VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Water, including dams > Water bodies (global. regional) > Human activities on/in water-bodies > Dams and other hydropower projects (global, regional)

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Dams and other hydropower projects (global, regional)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: International Rivers
Description/subject: Formerly International Rivers Network (IRN)..."International Rivers' mission is to protect rivers and defend the rights of communities that depend on them. We oppose destructive dams and the development model they advance, and encourage better ways of meeting people’s needs for water, energy and protection from damaging floods. To achieve this mission, we collaborate with a global network of local communities, social movements, non-governmental organizations and other partners. Through research, education and advocacy, International Rivers works to halt destructive river infrastructure projects, address the legacies of existing projects, improve development policies and practices, and promote water and energy solutions for a just and sustainable world. The primary focus of our work is in the global South..."...Some articles and reports on Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rivers
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://internationalrivers.org/
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008

Title: Problems With Big Dams
Description/subject: "By the end of the 20th century, the dam industry had choked more than half of the Earth's major rivers with some 50,000 large dams. The consequences of this massive engineering program have been devastating. The world's large dams have wiped out species; flooded huge areas of wetlands, forests and farmlands; and displaced tens of millions of people. The "one-size-fits-all" approach to meeting the world's water and energy needs is also outdated: better solutions exist. While not every dam causes huge problems, cumulatively the world's large dams have replumbed rivers in a massive experiment that has left the planet's freshwaters in far worse shape than any other major ecosystem type, including tropical rainforests. In response, dam-affected communities in many parts of the world are working to resolve the legacies of poorly planned dams. Elsewhere (and especially in North America), communities are starting to take down dams that have outlived their usefulness, as part of a broader river restoration movement....Dam Basics:- Frequently Asked Questions: Watch We All Live Downstream for a visual introduction to dams, rivers and people... Read 10 Things You Should Know About Dams... Read "Greenwashing Hydropower": The Problems with Big Dams..... Watch Hydropower: Not As Clean As You Think for an introduction to why big dams are not the answer to our changing climate.... Fact sheets: Damned Rivers, Damned Lives: The case against large dams... A Crisis of Mismanagement: Real solutions to the world's water problems... Beyond Hydropower: Energy options for the 21st century... Warming the Earth: Hydropower threatens efforts to curb climate change... The Coming Storm: Preparing for a warming water world..... Latest additions: Twelve Dams That Changed the World... The State of the World's Rivers... Large Dams Are Uneconomic, Scientific Study Finds... Hydropower: WRR Commentary: Know Thy River.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rivers
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2015

Title: TERRA (Towards Ecological Recovery and Regional Alliance)
Description/subject: "Towards Ecological Recovery and Regional Alliance/Foundation for Ecological Recovery (TERRA/FER), believe that public debate on, and participation in, decisions concerning environment and development is a crucial first step in forging paths towards a more equitable and sustainable future for all people in the Mekong region. This means that civil society must play a strong role in shaping national and regional development policy process. In supporting the work of civil society groups in the region, we have undertaken a range of activities, including participatory research, internships, field studies and exchange. We also engage in campaign and monitoring activities to address development projects, programmes and policies that have negative implications for local people and the environment..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: TERRA
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2014

Individual Documents

Title: Toungoo Interview: Repeated instances of land confiscations harm the livelihoods of local community members, November 2017
Date of publication: 13 November 2018
Description/subject: "In 1993, the construction of the P’Thi Dam led to land confiscations and widespread displacement. Stripped of their land, many subsistence farmers became day wage labourers, working under difficult conditions. This land confiscation continues to impact the livelihoods of local people to this day. The displaced communities have yet to receive any compensation, or even to benefit from a connection to electricity. Despite this, villagers continue to reclaim their ancestral lands through consultation and court hearings. Since the construction of the hydropower dam, this community has faced a series of successive land confiscations by private companies. The remaining land has been confiscated by the Tatmadaw. Local plantations are being used for shooting practice, threatening the security of local farmers. The community wants the Tatmadaw to withdraw the camp from their lands..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: pdf (382K)
Alternate URLs: http://khrg.org/2018/11/18-21-a2-i1/toungoo-interview-repeated-instances-land-confiscations-harm-li...
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2018

