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Climate Change (in preparation)

  • Climate Change - global: science (causes and effects), general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Nature Climate Change"
    Description/subject: "Understanding the Earth's changing climate, and its consequences, is a scientific challenge of enormous importance to society. Nature Climate Change is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy. Nature Climate Change publishes original research across the physical and social sciences and strives to synthesize interdisciplinary research. The journal follows the standards for high-quality science set by all Nature-branded journals and is committed to publishing top-tier original research in all areas relating to climate change through a fair and rigorous review process, access to a broad readership, high standards of copy editing and production, rapid publication and independence from academic societies and others with vested interests. In addition to publishing original research, Nature Climate Change provides a forum for discussion among leading experts through the publication of opinion, analysis and review articles. It also highlights the most important developments in the field through Research Highlights and publishes original reporting from renowned science journalists in the form of feature articles..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Nature"
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2014


    Title: "RealClimate" - Climate science from climate scientists
    Description/subject: start here... home... about... data sources... RC wiki... contributors... index.. archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "RealClimate"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2012


    Title: Climate Central
    Description/subject: Mission Statement: "Communicate the science and effects of climate change to the public and decision-makers, and inspire Americans to support action to stabilize the climate, prepare for impacts of climate change, or some combination of the two"... What We Do: "Climate Central conducts scientific research on climate change and informs the public of key findings. Our public outreach is informed by our own scientific research and that of other leading climate scientists. Our scientists publish, and our journalists report on climate science, energy, impacts such as sea level rise, climate change attribution and related topics. Climate Central is not an advocacy organization. We do not lobby, and we do not support any specific legislation, policy or bill"... How We Do It: "Climate Central scientists publish peer-reviewed research on climate science; energy; impacts such as sea level rise; climate attribution and more. Our work is not confined to scientific journals. We investigate and synthesize weather and climate data and science to equip local communities and media with the tools they need to visualize the threat of climate change and the need for practical solutions".
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Climate Central
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


    Title: Climate Change (Wikipedia)
    Description/subject: "Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as "global warming"..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 July 2014


    Title: Global warming
    Description/subject: "Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's mean surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that it is primarily caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all major industrialized nations. Climate model projections are summarized in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C (2 to 5.2 °F) for their lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C (4.3 to 11.5 °F) for their highest. The ranges of these estimates arise from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf, zip,
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


    Title: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    Description/subject: "The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. The UN General Assembly endorsed the action by WMO and UNEP in jointly establishing the IPCC. The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. Review is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective and complete assessment of current information. IPCC aims to reflect a range of views and expertise. The Secretariat coordinates all the IPCC work and liaises with Governments. It is supported by WMO and UNEP and hosted at WMO headquarters in Geneva. The IPCC is an intergovernmental body. It is open to all member countries of the United Nations (UN) and WMO. Currently 195 countries are members of the IPCC. Governments participate in the review process and the plenary Sessions, where main decisions about the IPCC work programme are taken and reports are accepted, adopted and approved. The IPCC Bureau Members, including the Chair, are also elected during the plenary Sessions. Because of its scientific and intergovernmental nature, the IPCC embodies a unique opportunity to provide rigorous and balanced scientific information to decision makers. By endorsing the IPCC reports, governments acknowledge the authority of their scientific content. The work of the organization is therefore policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policy-prescriptive."
    Language: English, Français, French, Español, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, Arabic
    Source/publisher: IPCC
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


    Title: Nature Climate Change archive
    Description/subject: "Nature Reports Climate Change was an online only publication from Nature Publishing Group, published from June 2007 through May 2010. Content from the site remains freely available and can be accessed through the Nature Climate Change archive."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Nature"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2014


    Title: Publications on "Climate change"
    Description/subject: Climate change and justice...Climate change and agriculture...Climate change and forests...Bioenergy.
    Language: English, Spanish, French, Portuguese
    Source/publisher: Misereor
    Format/size: html. pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014


    Title: Results of a Google search for "Climate Change" in "New Scientist"
    Description/subject: More than 10,000 results - summaries and full texts
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Scientist" via Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: What to Do When You're Running Out of Time
    Date of publication: 18 September 2014
    Description/subject: "Just when no one needed more lousy news, the U.N.’s weather outfit, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), issued its annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. It offered a shocking climate-change update: the concentrations of long-lasting greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) rose at a “record-shattering pace” from 2012 to 2013, including the largest increase in CO2 in 30 years -- and there was a nasty twist to this news that made it even grimmer. While such increases reflected the fact that we continue to extract and burn fossil fuels at staggering rates, something else seems to be happening as well. Both the oceans and terrestrial plant life act as carbon sinks; that is, they absorb significant amounts of the carbon dioxide we release and store it away. Unfortunately, both may be reaching limits of some sort and seem to be absorbing less. This is genuinely bad news if you’re thinking about the future warming of the planet. (As it happens, in the same period, according to the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication, parts of the American public stopped absorbing information in no less striking fashion: the number of those who believe that global warming isn’t happening rose 7% to 23%.)..."
    Author/creator: Rebecca Solnit
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tom Dispatch.com
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2014


