were instructed in such subjects as human rights law, environmental monitoring, advocacy, and nonviolent social change. During coursework, each chose a topic and developed a thesis around it. During their fieldwork, students conducted grassroots investigations, gathered primary source information, and worked directly with victims of human rights abuses, while witnessing firsthand the pain and destruction caused by the SPDC and armed groups in Burma and on its borders. This is only the second such volume produced by ERSB; for most students this represents the first time they have conducted in-depth research and writing and seen their work in print. It is a significant step on their way to becoming committed human rights and environmental activists. With their new skills the Class of 2008 now joins previous graduates of the EarthRights Schools of Burma and the Mekong in becoming a significant force for positive change, ready to meet the challenge of bringing much-needed peace, justice, and democracy to their troubled nation...... TABLE OF CONTENTS:- The Environment: The Potential Impact of the Salween Dams on the Livelihoods of Villagers on Chaung Zon Island, Mon State by Nai Tiaung Pakao... Mountains Become Valleys and Valleys Become Mountains in Phakant Township, Kachin State, Burma by John... The Impact of Gold Mining on the Environment and Local Livelihoods in Shing Bwe Yang Township, Hugawng Valley, Kachin State, Burma by Myu Shadang... Social and Environmental Impacts of Deforestation in Northern Chin State, Burma by Icon..... Forced Labor: The SPDC Use of Forced Labor on the Electric Power Lines and the Effects on Villagers in De Maw Soe Township, Karenni State by Khon Nasa... The Impact of Land Confiscation on the Palaung People in Namkham and Mantong Townships, Northern Shan State, Burma by Mai Naw Jar..... Social Issues: 'If you cut the tree it will be scarred forever': Domestic Violence in Karenni Refugee Camp #1 by Tyardu... The Impact of Drugs on Palaung Children in Namkham Township, Northern Shan State by Lway Poe Taung... 'The price is getting very high': The Reasons Behind the Lack of Education for Children in Northern Shan State, Burma by Wallace... The Impact of the UN Resettlement Program for Karenni People in Camps 1 and 2 on the Thai-Burma Border by Mar Ry... 'Hungry for Education': Villagers Living in Ceasefire Controlled Areas Struggle to Educate Their Children in Boo Tho Township, Papun District by Day Day... The Negative Impacts of Jade Mining on Women in Hpakant, Kachin State by Cindy. ..... Food Security: The Food Security Crisis for People Living in Toungoo District by Dawn Flower... Causes of Food Insecurity in Rathidaung Township, Northern Arakan State by Zaw Zaw.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights School of Burma, EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (12.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 07 February 2009


  • Environmentalists of Burma/Myanmar

    Individual Documents

    Title: Japan Expo honour for veteran environmentalist
    Date of publication: 03 October 2004
    Description/subject: "A VETERAN environmentalist, U Ohn, has been named as one of ‘100 Earth-Loving Persons’ whose activities will be featured during the World Exposition next year in Japan. U Ohn, 77, told Myanmar Times last week he had been chosen for his involvement in reforestation projects at Mt Popa in central Myanmar and in the mangrove forests of the Ayeyarwaddy Delta. U Ohn undertook the projects as general secretary of the Forest Resource Environmental Development and Conservation Association, Myanmar’s first non-government environmental organisation, which he helped to found in 1966.
    Author/creator: Ba Saing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 October 2004


  • Description of the environment of Burma/Myanmar

    • Basic information on the geography and environment of Burma/Myanmar

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar: Basic Information on the environment
      Description/subject: Major Mountain peaks...Selected international agreements and conventions related to climate and environment... Economy... Major agricultural products... Major Industries... Geography / Geopolitics... Climate
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ICIMOD
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2012


      Title: The Geography of Burma
      Description/subject: Contents: 1 Climate 2 Mountains 2.1 Main peaks 3 Rivers 4 Maritime claims 4.1 Islands 5 Land use and natural resources 6 Natural hazards 7 Environment 7.1 Environment - international agreements 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
      Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
      Format/size: html, 23 pages
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


    • Forests
      See the separate section on Forests

    • Land
      For land confiscation and land degradation, see also the separate section on Land, several sections on land confiscation under Human Rights and Land Alienation under Agriculture

