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Agriculture in Burma/Myanmar: general and research

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Agricultural Atlas of Union of Myanmar
Description/subject: A3 printed atlas (120 pages) collecting the most important maps, associated tables and derived charts extracted from the Digital Agricultural Atlas of the Union of Myanmar. The Atlas contains general datasets from international data providers and agricultural-related datasets generated from 2001-2002 statistics at State/Division and District level. Main maps are displayed at 1:6 000 000 scale while other ancillary maps are displayed around 1:12 000 000 scale. The atlas aims to act as reference and guide to those wishing to understand more clearly the opportunities and challenges facing the agricultural sector in Myanmar. Next is a selection of pages from the atlas. Click on the picture to open the full size (pdf, A3) file.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Digital Agriculture Atlas
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010

Title: Agriculture in Burma (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: Agriculture in Burma (officially Myanmar) is the main industry in the country, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP and employing some 65 percent of the labor force. Burma was once Asia's largest exporter of rice, and it is remains the country's most crucial agricultural commodity. Other main crops include pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane, lumber, and fish. Moreover, livestock is raised as both a source of food and labor.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012

Title: Agriculture Sector Development (MYLAFF folder)
Description/subject: Research, policy, analysis - 31 files.....To access some files, users may have to take out a (free) subscription to MYLAFF at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/mylaff
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYLAFF
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/mylaff
Date of entry/update: 08 June 2016

Title: Agriculture Sector page - MIMU
Description/subject: "The Agriculture sector encompasses Crop production, Livestock breeding, Fisheries and Agro-Forestry. It contributes 32% of the GDP, 17.5% of the total export earnings and employs 61.2% of the labour force (FAO 2009-2010). As such it is the main source of livelihood and income for the majority of the population in Myanmar. This page contains information on all aspects of agriculture including Fisheries, Livestock breeding and Forestry/Agro-Forestry, including needs and activities across Myanmar. The aim of this page is to provide actors across the sector with information that will enable greater coordination, transparency, and efficiency of operations in agriculture. Information on this page includes situation updates and analysis, information on inter-agency coordination and activities under implementation, relevant thematic maps and publications, and also key technical guidelines and resources related to this sector."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/sector/agriculture
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015

Title: စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑ (Agriculture Sector)
Description/subject: ဤစာမ်က္ႏွာတြင္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတလႊားရွိ စုိက္ပ်ဳိးေရး၊ အသက္ေမြး ဝမ္းေၾကာင္းလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ႏွင့္ စားနပ္ ရကၡာဖူလံုေရး လုိအပ္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား၏ သြင္ျပင္ လကၡာမ်ားႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္သည့္ သတင္း အခ်က္အလက္မ်ား ပါဝင္ပါသည္။ ဤစာမ်က္ႏွာ၏ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္မွာ အဆုိပါ က႑မ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ ေနၾကေသာ သူမ်ားကုိ သတင္း အခ်က္အလက္မ်ား ပံ့ပုိးေပးရန္ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤသုိ႔ ပ့ံပုိးေပးျခင္းျဖင့္ စုိက္ပ်ဳိးေရး၊ အသက္ေမြး ဝမ္းေၾကာင္းလုပ္ငန္း မ်ား ႏွင့္ စားနပ္ ရိကၡာ ဖူလံုေရးတုိ႔တြင္ လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား လုပ္ကုိင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာ၌ ပုိမုိ၍ ညွိႏႈိင္း ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈ၊ ပြင့္လင္း ျမင္သာမႈႏွင့္ စြမ္းရည္ ျပည့္ဝမႈတုိ႔ ရွိလာေစမည္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤစာမ်က္ႏွာရွိ သတင္း အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားတြင္ ေနာက္ဆံုး ရရွိေသာ အေျခအေနမ်ားႏွင့္ သံုးသပ္ခ်က္မ်ား၊ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား အခ်င္းခ်င္းၾကား ညိွႏႈိင္း ေဆြးေႏြးမႈမ်ားႏွင့္ အေကာင္အထည္ ေဖာ္ေနေသာလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား၊ သက္ဆုိင္ရာ အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ားကုိ ေဖာ္ျပသည့္္ ေျမပံုမ်ားႏွင့္ ထုတ္ေဝမႈမ်ား၊ အဆုိပါ က႑မ်ားႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္သည့္ အဓိက နည္းပညာဆုိင္ရာ လမ္းၫႊန္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ အရင္းအျမစ္မ်ား လည္း ပါဝင္ပါသည္။
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: MIMU
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015