    Title: WMO GREENHOUSE GAS BULLETIN (September 2014)
    Date of publication: 09 September 2014
    Description/subject: The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere....."...the U.N.’s weather outfit, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), issued its annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. It offered a shocking climate-change update: the concentrations of long-lasting greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) rose at a “record-shattering pace” from 2012 to 2013, including the largest increase in CO2 in 30 years -- and there was a nasty twist to this news that made it even grimmer. While such increases reflected the fact that we continue to extract and burn fossil fuels at staggering rates, something else seems to be happening as well. Both the oceans and terrestrial plant life act as carbon sinks; that is, they absorb significant amounts of the carbon dioxide we release and store it away. Unfortunately, both may be reaching limits of some sort and seem to be absorbing less. This is genuinely bad news if you’re thinking about the future warming of the planet..." (Tom Dispatch.com)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Meterological Organisation, Global Atmosphere Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2014


    Title: The Threat to Fisheries and Aquaculture from Climate Change
    Date of publication: 08 May 2014
    Description/subject: Key Messages: • Significance of fisheries and aquaculture. Fish provide essential nutrition and income to an ever-growing number of people around the world, especially where other food and employment resources are limited. Many fishers and aquaculturists are poor and ill-prepared to adapt to change, making them vulnerable to impacts on fish resources. • Nature of the climate change threat. Fisheries and aquaculture are threatened by changes in temperature and, in freshwater ecosystems, precipitation. Storms may become more frequent and extreme, imperilling habitats, stocks, infrastructure and livelihoods. • The need to adapt to climate change. Greater climate variability and ncertainty complicate the task of identifying impact pathways and areas of vulnerability, requiring research to devise and pursue coping strategies and improve the adaptability of fishers and aquaculturists. • Strategies for coping with climate change. Fish can provide opportunities to adapt to climate change by, for example, integrating aquaculture and agriculture, which can help farmers cope with drought while boosting profits and household nutrition. Fisheries management must move from seeking to maximize yield to increasing adaptive capacity.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Fish Center
    Format/size: pdf (747K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Climate%20Change%20and%20Fisheries.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


    Title: The Climate Change Scorecard
    Date of publication: 17 December 2013
    Description/subject: "Since a nuclear weapon went off over Hiroshima, we have been living with visions of global catastrophe, apocalyptic end times, and extinction that were once the sole property of religion. Since August 6, 1945, it has been possible for us to imagine how human beings, not God, could put an end to our lives on this planet. Conceptually speaking, that may be the single most striking development of our age and, to this day, it remains both terrifying and hard to take in. Nonetheless, the apocalyptic possibilities lurking in our scientific-military development stirred popular culture over the decades to a riot of world-ending possibilities. In more recent decades, a second world-ending (or at least world-as-we-know-it ending) possibility has crept into human consciousness. Until relatively recently, our burning of fossil fuels and spewing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere represented such a slow-motion approach to end times that we didn’t even notice what was happening. Only in the 1970s did the idea of global warming or climate change begin to penetrate the scientific community, as in the 1990s it edged its way into the rest of our world, and slowly into popular culture, too. Still, despite ever more powerful weather disruptions -- what the news now likes to call “extreme weather” events, including monster typhoons, hurricanes, and winter storms, wildfires, heat waves, droughts, and global temperature records -- disaster has still seemed far enough off. Despite a drumbeat of news about startling environmental changes -- massive ice melts in Arctic waters, glaciers shrinking worldwide, the Greenland ice shield beginning to melt, as well as the growing acidification of ocean waters -- none of this, not even Superstorm Sandy smashing into that iconic global capital, New York, and drowning part of its subway system, has broken through as a climate change 9/11. Not in the United States anyway. We’ve gone, that is, from no motion to slow motion to a kind of denial of motion. And yet in the scientific community, where people continue to study the effects of global warming, the tone is changing. It is, you might say, growing more apocalyptic. Just in recent weeks, a report from the National Academy of Scientists suggested that “hard-to-predict sudden changes” in the environment due to the effects of climate change might drive the planet to a “tipping point.” Beyond that, “major and rapid changes [could] occur” -- and these might be devastating, including that “wild card,” the sudden melting of parts of the vast Antarctic ice shelf, driving sea levels far higher. At the same time, the renowned climate scientist James Hansen and 17 colleagues published a hair-raising report in the journal PLoS. They suggest that the accepted target of keeping global temperature rise to two degrees Celsius is a fool’s errand. If global temperatures come anywhere near that level -- the rise so far has been less than one degree since the industrial revolution began -- it will already be too late, they claim, to avoid disastrous consequences. Consider this the background “temperature” for Dahr Jamail’s latest piece for TomDispatch, an exploration of what climate scientists just beyond the mainstream are thinking about how climate change will affect life on this planet. What, in other words, is the worst that we could possibly face in the decades to come? The answer: a nightmare scenario. So buckle your seat belt. There’s a tumultuous ride ahead..."
    Author/creator: Dahr Jamail
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tomgram
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