Title: Review article: climate change impacts on dam safety
Date of publication: 18 May 2018
Description/subject: "Abstract. Dams as well as protective dikes and levees are critical infrastructures whose associated risk must be properly managed in a continuous and updated process. Usually, dam safety management has been carried out assuming stationary 10 climatic and non-climatic conditions. However, the projected alterations due to climate change are likely to affect different factors driving dam risk. Although some reference institutions develop guidance for including climate change in their decision support strategies, related information is still vast and scattered and its application to specific analyses such as dam safety assessments remains a challenge. This article presents a comprehensive and multidisciplinary review of the impacts of climate change susceptible to affect 15 dam safety. The global effect can be assessed through the integration of the various projected effects acting on each aspect of the risk, from the input hydrology to the calculation of the consequences of the flood wave on population and assets at risk. This will provide useful information for dam owners and dam safety practitioners in their decision-making process."
Author/creator: Javier Fluixá-Sanmartín , Luis Altarejos-García , Adrián Morales-Torres , Ignacio Escuder-Bueno
Language: English
Source/publisher: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 June 2018

Title: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoir Water Surfaces: A New Global Synthesis
Date of publication: 05 October 2016
Description/subject: "Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and (3) to consider the effect of methodology on emission estimates. We estimate that GHG emissions from reservoir water surfaces account for 0.8 (0.5–1.2) Pg CO2 equivalents per year, with the majority of this forcing due to CH4. We then discuss the potential for several alternative pathways such as dam degassing and downstream emissions to contribute significantly to overall emissions. Although prior studies have linked reservoir GHG emissions to reservoir age and latitude, we find that factors related to reservoir productivity are better predictors of emission."
Author/creator: Bridget R. Deemer, John A. Harrison, Siyue Li, Jake J. Beaulieu, Tonya DelSontro, Nathan Barros, José F. Bezerra-Neto, Stephen M. Powers, Marco A. dos Santos, J. Arie Vonk
Language: English
Source/publisher: BioScience (2016) 66 (11): 949-964.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw117
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2017

Title: Think Like a Mountain: Toward a Perspective for Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Research
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "This might refer to our relationship with the environment just as well as to that between a man and a woman. Our relationship with the environment requires careful attention for we must take care of it if we want it to reciprocate. Around the globe today, that relationship is being challenged. We are here in a wondrous and wonderful part of the world. This sketch of Asia’s major rivers flowing down from the Tibetan plateau illustrates just how central our location is, both geographically and in terms of the hundreds of millions of human lives and other biological phenomena impacted by the flow of these waters. The river of concern for me today is the Salween, in some locations called the Nu Jiang or the Thanlwin. Lately my focus has been on Myanmar (Burma) and its current struggles to emerge form a long period of difficult political and economic conditions. Many, dare I say all of us, desire to help this great country to achieve higher levels of prosperity and sustainable well-­being. One focal point for many has become the Salween..." .....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Author/creator: James Lin Compton
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (85K)
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2015

Title: Should we build more large dams? The actual costs of hydropower megaproject development
Date of publication: 10 March 2014
Description/subject: Abstract: "A brisk building boom of hydropower mega-dams is underway from China to Brazil. Whether benefits of new dams will outweigh costs remains unresolved despite contentious debates. We investigate this question with the “outside view” or “reference class forecasting” based on literature on decision-making under uncertainty in psychology. We find overwhelming evidence that budgets are systematically biased below actual costs of large hydropower dams—excluding inflation, substantial debt servicing, environmental, and social costs. Using the largest and most reliable reference data of its kind and multilevel statistical techniques applied to large dams for the first time, we were successful in fitting parsimonious models to predict cost and schedule overruns. The outside view suggests that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly in absolute terms and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk- adjusted return unless suitable risk management measures outlined in this paper can be affordably provided. Policymakers, particularly in developing countries, are advised to prefer agile energy alternatives that can be built over shorter time horizons to energy megaprojects"....Keywords: Large hydropower dams, Schedule and cost estimates, Cost–benefit forecasting, Reference class forecasting, Outside view."
Author/creator: Atif Ansa, Bent Flyvbjerg, Alexander Budzie, Daniel Lunn
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Energy Policy" (ElsevierLtd,) March 2014
Format/size: pdf (591K-reduced version; 1.42MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2406852
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014

Title: Cross-border hydro projects in Asia: legal issues, hurdles and solutions
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "The authors discuss progress, challenges and legal aspects in relation to the development of cross-border hydropower schemes in Asia,with particular lessons that can be learned from the Lao PDR-Thailand model. As these countries were pioneers for power trading based on hydropower development, their path to partnership has relevance for others throughout the region, such as Myanmar, China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and also the Indian Sub-Continent (India, Bhutan and Nepal)."
Author/creator: D. D. Doran and M. Christensen
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Journal of Hydropower and Dams, Volume 21, Issue 2
Format/size: pdf (268K)
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2016