Title: FAO: Myanmar Agriculture page
Description/subject: Biotechnology Country Profiles, FAO-BioDeC (Biotechnologies in Developing Countries), Maps,Reports and Statistical Data and some publications from FAO
Language: English
Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?lang=en&ISO3=mmr&subj=4
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010

Title: Farming Systems (MYLAFF folder)
Description/subject: Agroecology & Sustainable Agriculture - 5 files... Conservation Agriculture (DMC/SCV) - 2 files ... Fisheries - 2 files... Irrigation Management - 1 file... Organic Farming - 1 file... Pest Management - 0 files... Shifting Cultivation - 23 files ... Small Holder Plantations - 8 files... System of Rice Intensification (SRI).....To access some files, users may have to take out a (free) subscription to MYLAFF at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/mylaff
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYLAFF
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/mylaff
Date of entry/update: 15 June 2016

Title: Page of links to docs on Burma/Myanmar agriculture, sustainability, rural livelihood, food security etc.
Description/subject: Lists back to 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lift fund, partners etc.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 August 2016

Individual Documents

Title: Improving Land Governance for more Equitable Fish Farm Development in Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2017
Description/subject: "This note seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates around the revision of Myanmar’s 2012 Farmland Law. It summarizes key findings of research conducted in the main fish farming areas of Myanmar on the relationship between aquaculture (fish farming) and land use. It makes recommendations for the revision of land use regulations that would allow aquaculture to develop in a manner that benefits small producers and yields more equitable outcomes. Aquaculture is a high value activity in comparison with paddy, Myanmar’s most important crop in area terms. Average returns per acre from farming fish are several times higher than those from farming monsoon or dry season paddy ($655/acre versus $98/acre and $126/acre, respectively..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (419K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: November 2016
Description/subject: "After nearly three decades of isolation from the world economy, Myanmar is moving forward with political and economic reforms. As a result of this political and economic transformation Myanmar has tremendous opportunities for growth. Although agriculture accounts for the largest share of employment in Myanmar, its contribution to GDP is small. Myanmar’s agriculture value chains are under developed; smallholder capacity is low and investment in the agriculture sector has been limited. At the same time, Myanmar’s geographic position and climate make agriculture a potential driver for growth and development. In particular, Myanmar is well positioned to become a large exporter of rubber.Large parts of the high rainfall areas in eastern and southeastern Myanmar are well-suited for rubber cultivation. Following a gradual liberalization of the agriculture sector in the 1990s and a surge in rubber prices in international markets in the 2000s, there was a surge in smallholder investment. Although yields remain low, they have risen substantially over the past two decades..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Joanna van Asselt, Kyan Htoo, and Paul Dorosh
Format/size: pdf (383K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: September 2016
Description/subject: "The purpose of this report is to provide information and analysis to government, civil society, and donors interested in improving the well-being of the rural population of Mon State. Specifically, the report analyzes the different sources of income for rural households, as well as their socioeconomic characteristics, with a view to identifying potential pathways to improving incomes, especially for poor households, and stimulating inclusive rural growth. The overall picture that emerges is one of an economy heavily dependent on services for local employment and on international migration for income. Like a two-legged stool, such an economy is potentially unstable in the face of external shocks. Diversification of the Mon State economy, including diversification and increased productivity within the agricultural sector, will lessen the relative dependence on external migration remittances and result in more resilient growth in the future. The analysis presented in this report is based on a sample of 1,632 rural households. The sample households were selected from village communities identified by rural enumeration areas (EAs) in the 2014 population census. All potential EAs were first stratified according to the primary agricultural activity (rice, rubber, orchard, or marine fishing). A total of 140 EAs (a little more than 6% of the sampling frame of rural EAs) were randomly selected, 35 from each of the four activity strata. For each selected EA, 12 households were randomly selected based on a household listing. The sample is designed to be representative of rural households in Mon State as a whole, as well as the major agricultural activities that rural households engage in..."
Author/creator: Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, L. Seng Kham, Myat Th ida Win, Aye Mya Thinzar, Zaw Min Naing, Mi Win Thida, Ni Lei, Lu Min, Naw Eh Mwee, Zaw Oo , Mateusz Filipski, Ulrike Nischan, Joanna Van Asselt, Brian Holtemeyer, Emily Schmidt, Meka mu Kedir, Adam Kennedy,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: September 2016
Description/subject: "This research highlight is the first in a series of publications designed to summarize and rapidly disseminate key research findings generated by the Food Security Policy Project (FSP) in Myanmar1 . FSP aims to promote inclusive agricultural growth by facilitating improvements in the policy environment. Addressing critical evidence gaps by generating and distributing new knowledge on agri-food value chains and the rural economy is central to this effort..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton and Ellen Payongayong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU)-Food Security Policy Project Research Highlights Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (554K)
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2018