    Title: Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must Be Avoided
    Date of publication: November 2012
    Description/subject: A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics....."This report spells out what the world would be like if it warmed by 4 degrees Celsius, which is what scientists are nearly unanimously predicting by the end of the century, without serious policy changes. The 4°C scenarios are devastating: the inundation of coastal cities; increasing risks for food production potentially leading to higher malnutrition rates; many dry regions becoming dryer, wet regions wetter; unprecedented heat waves in many regions, especially in the tropics; substantially exacerbated water scarcity in many regions; increased frequency of high-intensity tropical cyclones; and irreversible loss of biodiversity, including coral reef systems. And most importantly, a 4°C world is so different from the current one that it comes with high uncertainty and new risks that threaten our ability to anticipate and plan for future adaptation needs. The lack of action on climate change not only risks putting prosperity out of reach of millions of people in the developing world, it threatens to roll back decades of sustainable development..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: pdf Full text, 8.1MB; Executive Summary, 2.1MB
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Turn_Down_the_Heat-Executive_Summary-en.pdf (executive summary)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: World on the Edge - How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: “We can get rid of hunger, illiteracy, disease, and poverty, and we can restore the earth’s soils, forests, and fisheries. We can build a global community where the basic needs of all people are satisfied—a world that will allow us to think of ourselves as civilized.” –Lester R. Brown..... “Lester Brown tells us how to build a more just world and save the planet . . . in a practical, straightforward way. We should all heed his advice.” —President Bill Clinton... “. . . a far-reaching thinker.” —U.S. News & World Report “The best book on the environment I’ve ever read.” —Chris Swan, Financial Times “It’s exciting . . . a masterpiece!” —Ted Turner... “[Brown’s] ability to make a complicated subject accessible to the general reader is remarkable. . . ” —Katherine Salant, Washington Post “In tackling a host of pressing issues in a single book, Plan B 2.0 makes for an eye-opening read.” —Times Higher Education Supplement... “A great blueprint for combating climate change.” —Bryan Walsh, Time... "[Brown] lays out one of the most comprehensive set of solutions you can find in one place.” —Joseph Romm, Climate Progress... “. . . a highly readable and authoritative account of the problems we face from global warming to shrinking water resources, fisheries, forests, etc. The picture is very frightening. But the book also provides a way forward.” —Clare Short, British Member of Parliament...
    Author/creator: Lester Brown
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EARTH POLICY INSTITUTE
    Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 1.68MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earth-policy.org/images/uploads/book_files/wotebook.pdf
    http://www.earth-policy.org/books/wote
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2012


    Title: As Effects of Warming Grow, UN Report is Quickly Dated
    Date of publication: 09 February 2009
    Description/subject: Issued less than two years ago, the report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was a voluminous and impressive document. Yet key portions of the report are already out of date, as evidence shows the impacts of warming intensifying from the Arctic to Antarctica. by michael d. lemonick
    Author/creator: Michael D. Lemonick
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Environment 360
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


  • Climate Change - global: policy

    • Climate Change - global: policy (statements, studies, conferences etc.)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: UN Climate Change conferences
      Description/subject: Papers from UN Climate Change conferences from 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Third World Network
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 March 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: There will be no going back from climate chaos if we don’t halt polluting corporations and change the system
      Date of publication: June 2014
      Description/subject: "Climate change negotiations are being dominated by irresponsible states, polluters and corporations that only care about current operations and the furtherance of profits through more fossil fuel exploitation and in new carbon markets which are destroying forests, soil, wetlands, rivers, mangroves and oceans, and financializing and privatizing ecosystems and nature itself on which our lives depend..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Focus on the Global South
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


