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Description of the environment of Burma/Myanmar

  • Basic information on the geography and environment of Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar: Basic Information on the environment
    Description/subject: Major Mountain peaks...Selected international agreements and conventions related to climate and environment... Economy... Major agricultural products... Major Industries... Geography / Geopolitics... Climate
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ICIMOD
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 June 2012


    Title: The Geography of Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Climate 2 Mountains 2.1 Main peaks 3 Rivers 4 Maritime claims 4.1 Islands 5 Land use and natural resources 6 Natural hazards 7 Environment 7.1 Environment - international agreements 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 June 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
    Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
    Format/size: html, 23 pages
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


  • Forests
    See the separate section on Forests

  • Land
    For land confiscation and land degradation, see also the separate section on Land, several sections on land confiscation under Human Rights and Land Alienation under Agriculture

  • The ecoregions of Burma/Myanmar

    Individual Documents

    Title: Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (IM0109)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 11,500 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... "The Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma Montane Rain Forests [IM0109] are globally outstanding for bird richness, partly because they acted as a refugia during recent glaciation events. This ecoregion still harbors many taxa characteristic of the Palearctic realm and a diverse assemblage of subtropical species distributed across its elevational gradients. Much of the southern Chin Hills remains biologically unexplored. Location and General Description: This ecoregion represents the montane moist forests along the length of the Chin Hills and Arakan Yomas mountain ranges along the west coast of Myanmar. The Koeppen climate zone classifies this ecoregion in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows (PA1003)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Montane Grasslands and Shrublands... Size: 46,800 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... "The Eastern Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows [PA1003] represent the alpine scrub and meadow habitat along the Inner Himalayas to the east of the Kali Gandaki River in central Nepal. Within it are the tallest mountains in the world-Everest, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, and Jomalhari-which tower far above the Gangetic Plains. The alpine scrub and meadows in the eastern Himalayas are nested between the treeline at 4,000 m and the snowline at about 5,500 m and extend from the deep Kali Gandaki gorge through Bhutan and India's northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, to northern Myanmar. The Eastern Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows [PA1003] ecoregion supports one of the world's richest alpine floral displays that becomes vividly apparent during the spring and summer when the meadows explode into a riot of color from the contrasting blue, purple, yellow, pink, and red flowers of alpine herbs. Rhododendrons characterize the alpine scrub habitat closer to treeline. The tall, bright-yellow flower stalk of the noble rhubarb, Rheum nobile (Polygonaceae), stands above all the low herbs and shrubs like a beacon, visible from across the valleys of the high Himalayan slopes. The plant richness in this ecoregion sitting at the top of the world is estimated at more than 7,000 species, a number that is three times what is estimated for the other alpine meadows in the Himalayas. In fact, from among the Indo-Pacific ecoregions, only the famous rain forests of Borneo are estimated to have a richer flora. Within the species-rich landscape are hotspots of endemism, created by the varied topography, which results in very localized climatic variations and high rainfall, enhancing the ability of specialized plant communities to evolve. Therefore, the ecoregion boasts the record for a plant growing at the highest elevation in the world: Arenaria bryophylla, a small, dense, tufted cushion-forming plant with small, stalkless flowers, was recorded at an astonishing 6,180 m by A. F. R. Wollaston (Wollaston 1921, in Polunin and Stainton 1997)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests (IM0117)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 53,400 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable..... Introduction: "Like many of the region's lowland forests, the Irrawaddy Moist Deciduous Forests [IM0117] ecoregion has been intensively cultivated and its forests converted over hundreds of years. As a consequence, most of the region's biodiversity has been extirpated, and because of political forces over the past few decades very little current information on the biodiversity status of this ecoregion is known. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion is located within the Irrawaddy River Basin, the catchments of Bago Yoma, and the foothills of Rakhine Yoma. The soils belong to the Irrawaddian series, which consists of the fluvial sands with terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate fossils. Silicified wood fossils are found among ferruginous, calcareous, and siliceous concretions, with quartz pebbles. The Irrawaddian rocks are distinct from other Tertiary rock groups. Their occurrence reaches up to the Kachin State in the north and in Chindwin districts in Sagaing division. The southern distribution is down to Rangoon..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Kayah-Karen montane rain forests (IM0119)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 46,100 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... Introduction: "The Kayah-Karen Montane Rain Forests [IM0119] ecoregion harbors globally outstanding levels of species richness. Among the ecoregions of Indochina, it ranks second for bird species richness and fourth for mammal species richness. The world's smallest mammal, Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai), equal in mass to a large bumblebee, resides in the limestone caves of this ecoregion. Because the ecoregion remains unexplored scientifically, especially the parts that lie in Myanmar, it probably will yield more biological surprises. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion includes the northern part of the Tenasserim Mountain Range, which forms the border between Thailand and Myanmar. Much of the region consists of hills of Paleozoic limestone that have been dissected by chemical weathering. The overhanging cliffs, sinkholes, and caverns characteristic of tropical karst landscapes are all present in this ecoregion. Large patches of limestone forest are associated with the tropical karst. The flora and fauna here is distinct and includes several endemic species. Because complex habitats are little explored, it is likely that they contain undescribed endemic species..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar coastal rain forests (IM0132)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 25,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable..... Introduction: "The Myanmar Coastal Rain Forests [IM0132] are a diverse set of climatic niches and habitats that include flora and fauna from the Indian, Indochina, and Sundaic regions. Though low in endemism, this ecoregion has a tremendous species diversity. However, the forests have been increasingly destroyed to make way for agriculture, and poaching has become the dominant threat to the remaining wildlife populations. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion represents the lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of the western side of Arakan Yoma and Tenasserim ranges along the west coast of Myanmar. A small area extends into southeast Bangladesh. It falls within the tropical wet climate zone of the Köppen climate system (National Geographic Society 1999)...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests (IM0303)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests... Size: 3,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered..... Introduction: "The Northeast India-Myanmar Pine Forests [IM0303] ecoregion is one of only four tropical or subtropical conifer forest ecoregions in the Indo-Pacific region. All of these ecoregions contain less biodiversity than the forests that surround them. However, they contain processes and species unique to these ecosystems. This ecoregion contains moderate levels of biodiversity but remains largely intact, providing opportunities to conserve and protect this ecoregion's biodiversity into the future. Description Location and General Description These forests are found in the north-south Burmese-Java Arc. The Arc is formed by the parallel folded mountain ranges that culminate in the Himalayas in the north. Moving south are the mountain ranges of Patkoi, Lushai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur, and the Chin Hills. The outer southwestern fringe of mountain ranges forming the Arc is the Arakan Yomas, the southern continuation of the folded mountain ranges branching off from the Himalayas. Geologically the ecoregion has gley and black slates. Dark-colored serpentine and gabbro also are found interstratified within the shales..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northern Indochina subtropical forests (IM0137)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: " Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 168,700 square miles... Conservation Status: Vulnerable... Introduction: The Northern Indochina Subtropical Forests [IM0137] are globally outstanding for their biological diversity; this ecoregion has the highest species richness for birds among all ecoregions in the Indo-Pacific region and ranks third for mammal richness. The ecoregion sits astride a major zoogeographic ecotone, where the northern Palearctic and the southern Indo-Malayan faunas mix, allowing langurs to mix with red pandas and muntjac and musk deer to mingle. It is also a crossroads for the south Asian and east Asian floras as well as some ancient relicts that have found refuge here during the turbulent and variable geological past... Description: Location and General Description This large ecoregion extends across the highlands of northern Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam and also includes most of southern Yunnan Province. A complex network of hills and river valleys extends south of the Yunnan Plateau into northern Indochina to include the middle catchments of the Red, Mekong, and Salween rivers. Mountains in this area are composed of intrusive igneous rocks or Paleozoic limestone and approach but seldom exceed 2,000 m, and major river valleys lie at 200-400 m elevation. The climate throughout northern Indochina is summer monsoonal. Precipitation averages 1,200 to 2,500 mm per year, depending on location, and almost all of this consists of summer rain fetched from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea during April to October. From November to March, westerly subtropical winds drawn from continental Asia create dry conditions. These are moderated by easterly rain in southern Vietnam (WWF and IUCN 1995). Mean temperatures vary with elevation, but the spring premonsoon period is the hottest time of the year, and January is the coldest. Frost is known from the higher elevations, but it is infrequent..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northern Triangle subtropical forests (IM0140)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 20,800 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact... Introduction" "The Northern Triangle Subtropical Forests [IM0140] are one of the least explored and scientifically known places in the world. The region's remote location, limited access, and rugged landscape have kept scientific exploration at a minimum. Yet what is known about these forests still ranks them as globally outstanding in their biological diversity. There are at sixty-five endemic mammals known from this ecoregion, but more probably await discovery. In 1997 a new species of small deer, the leaf muntjac, was discovered high in the mountains. This ecoregion remains one of the few places in the Indo-Pacific region where conservation action can be done on a proactive rather than reactive basis. Description Location and General Description Floristically, Kachin State in northern Myanmar is one of the most diverse regions in continental Asia (WWF and IUCN 1995), but it is also one of the least explored. In 1997 a WCS team went into the region, the first in more than fifty years, since the early explorations of Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952). Therefore, our assessment of the biodiversity in this region probably is highly underestimated; it probably harbors many more species than are now attributed to it. The mountains trace their origins to the geological period when the collision between the Deccan Plateau and the Laurasian mainland created the Himalayas. The mountains extend as offshoots from the eastern Himalayas in four parallel ranges. The westernmost Sangpang Bum Range forms the Indo-Myanmar boundary, and the easternmost Goligong (Gaoligong) Shan demarcates the Myanmar-China border. In general, the elevation exceeds 1,500 m, but the peaks rise steeply to more than 3,000 m. The Chindwin, Mali Hka, and Mai Hka rivers originate in these mountains and converge in the lower reaches to form the Irrawaddy River..