    • The ecoregions of Burma/Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (IM0109)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 11,500 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... "The Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma Montane Rain Forests [IM0109] are globally outstanding for bird richness, partly because they acted as a refugia during recent glaciation events. This ecoregion still harbors many taxa characteristic of the Palearctic realm and a diverse assemblage of subtropical species distributed across its elevational gradients. Much of the southern Chin Hills remains biologically unexplored. Location and General Description: This ecoregion represents the montane moist forests along the length of the Chin Hills and Arakan Yomas mountain ranges along the west coast of Myanmar. The Koeppen climate zone classifies this ecoregion in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows (PA1003)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Montane Grasslands and Shrublands... Size: 46,800 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... "The Eastern Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows [PA1003] represent the alpine scrub and meadow habitat along the Inner Himalayas to the east of the Kali Gandaki River in central Nepal. Within it are the tallest mountains in the world-Everest, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, and Jomalhari-which tower far above the Gangetic Plains. The alpine scrub and meadows in the eastern Himalayas are nested between the treeline at 4,000 m and the snowline at about 5,500 m and extend from the deep Kali Gandaki gorge through Bhutan and India's northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, to northern Myanmar. The Eastern Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows [PA1003] ecoregion supports one of the world's richest alpine floral displays that becomes vividly apparent during the spring and summer when the meadows explode into a riot of color from the contrasting blue, purple, yellow, pink, and red flowers of alpine herbs. Rhododendrons characterize the alpine scrub habitat closer to treeline. The tall, bright-yellow flower stalk of the noble rhubarb, Rheum nobile (Polygonaceae), stands above all the low herbs and shrubs like a beacon, visible from across the valleys of the high Himalayan slopes. The plant richness in this ecoregion sitting at the top of the world is estimated at more than 7,000 species, a number that is three times what is estimated for the other alpine meadows in the Himalayas. In fact, from among the Indo-Pacific ecoregions, only the famous rain forests of Borneo are estimated to have a richer flora. Within the species-rich landscape are hotspots of endemism, created by the varied topography, which results in very localized climatic variations and high rainfall, enhancing the ability of specialized plant communities to evolve. Therefore, the ecoregion boasts the record for a plant growing at the highest elevation in the world: Arenaria bryophylla, a small, dense, tufted cushion-forming plant with small, stalkless flowers, was recorded at an astonishing 6,180 m by A. F. R. Wollaston (Wollaston 1921, in Polunin and Stainton 1997)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests (IM0117)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 53,400 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable..... Introduction: "Like many of the region's lowland forests, the Irrawaddy Moist Deciduous Forests [IM0117] ecoregion has been intensively cultivated and its forests converted over hundreds of years. As a consequence, most of the region's biodiversity has been extirpated, and because of political forces over the past few decades very little current information on the biodiversity status of this ecoregion is known. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion is located within the Irrawaddy River Basin, the catchments of Bago Yoma, and the foothills of Rakhine Yoma. The soils belong to the Irrawaddian series, which consists of the fluvial sands with terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate fossils. Silicified wood fossils are found among ferruginous, calcareous, and siliceous concretions, with quartz pebbles. The Irrawaddian rocks are distinct from other Tertiary rock groups. Their occurrence reaches up to the Kachin State in the north and in Chindwin districts in Sagaing division. The southern distribution is down to Rangoon..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Kayah-Karen montane rain forests (IM0119)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 46,100 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... Introduction: "The Kayah-Karen Montane Rain Forests [IM0119] ecoregion harbors globally outstanding levels of species richness. Among the ecoregions of Indochina, it ranks second for bird species richness and fourth for mammal species richness. The world's smallest mammal, Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), equal in mass to a large bumblebee, resides in the limestone caves of this ecoregion. Because the ecoregion remains unexplored scientifically, especially the parts that lie in Myanmar, it probably will yield more biological surprises. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion includes the northern part of the Tenasserim Mountain Range, which forms the border between Thailand and Myanmar. Much of the region consists of hills of Paleozoic limestone that have been dissected by chemical weathering. The overhanging cliffs, sinkholes, and caverns characteristic of tropical karst landscapes are all present in this ecoregion. Large patches of limestone forest are associated with the tropical karst. The flora and fauna here is distinct and includes several endemic species. Because complex habitats are little explored, it is likely that they contain undescribed endemic species..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar coastal rain forests (IM0132)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 25,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable..... Introduction: "The Myanmar Coastal Rain Forests [IM0132] are a diverse set of climatic niches and habitats that include flora and fauna from the Indian, Indochina, and Sundaic regions. Though low in endemism, this ecoregion has a tremendous species diversity. However, the forests have been increasingly destroyed to make way for agriculture, and poaching has become the dominant threat to the remaining wildlife populations. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion represents the lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of the western side of Arakan Yoma and Tenasserim ranges along the west coast of Myanmar. A small area extends into southeast Bangladesh. It falls within the tropical wet climate zone of the Köppen climate system (National Geographic Society 1999)...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests (IM0303)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests... Size: 3,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered..... Introduction: "The Northeast India-Myanmar Pine Forests [IM0303] ecoregion is one of only four tropical or subtropical conifer forest ecoregions in the Indo-Pacific region. All of these ecoregions contain less biodiversity than the forests that surround them. However, they contain processes and species unique to these ecosystems. This ecoregion contains moderate levels of biodiversity but remains largely intact, providing opportunities to conserve and protect this ecoregion's biodiversity into the future. Description Location and General Description These forests are found in the north-south Burmese-Java Arc. The Arc is formed by the parallel folded mountain ranges that culminate in the Himalayas in the north. Moving south are the mountain ranges of Patkoi, Lushai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur, and the Chin Hills. The outer southwestern fringe of mountain ranges forming the Arc is the Arakan Yomas, the southern continuation of the folded mountain ranges branching off from the Himalayas. Geologically the ecoregion has gley and black slates. Dark-colored serpentine and gabbro also are found interstratified within the shales..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Northern Indochina subtropical forests (IM0137)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: " Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 168,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable... Introduction: The Northern Indochina Subtropical Forests [IM0137] are globally outstanding for their biological diversity; this ecoregion has the highest species richness for birds among all ecoregions in the Indo-Pacific region and ranks third for mammal richness. The ecoregion sits astride a major zoogeographic ecotone, where the northern Palearctic and the southern Indo-Malayan faunas mix, allowing langurs to mix with red pandas and muntjac and musk deer to mingle. It is also a crossroads for the south Asian and east Asian floras as well as some ancient relicts that have found refuge here during the turbulent and variable geological past... Description: Location and General Description This large ecoregion extends across the highlands of northern Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam and also includes most of southern Yunnan Province. A complex network of hills and river valleys extends south of the Yunnan Plateau into northern Indochina to include the middle catchments of the Red, Mekong, and Salween rivers. Mountains in this area are composed of intrusive igneous rocks or Paleozoic limestone and approach but seldom exceed 2,000 m, and major river valleys lie at 200-400 m elevation. The climate throughout northern Indochina is summer monsoonal. Precipitation averages 1,200 to 2,500 mm per year, depending on location, and almost all of this consists of summer rain fetched from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea during April to October. From November to March, westerly subtropical winds drawn from continental Asia create dry conditions. These are moderated by easterly rain in southern Vietnam (WWF and IUCN 1995). Mean temperatures vary with elevation, but the spring premonsoon period is the hottest time of the year, and January is the coldest. Frost is known from the higher elevations, but it is infrequent..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Northern Triangle subtropical forests (IM0140)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 20,800 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact... Introduction" "The Northern Triangle Subtropical Forests [IM0140] are one of the least explored and scientifically known places in the world. The region's remote location, limited access, and rugged landscape have kept scientific exploration at a minimum. Yet what is known about these forests still ranks them as globally outstanding in their biological diversity. There are at sixty-five endemic mammals known from this ecoregion, but more probably await discovery. In 1997 a new species of small deer, the leaf muntjac, was discovered high in the mountains. This ecoregion remains one of the few places in the Indo-Pacific region where conservation action can be done on a proactive rather than reactive basis. Description Location and General Description Floristically, Kachin State in northern Myanmar is one of the most diverse regions in continental Asia (WWF and IUCN 1995), but it is also one of the least explored. In 1997 a WCS team went into the region, the first in more than fifty years, since the early explorations of Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952). Therefore, our assessment of the biodiversity in this region probably is highly underestimated; it probably harbors many more species than are now attributed to it. The mountains trace their origins to the geological period when the collision between the Deccan Plateau and the Laurasian mainland created the Himalayas. The mountains extend as offshoots from the eastern Himalayas in four parallel ranges. The westernmost Sangpang Bum Range forms the Indo-Myanmar boundary, and the easternmost Goligong (Gaoligong) Shan demarcates the Myanmar-China border. In general, the elevation exceeds 1,500 m, but the peaks rise steeply to more than 3,000 m. The Chindwin, Mali Hka, and Mai Hka rivers originate in these mountains and converge in the lower reaches to form the Irrawaddy River..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Northern Triangle temperate forests (IM0402)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests... Size: 4,100 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact... Introduction: "The Northern Triangle Temperate Forests [IM0402] ecoregion lies in the extreme northern area of the Golden Triangle of Myanmar. The region is scientifically unexplored, and the biological information, especially of its flora, is still based on the early, pioneering exploration done by Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952). There have been no detailed scientific surveys in this area since then, and current assessments of its biodiversity probably are underestimated. In all probability this ecoregion harbors many more species than are now attributed to it. Satellite imagery indicates that the ecoregion is still largely clothed in intact forests and presents a rare opportunity to conserve large landscapes that will support the ecological processes and the biodiversity within this eastern Himalayan ecosystem. Description Location and General Description The mountains originated more than 40 million years ago, when the collision between the drifting Deccan Plateau and the northern Laurasian mainland created the Himalayan Mountains, including these mountains in the Golden Triangle. Therefore, the mountains are young and unweathered; the terrain is rugged and dissected, with north-south-oriented ranges that reach south, toward the central plains of Myanmar. The peaks along this range rise steeply to attain heights of more than 3,000 m. The Chindwin, Mali Hka, and N'mai Hka rivers originate in these mountains and flow south to converge in the lower reaches to form the Irrawaddy River..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Southern Asia: Along the coasts of India, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Thailand - Indo-Malayan (IM1404)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Mangroves... Size: 8,200 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No.. Introduction: "The Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] are some of the most degraded or destroyed mangrove systems in the Indo-Pacific. The sedimentation rate of the Irrawaddy River is the fifth highest in the world. This is largely because of the deforestation that has occurred throughout central Myanmar. The mangroves have also been overexploited from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture, and development projects. The wild species have been severely reduced but hang on in isolated pockets... Description: Location and General Description: Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] ecoregion is found in the Irrawaddy delta. The mouth of the Irrawaddy River was some 170 miles inland near Prome 300,000 years ago. On the islands of Twante, Myaungmya, and Bassein, lateritic ridges stood above the water. The delta is composed largely of alluvium, and a large area is occupied by volcanic rocks...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Southern Asia: Myanmar and India, into Bangladesh - Indo-Malayan (IM0131)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Introduction: The Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin Rain Forests [IM0131] has the highest bird species richness of all ecoregions that are completely within the Indo-Pacific region. (The only ecoregions that have more birds are the Northern Indochina Subtropical Forests [IM0137] and South China-Vietnam Subtropical Evergreen Forests [IM0149] that extend into China.) Except the pioneering explorations of Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952) and Burma Wildlife Survey made by Oliver Milton and Richard D. Estes (1963), few scientific surveys have been made in this ecoregion. Once exception has been the recent Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Smithsonian Institution's reptile survey in northwestern Myanmar. Therefore these rugged mountains' biodiversity remains largely unknown... Description: Location and General Description This large ecoregion represents the semi-evergreen submontane rain forests that extend from the midranges of the Arakan Yoma and Chin Hills north into the Chittagong Hills of Bangladesh, the Mizo and Naga hills along the Myanmar-Indian border, and into the northern hills of Myanmar. It divides the Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy valleys, through which two of Asia's largest rivers flow. Some areas in this ecoregion receive more than 2,000 mm of rainfall annually from the monsoons that sweep in from the Bay of Bengal..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests (IM0163)
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 37,600 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... Introduction: "The Tenasserim-South Thailand Semi-Evergreen Rain Forests [IM0163] cover the transition zone from continental dry evergreen forests common in the north to semi-evergreen rain forests to the south. As a consequence, this ecoregion contains some of the highest diversity of both bird and mammal species found in the Indo-Pacific region. The relatively intact hill and montane forests form some of the best remaining habitat essential to the survival of Asian elephants and tigers in the Indo-Pacific region. However, the lowland forests are heavily degraded, and many lowland specialists such as the endemic Gurney's pitta survive in a few isolated reserves... Description: Location and General Description This ecoregion encompasses the mountainous, semi-evergreen rain forests of the southern portion of the Tenasserim Range, which separates Thailand and Myanmar, and the numerous small ranges of peninsular Thailand. This ecoregion also includes the extensive lowland plains that lie between the peninsular mountains and until recent decades supported extensive lowland forest. The southern margin of this ecoregion is defined by the Kangar-Pattani floristic boundary (Whitmore 1984), which separates Indochina from the Malesia. Annual precipitation increases southward as the length of the dry season and the magnitude of premonsoon drought stress declines. The southern mountain ranges receive rain from both the northeast and southwest monsoons so that, unlike in mountain ranges further north, there is no significant rainshadow. The Köppen climate system places this ecoregion in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim Moist Forests (29)
      Description/subject: "This region contains Indochina�s largest block of moist forest, one of its richest plant diversities, and its largest number of mammals. This Global 200 ecoregion is made up of these terrestrial ecoregions: Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests; Kayah-Karen montane rain forests. If you're interested in Asian mammals, you should visit the Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim Moist Forests. For here live tigers, Asian elephants, gaurs, and clouded leopards--species that conjure images of dense, gloomy forests. Other species, such as the Fea�s muntjak -- a small deer with prominent, vampire-like canine teeth -- are rarely found anywhere outside of these forests. In the evenings a host of different bats, ranging in size from small to tiny, will begin to flit through the sky feasting on the large variety of insects, while white-bellied rats scurry across the ground..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Lake Inle (190)
      Description/subject: "Stand on the Shan Plateau, and you'll see mountains everywhere, stretching far and wide. Under your feet lies rocky soil rich with silver, rubies, and sapphires. But the real gem here is Lake Inle. One of Myanmar's few freshwater lakes, Inle contains many unique species of fish. Lake Inle lies 2,952 feet (900 m) above sea level on the Shan Plateau, an extensive region of high mountain ranges crisscrossed by streams and the mighty Salween River. Inle is a shallow mountain lake that contains several islands and is fed by mountain streams..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Naga-Manupuri-Chin Hills Moist Forests (34)
      Description/subject: "This ecoregion is one of the richest areas for birds and mammals in all of Asia. This Global 200 ecoregion is made up of these terrestrial ecoregions: Northern Triangle subtropical forests; Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests; Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests; Meghalaya subtropical forests; Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Salween River
      Description/subject: "The Salween River originates in the eastern highlands of the Tibetan Plateau and flows through valleys that are at first steep and narrow, then increasingly broad as the river approaches the tropical lowlands. Eventually it enters the Andaman Sea in eastern Myanmar. The 2815 km long Salween river runs parallel to the mighty Mekong River for much of its course and forms part of the border between Myanmar and Thailand. When it flows through Yunnan, it is known as the Nujiang river. About 140 fish live in this river (approximately one-third endemic species) with Minnows (Cyprinidae) being the most diverse group of fish. The area is also home to the world's most diverse turtle community, with between 10 and 15 genera of turtles represented, many of which are riverine species. For most of its route the river is of little commercial value, and it passes through deep gorges and is often called China's Grand Canyon. It is home to over 7,000 species of plants and 80 rare or endangered animals and fish. Unesco said this region "may be the most biologically diverse temperate ecosystem in the world" and designated it a World Heritage Site in 2003. The Salween is the longest undammed river in mainland Southeast Asia..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Southeastern Asia: Central Myanmar (formerly Burma) - Indo-Malayan (IM0205)
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests... Size: 13,600 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No..... Introduction: "The Irrawaddy Dry Forests [IM0205], like the surrounding moist deciduous forests, have been under intensive conversion pressure for hundreds of years. However, until recently most of its large mammal fauna, such as the tiger, still persisted in the degraded forests. Only recently has the larger mammal fauna been hunted to the brink of extinction in this ecoregion. The little protection afforded this ecoregion has hindered conservation efforts. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion falls in the dry zone of central Myanmar. The region has a harsh climate and is extremely dry. The average rainfall is about 650 mm per year. Rains start in mid-July and last until October. There are rarely more than fifteen days of rain per year. When rainfall does occur, it falls in torrential showers. In addition to rains, the dry zone is subject to southerly winds during the summer, resulting in wind erosion of the topsoil..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Southeastern Asia: Southern Myanmar. - Indo-Malayan (IM0116)
      Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 5,900 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No... Introduction: "In 1929 the Burma Game Manual stated its guiding principle: "A countryside devoid of wildlife is uninteresting and unnatural, and life under such conditions can adversely affect the national character." Therefore, invaluable natural and national assets had to be saved from destruction. This has not happened in large portions of Myanmar, especially the fertile lands of the Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forest. Most of the ecoregion's original forests, and subsequent wildlife such as Asian elephants and tigers, have been destroyed. Protection of the last remaining bits of habitat and restoration ecology will be key elements of returning this ecoregion to its natural state. Description Location and General Description The Irrawaddy River flows into the Bay of Bengal, and its delta is made up of mangroves and freshwater swamp forests of this ecoregion. This ecoregion is an extremely fertile area because of the riverborne silt deposited in the delta. The southern portion of the ecoregion transitions into the Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] and is made up of fanlike marshes with oxbow lakes, islands, and meandering rivulets and streams. Topographically the region is primarily flatlands. The western part of the region is bounded by the Rakhine (Arakan) Yomas, with the highest elevation at about 1,287 m to the north, tapering down to the south to 428 m...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • The fauna of Burma/Myanmar

      • Fauna of Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Gurney's Pitta Pitta gurneyi
        Description/subject: "Despite the discovery of a large population in Myanmar, the situation for this pitta remains precarious since it occupies a very small range in which its habitat of flat, low-lying forest, which is targeted for the development of oil-palm plantations, is already severely fragmented. A very rapid population reduction is anticipated to occur in the near future as a result of land clearance. For these reasons it is listed as Endangered..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Birdlife International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Wild Burma, Nature's Lost Kingdom 3 (video)
        Date of publication: 30 December 2013
        Description/subject: Filming elephants in the mountain forests of Arakan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: BBC 2
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (57 Minutes)
        Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


        Title: Wild Burma, Nature's Lost Kingdom 2 (video)
        Date of publication: 21 December 2013
        Description/subject: "On the second leg of their journey, wildlife filmmakers Gordon Buchanan and Justine Evans, along with a team of scientists, head deep into the mountains of western Burma. This is where they hope to find the shy sun bear and two of the world's rarest and most beautiful cats: the Asian golden cat and the clouded leopard. Meanwhile, zoologist Ross Piper and the science team are on a mission to create a wildlife survey to present to the government of Burma to persuade them that these forests are so unique they must be protected. High on the forest ridges, Gordon finds evidence to suggest that Burma's wildlife might be in danger. Undercover filming in a border town known as the 'Las Vegas of the jungle' leads to a shocking discovery
        Author/creator: Gordon Buchanan, Justine Evans
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: BBC
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (58 minutes)
        Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


        Title: Burma's Last Timber Elephants
        Date of publication: 25 October 2013
        Description/subject: "Myanmar's timber elephants and their handlers have survived wars and dictatorships, but will they survive democracy?" ... Decades of military dictatorship has meant many aspects of Myanmar are frozen in time. One of those traditions dates back thousands of years - the timber elephant. Connect with 101 East Myanmar has around 5,000 elephants living in captivity - more than any other Asian country. More than half of them belong to a single government logging agency, the Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE). Elephants are chosen over machines because they do the least damage to the forest. These elephants have survived ancient wars, colonialism and World War II while hard woods extracted by elephants in Myanmar once fed the British naval fleet. Yet today, Myanmar's timber elephant is under threat. Once the richest reservoir for biodiversity in Asia, Myanmar's forest cover is steadily depleting and the government blames it on illegal loggers. Now, the forest policy is being overhauled. The Ministry for Environmental Conservation and Forestry has pledged to reduce its logging by more than 80,000 tonnes this fiscal year. Myanmar will ban raw teak and timber exports by April 1, 2014, allowing only export of high-end finished timber products. MTE says that the private elephant owners contracted by the government will be the first on the chopping block. Saw Moo, a second generation private elephant owner, sees a bleak future for his stable of 20 elephants. He fears the family business will end in his hands and he may have to sell his elephants, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. 101 East follows the oozies deep into Myanmar's forests, gaining unprecedented access to remote elephant logging camps and witnessing the extraordinary communication between elephants and men as they work. But will the elephants and their handlers, who have survived kingdoms and military dictatorships, survive democracy and the open market? Is there a place for them in a changing modern world?..."
        Author/creator: Nirmal Ghosh
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
        Date of entry/update: 27 October 2013


        Title: New hope for rare bird species
        Date of publication: 01 November 2009
        Description/subject: "The resurgence of the Gurney’s Pitta (pitta gurneyi) bird species continues. Widely considered extinct until the discovery of a population in Thailand in 1986, new research has shown that there could be as many as 35,000 Gurney’s Pitta territories in Myanmar’s southern Tanintharyi Division. One territory generally represents a pair of birds, as Gurney’s Pitta is thought to be monogamous. A paper published online last week in Bird Conservation International estimates there are somewhere between 9300 and 35,000 Gurney’s Pitta territories in Myanmar, although the figure probably lies around a mid-point of 20,000 territories, said a spokesperson from BirdLife International, an association of more than 100 conservation organisations..."
        Author/creator: Thomas Kean
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Myanmar
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