      Title: International Energy Outlook 2013 - With Projections to 2040
      Date of publication: 25 July 2013
      Description/subject: The International Energy Outlook 2013 (IEO2013) projects that world energy consumption will grow by 56 percent between 2010 and 2040. Total world energy use rises from 524 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 2010 to 630 quadrillion Btu in 2020 and to 820 quadrillion Btu in 2040 (Figure 1). Much of the growth in energy consumption occurs in countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),2 known as non-OECD, where demand is driven by strong, long-term economic growth. Energy use in non-OECD countries increases by 90 percent; in OECD countries, the increase is 17 percent. The IEO2013 Reference case does not incorporate prospective legislation or policies that might affect energy markets
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Energy Infoirmation Administration (EIA)
      Format/size: pdf (20MB), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2013).pdf
      http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/175745/tomgram%3A_michael_t._klare%2C_2040_or_bust/#more
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2013


      Title: World on the Edge - How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse
      Date of publication: 2011
      Description/subject: “We can get rid of hunger, illiteracy, disease, and poverty, and we can restore the earth’s soils, forests, and fisheries. We can build a global community where the basic needs of all people are satisfied—a world that will allow us to think of ourselves as civilized.” –Lester R. Brown..... “Lester Brown tells us how to build a more just world and save the planet . . . in a practical, straightforward way. We should all heed his advice.” —President Bill Clinton... “. . . a far-reaching thinker.” —U.S. News & World Report “The best book on the environment I’ve ever read.” —Chris Swan, Financial Times “It’s exciting . . . a masterpiece!” —Ted Turner... “[Brown’s] ability to make a complicated subject accessible to the general reader is remarkable. . . ” —Katherine Salant, Washington Post “In tackling a host of pressing issues in a single book, Plan B 2.0 makes for an eye-opening read.” —Times Higher Education Supplement... “A great blueprint for combating climate change.” —Bryan Walsh, Time... "[Brown] lays out one of the most comprehensive set of solutions you can find in one place.” —Joseph Romm, Climate Progress... “. . . a highly readable and authoritative account of the problems we face from global warming to shrinking water resources, fisheries, forests, etc. The picture is very frightening. But the book also provides a way forward.” —Clare Short, British Member of Parliament...
      Author/creator: Lester Brown
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EARTH POLICY INSTITUTE
      Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 1.68MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earth-policy.org/images/uploads/book_files/wotebook.pdf
      http://www.earth-policy.org/books/wote
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2012


      Title: World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: Categories: Announcement... Int'l Actions & Events... News... Newsletter... UN climate change negotiations... Uncategorized; Working Groups: 01. Structural causes; 02. Harmony with Nature; 03. Mother Earth Rights; 04. Referendum; 05. Climate Justice Tribunal; 06. Climate Migrants; 07. Indigenous Peoples; 08. Climate Debt; 09. Shared Vision; 10. Kyoto Protocol; 11. Adaptation; 12. Financing; 13. Technology Transfer; 14. Forest; 15. Dangers of Carbon Market; 16. Action Strategies; 17. Agriculture and food sovereignty.
      Language: English (Español)
      Source/publisher: World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


      Title: Suffering the Science - Climate change, people, and poverty
      Date of publication: 06 July 2009
      Description/subject: "Climate change is damaging people’s lives today. Even if world leaders agree the strictest possible curbs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the prospects are very bleak for hundreds of millions of people, most of them among the world’s poorest. This paper puts the dramatic stories of some of those people alongside the latest science on the impacts of climate change on humans. Together they explain why climate change is fundamentally a development crisis. The world must act immediately and decisively to address this, the greatest peril to humanity this century...As this paper was being prepared in late May 2009, Cyclone Aila hit Bangladesh and East India. The headline news was of deaths (more than 200, including many children), of 750,000 people made homeless, of landslides, floods, water contamination, threat of disease, the devastation of food crops and livelihoods – of 3.6 million people ‘affected’. The Satkhira district in Bangladesh was hit hard. Just weeks before Aila, Oxfam held the first of its international Climate Hearings in villages there. More than 12,000 people gave their personal experiences of climate change, many saying that the sea level was rising, the tides were higher, and salt water was steadily encroaching on their land. When it hit, Aila coincided with yet another unusually high tide and storm waters breached the embankments. Before Aila, at the hearings, Baburam Mondal described how the encroachment of salt water had wiped out his mangoes and coconuts. Ashoke Kumar Mondal said he had lost his livestock and poultry because of extreme weather. Mahmuda Parvin hadn’t been able to grow vegetables for the past two seasons. After Cyclone Aila hit, Oxfam staff in Satkhira found Baburam rummaging for his belongings in the mud, having lost his home. Mahmuda Parvin’s home was swept away too. We found Mahmuda living on a highway, searching for food and water..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OXFAM
      Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp130-suffering-the-science-arabic-version.pdf (Arabic)
      http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp130-suffering-science-summary-ch.pdf (Chinese summary)
      http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp130-suffering-the-science.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