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northern Triangle temperate forests (IM0402)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests... Size: 4,100 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact... Introduction: "The Northern Triangle Temperate Forests [IM0402] ecoregion lies in the extreme northern area of the Golden Triangle of Myanmar. The region is scientifically unexplored, and the biological information, especially of its flora, is still based on the early, pioneering exploration done by Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952). There have been no detailed scientific surveys in this area since then, and current assessments of its biodiversity probably are underestimated. In all probability this ecoregion harbors many more species than are now attributed to it. Satellite imagery indicates that the ecoregion is still largely clothed in intact forests and presents a rare opportunity to conserve large landscapes that will support the ecological processes and the biodiversity within this eastern Himalayan ecosystem. Description Location and General Description The mountains originated more than 40 million years ago, when the collision between the drifting Deccan Plateau and the northern Laurasian mainland created the Himalayan Mountains, including these mountains in the Golden Triangle. Therefore, the mountains are young and unweathered; the terrain is rugged and dissected, with north-south-oriented ranges that reach south, toward the central plains of Myanmar. The peaks along this range rise steeply to attain heights of more than 3,000 m. The Chindwin, Mali Hka, and N'mai Hka rivers originate in these mountains and flow south to converge in the lower reaches to form the Irrawaddy River..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Southern Asia: Along the coasts of India, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Thailand - Indo-Malayan (IM1404)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Mangroves... Size: 8,200 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No.. Introduction: "The Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] are some of the most degraded or destroyed mangrove systems in the Indo-Pacific. The sedimentation rate of the Irrawaddy River is the fifth highest in the world. This is largely because of the deforestation that has occurred throughout central Myanmar. The mangroves have also been overexploited from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture, and development projects. The wild species have been severely reduced but hang on in isolated pockets... Description: Location and General Description: Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] ecoregion is found in the Irrawaddy delta. The mouth of the Irrawaddy River was some 170 miles inland near Prome 300,000 years ago. On the islands of Twante, Myaungmya, and Bassein, lateritic ridges stood above the water. The delta is composed largely of alluvium, and a large area is occupied by volcanic rocks...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Southern Asia: Myanmar and India, into Bangladesh - Indo-Malayan (IM0131)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Introduction: The Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin Rain Forests [IM0131] has the highest bird species richness of all ecoregions that are completely within the Indo-Pacific region. (The only ecoregions that have more birds are the Northern Indochina Subtropical Forests [IM0137] and South China-Vietnam Subtropical Evergreen Forests [IM0149] that extend into China.) Except the pioneering explorations of Kingdon-Ward (1921, 1930, 1952) and Burma Wildlife Survey made by Oliver Milton and Richard D. Estes (1963), few scientific surveys have been made in this ecoregion. Once exception has been the recent Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Smithsonian Institution's reptile survey in northwestern Myanmar. Therefore these rugged mountains' biodiversity remains largely unknown... Description: Location and General Description This large ecoregion represents the semi-evergreen submontane rain forests that extend from the midranges of the Arakan Yoma and Chin Hills north into the Chittagong Hills of Bangladesh, the Mizo and Naga hills along the Myanmar-Indian border, and into the northern hills of Myanmar. It divides the Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy valleys, through which two of Asia's largest rivers flow. Some areas in this ecoregion receive more than 2,000 mm of rainfall annually from the monsoons that sweep in from the Bay of Bengal..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests (IM0163)
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 37,600 square miles... Conservation Status: Relatively Stable/Intact..... Introduction: "The Tenasserim-South Thailand Semi-Evergreen Rain Forests [IM0163] cover the transition zone from continental dry evergreen forests common in the north to semi-evergreen rain forests to the south. As a consequence, this ecoregion contains some of the highest diversity of both bird and mammal species found in the Indo-Pacific region. The relatively intact hill and montane forests form some of the best remaining habitat essential to the survival of Asian elephants and tigers in the Indo-Pacific region. However, the lowland forests are heavily degraded, and many lowland specialists such as the endemic Gurney's pitta survive in a few isolated reserves... Description: Location and General Description This ecoregion encompasses the mountainous, semi-evergreen rain forests of the southern portion of the Tenasserim Range, which separates Thailand and Myanmar, and the numerous small ranges of peninsular Thailand. This ecoregion also includes the extensive lowland plains that lie between the peninsular mountains and until recent decades supported extensive lowland forest. The southern margin of this ecoregion is defined by the Kangar-Pattani floristic boundary (Whitmore 1984), which separates Indochina from the Malesia. Annual precipitation increases southward as the length of the dry season and the magnitude of premonsoon drought stress declines. The southern mountain ranges receive rain from both the northeast and southwest monsoons so that, unlike in mountain ranges further north, there is no significant rainshadow. The Köppen climate system places this ecoregion in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim Moist Forests (29)
    Description/subject: "This region contains Indochina�s largest block of moist forest, one of its richest plant diversities, and its largest number of mammals. This Global 200 ecoregion is made up of these terrestrial ecoregions: Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests; Kayah-Karen montane rain forests. If you're interested in Asian mammals, you should visit the Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim Moist Forests. For here live tigers, Asian elephants, gaurs, and clouded leopards--species that conjure images of dense, gloomy forests. Other species, such as the Fea�s muntjak -- a small deer with prominent, vampire-like canine teeth -- are rarely found anywhere outside of these forests. In the evenings a host of different bats, ranging in size from small to tiny, will begin to flit through the sky feasting on the large variety of insects, while white-bellied rats scurry across the ground..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Lake Inle (190)
    Description/subject: "Stand on the Shan Plateau, and you'll see mountains everywhere, stretching far and wide. Under your feet lies rocky soil rich with silver, rubies, and sapphires. But the real gem here is Lake Inle. One of Myanmar's few freshwater lakes, Inle contains many unique species of fish. Lake Inle lies 2,952 feet (900 m) above sea level on the Shan Plateau, an extensive region of high mountain ranges crisscrossed by streams and the mighty Salween River. Inle is a shallow mountain lake that contains several islands and is fed by mountain streams..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Naga-Manupuri-Chin Hills Moist Forests (34)
    Description/subject: "This ecoregion is one of the richest areas for birds and mammals in all of Asia. This Global 200 ecoregion is made up of these terrestrial ecoregions: Northern Triangle subtropical forests; Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests; Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests; Meghalaya subtropical forests; Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Salween River
    Description/subject: "The Salween River originates in the eastern highlands of the Tibetan Plateau and flows through valleys that are at first steep and narrow, then increasingly broad as the river approaches the tropical lowlands. Eventually it enters the Andaman Sea in eastern Myanmar. The 2815 km long Salween river runs parallel to the mighty Mekong River for much of its course and forms part of the border between Myanmar and Thailand. When it flows through Yunnan, it is known as the Nujiang river. About 140 fish live in this river (approximately one-third endemic species) with Minnows (Cyprinidae) being the most diverse group of fish. The area is also home to the world's most diverse turtle community, with between 10 and 15 genera of turtles represented, many of which are riverine species. For most of its route the river is of little commercial value, and it passes through deep gorges and is often called China's Grand Canyon. It is home to over 7,000 species of plants and 80 rare or endangered animals and fish. Unesco said this region "may be the most biologically diverse temperate ecosystem in the world" and designated it a World Heritage Site in 2003. The Salween is the longest undammed river in mainland Southeast Asia..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Southeastern Asia: Central Myanmar (formerly Burma) - Indo-Malayan (IM0205)
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests... Size: 13,600 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No..... Introduction: "The Irrawaddy Dry Forests [IM0205], like the surrounding moist deciduous forests, have been under intensive conversion pressure for hundreds of years. However, until recently most of its large mammal fauna, such as the tiger, still persisted in the degraded forests. Only recently has the larger mammal fauna been hunted to the brink of extinction in this ecoregion. The little protection afforded this ecoregion has hindered conservation efforts. Description Location and General Description This ecoregion falls in the dry zone of central Myanmar. The region has a harsh climate and is extremely dry. The average rainfall is about 650 mm per year. Rains start in mid-July and last until October. There are rarely more than fifteen days of rain per year. When rainfall does occur, it falls in torrential showers. In addition to rains, the dry zone is subject to southerly winds during the summer, resulting in wind erosion of the topsoil..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Southeastern Asia: Southern Myanmar. - Indo-Malayan (IM0116)
    Description/subject: Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests... Size: 5,900 square miles... Conservation Status: Critical/Endangered... G200: No... Introduction: "In 1929 the Burma Game Manual stated its guiding principle: "A countryside devoid of wildlife is uninteresting and unnatural, and life under such conditions can adversely affect the national character." Therefore, invaluable natural and national assets had to be saved from destruction. This has not happened in large portions of Myanmar, especially the fertile lands of the Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forest. Most of the ecoregion's original forests, and subsequent wildlife such as Asian elephants and tigers, have been destroyed. Protection of the last remaining bits of habitat and restoration ecology will be key elements of returning this ecoregion to its natural state. Description Location and General Description The Irrawaddy River flows into the Bay of Bengal, and its delta is made up of mangroves and freshwater swamp forests of this ecoregion. This ecoregion is an extremely fertile area because of the riverborne silt deposited in the delta. The southern portion of the ecoregion transitions into the Myanmar Coastal Mangroves [IM1404] and is made up of fanlike marshes with oxbow lakes, islands, and meandering rivulets and streams. Topographically the region is primarily flatlands. The western part of the region is bounded by the Rakhine (Arakan) Yomas, with the highest elevation at about 1,287 m to the north, tapering down to the south to 428 m...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • The fauna of Burma/Myanmar