        Title: Rare Glimpse of a Rare Turtle
        Date of publication: 03 September 2009
        Description/subject: Between thick stands of bamboo in an impenetrable forest of Myanmar, the Arakan forest turtle reared its small brown head. The lucky team of Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) scientists was the first to find the species in the wild. Previously, the turtle had been known only by a few museum specimens and a few individuals in zoos.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


        Title: Scientists See Rare Turtle for the First Time in the Wild
        Date of publication: 03 September 2009
        Description/subject: * The Arakan forest turtle is discovered in dense bamboo forest in Myanmar * Species previously known only by museum and captive specimens Known only by museum specimens and a few captive individuals, one of the world’s rarest turtle species – the Arakan forest turtle – has been observed for the first time in the wild by scientists according to a new report by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). The WCS team discovered five of the critically endangered turtles in a wildlife sanctuary in Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia. The sanctuary, originally established to protect elephants, contains thick stands of impenetrable bamboo forests and is rarely visited by people according to the report.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


        Title: Rats and Kyats: Bamboo Flowering Causes a Hunger Belt in Chin State, Burma
        Date of publication: 30 July 2008
        Description/subject: "The bamboo species Melocanna baccifera blossoms approximately every 48 years. This type of bamboo grows throughout a large area of Northeast India (primarily in Mizoram and Manipur States) as well as regions of Burma (mainly Chin State) and Bangladesh (Hill Tracts.) It densely covers valleys and hillsides in the rugged terrain of the region. The blossoming bamboo produces fruit, then dies off. During the fruiting stage of the cycle, forest rats feed on the bamboo fruits/seeds. Once the population of rats has stripped the forest of bamboo fruit/seeds, rat swarms invade farms and villages to devour crops and stored rice. This phenomenon, known as the Mautam, has historically resulted in mass starvation among indigenous peoples of the region where Melocanna baccifera bamboo grows. While the current Mautam bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Northeast India has been covered by journalists, and food aid is being provided there and in the Bangladesh Hill Tracts, the Mautam crisis across the borders in Burma is less well known. In Burma's Chin State, local groups are attempting to provide aid, but there is not yet a large scale organized relief effort in the Mautam affected areas. The Project Maje resource report, "Rats and Kyats" is intended for journalists, aid workers and other researchers who may become interested in the bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Burma. News stories and documents are reproduced or linked in it, and there is also a links list of background information on the bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Mizoram, Manipur and Bangladesh."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: html (102K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 July 2008


        Title: Myanmar zoologist addresses bat research meet in Poland
        Date of publication: 12 September 2004
        Description/subject: "A ZOOLOGIST from Myanmar gave a presentation at the 13th International Bat Research Conference held in Mikolajki, Poland, from August 23-27. Dr Mar Mar Thi, a professor at the Zoology Department of the University of Distance Education (Yangon), gave a presentation titled Bat Research in the Department of Zoology of Yangon University of Myanmar..."
        Author/creator: Ba Saing
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 09 October 2004


        Title: On The Wild Side
        Date of publication: June 2003
        Description/subject: "Preserving Burma’s forests and wildlife is a pursuit that goes beyond politics... On his first expedition into the forests of northern Burma, Alan Rabinowitz and his team traveled 100 miles down the Chindwin River and then hiked for several days into the heart of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. There he began to hunt for signs of tigers, elephants, and the rare Sumatran rhino. Like many conservationists, he believed that Burma’s forests contain Southeast Asia’s healthiest wildlife populations. But he found Htamanthi’s forests strangely empty. The next day his team met two Lisu hunters who admitted that they came each year for wildlife parts—tiger bones, bear gall bladders, even rhino horns before the animal disappeared—to sell to Chinese traders. "That’s indicative of what’s going on across the country," Rabinowitz says, as he sits down for an interview outside a camp shelter in Thailand’s Kaeng Krachan National Park. "Despite the beautiful amounts of forest, the wildlife is getting hammered."..."
        Author/creator: Chris Tenove
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 11, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=2946
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


        Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
        Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
        Format/size: html, 23 pages
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


        Title: The Birds of Burma
        Date of publication: 1940
        Description/subject: "...Birds are described species by species; those species that have been illustrated, or are considered to be characteristic of Burma, have been dealt with under a greater number of headings, and printed in larger type, than species that are not often seen, or that are restricted to a small part of Burma. The only object of this arrangement is to save space. The information about each species in the first group is given under the following heads : English name of species, scientific name of species, author of the scientific name, typical locality associated with the name ; next, the subspecies (if any) are listed with the authors' names and typical localities ; next, the local names (if any) ; next, information about the bird under the headings—Identification, Voice, Habits and Food, Nest and Eggs, Status and Distribution. For the second group of birds, i.e. those printed in small type, the information under identification, voice, and habits and food, is telescoped under the heading Identification..."
        Author/creator: Bertram E. Smythies
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: OLIVER AND BOYD
        Format/size: pdf (15MB) 772 pages
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


        Title: A Treatise on Elephants -- Their Treatment in Health and Disease
        Date of publication: 1901
        Author/creator: G.H. Evans
        Language: English
        Format/size: pdf (51MB - 160 pages)
        Date of entry/update: 05 March 2009


        Title: Myanmar Reptile Survey
        Description/subject: "Building upon a newfound partnership with biologists in Myanmar (formerly Burma), scientists with the Wildlife Conservation Society are working to update research on the numerous reptiles' species that inhabit the coastline and forests of one of southeast Asia's richest ecosystems..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 July 2003


      • Threats to the fauna of Burma

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Search for "Myanmar" on the Traffick website
        Description/subject: "TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, works to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature"...85 results for Myanmar (February 2009); 66 results (March 2012)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Traffick
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


        Individual Documents

        Title: EFU film UK tourists fuelling brutal live elephant trade between Burma & Thailand
        Date of publication: 23 July 2012
        Description/subject: "An illegal cross-border trade in endangered wild Asian elephants to serve Thailand's tourist industry is threatening the future of the species, an undercover investigation by the Ecologist Film Unit (EFU) has revealed A new film, produced by the EFU in association with Link TV and the NGO Elephant Family, has uncovered how at least 50-100 elephant calves and young female elephants are removed from their forest homes in Burma each year to be traded illegally to supply tourist camps situated in Thailand. Many of the animals end up being used for trekking, in festivals, as attractions in so-called 'wildlife parks' and for riding at other tourist destinations. Yet countless elephants die in the process, say campaigners, threatening the remaining populations of this endangered species. Capturing elephants from the wild often involves the slaughter of mothers and other protective family members with automatic weapons. Captured calves are then often subjected to a brutal 'breaking-in' process where they are tied up, confined, starved, beaten and tortured in order to 'break their spirits'. It is estimated that only one in three survive this inhumane 'domestication' process. As many as one million British tourists visit Thailand's tourist camps each year, it is estimated, leading to claims that they are unwittingly fuelling this devastating trade. Campaigners are now calling on the Thai authorities to launch a fresh crackdown on elephant smuggling ahead of the next Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) in Thailand in March 2013..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ecologist Film Unit (EFU)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (6 minutes 20 seconds)
        Date of entry/update: 14 October 2012


        Title: Endangered Wild Elephant in Megatha Forest, Karen State, Burma
        Date of publication: 01 August 2011
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "A team of ethnic Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN) has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the wild elephant population and rich biodiversity in Megatha Forest (also known as Megatha Wildlife Sanctuary) in a corner of Karen State that is part of the elephants’ native habitat. The report describes the method and results of the wild elephant survey in Megatha Forest by a cooperative team of researchers made up of stakeholders, including KESAN, the Dooplaya Forest Department staff, and local villagers. The research took place from May 2008 to November 2010. The study area includes lowland, hills and valleys, with elevations from about 400 meters to 1052 meters. The forest in the area can be categorized as semi-evergreen, mix-deciduous, meadows and bamboo dominated forests, which vary from slightly disturbed to undisturbed. This forest is under the local administration of Karen Forest Department, Dooplaya District Offi ce, but direct threats to wild elephants and other wildlife remain, in large part due to civil war in Burma and industrial resource extraction. In this study, we used both primary survey and secondary survey research techniques. The primary research method is to survey and collect data by direct sighting of the species through personal encounters and evidence of presence. For primary data collation, we prepared forms for each of the surveyors to fi ll out during their survey days. We recorded the evidence both with eye contact and evidence auch as tracks, feces, sleeping sites, and vocalizations. Secondary survey and data collection involved interviewing local experts, forest offi cers, hunters and poachers. We selected many different kinds of people in the communities to share their knowledge of wild elephants and other animal populations. We probed the threat status, wildlife trade, and confl icts affecting wildlife, using both structured and semi-structured interviews. The elephant population is not very large so the surveyors had diffi culty estimating the population through direct observation. The total number of wild elephants found to reside in this forest is estimated to be 15 individuals. There are also many other kinds of large animals in this forest, but only some could be recorded by the team because the focus was primarily on elephants. Further study of large animals in Karen State in encouraged, with KESAN offering willing assistance. The fi eld surveys also recorded 60 other species, including 27 mammals, 23 birds, 8 reptiles and 5 amphibians. Out of 60 species, 9 are listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List, 7 are Vulnerable, and 6 are Near Threatened. With this accounting, it can be seen that the Megatha Forest provides a good example of an intact ecosystem, but because 22 out of 60 species are at risk, the forest faces signifi cant threats. These threats, including ongoing war and militarization and accelerating natural resource exploitation, may seriously degrade the Megatha Forest. Logging and mining permitted by the Burmese State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and its Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) are rapidly depleting the remaining natural forest in the area, leading to the loss of at least one severely endangered species, the Sumatran rhinoceros. Therefore, KESAN makes the following recommendations to conserve Megatha Forest: 1. Do not seek war. 2. Do not allow logging and mining. 3. Do not allow rubber plantations that will result in forest encroachment. 4. Strict enforcement of poaching laws."
        Author/creator: Saw Blaw Htoo, Martin Bergoffen, Saw Wee Eh Htoo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
        Format/size: pdf (4.4MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/Files/PDF/Report_Endangered-Elephants-in-Megatha-Forest-Karen%20State-Burma.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2011


        Title: Freshwater turtles in “catastrophic decline”
        Date of publication: 16 September 2010
        Description/subject: A per­fect storm of hab­i­tat loss, hunt­ing and a pet trade is dec­i­mat­ing the world’s fresh­wa­ter tur­tle popula­t­ions, ac­cord­ing to an anal­y­sis from wild­life pro­tec­tion group Con­serva­t­ion In­terna­t­ional. Ur­gent ac­tion is needed to save the rep­tiles, say re­search­ers af­fil­i­at­ed with the Ar­ling­ton, Va.-based or­gan­iz­a­tion. A drop in many of the world’s tur­tle spe­cies, they add, is ev­i­dence that mis­man­age­ment of vi­tal fresh­wa­ter ecosys­tems is caus­ing deep and da­m­ag­ing en­vi­ron­men­tal im­pacts that will af­fect peo­ple and wild­life alik
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Tyrants, Tycoons and Tigers
        Date of publication: 25 August 2010
        Description/subject: Summary: "A bitter land struggle is unfolding in northern Burma’s remote Hugawng Valley. Farmers that have been living for generations in the valley are defying one of the country’s most powerful tycoons as his company establishes massive mono-crop plantations in what happens to be the world’s largest tiger reserve. The Hukawng Valley Tiger Reserve in Kachin State was declared by the Myanmar* Government in 2001 with the support of the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society. In 2004 the reserve’s designation was expanded to include the entire valley of 21,890 square kilometers (8,452 square miles), making it the largest tiger reserve in the world. Today a 200,000 acre mono-crop plantation project is making a mockery of the reserve’s protected status. Fleets of tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers rip up forests, raze bamboo groves and fl atten existing small farms. Signboards that mark animal corridors and “no hunting zones” stand out starkly against a now barren landscape; they are all that is left of conservation efforts. Application of chemical fertilizers and herbicides together with the daily toil of over two thousand imported workers are transforming the area into huge tapioca, sugar cane, and jatropha plantations. In 2006 Senior General Than Shwe, Burma’s ruling despot, granted the Rangoon-based Yuzana Company license to develop this “agricultural development zone” in the tiger reserve. Yuzana Company is one of Burma’s largest businesses and is chaired by U Htay Myint, a prominent real estate tycoon who has close connections with the junta. Local villagers tending small scale farms in the valley since before it was declared a reserve have seen their crops destroyed and their lands confi scated. Confl icts between Yuzana Company employees, local authorities, and local residents have fl ared up and turned violent several times over the past few years, culminating with an attack on residents of Ban Kawk village in 2010. As of February 2010, 163 families had been forced into a relocation site where there is little water and few fi nished homes. Since then, through further threats and intimidation, * The current military regime changed the country’s name to Myanmar in 1989 1 others families have been forced to take “compensation funds” which are insuffi cient to begin a new life and leave them destitute. Despite the powerful interests behind the Yuzana project, villagers have been bravely standing up to protect their farmlands and livelihoods. They have sent numerous formal appeals to the authorities, conducted prayer ceremonies, tried to reclaim their fi elds, refused to move, and defended their homes. The failure of various government offi cials to reply to or resolve the problem fi nally led the villagers to reach out to the United Nations and the National League for Democracy in Burma. In March 2010 representatives of three villages fi led written requests to the International Labor Organization to investigate the actions of Yuzana. In July 2010, over 100 farmers opened a joint court case in Kachin State. Although the villagers in Yuzana’s project area have been ignored at every turn, they remain determined to seek a just solution to the problems in Hugawng. As Burma’s military rulers prepare for their 2010 “election,” local residents hold no hope for change from a new constitution that only legalizes the status quo and the military’s placement above the law. Companies such as Yuzana that have close military connections are set to play an increasing role in the economy and will also remain above the law. The residents of Hugawng Valley are thus at the frontline of protecting not only their own lands and environment but also the rights of all of Burma’s farmers. The Kachin Development Networking Group stands fi rmly with these communities and therefore calls on Yuzana to stop their project implementation to avoid any further citizens’ rights abuses and calls on all Kachin communities and leaders to work together with Hugawng villagers in their brave struggle."
        Language: English and the other EU languages
        Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
        Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.aksyu.com/images/stories/tyrants_tycoons_n_tigers.jpg
        Date of entry/update: 25 August 2010


