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Climate Change - Burma/Myanmar

  • Climate Change - Burma/Myanmar: Description and policy

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar - Climate Change
    Description/subject: Thematic profiles and systems: AQUASTAT country profile - The AQUASTAT country profiles describe the state of water resources and agricultural water use in the respective country. Special attention is given to the water resource, irrigation, and drainage sub-sectors... FAO-GeoNetwork - FAO-GeoNetwork is a web based Geographic Data and Information Management System. It enables easy access to local and distributed geospatial information catalogues and makes available, data, graphics and documents for immediate download. FAO-GeoNetwork holds approximately 5000 standardized metadata records for digital and paper maps, most of them at the global, continent and national level... Reports and statistical data: AQUASTAT country fact sheet - AQUASTAT Long-term average annual renewable water resources by country - Forest area statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles Forest health statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles Growing stock statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


    Title: Myanmar Climate Change Watch
    Description/subject: An apocalyptic series of earthquakes, cyclones, tsunamis and floods in the region has spooked everyone. Many people have turned to soothsayers and astrologers for advice about any impending natural disasters. But rather than consult the Mayan calender or a fortune-teller, The Irrawaddy reporter Min Naing Thu interviewed Dr Tun Lwin, the former director-general of Burma's Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH). Since his resignation from the DMH in 2009, Tun Lwin has served as a technical adviser to the Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. He also served as a consultant to the Myanmar Red Cross Society, CARE Myanmar, Action Aid Myanmar and Myanmar Egress's Network Activities Group. He has also been involved with the International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Myanmar Egress, World Vision Myanmar, Global Green and other organizations, focusing primarily on climate change and how to minimize damage caused by natural disasters. Tun Lwin posts many of his articles concerning meteorological issues on his website, Myanmar Climate Change Watch.
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Climate Change Watch
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tunlwin.com/index.php?english
    Date of entry/update: 26 March 2011


    Individual Documents

    Title: Emissions Reduction Profile: Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 2013
    Description/subject: Economy, Growth and Emissions: "Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar, is the second largest country by geographical area in Southeast Asia. Burma's diverse population has played a major role in defining its politics, history, and demographics in modern times. The military has dominated government since General Ne Win led a coup in 1962 that toppled the civilian government of U Nu. Burma remains under the tight control of the military-led State Peace and Development Council. Burma is a resource-rich country. During World War II, the British destroyed the major oil wells, and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese. Under British administration, Burma was the second wealthiest country in Southeast Asia. It was the world's largest exporter of rice, and also had a wealth of natural and labour resources. It produced 75% of the world's teak, and had a highly literate population. However, since the reformations of 1962, the Burmese economy has become one of the least developed in the world--suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. Now, the lack of an educated workforce contributes to the growing problems of the economy. Burma lacks adequate infrastructure. Energy shortages are common throughout the country, including in Yangon. Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. Highways are typically unpaved, except in the major cities. Burma’s GDP stands at $42.953 billion and now grows at an average rate of 2.9% annually.TheEU, United States and Canada, among others, have imposed economic sanctions on Burma. Burma is among the least emitting countries in the world, with 0.3 tCO2e per capita per year, and total annual GHG emissions of 12 million tCO2--excluding any methane emissions from agriculture, which has not been estimated (World Bank). In the WRI assessment, however, Myanmar has been attributed annual GHG emissions of 265 million tCO2e/year2, including all greenhouse gasses. This indicated significant emissions from agriculture. The growth in economy and emissions can be seen in the graphs below."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNEP RISØ
    Format/size: pdf (1M)
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


    Title: Burma’s Global Warming Activists Turn Up the Heat on Govt
    Date of publication: 06 May 2013
    Description/subject: "RANGOON—As a water shortage hits several townships in Burma’s commercial capital and farmers nationwide anxiously await the upcoming rainy season, environmentalists are calling for more government support in the fight against climate change in this country of 60 million people. While Burma’s nominally civilian government has earned international praise for its program of political and economic reforms after decades of military rule, environmentalists say climate change is a pressing issue that has been pushed to the back burner for too long by the nation’s leaders. “The new government is trying to solve poverty and civil war, but unfortunately climate change has never been well acknowledged by our decision-makers,” meteorologist Dr. Tun Lwin said on Saturday in Rangoon at roundtable discussion about global warming in Burma, as temperatures in the country’s biggest city soared to 38 degrees Celsius..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Phyo Tha
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2013