    • Fauna of Burma/Myanmar

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Gurney's Pitta Pitta gurneyi
      Description/subject: "Despite the discovery of a large population in Myanmar, the situation for this pitta remains precarious since it occupies a very small range in which its habitat of flat, low-lying forest, which is targeted for the development of oil-palm plantations, is already severely fragmented. A very rapid population reduction is anticipated to occur in the near future as a result of land clearance. For these reasons it is listed as Endangered..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Birdlife International
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Wild Burma, Nature's Lost Kingdom 3 (video)
      Date of publication: 30 December 2013
      Description/subject: Filming elephants in the mountain forests of Arakan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: BBC 2
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (57 Minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


      Title: Wild Burma, Nature's Lost Kingdom 2 (video)
      Date of publication: 21 December 2013
      Description/subject: "On the second leg of their journey, wildlife filmmakers Gordon Buchanan and Justine Evans, along with a team of scientists, head deep into the mountains of western Burma. This is where they hope to find the shy sun bear and two of the world's rarest and most beautiful cats: the Asian golden cat and the clouded leopard. Meanwhile, zoologist Ross Piper and the science team are on a mission to create a wildlife survey to present to the government of Burma to persuade them that these forests are so unique they must be protected. High on the forest ridges, Gordon finds evidence to suggest that Burma's wildlife might be in danger. Undercover filming in a border town known as the 'Las Vegas of the jungle' leads to a shocking discovery
      Author/creator: Gordon Buchanan, Justine Evans
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: BBC
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (58 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014


      Title: Burma's Last Timber Elephants
      Date of publication: 25 October 2013
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's timber elephants and their handlers have survived wars and dictatorships, but will they survive democracy?" ... Decades of military dictatorship has meant many aspects of Myanmar are frozen in time. One of those traditions dates back thousands of years - the timber elephant. Connect with 101 East Myanmar has around 5,000 elephants living in captivity - more than any other Asian country. More than half of them belong to a single government logging agency, the Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE). Elephants are chosen over machines because they do the least damage to the forest. These elephants have survived ancient wars, colonialism and World War II while hard woods extracted by elephants in Myanmar once fed the British naval fleet. Yet today, Myanmar's timber elephant is under threat. Once the richest reservoir for biodiversity in Asia, Myanmar's forest cover is steadily depleting and the government blames it on illegal loggers. Now, the forest policy is being overhauled. The Ministry for Environmental Conservation and Forestry has pledged to reduce its logging by more than 80,000 tonnes this fiscal year. Myanmar will ban raw teak and timber exports by April 1, 2014, allowing only export of high-end finished timber products. MTE says that the private elephant owners contracted by the government will be the first on the chopping block. Saw Moo, a second generation private elephant owner, sees a bleak future for his stable of 20 elephants. He fears the family business will end in his hands and he may have to sell his elephants, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. 101 East follows the oozies deep into Myanmar's forests, gaining unprecedented access to remote elephant logging camps and witnessing the extraordinary communication between elephants and men as they work. But will the elephants and their handlers, who have survived kingdoms and military dictatorships, survive democracy and the open market? Is there a place for them in a changing modern world?..."
      Author/creator: Nirmal Ghosh
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 27 October 2013