Title: The New Great Walls: A Guide to China’s Overseas Dam Industry
Date of publication: 26 November 2012
Description/subject: "Chinese dam builders have come to dominate the world market. Civil society groups have expressed concerns about the social and environmental impacts of numerous Chinese dams in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This NGO guide published by International Rivers presents the lessons of past experience and informs interested NGOs how they can best influence the projects and policies of Chinese dam builders and advocate for social and environmental interests. This guide provides useful information for groups concerned about dam projects in which Chinese companies and financiers are involved, including: *A "who's who" among Chinese companies and financiers; *Laws and standards in the Chinese dam building sector; *A map of China's major overseas dam projects; *The new environmental policy of Sinohydro, the world's largest dam-builder; *An action guide for how to address problematic dams built by Chinese companies and financiers, and who to reach out to for help; *Case studies of how NGOs have influenced Chinese overseas projects; and *A sample letter to a Chinese dam building company... Translations into Chinese and Spanish are planned for early 2013. Please contact us if you would like to organize a civil society training with the new guide, or suggest translations into other languages.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rivers
Format/size: html, pdf (4.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/International-Rivers-2012-The_New_Great_Walls-A_Guide_to_China_O...
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2013

Title: Policies Guiding Chinese Dam Building
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "This section outlines Chinese law governing domestic dam building, Chinese policies on overseas dams, and international guidelines that can be applied to Chinese overseas dam projects. Excerpts from important laws and policies are found in Appendix 2."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rivers
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 29 February 2016

Title: The Economic Case Against Big Dams
Date of publication: June 2004
Description/subject: "Even disregarding the social and environmental problems caused by big dams, they tend to be a net-liability in economic terms—especially in developing countries..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004

Date of publication: November 2000
Description/subject: Introductory Pages - PDF (823k) Chair’s Preface Commissioners’ Foreword Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Boxes Acknowledgements Acronyms and Abbreviations Executive Summary - PDF (142k) Chapter 1: Water, Development and Large Dams - PDF (1,358k) Water and Development Development and Large Dams Large Dams as Instruments of Development Problems Associated with Large Dams Understanding the Large Dams Debate Fulfilling the WCD Mandate – Process and Methodology PART I: THE WCD GLOBAL REVIEW OF LARGE DAMS Chapter 2: Technical, Financial and Economic Performance - PDF (603k) Structure and Methodology Construction Costs and Schedules Irrigation Dams Hydropower Dams Water Supply Dams Flood Control Dams Multi-Purpose Dams Physical Sustainability Issues Findings and Lessons Chapter 3: Ecosystems and Large Dams: Environmental Performance - PDF (571k) Terresterial Ecosystems and Biodiversity Greenhouse Gas Emissions Downstream Aquatic Ecosystems and Biodiversity Floodplain Ecosystems Fisheries Ecosystem Enhancement Cumulative Impacts Anticipating and Responding to Ecosystem Impacts Findings and Lessons Chapter 4: People and Large Dams: Social Performance - PDF (914k) Socio-Economic Impacts through the Project and Planning Cycle Displacement of People and Livelihoods Indigenous Peoples Downstream Livelihoods Gender Cultural Heritage Human Health Equity and the Distribution of Costs and Benefits Findings and Lessons Chapter 5: Options for Water and Energy Resources - PDF (621k) Development Agriculture and Irrigation Energy and Electricity Water Supply Integrated Flood Management Findings and Lessons Chapter 6: Decision-Making, Planning and Institutions - PDF (419k) Decision-Making and the Political Economy of Large Dams Role of Foreign Assistance Planning and Evaluation Compliance Findings and Lessons PART II: THE WAY FORWARD Chapter 7: Enhancing Human Development: Rights, Risks and Negotiated Outcomes - PDF (417k) From Global Review to Future Practise Sustainable Human Development – A Global Framework Trends and Challenges in Applying the New Development Framework Rights and Risks – an Improved Tool for Decision-Making Negotiated Agreements on the Basis of Rights and Risks Conclusion Chapter 8: Strategic Priorities – A New Policy Framework for the Development of Water and Energy Resources - PDF (687k) Gaining Public Acceptance Comprehensive Options Assessment Addressing Existing Dams Sustaining Rivers and Livelihoods Recognising Entitlements and Sharing Benefits Ensuring Compliance Sharing Rivers for Peace, Development and Security Chapter 9: Criteria and Guidelines – Applying the Strategic Priorities - PDF (507k) Five Key Decision Points: The WCD Criteria A Special Case: Dams in the Pipeline A Set of Guidelines for Good Practice Chapter 10: Beyond the Commission- An Agenda for Change - PDF (150k) Strategic Entry Points for Follow-up Taking the Initiative – Institutional Responses Continuing the Dialogue A Call to Action A Comment - Medha Patkar - PDF (86k) ANNEXES I Bibliography PDF (124k) II Glossary PDF (125k) III WCD Work Programme – Approach and Methodology PDF (128k) IV Reports in the WCD Knowledge Base PDF (131k) V Dams, Water and Energy – A Statistical Profile PDF (196k) VI United Nations Declarations PDF (153k) VII Members of the World Commission on Dams PDF (118k) VIII A Profile of the WCD Secretariat PDF (60k) INDEX - PDF (80k) Inter-chapter photocollages from the book - PDF (3,507k)
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Commission on Dams
Format/size: pdf (Main report, 6.82MB; Annexes, 967K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unep.org/dams/WCD/report/WCD_DAMS%20report%20annexes.pdf
http://www.unep.org/dams/WCD/report.asp (index page, English and French - UNEP Dams and Development Project)
Date of entry/update: 21 July 2004