    Title: Global Climate Risk Index 2013
    Date of publication: November 2012
    Description/subject: Summary: "The Global Climate Risk Index 2013 analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.). The most recent available data from 2011 as well as for the period 1992-2011 were taken into ac- count. Most affected countries in 2011 were Thailand, Cambodia, Pakistan, El Salvador and the Philippines. For the period 1992 to 2011, Honduras, Myanmar and Nicaragua rank highest. This year's 8th edition of the an alysis reconfirms that less developed countries are generally more affected than industrialis ed countries, according to the Climate Risk Index. With re- gard to future climate change, the Climate Ri sk Index can serve as a warning signal indicat- ing past vulnerability which may further increase in regions where extreme events will be- come more frequent or more severe through climate change. While some vulnerable devel- oping countries are frequently hit by extreme ev ents, there are also some where such disas- ters are a rarity..."
    Author/creator: Sven Harmeling and David Eckstein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Germanwatch
    Format/size: pdf (570K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 May 2013


    Title: The Man Who Foresees Storms
    Date of publication: 28 March 2011
    Description/subject: "An apocalyptic series of earthquakes, cyclones, tsunamis and floods in the region has spooked everyone. Many people have turned to soothsayers and astrologers for advice about any impending natural disasters. But rather than consult the Mayan calender or a fortune-teller, The Irrawaddy reporter Min Naing Thu interviewed Dr Tun Lwin, the former director-general of Burma's Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH). Since his resignation from the DMH in 2009, Tun Lwin has served as a technical adviser to the Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. He also served as a consultant to the Myanmar Red Cross Society, CARE Myanmar, Action Aid Myanmar and Myanmar Egress's Network Activities Group. He has also been involved with the International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Myanmar Egress, World Vision Myanmar, Global Green and other organizations, focusing primarily on climate change and how to minimize damage caused by natural disasters. Tun Lwin posts many of his articles concerning meteorological issues on his website, Myanmar Climate Change Watch..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 March 2011


    Title: COUNTRY REPORT ON SUSTAINABLE BUILDING POLICIES ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: Myanmar Overview; Resources...SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK: National Plans; National Organisations...POLICY INSTRUMENTS IN MYANMAR: Overview of Policy Instruments; Policies and Initiatives; Building Rating System...BEST PRACTICE...APPENDIX 1: WEBSITE LINKS OF THE KEY NATIONAL PLANS AND ORGANISATIONS IN MYANMAR.., APPENDIX 2: WEBSITE LINKS OF THE KEY SUSTAINABLE BUILDING POLICIES AND INITIATIVES UNDER THE FOUR CATEGORIES IN MYANMAR
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
    Format/size: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs18/Energy%20efficiency%202011%20study%20UNEP.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


    Title: Burma taking severe hit from climate change: watchdog
    Date of publication: 09 December 2009
    Description/subject: Burma is one of the countries worst affected by extreme weather resulting from climate change, according to a new report that assesses the impact of global warming over a period of nearly two decades. Published by the Berlin-based climate watchdog Germanwatch on Tuesday, the report, the Global Climate Risk Index, says that Bangladesh, Burma and Honduras were the countries most affected by extreme weather events from 1990 to 2008. The report was launched in the Danish capital of Copenhagen, where the United Nations Climate Change Conference is underway.
    Author/creator: Wai Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17376
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


  • Burma/Myanmar reports to international bodies and mechanisms

    Individual Documents

    Title: Statement delivered by Dr. Hrin Nei Thiam, Head of Delegation of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, at the COP 19 in Warsaw Poland
    Date of publication: 22 November 2013
    Author/creator: Dr. Hrin Nei Thiam
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations/UNFCC
    Format/size: pdf (95K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cop19.gov.pl/
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