        Title: A Valley of Tigers
        Date of publication: 04 August 2010
        Description/subject: In the northernmost stretches of Myanmar, a valley exists where tigers can just be tigers. Country officials have declared the entire Hukaung Valley a Protected Tiger Area. With 8,452 square miles in which to roam, hunt, and hopefully breed, the region’s remaining tigers have a chance too few of their kind currently enjoy.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: News and Periodical Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: "Undercurrents" Issue 3
        Date of publication: April 2009
        Description/subject: this issue focuses on how the expanding influence of Chinese interests in the Golden Triangle region, from rubber plantations to wildlife trading, is bringing rapid destructive changes to local communities. There are also articles on opium cultivation, mining operations, the mainstream Mekong dams in China, and unprecedented flooding downstream..... Mekong Biodiversity Up for Sale: A new hub of wildlife trade and a network of direct buyers from China is hastening the pace of species loss... Rubber Mania: Scrambling to supply China, can ordinary farmers benefit?... Drug Country: Another opium season in eastern Shan State sees increased cultivation, mulitple cropping and a new form of an old drug... Construction Steams Ahead: A photo essay from the Nouzhadu Dam, one of the eight planned on the mainstream Mekong in China... Digging for Riches: An update on mining operations in eastern Shan State... Washed Out: Unprecedented flooding wreaks havoc in the Golden Triangle.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Lahu National Development Organization (LNDO)
        Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/undercurrentsissue3.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 April 2009


        Title: Khoe Kay: Biodiversity in Peril
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A team of Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the rich biodiversity of Khoe Kay, a bend in the Salween River that is part of their homeland. They also want to document and expose the severe threats faced by this stretch of the Salween, both from large dams and ongoing militarization. Using methods of their own culture, as well as those used in university research, they have found that Khoe Kay is studded with both plant and animal diversity, with 194 plant species and 200 animals identified. Forty-two of these species are considered endangered, being found in IUCN's Redlist, the CITES Appendices, or both. Thus, conservation of the area will protect many globally important resources. Endemic and unknown species are also represented, with eight endemic fish species of particular interest. Also, many of the plants and animals unknown to Western science are used by the Karen for food and medicine, providing opportunities for further research. Furthermore, several entire taxa, such as mollusks, spiders and fungi, have been treated very lightly if at all in this report, so the reader is encouraged to undertake further study with assistance from KESAN. Lying on the riverine border of Thailand and Burma, the area is relatively untrammeled. Teak trees dominate, and therefore Khoe Kay provides a window into the biodiversity of the entire region prior to industrial development. Threats from proposed large dams and militarization may seriously degrade Khoe Kay. With dams, the main concerns are greenhouse gas emissions, loss of fisheries, cumulative effects of several cascading dams, and flow changes and sedimentation. Militarization of the area is also increasing, having already resulted in the loss of one severely endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
        Format/size: pdf (5.9MB - original; 4.7MB - burmalibrary version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/2008_009_24_khoekay-b.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 February 2009


        Title: Goodbye to the Butterflies
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: How greedy loggers are destroying Mount Popa’s natural wonders... "First it was the tigers. Then came the fish of Burma’s rivers and polluted Inle Lake. Now Burma is losing its butterflies. Mount Popa, in the Myin Gyan District of Mandalay Division, is an extinct volcano best known as the revered abode of spirits known as nats and a nationally famous place of pilgrimage. Less well-known is its importance as the habitat of some of the world’s rarest butterflies, including the beautiful Shwe Hnget Taung (biological name: Taoides aceacus). A Burmese Forest Ministry report in 1982 listed around 100 species of butterfly on Mount Popa. This number had dropped to 60 when Mount Popa’s Environment and Wild Animals Conservation Department conducted a survey in 2000. Seven years later, researchers found only 32—and no Shwe Hnget Taung..."
        Author/creator: Kyi Wai
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Elephant and Ivory Trade in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar has been a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1997. Illegal trade in ivory and other Asian Elephant Elephas maximus products remains widespread, especially in markets along Myanmar's international borders. In 2006, TRAFFIC surveyed 14 markets in Myanmar and three border markets in Thailand and China, and found some 9000 pieces of ivory and 16 whole tusks for sale, representing the ivory of an estimated 116 bulls. Illegal killing and capture of elephants for trade continues to be a major cause of decline for Myanmar's wild Asian Elephant populations. Ivory and other elephant parts are routinely smuggled out of Myanmar in contravention of the Protection of Wildlife and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law (State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.583/94.1994), suggesting a serious lack of law enforcement and a blatant disregard for international conventions and national laws. The fact that retail dealers openly display ivory and other elephant parts, and rarely hesitate in disclosing smuggling techniques and other illegal activities with potential buyers, further highlights that effective law enforcement is lacking. The observed and reported levels of cross-border trade indicate that neighbouring countries, especially China and Thailand, also have enforcement problems, and that illegal international trade is frequently carried out with minimal risk of detection. In addition to trade in ivory, TRAFFIC documents reports of some 250 live Asian Elephants being exported from Myanmar to neighbouring countries in the last ten years; this is mostly to supply the demand of tourist locations in neighbouring Thailand. It is important to note that no cross-border exports or imports of live elephants have been reported to CITES by either Myanmar or Thailand. Based on observations and discussions with interviewees, the capture of live elephants may be at such a rate that it is also having a negative impact on wild populations..."
        Author/creator: Chris R. Shepherd, Vincent Nijman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia
        Format/size: pdf (1.34MB)
        Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


        Title: THE WILD CAT TRADE IN MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "A total of 1320 wild cat parts, representing an absolute minimum of 1158 individual animals were observed during 12 surveys carried out in Myanmar (formerly Burma) between 1991 and 2006. These parts represented all eight species of wild cats found in Myanmar. Under Myanmar's Protection of Wild Life and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law (State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.583/94.1994) only five of eight species of native wild cats are protected. Large numbers of parts from totally protected cat species were observed openly displayed for sale during these surveys. Protected species (Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P. pardus, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata, Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii) were offered in similar numbers as non-protected species (Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverinnus, Leopard Cat P. bengalensis, Jungle Cat Felis chaus), but species that are globally threatened are offered in significantly larger numbers than non-threatened species. This, and the frankness of the dealers, suggests a serious lack of enforcement effort to prevent this illegal trade, and highlights the threat that trade poses to already threatened species. Three of the four markets surveyed were situated on international borders, catering to international buyers. Myanmar is a signatory to the Convention on international Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), prohibiting any cross-border trade of cat species (including their parts and derivatives) listed in CITES Appendix I, and requiring permits for export of species listed in Appendix II. Dealers openly acknowledge that the trade is illegal and give suggestions on how to smuggle these contraband wildlife products across borders. No dealers indicated that they were able to trade any of these specimens legally. According to the CITES trade database managed by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), no cats of any species have been legally exported from Myanmar since becoming a Party to the Convention in 1997..."
        Author/creator: Chris R. Shepherd, Vincent Nijman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: TRAFFIC SOUTHEAST ASIA
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
        Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


        Title: Looking for a Good Catch? Ask the Irrawaddy Dolphin
        Date of publication: 04 August 2006
        Description/subject: For fishermen on the Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar, the key to a good day’s catch isn’t bait or tackle; it’s a dolphin. The Irrawaddy dolphin has a knack for herding fish into nets; and that knack can increase the size of the fishermen’s catch by threefold. In turn, the endangered dolphins are paid for their services with a fish dinner—and, more important, the friendship of their human neighbors and guardians. This unique cultural tradition protects both a critically endangered wildlife population and a sustainable, local livelihood.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Myanmar Investment Opportunities in Biodiversity Conservation
        Date of publication: November 2005
        Description/subject: Due in part to decades of economic and political isolation, Myanmar supports some of the most intact natural habitats and species communities remaining in the "Indo-Myanmar Hotspot", as well as many endemic and globally threatened species. It represents a unique opportunity to invest in a country at a stage when it is still possible to avoid the patterns of degradation and loss of natural ecosystems that have been witnessed elsewhere in south and Southeast Asia. This document is based upon the results of two stakeholder workshops held in Yangon in 2003 and 2004 when over 30 stakeholders from NGOs, academic institutions, government institutions and donor agencies attempted to reach multi-stakeholder consensus on geographic, taxonomic and thematic priorities for biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. It identifies biological targets set by these stakeholders for 144 globally threatened species in Myanmar and sets out 76 key biodiversity areas (KBAs) and 15 conservation corridors that link many of these sites in order to facilitate long-term conservation of the country's threatened species. The text is mainly English in but there is a useful introduction in Burmese. Excellent illustrations, charts, tables maps. Unfortunately, the online version omits the final segment of the original printed version.
        Author/creator: Andrew W Tordoff, Jonathan C. Eames, Karin Eberhardt, Michael C. Baltzer, Peter Davidson, Peter Leimgruber, U Uga, U Aung Than
        Language: Mainly in English with an introduction in Burmese
        Source/publisher: Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund; Bird Life International in Indochina; UNDP
        Format/size: pdf (3.0 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://birdlifeindochina.org/content/myanmar-investment-opportunities-biodiversity-conservation
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: MITHUNS SACRIFICED TO GREED - The Forest Ox of Burma's Chins
        Date of publication: February 2004
        Description/subject: "This report is a brief summary of information about the mithun, a type of domesticated bovine found in the Himalayan foothills of South/Southeast Asia, particularly addressing its situation in the Chin State of Burma. The spelling "mithun" (accurate in terms of pronunciation) is used here for the bovine species Bos frontalis, although "mithan" is also a common spelling, and "mythun" is another spelling in use. This name probably came from Assamese dialects. The Chin people, one of the Zo ethnic groups, who live in western Burma, call these animals "sia." Mithuns are also known as "gayals" in India. This report is by no means a comprehensive or scientific document on mithuns. It is inspired by accounts of mithun confiscation and commercialization of mithun raising in the Chin State. It is intended as an alert about the present situation of this particular mammal in this particular area. Under Burma's military dictatorship, the Chin people have been subjected to numerous human rights violations, including religious persecution. Most Chins are Christians, with Animist traditions. Their relationship to the mithun has strong elements of remaining Animist culture. The Chins' mountain forest environment has been in jeopardy in recent years, as Burma's military regime carries out logging and unsustainable harvest of forest products, and promotes plantation agriculture..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 April 2004


        Title: On The Wild Side
        Date of publication: June 2003
        Description/subject: "Preserving Burma’s forests and wildlife is a pursuit that goes beyond politics... On his first expedition into the forests of northern Burma, Alan Rabinowitz and his team traveled 100 miles down the Chindwin River and then hiked for several days into the heart of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. There he began to hunt for signs of tigers, elephants, and the rare Sumatran rhino. Like many conservationists, he believed that Burma’s forests contain Southeast Asia’s healthiest wildlife populations. But he found Htamanthi’s forests strangely empty. The next day his team met two Lisu hunters who admitted that they came each year for wildlife parts—tiger bones, bear gall bladders, even rhino horns before the animal disappeared—to sell to Chinese traders. "That’s indicative of what’s going on across the country," Rabinowitz says, as he sits down for an interview outside a camp shelter in Thailand’s Kaeng Krachan National Park. "Despite the beautiful amounts of forest, the wildlife is getting hammered."..."
        Author/creator: Chris Tenove
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 11, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=2946
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