Title: DEADLY ENERGY (Mya Yadana Report)
Date of publication: September 1993
Description/subject: This report by Green November 32 in 1993 was the first ever NGO perspective report written on the Yadana gas pipeline and on the border dams as they were first discussed by Thai and Burmese governments around that time. It was actually one of the first detailed reports on any of the post 1988 environmental issues by any Burmese- or border- based organisation, and is of particular interest in the light of the current opposition to the Irrawaddy dam projects... "Officials of the Thai government and the SLORC military regime have for some years now been planning a series of huge energy joint ventures to be undertaken in some of the most fought over territory in Burma. The energy projects, if they are endorsed by the Thai Government - and implemented with the participation of Japanese and Western corporations - will have extremely serious, possibly even terminal repercussions for the Burmese pro-democracy movement which is based in these same areas of the Burma -Thai border. Indeed, this seems to be what a number of the proponents of the development projects intend to achieve, particularly the generals in Rangoon. The SLORC, as well as politicians, military men and businessmen in Thailand and abroad would garner great benefit from the destruction of the Burmese opposition groups along the border, and the opening of the way to even more unrestrained natural resource exploitation than is currently taking place. There are ten planned energy development joint ventures, comprising two offshore natural gasfield developments and eight hydro-electric dams. These are: •The Martaban Gasfield developments led by Total CFP of France •The Yetagun Gasfield exploratory program led by Texaco of the US •The Upper Salween Dam, •The Lower Salween Dam •The Nam Kok Project •The Nam Moei 3 Project •The Nam Moei 2 Project •The Klong Kra Project •The Nam Moei 1 Project, and •The Nam Mae Sai Project... The energy projects will lead to environmental and social havoc on a scale comparable to the largest development projects in the world. Indeed, the Upper Salween Dam will be among the largest in the world. Altogether the projects will directly result in the flooding and deforesting of thousands of square kilometers of the forests bordering Burma and Thailand. The projects will displace many thousands of indigenous peoples, some of them already refugees from the forty-five years of bloody civil war in Burma. Many have already been affected by military operations of the SLORC and Thai armies, operations which can easily be seen in the context of clearing the way for the development of the 820-1,000 kilometre gas pipeline or the construction of the eight dams... The energy projects will put billions of dollars into the control of an ultra-nationalist military regime that is one of the world's worst human rights violators and that is rapidly building up a large and extraordinarily aggressive army which poses a significant threat to the stability of the region. The massive input of funds from the Western and Japanese multinational oil and energy development companies, combined with the cheap sale and presents of Chinese weaponry, and the profits from the heroin traffic that the SLORC is alleged to control, has funded this huge expansion of the SLORC armed forces... The energy joint ventures will, if signed, mark the second and higher level of engagement in the much criticised ASEAN policy of "constructive engagement" towards the SLORC regime, which through the activities of the logging, oil and fishing companies have already caused untold damage to Burma's environment. The multinational corporations, the Keidanrens and the Thai state oil and electricity institutes PTT and EGAT are therefore amongst the most powerful influences supporting the SLORC in its brutal and undemocratic suppression of the peoples of Burma."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Green November 32
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011