    • Adaptation

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Adaptation to global warming
      Description/subject: "Adaptation to global warming and climate change is a response to climate change that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of biological systems to climate change effects. Even if emissions are stabilized relatively soon, climate change and its effects will last many years, and adaptation will be necessary. Climate change adaptation is especially important in developing countries since those countries are predicted to bear the brunt of the effects of climate change. That is, the capacity and potential for humans to adapt (called adaptive capacity) is unevenly distributed across different regions and populations, and developing countries generally have less capacity to adapt (Schneider et al., 2007). Adaptive capacity is closely linked to social and economic development (IPCC, 2007). The economic costs of adaptation to climate change are likely to cost billions of dollars annually for the next several decades, though the amount of money needed is unknown. Adaptation will be more difficult for larger magnitudes and higher rates of climate change. A physiological limit to adaptation is that humans cannot survive wet-bulb temperatures of above 35 degrees Celsius. This limit will be exceeded in several densely populated areas such as Eastern USA, India and the Middle East as warming reaches 7 degrees C. Other animals will have other physiological limits..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


    • Mitigation

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Climate change mitigation
      Description/subject: "Climate change mitigation is action to decrease the intensity of radiative forcing in order to reduce the effects of global warming. In contrast, adaptation to global warming involves acting to tolerate the effects of global warming. Most often, climate change mitigation scenarios involve reductions in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, either by reducing their sources or by increasing their sinks. The UN defines mitigation in the context of climate change, as a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Examples include using fossil fuels more efficiently for industrial processes or electricity generation, switching to renewable energy (solar energy or wind power), improving the insulation of buildings, and expanding forests and other "sinks" to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The IAEA, an international organization using the UN flag and reporting to the UN, asserts that nuclear power belongs to the set of options available to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the power sector..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


  • Climate Change - Asia-Pacific region

    • Adaptation

      • Policies

        Individual Documents

        Title: Climate Change and Rural Communities in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Options
        Date of publication: May 2014
        Description/subject: Description: This report presents the methodology and lessons learned from a climate change adaptation study conducted under the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Core Environment Program. The study yielded a framework and methodology for assessing climate vulnerability and adaptation options for rural communities in the GMS. It was conducted in biodiversity conservation corridors in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam during 2011–2012. The report introduces the framework, describes how it was applied, presents major results, and makes recommendations for future improvement... Recommendations: This study contributes to building understanding of the risks that Greater Mekong Subregion rural communities face with changing climatic conditions and of appropriate adaptation options. Lessons from this study can inform future research. The following eight recommendations suggest ways in which the study approach and methodology can be improved and scaled up. * Strengthen socioeconomic analyses * Apply multiple climate scenarios * Integrate community-based adaptation and ecosystem-based adaptation approaches * Improve participatory approaches * Integrate site specific crop model simulations where possible * Integrate an economic analysis * Analyze the broader policy and planning environment * Upscale to regional studies... Contents: Executive Summary; Introduction; Agriculture, Rural Communities, and Climate Change in the GMS Study Sites; Framework for Assessing Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Rural Communities; Synthesis of Study Results; Recommendations; Next Steps; Appendixes.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/climate-change-rural-communities-gms-framework-assessing-vulnerability-adaptation?ref=countries/myanmar/publications
        Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


        Title: Towards Developing the Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape
        Date of publication: 23 December 2011
        Description/subject: Report on the Experts Regional Consultation for Transboundary Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Adaptation.....Foreword: "The Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape (BSL) is a biodiversity-rich transboundary landscape that stretches across China, India, and Myanmar in the eastern Himalayas. Located at the confluence of Indo-Malayan, Palaeoarctic, and Sino-Japanese realms, this landscape harbours a rich mixture of floral and faunal elements from the three bio- geographic regions and thus has a high degree of endemism. The landscape hosts several well-known protected areas such as Namdapha National Park and Tiger Reserve (Arunachal Pradesh, India), Hkakabo Razi National Park (Kachin State, Myanmar), and Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China) that share the contiguous habitat of several plant and animal species of global conservation significance. Besides harbouring an extremely rich biodiversity, this landscape is home to diverse ethnic communities with unique socio-cultural traditions. However, there are numerous environmental and socioeconomic discrepancies impacting the existence of both the region’s biodiversity and its people. Striking a balance between traditional resource use patterns, globalization, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation in the region is the challenge at hand. While there are global policy instruments such as the CBD to guide national biodiversity strategies and action plans, it is imperative for the countries in the region to join hands and combine individual efforts, resources, expertise, and knowledge to produce a regional outcome for the shared landscape. Landscape complexes, like the BSL and several others across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, should be viewed as platforms to instigate cumulative regional action towards the long-term sustainability of entire landscapes and the environmental and socioeconomic elements within them. In addition, the BSL even creates an opportunity to establish strategic landscape connectivity between the HKH and the Greater Mekong region further east. The regional Experience-Sharing Consultation on the Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Conservation and Management in the Eastern Himalayas, held in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, in 2009, laid the groundwork for a dialogue on a regional conservation initiative for the BSL. The second consultation on the BSL organized in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 21-23 December 2011 again brought together ICIMOD and partner institutions from the three member countries to reflect on the outcomes of the consultation in Tengchong and to work out a framework for future programmatic action. The consultation was successful in producing a draft framework to define the long-term vision, goals, objectives, and a strategic action plan to facilitate both national and regional biodiversity management in the BSL. The strategic framework is intended to build the capacity of national institutions and individuals for research and knowledge development and for knowledge sharing as well as for designing management interventions on the ground to help communities enhance their socioeconomic resilience to climate change and other drivers of change."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development)
        Format/size: pdf (858K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