      Title: New hope for rare bird species
      Date of publication: 01 November 2009
      Description/subject: "The resurgence of the Gurney’s Pitta (pitta gurneyi) bird species continues. Widely considered extinct until the discovery of a population in Thailand in 1986, new research has shown that there could be as many as 35,000 Gurney’s Pitta territories in Myanmar’s southern Tanintharyi Division. One territory generally represents a pair of birds, as Gurney’s Pitta is thought to be monogamous. A paper published online last week in Bird Conservation International estimates there are somewhere between 9300 and 35,000 Gurney’s Pitta territories in Myanmar, although the figure probably lies around a mid-point of 20,000 territories, said a spokesperson from BirdLife International, an association of more than 100 conservation organisations..."
      Author/creator: Thomas Kean
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


      Title: Rare Glimpse of a Rare Turtle
      Date of publication: 03 September 2009
      Description/subject: Between thick stands of bamboo in an impenetrable forest of Myanmar, the Arakan forest turtle reared its small brown head. The lucky team of Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) scientists was the first to find the species in the wild. Previously, the turtle had been known only by a few museum specimens and a few individuals in zoos.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
      Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


      Title: Scientists See Rare Turtle for the First Time in the Wild
      Date of publication: 03 September 2009
      Description/subject: * The Arakan forest turtle is discovered in dense bamboo forest in Myanmar * Species previously known only by museum and captive specimens Known only by museum specimens and a few captive individuals, one of the world’s rarest turtle species – the Arakan forest turtle – has been observed for the first time in the wild by scientists according to a new report by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). The WCS team discovered five of the critically endangered turtles in a wildlife sanctuary in Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia. The sanctuary, originally established to protect elephants, contains thick stands of impenetrable bamboo forests and is rarely visited by people according to the report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
      Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


      Title: Rats and Kyats: Bamboo Flowering Causes a Hunger Belt in Chin State, Burma
      Date of publication: 30 July 2008
      Description/subject: "The bamboo species Melocanna baccifera blossoms approximately every 48 years. This type of bamboo grows throughout a large area of Northeast India (primarily in Mizoram and Manipur States) as well as regions of Burma (mainly Chin State) and Bangladesh (Hill Tracts.) It densely covers valleys and hillsides in the rugged terrain of the region. The blossoming bamboo produces fruit, then dies off. During the fruiting stage of the cycle, forest rats feed on the bamboo fruits/seeds. Once the population of rats has stripped the forest of bamboo fruit/seeds, rat swarms invade farms and villages to devour crops and stored rice. This phenomenon, known as the Mautam, has historically resulted in mass starvation among indigenous peoples of the region where Melocanna baccifera bamboo grows. While the current Mautam bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Northeast India has been covered by journalists, and food aid is being provided there and in the Bangladesh Hill Tracts, the Mautam crisis across the borders in Burma is less well known. In Burma's Chin State, local groups are attempting to provide aid, but there is not yet a large scale organized relief effort in the Mautam affected areas. The Project Maje resource report, "Rats and Kyats" is intended for journalists, aid workers and other researchers who may become interested in the bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Burma. News stories and documents are reproduced or linked in it, and there is also a links list of background information on the bamboo/rat cycle as it affects Mizoram, Manipur and Bangladesh."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Maje
      Format/size: html (102K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 July 2008


      Title: Myanmar zoologist addresses bat research meet in Poland
      Date of publication: 12 September 2004
      Description/subject: "A ZOOLOGIST from Myanmar gave a presentation at the 13th International Bat Research Conference held in Mikolajki, Poland, from August 23-27. Dr Mar Mar Thi, a professor at the Zoology Department of the University of Distance Education (Yangon), gave a presentation titled Bat Research in the Department of Zoology of Yangon University of Myanmar..."
      Author/creator: Ba Saing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 October 2004


      Title: On The Wild Side
      Date of publication: June 2003
      Description/subject: "Preserving Burma’s forests and wildlife is a pursuit that goes beyond politics... On his first expedition into the forests of northern Burma, Alan Rabinowitz and his team traveled 100 miles down the Chindwin River and then hiked for several days into the heart of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. There he began to hunt for signs of tigers, elephants, and the rare Sumatran rhino. Like many conservationists, he believed that Burma’s forests contain Southeast Asia’s healthiest wildlife populations. But he found Htamanthi’s forests strangely empty. The next day his team met two Lisu hunters who admitted that they came each year for wildlife parts—tiger bones, bear gall bladders, even rhino horns before the animal disappeared—to sell to Chinese traders. "That’s indicative of what’s going on across the country," Rabinowitz says, as he sits down for an interview outside a camp shelter in Thailand’s Kaeng Krachan National Park. "Despite the beautiful amounts of forest, the wildlife is getting hammered."..."
      Author/creator: Chris Tenove
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 11, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=2946
      Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


      Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
      Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
      Format/size: html, 23 pages
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


      Title: The Birds of Burma
      Date of publication: 1940
      Description/subject: "...Birds are described species by species; those species that have been illustrated, or are considered to be characteristic of Burma, have been dealt with under a greater number of headings, and printed in larger type, than species that are not often seen, or that are restricted to a small part of Burma. The only object of this arrangement is to save space. The information about each species in the first group is given under the following heads : English name of species, scientific name of species, author of the scientific name, typical locality associated with the name ; next, the subspecies (if any) are listed with the authors' names and typical localities ; next, the local names (if any) ; next, information about the bird under the headings—Identification, Voice, Habits and Food, Nest and Eggs, Status and Distribution. For the second group of birds, i.e. those printed in small type, the information under identification, voice, and habits and food, is telescoped under the heading Identification..."
      Author/creator: Bertram E. Smythies
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OLIVER AND BOYD
      Format/size: pdf (15MB) 772 pages
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


      Title: A Treatise on Elephants -- Their Treatment in Health and Disease
      Date of publication: 1901
      Author/creator: G.H. Evans
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (51MB - 160 pages)
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2009


      Title: Myanmar Reptile Survey
      Description/subject: "Building upon a newfound partnership with biologists in Myanmar (formerly Burma), scientists with the Wildlife Conservation Society are working to update research on the numerous reptiles' species that inhabit the coastline and forests of one of southeast Asia's richest ecosystems..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 July 2003


    • Threats to the fauna of Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Search for "Myanmar" on the Traffick website
      Description/subject: "TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, works to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature"...85 results for Myanmar (February 2009); 66 results (March 2012)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Traffick
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: EFU film UK tourists fuelling brutal live elephant trade between Burma & Thailand
      Date of publication: 23 July 2012
      Description/subject: "An illegal cross-border trade in endangered wild Asian elephants to serve Thailand's tourist industry is threatening the future of the species, an undercover investigation by the Ecologist Film Unit (EFU) has revealed A new film, produced by the EFU in association with Link TV and the NGO Elephant Family, has uncovered how at least 50-100 elephant calves and young female elephants are removed from their forest homes in Burma each year to be traded illegally to supply tourist camps situated in Thailand. Many of the animals end up being used for trekking, in festivals, as attractions in so-called 'wildlife parks' and for riding at other tourist destinations. Yet countless elephants die in the process, say campaigners, threatening the remaining populations of this endangered species. Capturing elephants from the wild often involves the slaughter of mothers and other protective family members with automatic weapons. Captured calves are then often subjected to a brutal 'breaking-in' process where they are tied up, confined, starved, beaten and tortured in order to 'break their spirits'. It is estimated that only one in three survive this inhumane 'domestication' process. As many as one million British tourists visit Thailand's tourist camps each year, it is estimated, leading to claims that they are unwittingly fuelling this devastating trade. Campaigners are now calling on the Thai authorities to launch a fresh crackdown on elephant smuggling ahead of the next Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) in Thailand in March 2013..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ecologist Film Unit (EFU)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (6 minutes 20 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2012