Title: Revitalized Agriculture for Balanced Growth and Resilient Livelihoods: Towards a Rural Development Strategy for Mon State
Date of publication: July 2016
Description/subject: "The purpose of this policy brief is to provide national and state-level policymakers, private sector investors, civil society and donors with an analysis of the rural economy of Mon State and pathways to improved prosperity for its population. The analysis is based on a representative survey (the Mon State Rural Household Survey 2015) of 1680 rural households, which comprise 73% of Mon State’s 2 million residents, and extensive interviews with farmers, traders, processors, local leaders and government officials..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (209K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: 16 March 2016
Description/subject: Highlights: • Cyclone Komen made landfall in Myanmar at the end of July 2015 causing extensive flooding to agricultural land, which remained submerged in some areas until September. This caused severe localized losses to the 2015 monsoon season crops, especially p addy, in Chin, Rakhine, Ayeyarwaddy, Yangon, Sagaing and parts of Bago. However, once the water receded, a large portion of the flooded areas with paddy was replanted. Overall, the amount of irreversible damage was limited. • At 27.5 million tonnes, the aggregate national production of paddy, the country’s staple food, in 2015 (monsoon season 2015 and ongoing 2015 secondary season) would be 3 percent below the 2014 crop and 2 percent down from the average of the past three - years. • At subnational level, however, cereal production and livelihood of farming households and communities in remote areas, in particular Chin and Rakhine, which concentrate highly vulnerable populations with little resilience and low agricultural productivity, did not recover fully as in other areas affected by the flooding. These populations may face severe food shortages in the coming months and require relief assistance. • Livestock and fisheries were affected by the flooding in localized areas with losses of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry, and damage to fish and shrimp farms, resulting in reduced animal protein intake in the most affected areas. • The country is a net exporter of rice and the 2015 paddy production, similar to previous years, will exceed domestic requirements, but tighter domestic supplies in marketing year 2015/16 (October/September) are expected to further underpin already high rice prices, raising concerns about food access by most vulnerable sections of the population. • Prices of rice reached record levels in August and September 2015, reflecting strong depreciation of the Kyat, increasing rice exports and concerns about the damage to paddy crop. Domestic rice prices declined with the harvest between October and December 2015 but remained at high levels. In February 2016, rice prices averaged 37 percent higher than a year earlier. • For the majority of farming households, the main impact of the July flooding was related to the increased costs for replanting and the delayed harvest. Households depending primarily upon day labour, and especially non-skilled day labour, re main among the most vulnerable. They faced a gap in wages during August and have difficulties in obtaining credit. • The July flooding was perceived to have moderate impact on children’s nutritional status and little impact on infant and young children feeding practices. • In view of the country’s adequate rice availabilities and generally well-functioning domestic markets, the Mission recommends that any eventual food assistance needs to be provided in the form of cash and/ or vouchers. • To cover immediate agricultural needs following the 2015 flooding, the Mission recommends the distribution of seeds for the next monsoon planting season; as well as water and pest-resistant storage containers to protect farmer’s seeds, along with drying nets and post-harvest equipment in the most affected areas. In Rakhine, Sagaing and Ayeyarwaddy, recording the highest livestock losses, urgent restocking of livestock is required to avoid a further fall in animal protein intake; while the rebuilding of fishing gear and boats and the rehabilitation of fish ponds is also needed in the most affected Rakhine State."
Author/creator: Swithun Goodbody, Guljahan Kurbanova, Cristina Coslet, Aaron Wise, Nuria Branders and Sophie Goudet
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO, WFP
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 2.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=53464#.Vut7ikAp5Kr (UN News Centre article)
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2016

Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016

Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: "Across Southeast Asia, agricultural growth has historically been a major driver of overall economic growth and poverty reduction (Christiaensen, Demery, and Kuhl 2011). Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam all enjoyed rapid agricultural growth as part of their successful development over the past several decades. Given broad similarities in the economic structures of these countries in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s in comparison with Myanmar today, the historical evidence suggests that rapid agricultural growth in Myanmar has the potential to be the engine for broad-based economic growth and poverty reduction. Moreover, the current democratic reforms in Myanmar create opportunities for development of agricultural and economic policies for greater food security and poverty reduction.Official statistics indicate that agriculture is the largest economic sector in the country,accounting for nearly 43 percent of GDP and providing the main source of livelihood for nearly 70 percent of the population (Haggblade et al 2013). Agricultural productivity in Myanmar is low compared with most of Southeast Asia, which partially explains the disparity in relative incomes across the countries. Raising Myanmar’s productivity to the level of its agro-ecologically similar neighbors, and thereby spurring rapid agricultural growth, could significantly raise rural incomes and reduce overall poverty..."
Author/creator: Than Tun, Adam Kennedy, and Ulrike Nischan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Title: Rural Livelihood and Agricultural Reform In Chiba Village, Shwebo Township, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Rural community is one of the strengths in country building. In a nation-­‐state administrative policy changes are followed by economic policy changes, then by changes in livelihood strategies. To members of rural society mostly existing on agriculture livelihood strategies go different based on accessibility of assets. To become a modern, developed nation mainly means brisk economic development, in which increased rural production plays an important part. A bout (70) percent of Myanmar population are rural and farmers by the livelihood. Agriculture sector is the main prop to Myanmar's economic structure. Rice is the staple food of Myanmar people and paddy cultivation is the livelihood of majority of cultivators in the country. The Union Government is working for betterment of agriculture sector as well as farmers' life. In implementing with increased momentum rural development program aimed at enhancement of rural people’s socio-­‐economic development, it is necessary to know of their present status, needs and desires.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shin Thynn Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015

Title: Fish, Rice and Agricultural Land Use in Myanmar: Preliminary findings from the Food Security Policy Project
Date of publication: 05 May 2015
Description/subject: "... Food Security Policy Project Components: • Value chains and livelihoods research • Mon State rural livelihoods and economy survey • Fish value chain • Other product and input value chains assessments • Policy Advising (e.g. Mon State Rural Development Strategy) • Training and Outreach..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton, Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, Seng Kham, Paul Dorosh, Emily Schmidt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute (MDRI)
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016