        Title: A NATIONAL TIGER ACTION PLAN FOR THE UNION OF MYANMAR
        Date of publication: May 2003
        Description/subject: In 1999, the Myanmar Forest Department commissioned a study to determine the current status and distribution of tigers, and formulate an updated national strategy for their future management and conservation. The document ?A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar? is the end product of a three-year program conducted jointly by the Myanmar Forest Department and the Wildlife Conservation Society with funding from the US National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and ExxonMobile?s ?Save The Tiger Fund?. The Plan details what is needed to save Myanmar?s tigers from extinction and so provides a valuable prospectus for future conservation. It will become a part of the Myanmar forest policy for recovery of the species. U Shwe Kyaw: Director-General, Forest Department, Myanmar Ministry of Forestry
        Author/creator: Antony J. Lynam Ph.D
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society & Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (3.28MB), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/media/file/NTAPcomplete.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: INTERIM REPORT OF BURMA'S TIGER SURVEY
        Date of publication: 27 February 2002
        Description/subject: This report, originally published in 2000, describes the first two years of the tiger survey in Burma that eventually resulted in the formulation of the National Tiger Action Plan. It contains valuable details and attachments not found in the final report of the three year study.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Windlife conservation Society & Ministry of Forestry,Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (454KB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 January 2005


        Title: BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY FOR PROTECTION OF WILD ASIAN ELEPHANTS IN MYANMAR: A RESOURCE GUIDE
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: Keywords: Burmese elephants, Burma. I. THE ASIAN ELEPHANT: A. Cultural; B. Ecological and Conservation Issues; C. Conservation Measures... II. BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY: A. Need for Spiritual Approach; B. Buddhism; C. Deep Ecology; D. Wildlife (poaching); E. Forest Protection (D and E are considered the two major elephant threats)... III. DHAMMA/ECOLOGY GLOSSARY... IV. APPENDIX: DHAMMA/DEEP ECOLOGY EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES... " Dr. Henning’s resource guide, which combines Buddhist principles and Asian elephant conservation in Myanmar, is an innovative approach to Asian elephant conservation. I have never seen someone with a biological background such as Dr. Henning’s attempt this approach in such a clear, concise manner. I found the resource guide to be an excellent potential teaching tool not only for Myanmar but also for any Buddhist country in which elephant conservation is an issue. I could easily envision this guide as the first in a series of written materials that deals with such conservation issues, perhaps beyond elephants. I would think that any individuals or agencies interested in conserving Asian elephants would be interested in this guide and would want to help make it available to a wider audience."... "The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), an endangered species listed in Appendix I of CITIES, is thought to number between 34,000 to 56,000 in thirteen Asian countries. According to U Uga, there are less than 4,000 elephants in the wild in Myanmar, which has the largest population in the ASEAN countries (India has a larger population for the continent). The total Asian elephant population is less than 10 percent of its more glamorous cousin-the African elephant. The Myanmar elephant is internationally endangered and is regarded as a worldwide flagship species. Throughout their range states, the wild elephant is severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and fragmentation into small isolated groups. Many population biologists believe that nowhere in Asia is there a single wild population large enough to avoid inbreeding over the long term. ..."
        Author/creator: Daniel H. Henning PhD
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Daniel H. Henning
        Format/size: pdf (832K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


        Title: The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Parts in Myanmar.
        Date of publication: 2002
        Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Asian Elephant Elephas maximus was listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) at the first Conference of the Parties (CoP1) in 1976. At the same time, the African Elephant Loxodonta africana was placed on CITES Appendix II, but with the rapid decline in wild populations during the 1970s and 1980s, was up-listed to CITES Appendix I in 1989 – thereby affecting a ban on all commercial trade of elephants, their products and derivatives. Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, acceded to CITES in 1997. It has the second largest population of wild Asian Elephants (after India) and the largest number of domesticated elephants in Asia. Myanmar has a long tradition of using domesticated elephants, thought to number as many as 6000-7000 in 1997, as working animals for the logging industry. In 1995, Myanmar banned the capture of wild elephants although some sources indicate that capture still continues. This report was produced as a component activity under the WWF initiative known as the Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategies (AREAS), to better understand the trade dynamics in Asian Elephants, ivory and elephant derivatives in Myanmar. Myanmar has a long history of ivory carving, with artisans learning several distinct techniques or styles in order to be considered an accomplished ivory carver or master. This tradition continues today, despite lower availability of ivory but as domestic use of elephant products is negligible and ivory, for the most part, is not purchased by locals, the continued production of worked ivory is believed to supply predominantly foreign market demand. Myanmar's legislation allows trade of products derived from domesticated elephants, which creates a potential loophole in which wild-caught elephants and elephant parts from Myanmar, as well as other countries, could be "laundered". Enforcement agencies are not capable of determining the actual source of elephant products, and are therefore unable to prosecute. This loophole appears to be knowingly exploited by traders. The results of the survey team's work in Myanmar showed that trade in ivory still continues, involving both domestic and imported sources. Traders openly acknowledge that ivory is being imported from India and other source countries, but the exact quantities are unknown. Myanmar's increasing popularity as a destination for visitors on business and tourist itineraries has exposed the country to a range of potential buyers for these products. Exports of worked ivory are known to be routed out of Myanmar into Thailand, and dealers reported that buyers from Japan, Taiwan, China, Italy, and Germany, in addition to Thailand, are among the biggest purchasers of ivory when visiting Myanmar. Enforcement at official border crossings between Myanmar and India, China, Thailand, Bangladesh and Lao PDR remains severely lacking, and is not believed to operate at all for the more informal border crossing points. This report makes the following recommendations to better enforce legislation in place to protect elephants and to control the trade of elephants and their parts and derivatives: 1. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia should continue to monitor the trade in Asian Elephant products in Myanmar, especially at key exit locations such as Tachilek. Information gathered during monitoring activities should be passed on to the relevant authorities. Enforcement agencies in Myanmar, as well as from neighbouring countries, should be encouraged to act upon information given to them and be encouraged to take further actions against the illegal trade. The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Products in Myanmar i 2. Implementation of national legislation needs to be reviewed and weaknesses addressed. TRAFFIC is in a good position to begin dialogue with the CITES Management Authority in Myanmar, to explore the needs of the country to improve its legislation, and enforcement thereof, relating to elephant conservation and trade in elephants and their products. 3. Authorities in India should be made aware of the fact that ivory is being smuggled out of India into Myanmar and appropriate action should be taken to address this. 4. Authorities in Thailand should be made aware of the fact that ivory continues to be smuggled into Thailand for sale. Thailand's enforcement agencies should be encouraged to increase efforts to prevent wildlife from being smuggled into Thailand from Myanmar through increased surveillance of border markets and key trans-boundary supply routes. The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Products in Myanmar."
        Author/creator: Shepherd, Chris R.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: TRAFFIC International.
        Format/size: pdf (500K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


        Title: Landmines: a New Victim
        Date of publication: May 2001
        Description/subject: Elephants are becoming the latest victims of landmines planted along the war-torn Thai-Burma border.
        Author/creator: Helen Anderson
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Myanmar Officially Designates World’s Largest Tiger Reserve in the Hukaung Valley
        Description/subject: "Panthera and Wildlife Conservation Society succeed in pushing historic agreement to conserve region the size of Vermont that is home to a number of endangered species " Hukaung Valley – Officials from Myanmar formally announced today that the entire Hukaung Valley would be declared a Protected Tiger Area. The declaration officially protects an area the size of Vermont and marks a major step forward in saving one of the most endangered species on the planet – the tiger – which numbers less than 3,000 in the wild.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


    • The flora of Burma/Myanmar

      • Flora of Burma/Myanmar

        Individual Documents

        Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
        Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
        Format/size: html, 23 pages
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


        Title: The Ferns of Burma Vol: XLVI
        Date of publication: May 1946
        Description/subject: Burma, with rainfalls in its various districts of 20 to 225 inches from June to October and with habitats from sea level up to 18,000 feet, has a very rich fern flora. The country is so located that many fern of both the China-Himalayan and the Malayan regions occur in the country. This article, originally published in the Ohio State Journal of Science in May 1946, catalogues over 400 different ferns belonging 104 genera discovered in the period up to the Second World War. The writer, Frederick Garrett Dickason, personally collected over 325 kinds of ferns in various parts of Burma which were on display in the Herbarium of Judson College in Rangoon where he taught for many years. A useful map accompanies the article.
        Author/creator: Frederik Garrett Dickason
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ohio State University and The Ohio Academy of Science
        Format/size: pdf (2.32 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/ferns.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 June 2006


        Title: Flora of Burma
        Description/subject: 65pages in category "Flora of Burma".
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildlife_of_Burma#Flora
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      • Threats to the flora of Burma/Myanmar

        Individual Documents

        Title: Khoe Kay: Biodiversity in Peril
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A team of Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the rich biodiversity of Khoe Kay, a bend in the Salween River that is part of their homeland. They also want to document and expose the severe threats faced by this stretch of the Salween, both from large dams and ongoing militarization. Using methods of their own culture, as well as those used in university research, they have found that Khoe Kay is studded with both plant and animal diversity, with 194 plant species and 200 animals identified. Forty-two of these species are considered endangered, being found in IUCN's Redlist, the CITES Appendices, or both. Thus, conservation of the area will protect many globally important resources. Endemic and unknown species are also represented, with eight endemic fish species of particular interest. Also, many of the plants and animals unknown to Western science are used by the Karen for food and medicine, providing opportunities for further research. Furthermore, several entire taxa, such as mollusks, spiders and fungi, have been treated very lightly if at all in this report, so the reader is encouraged to undertake further study with assistance from KESAN. Lying on the riverine border of Thailand and Burma, the area is relatively untrammeled. Teak trees dominate, and therefore Khoe Kay provides a window into the biodiversity of the entire region prior to industrial development. Threats from proposed large dams and militarization may seriously degrade Khoe Kay. With dams, the main concerns are greenhouse gas emissions, loss of fisheries, cumulative effects of several cascading dams, and flow changes and sedimentation. Militarization of the area is also increasing, having already resulted in the loss of one severely endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
        Format/size: pdf (5.9MB - original; 4.7MB - burmalibrary version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/2008_009_24_khoekay-b.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 07 February 2009


  • The impact of natural disasters on the environment and people of Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Cyclone Nargis and its aftermath
    Description/subject: Link to a top-level category in OBL
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Report on Post Tsunami Survey along the Myanmar Coast for December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: A giant earthquake occurred off Sumatra Island of Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. The earthquake, an interplate event, caused by the subduction of Indo-Australian) plate beneath the Andaman (or Burma) microplate was the largest in size (Mw 9.1) in the world for the last 40 years. While the epicenter was located west off Sumatra Island, the aftershock zone extended through the Nicobar to the Andaman Islands. This earthquake generated a tsunami which devastated the shores of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, South India, and Thailand as far as the east coast of Africa. More than 200,000 people are thought to have died as a result of the tsunami. In Myanmar, however, the damage and casualties were relatively small compared to other countries that were impacted.This report summarizes the results of a survey to documents the effects of the tsunami along the Myanmar coast and seeks to identify why the damage was much smaller than the neighboring Thai coast, and how vulnerable the Myanmar coast may be for future tsunamis.
    Author/creator: Kenji Satake, Than Tin Aung et al
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Institute of Advance Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
    Format/size: pdf (992 kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://unit.aist.go.jp/actfault-eq/english/topics/Myanmar/report.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


  • Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar

    • Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: Accessible Alternatives: Ethnic Communities' Contribution to Social Development and Environmental Conservation in Burma (Burmese)
      Date of publication: September 2009
      Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ (စက္တင္ဘာ ၂ဝဝ၉)...ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ (BEWG) အေၾကာင္း… အစီရင္ခံစာ အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္… ေနရာအမည္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေငြေၾကး အေခၚအေဝၚမွတ္စုမ်ား … ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေျမပံုႏွင့္ ျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ေလ့လာမႈေဒသမ်ား … နိဒါန္း … ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္… ေျမလွန္ပစ္ျခင္း။ ဒီေရေတာမ်ား ဖ်က္ဆီး ပစ္ျခင္းႏွင့္ ေဒသခံကမ္းရိုးတမ္း လူမႈ အသုိက္အဝန္းမ်ား အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္ မႈမ်ား။ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရးဖြံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္းကြန္ယက္ (NEED-Burma)… တရုတ္ ေရနံရွာေဖြ တူးေဖာ္ျခင္း ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္မႈကို ခံေန ရေသာ မိရိုးဖလာ ေရနံတြင္းတူးသူမ်ား… အာရ္ရကန္ ေရနံေစာင့္ၾကည့္ ေလ့လာေရးအဖြဲ႔ (AOW)… ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ ကခ်င္ ရိုးရာ တုိင္းရင္းေဆး လုပ္ငန္း အစီအစဥ္၊ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ထိန္း သိမ္းျခင္းႏွင့္ ဝင္ေငြဖန္တည္းျခင္း အတြက္ အခြင့္ အလမ္းမ်ားဖန္တီးျခင္း။ ပန္ကခ်င္လူမႈအသိုက္အဝန္း ဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတိုးတက္ေရးအဖြဲ႔ (PKDS)… ဟူးေကာင္း ခ်ိဳင့္ဝွမ္း က်ားထိန္းသိမ္းေရး နယ္ေျမရွိ ကခ်င္ျပည္သူမ်ား အခန္းက႑၊ ကခ်င္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္းကြန္ယက္အဖြဲ႔ (KDNG) … ကရင္ျပည္နယ္ အတြင္းရိွ။ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ ေရွာက္ျခင္း။ ဌာေန တုိင္းရင္း သားမ်ား အသိပညာ ႏွင့္ အသက္ေမြးဝမ္းေက်ာင္းမႈ၊ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ထိန္းသိမ္းေသာ လူမႈအသိုက္အဝန္းတစ္ခု ကိုေလ့လာျခင္း၊ ကရင္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ႏွင့္ လူမႈေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ ကြန္ယက္ (KESAN) … ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ ကရင္ျပည္ နယ္ ေျမာက္ ဘက္ျခမ္း အတြင္း အစားအစာ လံုၿခံဳမႈ ႏွင့္ ေဒသခံ ျပည္သူမ်ား ရင္ဆိုင္ ေျဖရွင္းျခင္း နည္းလမ္းမ်ား အေပၚၿခိမ္းေျခာက္မႈမ်ား။ ကရင္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ႏွင့္ လူမႈေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ ကြန္ယက္ (KESAN)… ပဲခူးတိုင္း။ ေရႊက်င္ၿမိဳ႔နယ္အတြင္း ေရႊတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း။ ေျမကမာၻအခြင့္အေရး(EarthRights International)… ႏွစ္ျမဳပ္ပစ္လိုက္ျခင္း - တာဆန္းေရကာတာ ႏွင့္ ေဒသခံ ရွမ္းလူမႈအသိုက္ အဝန္းႏွင့္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္မႈ။ ရွမ္းသဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရး အဖြဲ႔ (Sapawa)… မူးယစ္ေဆးဝါး တိုင္းျပည္ တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္း ႏွင့္ သႏာၱေက်ာက္တန္း ေဖာက္ခြဲျခင္း။ ညံ့ဖ်င္းသည့္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္က ေက်ာေထာက္ ေနာက္ခံ ျပဳ ထားေသာ ဖြံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း စီမံခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ လားဟူ ျပည္သူမ်ားအေပၚ သက္ေရာက္မႈမ်ား။ လားဟူအမ်ိဳးသား ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအဖြဲ႔ (LNDO)…
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
      Format/size: pdf (5.46MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