    • Ownership and Benefit sharing of carbon finances

      • Policies, Manuals, Studies

        Individual Documents

        Title: Forests and climate change after Durban - An Asia-Pacific perspective
        Date of publication: April 2012
        Description/subject: "...Over the past two years, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests have brought together regional experts to reflect on the outcomes of the 15th and 16th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The resulting booklets Forests and Climate Change After Copenhagen: An Asia-Pacific Perspective and Forests and Climate Change After Cancun: An Asia-Pacific Perspective were distributed widely and very well received. In February 2012, RECOFTC, FAO, and CoDe REDD, with support from GIZ-BMU, REDD-net, NORAD, ASFN, and SDC, brought together 13 climate change and forestry experts in Quezon City, Philippines, to discuss the implications on the forestry sector in the Asia-Pacific region of decisions taken at COP 17, held in Durban, South Africa, in November and December 2011. This booklet summarizes their responses to a set of 13 key questions raised at the workshop..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests; FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; CoDe REDD Philippines
        Format/size: pdf (1.56MB)
        Date of entry/update: 19 June 2012


  • Climate Change - Burma/Myanmar

    • Climate Change - Burma/Myanmar: Description and policy

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar - Climate Change
      Description/subject: Thematic profiles and systems: AQUASTAT country profile - The AQUASTAT country profiles describe the state of water resources and agricultural water use in the respective country. Special attention is given to the water resource, irrigation, and drainage sub-sectors... FAO-GeoNetwork - FAO-GeoNetwork is a web based Geographic Data and Information Management System. It enables easy access to local and distributed geospatial information catalogues and makes available, data, graphics and documents for immediate download. FAO-GeoNetwork holds approximately 5000 standardized metadata records for digital and paper maps, most of them at the global, continent and national level... Reports and statistical data: AQUASTAT country fact sheet - AQUASTAT Long-term average annual renewable water resources by country - Forest area statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles Forest health statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles Growing stock statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


      Title: Myanmar Climate Change Watch
      Description/subject: An apocalyptic series of earthquakes, cyclones, tsunamis and floods in the region has spooked everyone. Many people have turned to soothsayers and astrologers for advice about any impending natural disasters. But rather than consult the Mayan calender or a fortune-teller, The Irrawaddy reporter Min Naing Thu interviewed Dr Tun Lwin, the former director-general of Burma's Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH). Since his resignation from the DMH in 2009, Tun Lwin has served as a technical adviser to the Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. He also served as a consultant to the Myanmar Red Cross Society, CARE Myanmar, Action Aid Myanmar and Myanmar Egress's Network Activities Group. He has also been involved with the International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Myanmar Egress, World Vision Myanmar, Global Green and other organizations, focusing primarily on climate change and how to minimize damage caused by natural disasters. Tun Lwin posts many of his articles concerning meteorological issues on his website, Myanmar Climate Change Watch.
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Climate Change Watch
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tunlwin.com/index.php?english
      Date of entry/update: 26 March 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Emissions Reduction Profile: Myanmar
      Date of publication: June 2013
      Description/subject: Economy, Growth and Emissions: "Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar, is the second largest country by geographical area in Southeast Asia. Burma's diverse population has played a major role in defining its politics, history, and demographics in modern times. The military has dominated government since General Ne Win led a coup in 1962 that toppled the civilian government of U Nu. Burma remains under the tight control of the military-led State Peace and Development Council. Burma is a resource-rich country. During World War II, the British destroyed the major oil wells, and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese. Under British administration, Burma was the second wealthiest country in Southeast Asia. It was the world's largest exporter of rice, and also had a wealth of natural and labour resources. It produced 75% of the world's teak, and had a highly literate population. However, since the reformations of 1962, the Burmese economy has become one of the least developed in the world--suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. Now, the lack of an educated workforce contributes to the growing problems of the economy. Burma lacks adequate infrastructure. Energy shortages are common throughout the country, including in Yangon. Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. Highways are typically unpaved, except in the major cities. Burma’s GDP stands at $42.953 billion and now grows at an average rate of 2.9% annually.TheEU, United States and Canada, among others, have imposed economic sanctions on Burma. Burma is among the least emitting countries in the world, with 0.3 tCO2e per capita per year, and total annual GHG emissions of 12 million tCO2--excluding any methane emissions from agriculture, which has not been estimated (World Bank). In the WRI assessment, however, Myanmar has been attributed annual GHG emissions of 265 million tCO2e/year2, including all greenhouse gasses. This indicated significant emissions from agriculture. The growth in economy and emissions can be seen in the graphs below."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNEP RISØ
      Format/size: pdf (1M)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