      Title: Endangered Wild Elephant in Megatha Forest, Karen State, Burma
      Date of publication: 01 August 2011
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "A team of ethnic Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN) has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the wild elephant population and rich biodiversity in Megatha Forest (also known as Megatha Wildlife Sanctuary) in a corner of Karen State that is part of the elephants’ native habitat. The report describes the method and results of the wild elephant survey in Megatha Forest by a cooperative team of researchers made up of stakeholders, including KESAN, the Dooplaya Forest Department staff, and local villagers. The research took place from May 2008 to November 2010. The study area includes lowland, hills and valleys, with elevations from about 400 meters to 1052 meters. The forest in the area can be categorized as semi-evergreen, mix-deciduous, meadows and bamboo dominated forests, which vary from slightly disturbed to undisturbed. This forest is under the local administration of Karen Forest Department, Dooplaya District Offi ce, but direct threats to wild elephants and other wildlife remain, in large part due to civil war in Burma and industrial resource extraction. In this study, we used both primary survey and secondary survey research techniques. The primary research method is to survey and collect data by direct sighting of the species through personal encounters and evidence of presence. For primary data collation, we prepared forms for each of the surveyors to fi ll out during their survey days. We recorded the evidence both with eye contact and evidence auch as tracks, feces, sleeping sites, and vocalizations. Secondary survey and data collection involved interviewing local experts, forest offi cers, hunters and poachers. We selected many different kinds of people in the communities to share their knowledge of wild elephants and other animal populations. We probed the threat status, wildlife trade, and confl icts affecting wildlife, using both structured and semi-structured interviews. The elephant population is not very large so the surveyors had diffi culty estimating the population through direct observation. The total number of wild elephants found to reside in this forest is estimated to be 15 individuals. There are also many other kinds of large animals in this forest, but only some could be recorded by the team because the focus was primarily on elephants. Further study of large animals in Karen State in encouraged, with KESAN offering willing assistance. The fi eld surveys also recorded 60 other species, including 27 mammals, 23 birds, 8 reptiles and 5 amphibians. Out of 60 species, 9 are listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List, 7 are Vulnerable, and 6 are Near Threatened. With this accounting, it can be seen that the Megatha Forest provides a good example of an intact ecosystem, but because 22 out of 60 species are at risk, the forest faces signifi cant threats. These threats, including ongoing war and militarization and accelerating natural resource exploitation, may seriously degrade the Megatha Forest. Logging and mining permitted by the Burmese State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and its Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) are rapidly depleting the remaining natural forest in the area, leading to the loss of at least one severely endangered species, the Sumatran rhinoceros. Therefore, KESAN makes the following recommendations to conserve Megatha Forest: 1. Do not seek war. 2. Do not allow logging and mining. 3. Do not allow rubber plantations that will result in forest encroachment. 4. Strict enforcement of poaching laws."
      Author/creator: Saw Blaw Htoo, Martin Bergoffen, Saw Wee Eh Htoo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
      Format/size: pdf (4.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/Files/PDF/Report_Endangered-Elephants-in-Megatha-Forest-Karen%20State-Burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 August 2011


      Title: Freshwater turtles in “catastrophic decline”
      Date of publication: 16 September 2010
      Description/subject: A per­fect storm of hab­i­tat loss, hunt­ing and a pet trade is dec­i­mat­ing the world’s fresh­wa­ter tur­tle popula­t­ions, ac­cord­ing to an anal­y­sis from wild­life pro­tec­tion group Con­serva­t­ion In­terna­t­ional. Ur­gent ac­tion is needed to save the rep­tiles, say re­search­ers af­fil­i­at­ed with the Ar­ling­ton, Va.-based or­gan­iz­a­tion. A drop in many of the world’s tur­tle spe­cies, they add, is ev­i­dence that mis­man­age­ment of vi­tal fresh­wa­ter ecosys­tems is caus­ing deep and da­m­ag­ing en­vi­ron­men­tal im­pacts that will af­fect peo­ple and wild­life alik
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: Tyrants, Tycoons and Tigers
      Date of publication: 25 August 2010
      Description/subject: Summary: "A bitter land struggle is unfolding in northern Burma’s remote Hugawng Valley. Farmers that have been living for generations in the valley are defying one of the country’s most powerful tycoons as his company establishes massive mono-crop plantations in what happens to be the world’s largest tiger reserve. The Hukawng Valley Tiger Reserve in Kachin State was declared by the Myanmar* Government in 2001 with the support of the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society. In 2004 the reserve’s designation was expanded to include the entire valley of 21,890 square kilometers (8,452 square miles), making it the largest tiger reserve in the world. Today a 200,000 acre mono-crop plantation project is making a mockery of the reserve’s protected status. Fleets of tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers rip up forests, raze bamboo groves and fl atten existing small farms. Signboards that mark animal corridors and “no hunting zones” stand out starkly against a now barren landscape; they are all that is left of conservation efforts. Application of chemical fertilizers and herbicides together with the daily toil of over two thousand imported workers are transforming the area into huge tapioca, sugar cane, and jatropha plantations. In 2006 Senior General Than Shwe, Burma’s ruling despot, granted the Rangoon-based Yuzana Company license to develop this “agricultural development zone” in the tiger reserve. Yuzana Company is one of Burma’s largest businesses and is chaired by U Htay Myint, a prominent real estate tycoon who has close connections with the junta. Local villagers tending small scale farms in the valley since before it was declared a reserve have seen their crops destroyed and their lands confi scated. Confl icts between Yuzana Company employees, local authorities, and local residents have fl ared up and turned violent several times over the past few years, culminating with an attack on residents of Ban Kawk village in 2010. As of February 2010, 163 families had been forced into a relocation site where there is little water and few fi nished homes. Since then, through further threats and intimidation, * The current military regime changed the country’s name to Myanmar in 1989 1 others families have been forced to take “compensation funds” which are insuffi cient to begin a new life and leave them destitute. Despite the powerful interests behind the Yuzana project, villagers have been bravely standing up to protect their farmlands and livelihoods. They have sent numerous formal appeals to the authorities, conducted prayer ceremonies, tried to reclaim their fi elds, refused to move, and defended their homes. The failure of various government offi cials to reply to or resolve the problem fi nally led the villagers to reach out to the United Nations and the National League for Democracy in Burma. In March 2010 representatives of three villages fi led written requests to the International Labor Organization to investigate the actions of Yuzana. In July 2010, over 100 farmers opened a joint court case in Kachin State. Although the villagers in Yuzana’s project area have been ignored at every turn, they remain determined to seek a just solution to the problems in Hugawng. As Burma’s military rulers prepare for their 2010 “election,” local residents hold no hope for change from a new constitution that only legalizes the status quo and the military’s placement above the law. Companies such as Yuzana that have close military connections are set to play an increasing role in the economy and will also remain above the law. The residents of Hugawng Valley are thus at the frontline of protecting not only their own lands and environment but also the rights of all of Burma’s farmers. The Kachin Development Networking Group stands fi rmly with these communities and therefore calls on Yuzana to stop their project implementation to avoid any further citizens’ rights abuses and calls on all Kachin communities and leaders to work together with Hugawng villagers in their brave struggle."
      Language: English and the other EU languages
      Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
      Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.aksyu.com/images/stories/tyrants_tycoons_n_tigers.jpg
      Date of entry/update: 25 August 2010