      Title: Accessible Alternatives: Ethnic Communities' Contribution to Social Development and Environmental Conservation in Burma (English)
      Date of publication: September 2009
      Description/subject: CONTENTS Acknowledgments ...About BEWG ... Executive Summary... Notes on Place Names and Currency... Burma Map & Case Study Areas ... Introduction ..... Arakan State: Cut into the Ground: The Destruction of Mangroves and its Impacts on Local Coastal Communities (Network for Environmental and Economic Development - Burma)... Traditional Oil Drillers Threatened by China�s Oil Exploration (Arakan Oil Watch)..... Kachin State: Kachin Herbal Medicine Initiative: Creating Opportunities for Conservation and Income Generation (Pan Kachin Development Society) ... The Role of Kachin People in the Hugawng Valley Tiger Reserve (Kachin Development Networking Group) ..... Karen State: Environmental Protection, Indigenous Knowledge and Livelihood in Karen State: A Focus on Community Conserved Areas (Karen Environmental and Social Action Network) ... Threats to Food Security and Local Coping Strategies in Northern Karen State (Karen Environmental and Social Action Network) ... Gold Mining in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division (EarthRights International) ..... Shan State: Drowned Out: The Tasang Dam and its Impacts on Local Shan Communities and the Environment (Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization) ... Building up of the Narco-State and Reef Blasting: Failed State-Sponsored Development Projects and their Impacts on the Lahu People (Lahu National Development Organization)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - OBL version; 7.3MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/Resources/bewg_report.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2009


      Title: The Green Monks
      Date of publication: February 2006
      Description/subject: Despite political restrictions, monks in Burma are a force to preserve nature... "Buddhist monks have always been a potent force for political and social change in Burma, from protesting against colonialism to providing basic education. Over the past decade, some monks have even begun to promote environmental conservation. While environmentalist monks are fairly common in Thailand and Cambodia, in Burma they are little known and little studied. For my undergraduate thesis, I studied several aspects of these environmentalist monks, and I feel it is safe to conclude that they work mostly in a decentralized fashion and that political, ecological, and cultural factors unique to Burma limit the role they can play..."
      Author/creator: Dominic Nardi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    • Threats to the environment of Burma/Myanmar

      • Deforestation
        See the separate Forests section (in preparation) and the sub-section on Deforestation below

        Individual Documents

        Title: China plundering natural resources in Burma
        Date of publication: 07 July 2010
        Description/subject: China was variously described as plunderer and arch destroyer of Burma’s natural resources on the 38th World Environment Day today, by local people and environmental activists.Mindless logging and rampant mining in northern Burma by China for over two decades has led to widespread deforestation, pollution of rivers and land with Mercury used in gold mining. There is now varied ecological dysfunction that the country has to contend with. 060510-timber
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin News Group (KNG)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Rainforests Facing a New Challenge
        Description/subject: Logging is back in Kachin State under a new mask. Logging no longer will be the illegal business in one of the world's biggest green regions that houses most of the teaks left on earth. Logging this time has returned into the region with bigger ambition and the safer shield under the title of agro-forestry development projects. For decades, deforestation in Kachin State was traditionally carried out by agricultural farming industry of the local people and Asia's one of the longest civil wars in the nation. High speed massive illegal logging was introduced to the region only by logging companies from neighbouring Yunnan Province only after China's economy started roaring in 1990s. And it remarkably escalated in 1998 when China banned logging in its nation after facing serious floods in their home land. Forests in northern Burma were dwindling quickly in early 2000 and Kachin State became a hottest target for all the international watchdogs. But, finally, loggers have found a new and safest way to continue their business with a higher speed.
        Author/creator: Phyusin Linn
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNPO
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 September 2010


      • Hydropower projects
        See also the Dams sub-section under Water

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Dams and other hydropower projects (OBL sub-section in the "Water" section)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 January 2013


        Individual Documents

        Title: China Moves to Dam the Nu, Ignoring Seismic, Ecological, and Social Risks
        Date of publication: 25 January 2013
        Description/subject: "In a blueprint for the energy sector in 2011-15, China’s State Council on Wednesday lifted an eightyear ban on five megadams for the largely free-flowing Nu River [Salween], ignoring concerns about geologic risks, global biodiversity, resettlement, and impacts on downstream communities. “China’s plans to go ahead with dams on the Nu, as well as similar projects on the Upper Yangtze and Mekong, shows a complete disregard of well-documented seismic hazards, ecological and social risks” stated Katy Yan, China Program Coordinator for the environmental organization International Rivers. Also included in the plan is the controversial Xiaonanhai Dam on the Upper Yangtze. A total of 13 dams was first proposed for the Nu River (also known as the Salween) in 2003, but Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended these plans in 2004 in a stunning decision. Since then, Huadian Corporation has continued to explore five dams – Songta (4200 MW), Maji (4200 MW), Yabiluo (1800 MW), Liuku (180 MW), and Saige (1000 MW) – and has successfully lobbied the State Council to include them in the 12th Five Year Plan..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Rivers
        Format/size: pdf (71K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 January 2013


        Title: High and Dry
        Date of publication: June 2010
        Description/subject: A fierce heat wave combined with a drought to create serious water shortages in many parts of Burma in May... "Temperatures in Rangoon, Pegu and Irrawaddy divisions and in central Burma and Arakan State reached three-decade record highs of up to 45 degrees Celsius, according to official reports. The excessive heat dried up ponds in many villages, leading to a shortage of water for drinking and sanitation. Many communities in need received emergency water supplies from volunteer workers—and the government..."
        Author/creator: Myat Moe Maung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 6
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


      • Metal mining and other extractive operations

        Individual Documents

        Title: China plundering natural resources in Burma
        Date of publication: 07 July 2010
        Description/subject: China was variously described as plunderer and arch destroyer of Burma’s natural resources on the 38th World Environment Day today, by local people and environmental activists.Mindless logging and rampant mining in northern Burma by China for over two decades has led to widespread deforestation, pollution of rivers and land with Mercury used in gold mining. There is now varied ecological dysfunction that the country has to contend with. 060510-timber
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin News Group (KNG)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Environmental governance of mining in Burma
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: Conclusion -- local participation and respected insiders: If there is one certainty of fair and effective local participation in environmental governance, it is that there is no universal monolithic system of rules, regulations and processes simply awaiting implementation and practice. Just as disparate copper-mining operations can differ vastly, so too do local potentialities for environmental governance participation (Medowcroft 2004; and, for a contrasting account, Leone and Giannini 2005). There are, however, two consistent features of effective local participation in environmental governance: it must involve local people and have, to some degree, cooperation and support from relevant institutions and stakeholders. That is, it’s a multi-stakeholder affair, and moreover one that presupposes the recognition of the right to organise. Environmental conflict resolution is a tool for recourse and ‘for building common purpose’ between stakeholders (O’Leary et al. 2004:324). Scholars note the importance of understanding the many varieties of environmental conflict resolution interventions ‘as complex systems embedded in even larger complex systems’ (O’Leary et al. 2004:324). In other words, the wider spatial, temporal, economic, social, cultural and political contexts of the specific environmental conflict resolution are relevant for building common purpose between stakeholders. In Burma, conflict resolution is undertaken quite differently from dominant Western models. EarthRights International conducted research for five years on traditional methods of conflict resolution and its relationship to resource-based conflict at the local level in Burma. That research resulted in Traditions of Conflict Resolution in Burma (Leone and Giannini 2005), which argues that conflict resolution in Burma is based more on interpersonal respect and a tradition of local ‘respected insiders’ than on assumptions of the objectivity of ‘third-party outsiders’. Whereas official administrative and court-based proceedings provide a level of comfort and trust to the Western sensibility, these are the very institutions and processes that might cause local villagers in Burma to feel uncomfortable and distrustful. The report contends that ‘the prospects for peace and earth rights protection’ hinge on this respected insider model, adding that such respected insider ‘practices may serve as models for communitybased natural resource management’ (Leone and Giannini 2005:1–2). Effective local participation in environmental governance in Burma will necessarily involve a unique tradition-based paradigm developed by local Burmese themselves. While third-party outsiders are less likely to gain genuine traction in communities in Burma, this is not meant to undermine the need for objective third-party EIAs and environmental monitoring at largescale mining operations such as Monywa. Rather, it simply indicates the unique needs that must be considered for fair and effective local participation in environmental governance of mining in Burma. While administrative and judicial proceedings can make the average Burmese villager uncomfortable, the same cannot be said for the rule of law and justice (which are largely absent in Burma), which will be accepted wholly by the average Burmese, particularly by those whose human rights have been violated. As Tun Myint (2003) has suggested, the successes and failures of environmental governance are determined largely by how natural resources are used and managed at the local level. This chapter approached a genuine inquiry into the state of environmental governance of mining in Burma motivated by a genuine concern for the natural environment and the people of Burma who depend on it. It interpreted current environmental governance of mining natural resources in Burma as largely inadequate, weak and ostensibly favourable to corporate interests over the public interest and the natural environment. Burma’s economic, social, cultural, political and environmental future depends on changing this.
        Author/creator: Matthew Smith
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (144K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Spaces of extraction -- Governance along the riverine networks of Nyaunglebin District
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: "Contemporary maps prepared by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) place most of Nyaunglebin District in eastern Pegu Division. Maps drawn by the Karen National Union (KNU), however, place much of the same region within the western edge of Kaw Thoo Lei, its term for the ‘free state’ the organisation has struggled since 1948 to create. Not surprisingly, the district’s three townships have different names and overlapping geographic boundaries and administrative structures, particularly in remote regions of the district where the SPDC and the KNU continue to exercise some control. These competing efforts to assert control over the same space are symptomatic of a broader concern that is the focus here, namely: how do conflict zones become places that can be governed? What strategies and techniques are used to produce authority and what do they reveal about existing forms of governance in Burma? In considering these questions, this chapter explores the emergence of governable spaces in Shwegyin Township, which comprises the southern third of Nyaunglebin District (Figure 11.1)..."
        Author/creator: Ken MacLean
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (357K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
        Date of publication: 14 February 2000
        Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
        Author/creator: Roger Moody
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Various groups
        Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
        http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      • Militarisation