    Title: Myanmar's Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
    Date of publication: 2012
    Description/subject: CHAPTER HEADINGS: National Circumstances...National Development... National Greenhouse Gas Inventory...Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment...Mitigation Options Assessment and Strategies...Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies...Research and Systematic Observation...Education, Training and Public Awareness on Climate...Integration of Climate Change Concerns into Development Plans and Programmes...Information and Networking...Capacity Building...Other Information Considered Relevant to the Achievement of the Objective...Constraints and Gaps, and Related Financial, Technical and Capacity Needs...Conclusions and Recommendation.....ANNEXES:- AnnexI: Abatement Project Profiles on GHG Mitigation and Adaptation in Myanmar... AnnexII: Report on Research on ENSO Impact on Climate Fluctuation and Frequency of Extreme Climate Anomalies in the Region and in Myanmar... Annex III: Estimation of CH4 Emission fromRice Cultivation in Myanmar - Field Survey Research Paper... Annex IV: Draft National Climate Change Policy, Strategies and Actions... Annex V: EST Database on Emission Reduction Projects..... FROM THE CONCLUSIONS: "...To reduce the vulnerability to the possible climate change impacts, policies, legislations and other supporting tools are to be developed collectively. It will help identify andimplement adaptation strategies, ensuring the continued progress of Myanmar towards a peacefulmodern developed country. In this context, institutional strengthening,technology innovation and transfer, provision of advanced tools and equipment, enabling condition with adequate funds and collaboration with relevant institutions and agencies at the national, regional and international levels are indispensable.".....TABLES.....FIGURES...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
    Format/size: pdf (12MB) - 313 pages
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


  • Adaptation

    • Policies

      Individual Documents

      Title: Market Mechanisms Country Fact Sheet: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 08 May 2014
      Description/subject: National Climate Change...Market Mechanisms Instruments
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations and Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (160K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


      Title: Myanmar’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change
      Date of publication: 2012
      Description/subject: "Myanmar’s climate is changing and climate variability already affects communities and socioeconomic sectors in the country. Some climate change impacts are already observable and there is broad scientific consensus that further change will occur. Even with significant global climate mitigation (activities and technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions), economic sectors, local communities and natural ecosystems in Myanmar will be strongly affected by climate change as a result of the emissions already in the atmosphere. Adaptation is therefore necessary for reducing Myanmar’s vulnerability to climate variability and change. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) serve as simplified, rapid and direct channels for Least Developed Countries to identify and communicate priority activities to address their urgent and immediate adaptation needs. NAPAs emerged from the multilateral discussions on adaptation measures within the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)1,2. Myanmar’s NAPA therefore specifies 32 priority activities (referred to as Priority Adaptation Projects) for effective climate change adaptation for eight main sectors/themes (i.e. four Project Options per sector/theme), namely: i) Agriculture; ii) Early Warning Systems; iii) Forest; iv) Public Health; v) Water Resources; vi) Coastal Zone; vii) Energy, and Industry; and viii) Biodiversity(Table 1)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NAPA (National Adaptation Programme of Action)
      Format/size: pdf (3.8M)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014


      Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan - Myanmar (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 2011
      Description/subject: "Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity..."
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (3.1MB-reduced version; 11.5MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nbsap-01-my.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


      Title: Current Status of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
      Date of publication: 2009
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Forestry
      Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 June 2014


  • Mitigation

    • Policies and projects

      Individual Documents

      Title: The role of Community Forests in REDD+ implementation; Cases of Thailand and Myanmar
      Date of publication: 27 April 2014
      Description/subject: Overview: • Definition of CF and its significance to REDD+ objectives • CF in Thailand and Myanmar - Background &Characteristics - Existing challenges • Connecting CF and REDD+ • REDD+ progresses in Thailand and Myanmar • Risks and Opportunities to CF
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ratchada Arpornsilp and ZawWin Myint
      Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014