      Title: A Valley of Tigers
      Date of publication: 04 August 2010
      Description/subject: In the northernmost stretches of Myanmar, a valley exists where tigers can just be tigers. Country officials have declared the entire Hukaung Valley a Protected Tiger Area. With 8,452 square miles in which to roam, hunt, and hopefully breed, the region’s remaining tigers have a chance too few of their kind currently enjoy.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: News and Periodical Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: "Undercurrents" Issue 3
      Date of publication: April 2009
      Description/subject: this issue focuses on how the expanding influence of Chinese interests in the Golden Triangle region, from rubber plantations to wildlife trading, is bringing rapid destructive changes to local communities. There are also articles on opium cultivation, mining operations, the mainstream Mekong dams in China, and unprecedented flooding downstream..... Mekong Biodiversity Up for Sale: A new hub of wildlife trade and a network of direct buyers from China is hastening the pace of species loss... Rubber Mania: Scrambling to supply China, can ordinary farmers benefit?... Drug Country: Another opium season in eastern Shan State sees increased cultivation, mulitple cropping and a new form of an old drug... Construction Steams Ahead: A photo essay from the Nouzhadu Dam, one of the eight planned on the mainstream Mekong in China... Digging for Riches: An update on mining operations in eastern Shan State... Washed Out: Unprecedented flooding wreaks havoc in the Golden Triangle.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lahu National Development Organization (LNDO)
      Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/undercurrentsissue3.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2009


      Title: Khoe Kay: Biodiversity in Peril
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A team of Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the rich biodiversity of Khoe Kay, a bend in the Salween River that is part of their homeland. They also want to document and expose the severe threats faced by this stretch of the Salween, both from large dams and ongoing militarization. Using methods of their own culture, as well as those used in university research, they have found that Khoe Kay is studded with both plant and animal diversity, with 194 plant species and 200 animals identified. Forty-two of these species are considered endangered, being found in IUCN's Redlist, the CITES Appendices, or both. Thus, conservation of the area will protect many globally important resources. Endemic and unknown species are also represented, with eight endemic fish species of particular interest. Also, many of the plants and animals unknown to Western science are used by the Karen for food and medicine, providing opportunities for further research. Furthermore, several entire taxa, such as mollusks, spiders and fungi, have been treated very lightly if at all in this report, so the reader is encouraged to undertake further study with assistance from KESAN. Lying on the riverine border of Thailand and Burma, the area is relatively untrammeled. Teak trees dominate, and therefore Khoe Kay provides a window into the biodiversity of the entire region prior to industrial development. Threats from proposed large dams and militarization may seriously degrade Khoe Kay. With dams, the main concerns are greenhouse gas emissions, loss of fisheries, cumulative effects of several cascading dams, and flow changes and sedimentation. Militarization of the area is also increasing, having already resulted in the loss of one severely endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
      Format/size: pdf (5.9MB - original; 4.7MB - burmalibrary version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/2008_009_24_khoekay-b.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 February 2009


      Title: Goodbye to the Butterflies
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: How greedy loggers are destroying Mount Popa’s natural wonders... "First it was the tigers. Then came the fish of Burma’s rivers and polluted Inle Lake. Now Burma is losing its butterflies. Mount Popa, in the Myin Gyan District of Mandalay Division, is an extinct volcano best known as the revered abode of spirits known as nats and a nationally famous place of pilgrimage. Less well-known is its importance as the habitat of some of the world’s rarest butterflies, including the beautiful Shwe Hnget Taung (biological name: Taoides aceacus). A Burmese Forest Ministry report in 1982 listed around 100 species of butterfly on Mount Popa. This number had dropped to 60 when Mount Popa’s Environment and Wild Animals Conservation Department conducted a survey in 2000. Seven years later, researchers found only 32—and no Shwe Hnget Taung..."
      Author/creator: Kyi Wai
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Elephant and Ivory Trade in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar has been a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1997. Illegal trade in ivory and other Asian Elephant Elephas maximus products remains widespread, especially in markets along Myanmar's international borders. In 2006, TRAFFIC surveyed 14 markets in Myanmar and three border markets in Thailand and China, and found some 9000 pieces of ivory and 16 whole tusks for sale, representing the ivory of an estimated 116 bulls. Illegal killing and capture of elephants for trade continues to be a major cause of decline for Myanmar's wild Asian Elephant populations. Ivory and other elephant parts are routinely smuggled out of Myanmar in contravention of the Protection of Wildlife and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law (State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.583/94.1994), suggesting a serious lack of law enforcement and a blatant disregard for international conventions and national laws. The fact that retail dealers openly display ivory and other elephant parts, and rarely hesitate in disclosing smuggling techniques and other illegal activities with potential buyers, further highlights that effective law enforcement is lacking. The observed and reported levels of cross-border trade indicate that neighbouring countries, especially China and Thailand, also have enforcement problems, and that illegal international trade is frequently carried out with minimal risk of detection. In addition to trade in ivory, TRAFFIC documents reports of some 250 live Asian Elephants being exported from Myanmar to neighbouring countries in the last ten years; this is mostly to supply the demand of tourist locations in neighbouring Thailand. It is important to note that no cross-border exports or imports of live elephants have been reported to CITES by either Myanmar or Thailand. Based on observations and discussions with interviewees, the capture of live elephants may be at such a rate that it is also having a negative impact on wild populations..."
      Author/creator: Chris R. Shepherd, Vincent Nijman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia
      Format/size: pdf (1.34MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


      Title: THE WILD CAT TRADE IN MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 2008
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "A total of 1320 wild cat parts, representing an absolute minimum of 1158 individual animals were observed during 12 surveys carried out in Myanmar (formerly Burma) between 1991 and 2006. These parts represented all eight species of wild cats found in Myanmar. Under Myanmar's Protection of Wild Life and Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law (State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.583/94.1994) only five of eight species of native wild cats are protected. Large numbers of parts from totally protected cat species were observed openly displayed for sale during these surveys. Protected species (Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P. pardus, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Marbled Cat Pardofelis marmorata, Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii) were offered in similar numbers as non-protected species (Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverinnus, Leopard Cat P. bengalensis, Jungle Cat Felis chaus), but species that are globally threatened are offered in significantly larger numbers than non-threatened species. This, and the frankness of the dealers, suggests a serious lack of enforcement effort to prevent this illegal trade, and highlights the threat that trade poses to already threatened species. Three of the four markets surveyed were situated on international borders, catering to international buyers. Myanmar is a signatory to the Convention on international Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), prohibiting any cross-border trade of cat species (including their parts and derivatives) listed in CITES Appendix I, and requiring permits for export of species listed in Appendix II. Dealers openly acknowledge that the trade is illegal and give suggestions on how to smuggle these contraband wildlife products across borders. No dealers indicated that they were able to trade any of these specimens legally. According to the CITES trade database managed by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), no cats of any species have been legally exported from Myanmar since becoming a Party to the Convention in 1997..."
      Author/creator: Chris R. Shepherd, Vincent Nijman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: TRAFFIC SOUTHEAST ASIA
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