        Individual Documents

        Title: Diversity Degraded - Vulnerability of Cultural and Natural Diversity in Northern Karen State, Burma
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In traditional Karen society, knowledge and culture are closely linked to the natural environment. This report examines the effects of the longstanding civil war on Karen communities' cultural and natural environment with specific focus on the diversity of cultivated and collected plant species. The information for this case study is based on a survey done in an ethnic Karen village in Mu Traw District, Northern Karen State, Burma. The case study provides a general overview of the community with a detailed look at the local knowledge-based farming systems. The traditional Karen rotational farming system is described in detail including selection of land and crops to be cultivated, the seasonal calendar, techniques of seed conservation and planting, together with spiritual beliefs that are connected to the agricultural practices. The report also outlines the importance of non timber forest products (NTFP) in food security and in women's traditional work. The results of this case study clearly shows that the civil war, which has been raging for almost sixty years between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and the Karen National Union (KNU), is the primary reason for the loss of both traditional culture and biodiversity in Karen State. The fighting has caused tremendous human rights abuses imposed by the Burmese military regime who have adapted the strategy of targeting civilians in order to gain control over the ethnic insurgents. The local people have been relocated or forced to live as Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in the forest, far from their former villages and farmlands. This has resulted in massive population influxes into formerly uninhabited forest areas and has thereby led to the loss and degradation of forests and biological diversity. Relocation into areas less suitable for farming and the unsettled life of IDPs caught in conflict areas have disrupted the traditional agricultural practices. As a result, the food security of local Karen communities is threatened because many traditional seed varieties and wild edible plant species have been lost. The culture of Karen society also suffers because of its close connections and relationships to the environment and agricultural practices. Many aspects of Karen culture and local knowledge have already been lost."
        Language: English, Karen
        Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN)
        Format/size: pdf (2.6MB-OBL version-English; 6.38 - Karen)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/index.php/publication-and-media/reports/finish/4-reports/31-diversity-degraded-vulnerability-of-culture-and-natural-diversity-in-northern-karen-state-burma
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2009


        Title: Adrift in Troubled Times -- Recent Accounts of Human Rights Abuse in the Shan State (Burma)
        Date of publication: June 1987
        Description/subject: Introduction, interviews, maps and photos, including of crops sprayed with the defoliant 2,4-D (an Agent Orange ingredient) supplied to the Burmese military by the US Government.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Maje
        Format/size: pdf (1.30MB)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Multiple threats

        Individual Documents

        Title: The Threat to Burma’s Environment
        Date of publication: 17 September 2010
        Description/subject: More than 20 mega-dams are being constructed or planned on Burma’s major rivers, including the Salween and Irrawaddy, by multinationals without consulting local communities, a wide range of NGOs charged in a statement Friday. In addition, the group charged, mining, oil and gas projects are creating severe environmental and social problems. Several papers are to be delivered on Sept. 18 in an all-day seminar in Bangkok on the impact and consequences of overseas investment in large-scale projects in Burma that say as many as 30 companies from China alone are investing in dam projects on the two rivers.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asia Sentinel
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=129&Itemid=125
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: China plundering natural resources in Burma
        Date of publication: 07 July 2010
        Description/subject: China was variously described as plunderer and arch destroyer of Burma’s natural resources on the 38th World Environment Day today, by local people and environmental activists.Mindless logging and rampant mining in northern Burma by China for over two decades has led to widespread deforestation, pollution of rivers and land with Mercury used in gold mining. There is now varied ecological dysfunction that the country has to contend with. 060510-timber
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin News Group (KNG)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Kachin state, waiting for an ecological disaster
        Date of publication: 31 December 2008
        Description/subject: Kachin State in northern Burma is sitting on a powder keg of an ecological disaster. From impending dam related devastation to the rape of the environment in terms of incalculable damage to the flora and fauna has rendered the state extremely vulnerable. Rampant felling of trees and the wanton killing of myriad wildlife for filthy lucre for export to China has led to a serious situation which is far from being addressed.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin News
        Format/size: html, pdf (252.26 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinnews.com/commentary/689-kachin-state-waiting-for-an-ecological-disaster-commentary.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: Identifying conservation issues in Kachin State
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: Conclusion: "Kachin State is rich in natural resources. Its location near resourcehungry China and its rule by people in need of hard currency has resulted in the unsustainable exploitation of its natural resources. In addition, the complex governance system makes management of these resources difficult. This research has attempted to reflect the situation of the many voiceless people in Kachin State. A pragmatic approach is required to work together with all stakeholders. An opportunity should be opened for the active participation of local stakeholders in managing their resources not only for current but future generations. Regardless of the country’s political situation, international assistance for conservation in Myanmar is needed urgently. Such aid is required not for the support of undemocratic practices, but to help the people of Myanmar, who deserve to manage their environment through the country’s democratisation process."
        Author/creator: Tint Lwin Thaung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (117K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
        Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


        Title: Smash & Grab: Conflict, Corruption and Human Rights Abuses in the Shrimp Farming Industry
        Date of publication: June 2003
        Description/subject: "...Shrimp farming has led to serious conflict over land rights and access to natural resources. Resulting social problems include increased poverty, landlessness, and reduced food security. In Ecuador, a single hectare of mangrove forest has been shown to provide food and livelihood for ten families, while a prawn farm of 110 hectares employs just six people during preparation and a further five during harvest. Globally, tens of thousands of rural poor in developing countries have been displaced following the impact of shrimp farming on traditional livelihoods. For instance, 20 thousand fisher-folk in Sri Lanka's Puttalam District migrated following declines of fish catches following the advent of shrimp farming. Wealth generated by exporting farmed shrimp rarely trickles down to the communities affected by the industry. Corruption, poor governance and greed have resulted in powerful individuals making vast sums of money from shrimp farming with little regard for the basic human rights of the poor communities living in shrimp farming areas. "It is another example of resource-use conflict in which the poor and vulnerable are suppressed by a powerful elite intent on making quick profits, whilst turning a blind eye to the abuses that result" said Dr Mike Shanahan of EJF..." Examples from Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Environmental Justice Foundation
        Format/size: pdf (2399K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 June 2003


        Title: Breaking the Silence
        Date of publication: 15 March 2002
        Description/subject: Paper submitted to the forty-sixth session of the Commission on the Status of Women March 4-15, 2002 by Women's League of Burma (WLB). "...The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the root causes of poverty and environmental degradation in Burma, and show how this has affected women and to give examples of how women are organizing themselves to survive and create an enabling environment for political and social change, and for gender equality..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma (WLB)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.asiasource.org/asip/breaking.cfm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Paradise Lost?
        Date of publication: September 1994
        Description/subject: Environment and Freedom of Expression in Burma. In the past decade, there has been a growing international consensus over the fundamental relationship between the universal values of "human rights", "environmental rights" and "development rights". "The Myanmar Tourism Policy is based on preservation of cultural heritage, protection of natural environment, regional development and generation of foreign exchange earnings."
        Author/creator: Martin Smith
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Article 19
        Format/size: pdf (174K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Biodiversity Hotspots - Indo-Burma pages
        Description/subject: Encompassing more than 2 million km² of tropical Asia, Indo-Burma is still revealing its biological treasures. Six large mammal species have been discovered in the last 12 years: the large-antlered muntjac, the Annamite muntjac, the grey-shanked douc, the Annamite striped rabbit, the leaf deer, and the saola. This hotspot also holds remarkable endemism in freshwater turtle species, most of which are threatened with extinction, due to over-harvesting and extensive habitat loss. Bird life in Indo-Burma is also incredibly diverse, holding almost 1,300 different bird species, including the threatened white-eared night-heron, the grey-crowned crocias, and the orange-necked partridge.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Conversation International
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 September 2010


      • Oil and gas pipelines

        Individual Documents

        Title: Public opinion research report for Myanmar-China Oil and Gas Pipelines
        Date of publication: 25 March 2014
        Description/subject: (Survey in NgaPhe` Township, MinBu District, Magway Division and Thipaw Township, Kyauk Mae District, Northern Shan State) By BadeiDha Moe Civil Society Organization..... Summary: "During the political reform period in Myanmar, most of the critical issues that have arisen around land issues have concerned foreign investment projects. The civilian government, Houses of Parliament, Members of Parliament, political parties, civil society and farmers are all directly involved and troubled by the land grabbing that is taking place in the establishment of foreign investment projects. Among these projects, the Myanmar– China pipelines project is having the most effects on the largest number of local people in Myanmar simply because of its size: it crosses the entire length of the country from Rakhine State to Yunnan Province through heavily populated and fertile agricultural areas. Because of its length, it affects all types of Myanmar environmental resources such as cultivated land, virgin land, river, stream, forest and mountains, which are all vital to Myanmar’s rich biodiversity. This one project has the potential to impact negatively on the environment, livelihoods, culture and social life of a large part of the country. Local ethnic nationality groups have been concerned about unfair compensation without the proper regard given to the environment and social impact. State development should start with the involvement of people in each region. It is especially difficult for a government to start development projects when there is political instability, and the impact of this project is an impediment to the on-going peace process. Our team surveyed "public opinion'' on foreign investments, so-called development projects. Local people voluntarily participated in the research in NgaPhe` Township, Upper Myanmar and Thipaw (Hsipaw) Township, Northern Shan State. The survey used participatory action research methods, in which local people could learn how to define their issues, cooperate with each other and with civil society organisations, collect data on their situation and understand their rights with respect to government and private company projects. In summary, our report intends to expose the cases of injustice uncovered through our research to the public, members of parliaments, and civil society"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: BadeiDha Moe Civil Society Organization
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-reduced version; 2.3MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/BadeiDha_Moe-CSO-SIA_on.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 22 May 2014


        Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
        Date of publication: 07 November 2012
        Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
        Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012-in%20Burmese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Burmese)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012_Thai%20languages.pdf (Summary in Thai)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%20impact%20to%20the%20Ta_ang%20People%20-%20Chinese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Chinese)
        Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


        Title: Total Denial Continues - Earth rights abuses along the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in Burma
        Date of publication: May 2000
        Description/subject: "Three Western oil companies -- Total, Premier and Unocal -- bent on exploiting natural gas , entered partnerships with the brutal Burmese military regime. Since the early 1990's, a terrible drama has been unfolding in Burma. Three western oil companies -- Total, Premier, and Unocal -- entered into partnerships with the brutal Burmese miltary regime to build the Yadana and Yetagun natural gas pipelines. The regime created a highly militarized pipelinecorridor in what had previously been a relatively peaceful area, resulting in violent suppression of dissent, environmental destruction, forced labor and portering, forced relocations, torture, rape, and summary executions. EarthRights International co-founder Ka Hsaw Wa and a team of field staff traveled on both sides of the Thai-Burmese border in the Tenasserim region to document the conditions in the pipeline corridor. In the nearly four years since the release of "Total Denial" (1996), the violence and forced labor in the pipeline region have continued unabated. This report builds on the evidence in "Total Denial" and brings to light several new facets of the tragedy in the Tenasserim region. Keywords:, human rights, environment, forced relocation, internal displacement, foreign investment. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Earthrights International
        Format/size: pdf (6MB - OBL ... 20MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/files/Reports/TotalDenialCont-2ndEdition.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Total Denial - A Report on the Yadana Pipeline Project in Burma
        Date of publication: 10 July 1996
        Description/subject: "'Total Denial' catalogues the systematic human rights abuses and environmental degradation perpetrated by SLORC as the regime seeks to consolidate its power base in the gas pipeline region. Further, the report shows that investment in projects such as the Yadana pipeline not only gives tacit approval and support to the repressive SLORC junta but also exacerbates the grave human rights and environmental problems in Burma.... The research indicates that gross human rights violations, including summary executions, torture, forced labor and forced relocations, have occurred as a result of natural gas development projects funded by European and North American corporations. In addition to condemning transnational corporate complicity with the SLORC regime, the report also presents the perspectives of those most directly impacted by the foreign investment who for too long have silently endured the abuses meted out by SLORC for the benefit of its foreign corporate partners." ...Additional keywords: environment, human rights violations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI) and Southeast Asian Information Network (SAIN)
        Format/size: pdf (310K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Pollution (various sources)