      Title: Burma’s Global Warming Activists Turn Up the Heat on Govt
      Date of publication: 06 May 2013
      Description/subject: "RANGOON—As a water shortage hits several townships in Burma’s commercial capital and farmers nationwide anxiously await the upcoming rainy season, environmentalists are calling for more government support in the fight against climate change in this country of 60 million people. While Burma’s nominally civilian government has earned international praise for its program of political and economic reforms after decades of military rule, environmentalists say climate change is a pressing issue that has been pushed to the back burner for too long by the nation’s leaders. “The new government is trying to solve poverty and civil war, but unfortunately climate change has never been well acknowledged by our decision-makers,” meteorologist Dr. Tun Lwin said on Saturday in Rangoon at roundtable discussion about global warming in Burma, as temperatures in the country’s biggest city soared to 38 degrees Celsius..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Phyo Tha
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2013


      Title: Global Climate Risk Index 2013
      Date of publication: November 2012
      Description/subject: Summary: "The Global Climate Risk Index 2013 analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.). The most recent available data from 2011 as well as for the period 1992-2011 were taken into ac- count. Most affected countries in 2011 were Thailand, Cambodia, Pakistan, El Salvador and the Philippines. For the period 1992 to 2011, Honduras, Myanmar and Nicaragua rank highest. This year's 8th edition of the an alysis reconfirms that less developed countries are generally more affected than industrialis ed countries, according to the Climate Risk Index. With re- gard to future climate change, the Climate Ri sk Index can serve as a warning signal indicat- ing past vulnerability which may further increase in regions where extreme events will be- come more frequent or more severe through climate change. While some vulnerable devel- oping countries are frequently hit by extreme ev ents, there are also some where such disas- ters are a rarity..."
      Author/creator: Sven Harmeling and David Eckstein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Germanwatch
      Format/size: pdf (570K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 May 2013


      Title: The Man Who Foresees Storms
      Date of publication: 28 March 2011
      Description/subject: "An apocalyptic series of earthquakes, cyclones, tsunamis and floods in the region has spooked everyone. Many people have turned to soothsayers and astrologers for advice about any impending natural disasters. But rather than consult the Mayan calender or a fortune-teller, The Irrawaddy reporter Min Naing Thu interviewed Dr Tun Lwin, the former director-general of Burma's Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH). Since his resignation from the DMH in 2009, Tun Lwin has served as a technical adviser to the Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. He also served as a consultant to the Myanmar Red Cross Society, CARE Myanmar, Action Aid Myanmar and Myanmar Egress's Network Activities Group. He has also been involved with the International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Myanmar Egress, World Vision Myanmar, Global Green and other organizations, focusing primarily on climate change and how to minimize damage caused by natural disasters. Tun Lwin posts many of his articles concerning meteorological issues on his website, Myanmar Climate Change Watch..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 March 2011


      Title: COUNTRY REPORT ON SUSTAINABLE BUILDING POLICIES ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN MYANMAR
      Date of publication: 2011
      Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: Myanmar Overview; Resources...SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK: National Plans; National Organisations...POLICY INSTRUMENTS IN MYANMAR: Overview of Policy Instruments; Policies and Initiatives; Building Rating System...BEST PRACTICE...APPENDIX 1: WEBSITE LINKS OF THE KEY NATIONAL PLANS AND ORGANISATIONS IN MYANMAR.., APPENDIX 2: WEBSITE LINKS OF THE KEY SUSTAINABLE BUILDING POLICIES AND INITIATIVES UNDER THE FOUR CATEGORIES IN MYANMAR
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
      Format/size: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs18/Energy%20efficiency%202011%20study%20UNEP.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