      Title: Looking for a Good Catch? Ask the Irrawaddy Dolphin
      Date of publication: 04 August 2006
      Description/subject: For fishermen on the Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar, the key to a good day’s catch isn’t bait or tackle; it’s a dolphin. The Irrawaddy dolphin has a knack for herding fish into nets; and that knack can increase the size of the fishermen’s catch by threefold. In turn, the endangered dolphins are paid for their services with a fish dinner—and, more important, the friendship of their human neighbors and guardians. This unique cultural tradition protects both a critically endangered wildlife population and a sustainable, local livelihood.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/asia/myanmar.aspx
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: Myanmar Investment Opportunities in Biodiversity Conservation
      Date of publication: November 2005
      Description/subject: Due in part to decades of economic and political isolation, Myanmar supports some of the most intact natural habitats and species communities remaining in the "Indo-Myanmar Hotspot", as well as many endemic and globally threatened species. It represents a unique opportunity to invest in a country at a stage when it is still possible to avoid the patterns of degradation and loss of natural ecosystems that have been witnessed elsewhere in south and Southeast Asia. This document is based upon the results of two stakeholder workshops held in Yangon in 2003 and 2004 when over 30 stakeholders from NGOs, academic institutions, government institutions and donor agencies attempted to reach multi-stakeholder consensus on geographic, taxonomic and thematic priorities for biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. It identifies biological targets set by these stakeholders for 144 globally threatened species in Myanmar and sets out 76 key biodiversity areas (KBAs) and 15 conservation corridors that link many of these sites in order to facilitate long-term conservation of the country's threatened species. The text is mainly English in but there is a useful introduction in Burmese. Excellent illustrations, charts, tables maps. Unfortunately, the online version omits the final segment of the original printed version.
      Author/creator: Andrew W Tordoff, Jonathan C. Eames, Karin Eberhardt, Michael C. Baltzer, Peter Davidson, Peter Leimgruber, U Uga, U Aung Than
      Language: Mainly in English with an introduction in Burmese
      Source/publisher: Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund; Bird Life International in Indochina; UNDP
      Format/size: pdf (3.0 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://birdlifeindochina.org/content/myanmar-investment-opportunities-biodiversity-conservation
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: MITHUNS SACRIFICED TO GREED - The Forest Ox of Burma's Chins
      Date of publication: February 2004
      Description/subject: "This report is a brief summary of information about the mithun, a type of domesticated bovine found in the Himalayan foothills of South/Southeast Asia, particularly addressing its situation in the Chin State of Burma. The spelling "mithun" (accurate in terms of pronunciation) is used here for the bovine species Bos frontalis, although "mithan" is also a common spelling, and "mythun" is another spelling in use. This name probably came from Assamese dialects. The Chin people, one of the Zo ethnic groups, who live in western Burma, call these animals "sia." Mithuns are also known as "gayals" in India. This report is by no means a comprehensive or scientific document on mithuns. It is inspired by accounts of mithun confiscation and commercialization of mithun raising in the Chin State. It is intended as an alert about the present situation of this particular mammal in this particular area. Under Burma's military dictatorship, the Chin people have been subjected to numerous human rights violations, including religious persecution. Most Chins are Christians, with Animist traditions. Their relationship to the mithun has strong elements of remaining Animist culture. The Chins' mountain forest environment has been in jeopardy in recent years, as Burma's military regime carries out logging and unsustainable harvest of forest products, and promotes plantation agriculture..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Maje
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 April 2004


      Title: On The Wild Side
      Date of publication: June 2003
      Description/subject: "Preserving Burma’s forests and wildlife is a pursuit that goes beyond politics... On his first expedition into the forests of northern Burma, Alan Rabinowitz and his team traveled 100 miles down the Chindwin River and then hiked for several days into the heart of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. There he began to hunt for signs of tigers, elephants, and the rare Sumatran rhino. Like many conservationists, he believed that Burma’s forests contain Southeast Asia’s healthiest wildlife populations. But he found Htamanthi’s forests strangely empty. The next day his team met two Lisu hunters who admitted that they came each year for wildlife parts—tiger bones, bear gall bladders, even rhino horns before the animal disappeared—to sell to Chinese traders. "That’s indicative of what’s going on across the country," Rabinowitz says, as he sits down for an interview outside a camp shelter in Thailand’s Kaeng Krachan National Park. "Despite the beautiful amounts of forest, the wildlife is getting hammered."..."
      Author/creator: Chris Tenove
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 11, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=2946
      Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


      Title: A NATIONAL TIGER ACTION PLAN FOR THE UNION OF MYANMAR
      Date of publication: May 2003
      Description/subject: In 1999, the Myanmar Forest Department commissioned a study to determine the current status and distribution of tigers, and formulate an updated national strategy for their future management and conservation. The document ?A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar? is the end product of a three-year program conducted jointly by the Myanmar Forest Department and the Wildlife Conservation Society with funding from the US National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and ExxonMobile?s ?Save The Tiger Fund?. The Plan details what is needed to save Myanmar?s tigers from extinction and so provides a valuable prospectus for future conservation. It will become a part of the Myanmar forest policy for recovery of the species. U Shwe Kyaw: Director-General, Forest Department, Myanmar Ministry of Forestry
      Author/creator: Antony J. Lynam Ph.D
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society & Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (3.28MB), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.wcs.org/media/file/NTAPcomplete.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


      Title: INTERIM REPORT OF BURMA'S TIGER SURVEY
      Date of publication: 27 February 2002
      Description/subject: This report, originally published in 2000, describes the first two years of the tiger survey in Burma that eventually resulted in the formulation of the National Tiger Action Plan. It contains valuable details and attachments not found in the final report of the three year study.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Windlife conservation Society & Ministry of Forestry,Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (454KB)
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2005


      Title: BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY FOR PROTECTION OF WILD ASIAN ELEPHANTS IN MYANMAR: A RESOURCE GUIDE
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: Keywords: Burmese elephants, Burma. I. THE ASIAN ELEPHANT: A. Cultural; B. Ecological and Conservation Issues; C. Conservation Measures... II. BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY: A. Need for Spiritual Approach; B. Buddhism; C. Deep Ecology; D. Wildlife (poaching); E. Forest Protection (D and E are considered the two major elephant threats)... III. DHAMMA/ECOLOGY GLOSSARY... IV. APPENDIX: DHAMMA/DEEP ECOLOGY EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES... " Dr. Henning’s resource guide, which combines Buddhist principles and Asian elephant conservation in Myanmar, is an innovative approach to Asian elephant conservation. I have never seen someone with a biological background such as Dr. Henning’s attempt this approach in such a clear, concise manner. I found the resource guide to be an excellent potential teaching tool not only for Myanmar but also for any Buddhist country in which elephant conservation is an issue. I could easily envision this guide as the first in a series of written materials that deals with such conservation issues, perhaps beyond elephants. I would think that any individuals or agencies interested in conserving Asian elephants would be interested in this guide and would want to help make it available to a wider audience."... "The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), an endangered species listed in Appendix I of CITIES, is thought to number between 34,000 to 56,000 in thirteen Asian countries. According to U Uga, there are less than 4,000 elephants in the wild in Myanmar, which has the largest population in the ASEAN countries (India has a larger population for the continent). The total Asian elephant population is less than 10 percent of its more glamorous cousin-the African elephant. The Myanmar elephant is internationally endangered and is regarded as a worldwide flagship species. Throughout their range states, the wild elephant is severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and fragmentation into small isolated groups. Many population biologists believe that nowhere in Asia is there a single wild population large enough to avoid inbreeding over the long term. ..."
      Author/creator: Daniel H. Henning PhD
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Daniel H. Henning
      Format/size: pdf (832K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