        Individual Documents

        Title: Poisoned Waters
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: "Chemical pollution and silt are killing Burma’s beautiful Inle Lake... Inle Lake, one of the country’s major tourist attractions, is terminally ill and its fishermen have fallen on bad times. The lake’s surface is shrinking dramatically. As its surface inexorably drops, the pollution of its water rises. The fish are dying and entire species are threatened with extinction..."
        Author/creator: Kyi Wai
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8466
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Valley of Darkness - gold mining and militarization in Burma's Hugawng valley
        Date of publication: 09 January 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The remote and environmentally rich Hugawng valley in Burma's northern Kachin State has been internationally recognized as one of the world's hotspots of biodiversity. Indeed, the military junta ruling Burma, together with the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, is establishing the world's largest tiger reserve in the valley. However, the conditions of the people living there have not received attention. This report by local researchers reveals the untold story of how the junta's militarization and self-serving expansion of the gold mining industry have devastated communities and ravaged the valley's forests and waterways. The Hugawng valley was largely untouched by Burma's military regime until the mid-1990s. After a ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the junta in 1994, local residents had high hopes that peace would foster economic development and improved living conditions. However, under the junta's increased control, the rich resources of Hugawng valley have turned out to be a curse. Despite the ceasefire, the junta has expanded its military infrastructure throughout Kachin State, increasing its presence from 26 battalions in 1994 to 41 in 2006. This expansion has been mirrored in Hugawng valley, where the number of military outposts has doubled; in the main town of Danai, public and private buildings have been seized and one third of the surrounding farmland confiscated. Some of the land and buildings were used to house military units, while others were sold to business interests for military profit. In order to expand and ensure its control over gold mining revenues, the regime offered up 18% of the entire Kachin State for mining concessions in 2002. This transformed gold mining from independent gold panning to a large-scale mechanized industry controlled by the concession holders. In Hugawng valley concessions were sold to 8 selected companies and the number of main gold mining sites increased from 14 in 1994 to 31 sites in 2006. The number of active hydraulic and pit mines had exploded to approximately 100 by the end of 2006. The regime's Ministry of Mines collects signing fees for the concessions as well as 35% - 50% tax on annual profits. Additional payments are rendered to the military's top commander for the region, various township and local authorities as well as the Minister of Mines personally. The junta has announced occasional bans on gold mining in Kachin State but as this report shows, these bans are temporary and selective, in effect used to maintain the junta's grip on mining revenues. While the regime, called the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC, has consolidated political and financial control of the valley, it has not enforced its own existing (and very limited) environmental and health regulations on gold mining operations. This lack of regulation has resulted in deforestation, the destruction of river banks, and altering of river flows. Miners have been severely injured or killed by unsafe working practices and the lack of adequate health services. The environmental and health effects of mercury contamination have yet to be monitored and analyzed. The most dramatic effects of this gold mining boom, however, have been on the social conditions of the local people. The influx of transient populations, together with harsh working conditions, a lack of education opportunities and poverty have led to the expansion of the drug, sex, and gambling industries in Hugawng valley. In one mining area it was estimated that 80% of inhabitants are addicted to opium and approximately 30% of miners use heroin and methamphetamines. Intravenous drug use and the sex industry have increased the spread of HIV/AIDS. Far from alleviating these social ills, local SPDC authorities collect fees from these illicit industries and even diminish efforts to curb them. The SPDC continually boasts about how the people of Kachin State are benefiting from its border area development program. The case of Hugawng valley illustrates, however, the fundamental lack of local benefit from or participation in the development process. The SPDC is pursuing its interests of military expansion and revenue generation at the expense of social and environmental sustainability This report documents local people speaking out about this destructive and unsustainable development. Such bravery should be encouraged and supported.".......The main URL for this document in OBL leaqds to a 1.5MB version, obtained by passing the original through ocr software. The original and uthoritative version can be found as an alternate link in this entry.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
        Format/size: pdf (3.77MB - original and authoritative; 1.5MB - ocr version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/24720.html
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


        Title: At What Price? Gold Mining in Kachin State, Burma
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Contents:-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; MAP; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY; INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY;; BACKGROUND; UNEARTHING BURMA; ENVIRONMENT AND MINING LAWS; THE LAND OF THE KACHIN; GEOGRAPHY & BIODIVERSITY; HISTORY; GOLD IN THE KACHIN HILLS; CONCESSION POLICY; ROLE OF THE KIO; FOREIGN INVESTORS; CHINA; GOING FOR KACHIN GOLD: MINING TECHNIQUES; PLACER MINING; PANNING; BUCKET DREDGES; SUCTION DREDGES; HYDRAULIC MINING; GOLD ORE; OPEN-CAST MINES; SHAFT MINES; CHEMICALS IN THE MINING PROCESS; DANGER: MERCURY; ALTERNATIVES TO MERCURY; CYANIDE LEACHING; CASE STUDIES OF MINING AREAS IN KACHIN STATE; HUKAWNG; MALI HKA; N’MAI HKA; HPAKANT; GOLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT3; AFTER THE GOLD RUSH: TAILINGS AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE; LAND REHABILITATION; THE RIVER ECOSYSTEM; GOLD AND ITS SOCIAL IMPACT; SEEKING WORK, SEEKING GOLD; ENDANGERING MINERS; MINING AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS; RECOMMENDATIONS... APPENDICES: IVANHOE MINES LTD.; EXAMPLES OF MERCURY AND METHYLMERCURY POISONING; CASES OF CYANIDE POLLUTION; AGREEMENT BETWEEN MYITKYINA TPDC AND NORTHERN STAR MINERALS TRADING AND PRODUCTION CO.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Images Asia Environment Desk, Pan Kachin Development Society
        Format/size: pdf (3.4MB) 66 pages
        Date of entry/update: 21 December 2004


        Title: CURRENT STATUS OF PESTICIDES RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF FOOD IN RELATION WITH FOOD SAFETY
        Date of publication: 30 January 2002
        Description/subject: FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators Marrakech, Morocco, 28 - 30 January 2002 "Being a developing agricultural country at least in a foreseeable future, Myanmar is inevitable the use of pesticides in agriculture food production although other parallel efforts of non-chemical nature are being endeavoured in pest control strategies. Although there is a low pesticide consumption rate in Mayanmar, the present data indicates the urgent need of a cautious control in the use through coordination and cooperation of various government agencies and the people themselves. In addition, agricultural pesticides use in the country is expected to be increased with the abrupt change of cropping pattern for high rice production and extension of various crops grown areas. The use of agro-chemical on food crops is estimated about 80% of the total. At that time the use of organo-chlorine insecticides (oc's) is decreasing but the percentage of those pesticides is total (about 10%) is still high. The use of pyrethroids is increasing..."
        Author/creator: Mya Thwin, Thet Thet Mar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: FAO, WHO
        Format/size: html,pdf (27.14 KB)
        Alternate URLs: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meeting/004/ab429e.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Laws and policies related to the environment of Burma/Myanmar

    • Environmental governance in Burma/Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan [Myanmar]
      Date of publication: 30 April 2014
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a framework for national action for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. According to Article 6 of the Convention, each member country needs to develop its own National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) to integrate conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. In order to fulfill this commitment to the Convention, Myanmar conducted a project entitled National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in Myanmar (NBSAP Myanmar). The Government Meeting No. 17/2006 of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, held on 25th May 2006, approved to formulate NBSAP of Myanmar. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) agreed to support the technique and funding in formulating NBSAP. With approval of the Government Meeting No. 11/2009 of of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar held on 19th March 2009, Forest Department of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has signed the Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with UNEP, a GEF Implementing Agency, which is also accountable to the GEF Council for GEF financed activities, on 10th April 2009. The NBSAP is the outcome of extensive data and information collating and analysis, as well as a series of workshops and working group meetings with participation from government departments, NGOs, and academic institutions. Based on the consultations, discussions, comments, suggestions and updated information of biodiversity and natural resources in the country, the NBSAP has been prepared and approved by national stakeholders. The NBSAP will act as the major guiding document for planning biodiversity conservation in the country, following its goal to provide a strategic planning framework for the effective and efficient conservation and management of biodiversity and natural resources based on greater transparency, accountability and equity. On 3rd May of 2012, the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar adopted the Myanmar NBSAP by its Government Meeting No. 16/2012. The NBSAP is composed of six major chapters, which start with a general description of Myanmar’s biodiversity and then extends to a strategy for the sustainability of biodiversity conservation. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced verson; 5.6MB-original version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Biodiversity%20strategy%20and%20action%20plan.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


      Title: Environmental governance in the SPDC’s Myanmar
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "With its continuing political instability, war and repression, Burma stands to lose much of its remaining natural resources at an alarming rate. The military regime’s protection and conservation of natural resources and the environment as a ‘national endeavour’ has been couched in progressive language. The drafting and implementation of its National Environmental Policy is, however, yet to produce appropriate institutional mechanisms. Any strategic environmental engagement with the military regime will have to bear in mind that a fruitful result for sustainable environmental governance in Burma, and consequently in the ASEAN and Mekong regions, will depend on the existence of good governance practice in a broader sense. Transparency, accountability, rule of law, an independent judiciary system and mechanisms to include local participation in environmental decision making are essential for good governance practices. Burma lacks most of these elements, although there are some limited possibilities for local participation, as can be seen from the success of the UNDP’s projects. Therefore, until and unless national reconciliation is reached and political differences are resolved among all concerned parties, Burma’s environmental future will be held hostage by political instability. It is desirable that the short-term successes of the projects discussed in this chapter lead to the rescuing of the hostage. It is crucial that the leaders of the SPDC regime realise that the existence of human civilisation depends inevitably on the harmonious relationship between society and the environment. The common finding of scientists who study the reasons behind the survival and collapse of earlier civilisations is that those civilisations collapsed due to a lack of vision and a lack of institutional arrangements to achieve a balanced relationship between society and the environment (Hodell et al. 1995; Weiss and Bradley 2001; Haug et al. 2003). The great lesson that the SPDC generals can learn from the collapse of states in the past is that the meaningful development of a society and the continuing existence of a civilisation depend on human ideas, capacities and political freedom within that society. Burmese society is endowed with ideas and capacities; what is lacking is political freedom for citizens to exercise their ideas and capacities. If current political deadlocks continue to deny citizens the political freedom to chart their own livelihoods and self-governance into the future, Burma’s civilisation and its continued existence in the modern context will be at risk. This assessment of environmental governance under the SPDC would have to conclude that the primary responsibility for charting better environmental governance in Burma lies in the hands of the SPDC generals."
      Author/creator: Tun Myint
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian national University
      Format/size: pdf (149K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    • Myanmar's domestic legislation related to the environment (texts and commentaries)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Environmental Laws and Decrees (texts and commentaries)
      Description/subject: Link to the Environment sub-section of the OBL Law and Constitution section
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Science and Technology Development Law - SLORC Law No. 5/94 (English)
      Date of publication: 07 June 1994
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Science and Technology Development Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/94)... The 14th Waning Day of Kason, 1356 M.E. (7th June, 1994
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (72K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222232/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml94_05.html
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


    • Myanmar's international agreements related to the environment

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: International Environmental Agreements by Burma/Myanmar
      Description/subject: 51 international environmental agreements by Myanmar is (45 in force; 6 signed but not ratified)...Click on the figure over a column to get an alphabetical list.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change & Kyoto Protocol
      Date of publication: 23 February 1995
      Description/subject: Ratification status (Myanmar): Climate Change Convention: Date of signature: 11 June 1992... Date of ratification: 25 November 1994... Date of entry into force: 23 February 1995..... Kyoto Protocol: Date of signature: ... Date of ratification: 13 August 2003... Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005.....The date given in these metadata is of the entry into force of the Framework Convention.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 June 2012


      Title: Agenda 21: Myanmar profile
      Date of publication: 1992
      Description/subject: Burma's Agenda 21 profile - for the UN Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) Rio de Janeiro, 1992: Agriculture, forestry, land management, trade, changing consumption patterns, financing, sustainable tourism, integrated decision-making.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SLORC/United Nations
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
      Date of publication: 1972
      Description/subject: Burma acceded to the Convention on 29 April 1994. Click on the first Alternate URL in these metadata for the list of States Parties etc. and on the 2nd for other relevant links
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNESCO
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/
      http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/
      Date of entry/update: 07 December 2010


      Title: Convention on Biological Diversity - Website and Convention
      Description/subject: Burma ratified the Convention on 25 November 1994.
      Language: English, Francais, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Spanish
      Source/publisher: Convention on Biological Diversity
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-un-en.pdf (text of the Convention)
      Date of entry/update: 21 October 2007


      Title: Convention on Biological Diversity: Country Profile - Myanmar
      Description/subject: Convention: Party since: 1994-11-25 By: Ratification... Cartagena Protocol: Party since: 2008-05-13 By: Ratification... Nagoya Protocol: Non Party... Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Protocol: Non Party.....List of Myanmar contacts...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: CDB website
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/
      Date of entry/update: 29 June 2012


    • Policies designed to promote environmental sustainability in Burma/Myanmar

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MYANMAR
      Description/subject: Agriculture; Atmosphere; Biodiversity; Desertification and Drought; Energy; Forests; Freshwater; Land Management; Mountains; Oceans and Coastal Areas; Toxic Chemicals; Waste and Hazardous Materials
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations - Agenda 21
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 June 2012


      Title: SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MYANMAR
      Description/subject: Poverty; Demographics; Health; Education; Human Settlements
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations - Agenda 21
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Sustainable Agricultural Development Strategies for the Least Developed Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 1995
      Description/subject: Conclusion and recommendations: Myanmar, like any other developing country, needs to have sectoral policies, objectives and strategies in agriculture, forestry and fisheries which are based on the present socio-economic, political and administrative situation. The three sectors should be monitored, supervised, evaluated and revised as necessary. The ministries concerned should issue documents that formalize the commitment and intent of the government in ensuring sustainable development of the resources for economic and environmental purposes. Surveys and studies which have not been previously or properly carried out (e.g., water demand in industries, soil sedimentation and rehabilitation) should now be undertaken systematically as part of short- and long-term plans; the results should be officially documented and published. With regard to environmental affairs in Myanmar, the concept is: "Everything possible is being done to prevent environmental degradation and make it a heritage that future generations can enjoy". Myanmar, although included among the least developed countries, is well endowed with natural resources for agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Modern technology and capital investment, coupled with a well-prepared plan and proper management, will lead to sustainable utilization of those resources. Priority should be given to self-sufficiency in food in order to contain domestic prices. When any surplus is exported, proper processing, packaging, storage and transportation are prerequisites to meeting international market requirements and standards. The suggested policies in this report, which have been discussed in detail to bring about better comprehension and serious consideration, could be used as a base to modify and improve and, if found feasible, officially adopted. All government policies on the three sectors must be well-defined, officially and legally documented, published and have theirnotification issued by the government. 74 KB
      Author/creator: U Myint Thein, Director-General (Retd), Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Yangon)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNESCAP
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003