      Title: Burma taking severe hit from climate change: watchdog
      Date of publication: 09 December 2009
      Description/subject: Burma is one of the countries worst affected by extreme weather resulting from climate change, according to a new report that assesses the impact of global warming over a period of nearly two decades. Published by the Berlin-based climate watchdog Germanwatch on Tuesday, the report, the Global Climate Risk Index, says that Bangladesh, Burma and Honduras were the countries most affected by extreme weather events from 1990 to 2008. The report was launched in the Danish capital of Copenhagen, where the United Nations Climate Change Conference is underway.
      Author/creator: Wai Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17376
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


    • Burma/Myanmar reports to international bodies and mechanisms

      Individual Documents

      Title: Statement delivered by Dr. Hrin Nei Thiam, Head of Delegation of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, at the COP 19 in Warsaw Poland
      Date of publication: 22 November 2013
      Author/creator: Dr. Hrin Nei Thiam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations/UNFCC
      Format/size: pdf (95K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cop19.gov.pl/
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


      Title: Myanmar's Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
      Date of publication: 2012
      Description/subject: CHAPTER HEADINGS: National Circumstances...National Development... National Greenhouse Gas Inventory...Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment...Mitigation Options Assessment and Strategies...Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies...Research and Systematic Observation...Education, Training and Public Awareness on Climate...Integration of Climate Change Concerns into Development Plans and Programmes...Information and Networking...Capacity Building...Other Information Considered Relevant to the Achievement of the Objective...Constraints and Gaps, and Related Financial, Technical and Capacity Needs...Conclusions and Recommendation.....ANNEXES:- AnnexI: Abatement Project Profiles on GHG Mitigation and Adaptation in Myanmar... AnnexII: Report on Research on ENSO Impact on Climate Fluctuation and Frequency of Extreme Climate Anomalies in the Region and in Myanmar... Annex III: Estimation of CH4 Emission fromRice Cultivation in Myanmar - Field Survey Research Paper... Annex IV: Draft National Climate Change Policy, Strategies and Actions... Annex V: EST Database on Emission Reduction Projects..... FROM THE CONCLUSIONS: "...To reduce the vulnerability to the possible climate change impacts, policies, legislations and other supporting tools are to be developed collectively. It will help identify andimplement adaptation strategies, ensuring the continued progress of Myanmar towards a peacefulmodern developed country. In this context, institutional strengthening,technology innovation and transfer, provision of advanced tools and equipment, enabling condition with adequate funds and collaboration with relevant institutions and agencies at the national, regional and international levels are indispensable.".....TABLES.....FIGURES...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
      Format/size: pdf (12MB) - 313 pages
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


    • Adaptation

      • Policies

        Individual Documents

        Title: Market Mechanisms Country Fact Sheet: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 May 2014
        Description/subject: National Climate Change...Market Mechanisms Instruments
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations and Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (160K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


        Title: Myanmar’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change
        Date of publication: 2012
        Description/subject: "Myanmar’s climate is changing and climate variability already affects communities and socioeconomic sectors in the country. Some climate change impacts are already observable and there is broad scientific consensus that further change will occur. Even with significant global climate mitigation (activities and technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions), economic sectors, local communities and natural ecosystems in Myanmar will be strongly affected by climate change as a result of the emissions already in the atmosphere. Adaptation is therefore necessary for reducing Myanmar’s vulnerability to climate variability and change. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) serve as simplified, rapid and direct channels for Least Developed Countries to identify and communicate priority activities to address their urgent and immediate adaptation needs. NAPAs emerged from the multilateral discussions on adaptation measures within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)1,2. Myanmar’s NAPA therefore specifies 32 priority activities (referred to as Priority Adaptation Projects) for effective climate change adaptation for eight main sectors/themes (i.e. four Project Options per sector/theme), namely: i) Agriculture; ii) Early Warning Systems; iii) Forest; iv) Public Health; v) Water Resources; vi) Coastal Zone; vii) Energy, and Industry; and viii) Biodiversity(Table 1)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NAPA (National Adaptation Programme of Action)
        Format/size: pdf (3.8M)
        Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


        Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan - Myanmar (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
        Date of publication: 2011
        Description/subject: "Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity..."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (3.1MB-reduced version; 11.5MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nbsap-01-my.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


        Title: Current Status of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
        Date of publication: 2009
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Forestry
        Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 17 June 2014


    • Mitigation

      • Policies and projects

        Individual Documents

        Title: The role of Community Forests in REDD+ implementation; Cases of Thailand and Myanmar
        Date of publication: 27 April 2014
        Description/subject: Overview: • Definition of CF and its significance to REDD+ objectives • CF in Thailand and Myanmar - Background &Characteristics - Existing challenges • Connecting CF and REDD+ • REDD+ progresses in Thailand and Myanmar • Risks and Opportunities to CF
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ratchada Arpornsilp and ZawWin Myint
        Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
        Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014