      Title: The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Parts in Myanmar.
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Asian Elephant Elephas maximus was listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) at the first Conference of the Parties (CoP1) in 1976. At the same time, the African Elephant Loxodonta africana was placed on CITES Appendix II, but with the rapid decline in wild populations during the 1970s and 1980s, was up-listed to CITES Appendix I in 1989 – thereby affecting a ban on all commercial trade of elephants, their products and derivatives. Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, acceded to CITES in 1997. It has the second largest population of wild Asian Elephants (after India) and the largest number of domesticated elephants in Asia. Myanmar has a long tradition of using domesticated elephants, thought to number as many as 6000-7000 in 1997, as working animals for the logging industry. In 1995, Myanmar banned the capture of wild elephants although some sources indicate that capture still continues. This report was produced as a component activity under the WWF initiative known as the Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategies (AREAS), to better understand the trade dynamics in Asian Elephants, ivory and elephant derivatives in Myanmar. Myanmar has a long history of ivory carving, with artisans learning several distinct techniques or styles in order to be considered an accomplished ivory carver or master. This tradition continues today, despite lower availability of ivory but as domestic use of elephant products is negligible and ivory, for the most part, is not purchased by locals, the continued production of worked ivory is believed to supply predominantly foreign market demand. Myanmar's legislation allows trade of products derived from domesticated elephants, which creates a potential loophole in which wild-caught elephants and elephant parts from Myanmar, as well as other countries, could be "laundered". Enforcement agencies are not capable of determining the actual source of elephant products, and are therefore unable to prosecute. This loophole appears to be knowingly exploited by traders. The results of the survey team's work in Myanmar showed that trade in ivory still continues, involving both domestic and imported sources. Traders openly acknowledge that ivory is being imported from India and other source countries, but the exact quantities are unknown. Myanmar's increasing popularity as a destination for visitors on business and tourist itineraries has exposed the country to a range of potential buyers for these products. Exports of worked ivory are known to be routed out of Myanmar into Thailand, and dealers reported that buyers from Japan, Taiwan, China, Italy, and Germany, in addition to Thailand, are among the biggest purchasers of ivory when visiting Myanmar. Enforcement at official border crossings between Myanmar and India, China, Thailand, Bangladesh and Lao PDR remains severely lacking, and is not believed to operate at all for the more informal border crossing points. This report makes the following recommendations to better enforce legislation in place to protect elephants and to control the trade of elephants and their parts and derivatives: 1. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia should continue to monitor the trade in Asian Elephant products in Myanmar, especially at key exit locations such as Tachilek. Information gathered during monitoring activities should be passed on to the relevant authorities. Enforcement agencies in Myanmar, as well as from neighbouring countries, should be encouraged to act upon information given to them and be encouraged to take further actions against the illegal trade. The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Products in Myanmar i 2. Implementation of national legislation needs to be reviewed and weaknesses addressed. TRAFFIC is in a good position to begin dialogue with the CITES Management Authority in Myanmar, to explore the needs of the country to improve its legislation, and enforcement thereof, relating to elephant conservation and trade in elephants and their products. 3. Authorities in India should be made aware of the fact that ivory is being smuggled out of India into Myanmar and appropriate action should be taken to address this. 4. Authorities in Thailand should be made aware of the fact that ivory continues to be smuggled into Thailand for sale. Thailand's enforcement agencies should be encouraged to increase efforts to prevent wildlife from being smuggled into Thailand from Myanmar through increased surveillance of border markets and key trans-boundary supply routes. The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Products in Myanmar."
      Author/creator: Shepherd, Chris R.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: TRAFFIC International.
      Format/size: pdf (500K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


      Title: Landmines: a New Victim
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: Elephants are becoming the latest victims of landmines planted along the war-torn Thai-Burma border.
      Author/creator: Helen Anderson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar Officially Designates World’s Largest Tiger Reserve in the Hukaung Valley
      Description/subject: "Panthera and Wildlife Conservation Society succeed in pushing historic agreement to conserve region the size of Vermont that is home to a number of endangered species " Hukaung Valley – Officials from Myanmar formally announced today that the entire Hukaung Valley would be declared a Protected Tiger Area. The declaration officially protects an area the size of Vermont and marks a major step forward in saving one of the most endangered species on the planet – the tiger – which numbers less than 3,000 in the wild.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wildlife Conversation Society
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


  • The flora of Burma/Myanmar

    • Flora of Burma/Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Myanmar
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: Major Category: Natural Resources Management Sub Category: biodiversity/protected areas conservation sector policies/programmes---BACKGROUND: Country profile; Biodiversity--- BIODIVERSITY POLICY--- BIODIVERSITY LEGISLATION: State law; International conventions--- CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS--- INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: State management; NGO and donor involvement; Private sector involvement--- INVENTORY OF PROTECTED AREAS--- CONSERVATION COVER BY PROTECTED AREAS--- AREAS OF MAJOR BIODIVERSITY SIGNIFICANCE--- TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS--- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION--- GENDER--- CROSS BOUNDARY ISSUES: Internal boundaries; International borders; Cross border trade--- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
      Author/creator: Clarke, J.E.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 - Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong ubregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I)
      Format/size: html, 23 pages
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2003


      Title: The Ferns of Burma Vol: XLVI
      Date of publication: May 1946
      Description/subject: Burma, with rainfalls in its various districts of 20 to 225 inches from June to October and with habitats from sea level up to 18,000 feet, has a very rich fern flora. The country is so located that many fern of both the China-Himalayan and the Malayan regions occur in the country. This article, originally published in the Ohio State Journal of Science in May 1946, catalogues over 400 different ferns belonging 104 genera discovered in the period up to the Second World War. The writer, Frederick Garrett Dickason, personally collected over 325 kinds of ferns in various parts of Burma which were on display in the Herbarium of Judson College in Rangoon where he taught for many years. A useful map accompanies the article.
      Author/creator: Frederik Garrett Dickason
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ohio State University and The Ohio Academy of Science
      Format/size: pdf (2.32 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/ferns.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 June 2006


      Title: Flora of Burma
      Description/subject: 65pages in category "Flora of Burma".
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildlife_of_Burma#Flora
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


    • Threats to the flora of Burma/Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: Khoe Kay: Biodiversity in Peril
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A team of Karen researchers from the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network has undertaken this study to begin documentation of the rich biodiversity of Khoe Kay, a bend in the Salween River that is part of their homeland. They also want to document and expose the severe threats faced by this stretch of the Salween, both from large dams and ongoing militarization. Using methods of their own culture, as well as those used in university research, they have found that Khoe Kay is studded with both plant and animal diversity, with 194 plant species and 200 animals identified. Forty-two of these species are considered endangered, being found in IUCN's Redlist, the CITES Appendices, or both. Thus, conservation of the area will protect many globally important resources. Endemic and unknown species are also represented, with eight endemic fish species of particular interest. Also, many of the plants and animals unknown to Western science are used by the Karen for food and medicine, providing opportunities for further research. Furthermore, several entire taxa, such as mollusks, spiders and fungi, have been treated very lightly if at all in this report, so the reader is encouraged to undertake further study with assistance from KESAN. Lying on the riverine border of Thailand and Burma, the area is relatively untrammeled. Teak trees dominate, and therefore Khoe Kay provides a window into the biodiversity of the entire region prior to industrial development. Threats from proposed large dams and militarization may seriously degrade Khoe Kay. With dams, the main concerns are greenhouse gas emissions, loss of fisheries, cumulative effects of several cascading dams, and flow changes and sedimentation. Militarization of the area is also increasing, having already resulted in the loss of one severely endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Environmental and Social Action Network
      Format/size: pdf (5.9MB - original; 4.7MB - burmalibrary version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/2008_009_24_khoekay-b.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 February 2009