Title: Following the Money: An Advocate's Guide to Securing Accountability in Agricultural Investments
Date of publication: 2015
Description/subject: "... Large-scale agricultural investments – in plantations, processing plants or contract farming schemes, for example – have increased in recent years, particularly in developing countries. Investment in the agriculture sector can bring much needed support for rural development, but communities have also witnessed significant negative impacts. Some of the most serious involve local landholders being displaced from their lands and losing access to natural resources critical for their livelihoods and wellbeing. Instead of contributing to rural development, ill-conceived investments can undermine people’s rights to food, to water or to decent work. Improving accountability is essential in ensuring that investment processes respond to local needs and aspirations and respect human rights. Yet many deals struck between companies and governments to establish agricultural ventures are not fully transparent, making it difficult for the public and local communities to scrutinise projects before they materialise on the ground. Despite international human rights law and best practice requiring full transparency, public participation, and free prior and informed consent of local communities, civil society participation is often missing and once negative impacts have occurred citizens may struggle to have their voices heard or hold the company or the government to account. Weak governance is often accompanied by limited accountability to citizens. Yet, despite these challenges, many citizens have been able to hold companies and governments to account. For this to happen, local communities and the organisations that support them have to get organised, get informed and be strategic. Supporting affected communities to get organised so that they can collectively challenge or influence the project is essential to any successful advocacy. Success can take a long time – sometimes involving years of struggle – so ensuring strong community solidarity is key. Communities should be aware of their rights and what laws, regulations and policies are in place to protect them. An organised and informed community can then begin to devise a sophisticated advocacy strategy to achieve their goals. Usually the first step is to take complaints directly to local authorities, national authorities or the business operating on the ground. But when these approaches have limited success, communities and their supporters should not give up. There are other strategies that can be tried which reach beyond the borders of the project and the country where it is located. Behind most large-scale agricultural projects is a web of global actors that make the project possible. These actors include banks and companies that are funding the project and the companies that are buying the produce being grown or processed by it. All of these actors are necessary to the project’s success, and all are aiming to earn a profit from it in one way or another. They all have a relationship with the business operating on the ground and have the ability to influence it. All of these actors have some responsibility to ensure that the project does not harm communities. Knowing who is financing the project, who is buying the produce and who else is making the project possible and profitable – in other words, ‘following the money’ – opens up a range of opportunities for improved accountability. We call the web of actors involved in a project an ‘investment chain’. Within this chain there are ‘pressure points’. If affected communities can identify the strongest pressure points and take actions directed at effectively influencing key actors in the investment chain, they are more likely to achieve their goals. Understanding investment chains and pressure points, and effectively making use of them, can prove difficult. This Guide provides information, practical tips and exercises on how to map an investment chain behind a project, identify the strongest pressure points along the chain and then devise effective advocacy strategies that leverage those points. It explains what you need to know, the challenges you may face and the strengths and weaknesses of a range of advocacy options. Examples are provided from cases around the world where communities have tried to ‘follow the money’ and have used a number of strategies to hold investors and governments to account..."
Author/creator: Emma Blackmore, Natalie Bugalski, David Pred
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and Inclusive Development International (IDI)
Format/size: pdf (7MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2016

Title: Myanmar Agriculture in Brief - 2014
Date of publication: September 2014
Description/subject: Table of Contents: Myanmar Economy and Agriculture 2-6... Measures undertaken by the MOAI in line with main functions 7-9... Reform Measures Undertaken by Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation 10-16... List of Main Crops Cultivated in Myanmar 17-32... Paddy 18... Maize 21... Pulses 22... Oilseed Crops 23... Cotton 25... Sugarcane 27... Rubber 29... Oil palm 31... Agricultural Inputs 33-48... Agricultural land 34... Provision of sufficient irrigation water 37... Agricultural Mechanization 44... Provision of other Agricultural Inputs 48... Ongoing International Assistance in Agriculture Sector 49-55... Ongoing Agricultural Project Implemented by Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation in 2013-2014 56-60... Main Functions of Departments 61-65... Contact Numbers 66... List of Websites related to Myanmar Agriculture 67.....The smaller, digitised version is searchable but is messyon format. The larger version is
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MOAI)
Format/size: pdf (5.2MB, 1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Myanmar_Agriculture_in_brief-2014-red-tpo-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2016

Title: Agribusiness models for inclusive growth in Myanmar: diagnosis and ways forward
Date of publication: 01 January 2014
Description/subject: "Successful development experiences have demonstrated the greater efficiency achieved with a growth strategy based on small and medium-scale farmers (SMFs). This study is sought to identify potential agribusiness models for enhancing inclusive growth through NGOs partnerships with SMFs in Myanmar. The paper illustrates that agricultural sector in Myanmar is characterised by already high land inequality and landlessness, and low productivity of most SMFs. Meanwhile, a growing share of land has been allocated to large land concessions with little evidence of growth impacts and significant evidence of social and environmental risks. The document argues that Myanmar needs to build on its most important asset base of its millions of SMFs to jump start economic growth. However, the challenge is how to tap the assets of agribusiness in terms of access to technology, capital, and markets. The paper concludes that: private investment by agribusiness, both small and medium enterprises and larger agribusiness companies, is critical to the realisation of SMFs-based economic growth viable alternative business models rather than land concessions are available to tap agribusiness for wider economic and social benefits (e.g. investment in seed industry) a freeze on awarding further land concessions until a more transparent and equitable process is put in place is highly recommended"
Author/creator: Dere K Byerlee, Dolly Kyaw, U San Thein, and L Seng Kham
Language: English
Source/publisher: Department of Agricultiral Economics, Michigan State University via Eldis
Format/size: pdf (958K-reduced version; 1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/papers/idwp133.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 January 2015

Title: Strategic Choices Shaping Agricultural Performance and Food Security in Myanmar
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Key words: Smallholder Agriculture Sector...Subject categories: Agri: General... Land: Management
Author/creator: Steven Haggblade, Duncan Boughton, Khin Mar Cho, Glenn Denning, Renate Kloeppinger-Todd, Zaw Oo, Tun Min Sandar, Tin Maung Than, Naw Eh Mwee Aye Wai, Shannon Wilson, Ngu Wah Win, Larry C.Y.Wong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of International Affairs, Columbia University, NY
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB-reduced version; 3.65MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2015

Title: Agrarian Transitions in Two Agroecosystems of Kayah State, Myanmar
Date of publication: November 2013
Description/subject: "... Located on Myanmar’s eastern border with Thailand, Kayah State has long been isolated because of conflicts between the minority groups there and the Burmese army; as a result, little is known about its agricultural systems. As a preliminary to NGO agricultural development projects, an agrarian diagnosis of two major types of agroecosystems in the state—lowlands alluvial plains and uplands—was conducted. The objective was to identify recent agrarian changes leading to the current presence of different types of farmers in each area and understand their development potential. Both agroecosystems have followed very different evolutionary trajectories, mainly because of politico-historical factors. In the lowlands, farmers with irrigated plots are administratively obliged to grow irrigated rice, while others who are forced to grow flooded rice but unable to irrigate can diversify into vegetable growing. In the uplands, communications infrastructures allowing access to the market are a source of differentiation between villages. Farmers who have this access are growing cash crops such as maize and pigeon peas, while those who do not have access continue with upland rice-based systems. The introduction of perennial crops such as rubber, non-perishable food production in the uplands, and horticultural diversification in the lowlands are waiting for future policies at the national level..."
Author/creator: Audrey Aldebert & Gauvain Meulle
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mercy Corps
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2016

Title: Myanmar Bio-Physical Characterization: Summary Findings and Issues to Explore
Date of publication: May 2013
Description/subject: This report provides a summary of key findings from research on food security and the agriculture sector in Myanmar. The focus is on material relevant for a bio-physical characterization of the country. As such, there is little emphasis on material primarily addressing socioeconomic, policy, or institutional aspects of agriculture and food security. This study is based solely on desk research, and it does not involve a field research component. The report is organized by topic, with each section including a bulleted list of significant summary points followed by a brief list of critical gaps or issues to explore during the field mission to Myanmar in November 2012.
Author/creator: Kye Baroang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, Earth Institute at Columbia University
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2016

Title: Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Environment - Initial Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map
Date of publication: April 2013
Description/subject: "This interim assessment, strategy, and road map (ASR) of Myanmar’s agriculture, natural resources, and environment (ANRE) sector highlights the Government of Myanmar’s plans for addressing priority needs and identifies—in a preliminary manner—possible areas of international assistance for the sector. The ASR will be periodically revised based on new information and reflecting the evolving development partnership with Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2016

Title: Food and Nutrition Security in Myanmar
Date of publication: 05 March 2013
Description/subject: "... This background paper was commissioned by USAID as part of a Strategic Agricultural Sector and Food Security Diagnostic for Myanmar, led by Michigan State University and in partnership with the Myanmar Development Resource Institute ‐ Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI‐CESD). The broad objectives of the Diagnostic are to improve USAID’s understanding of the major constraints to agricultural sector performance and to food security of vulnerable households in Myanmar, and to outline core strategies USAID should consider as it designs policies and programs to stimulate broadbased agricultural growth and enhance food security. In support of these aims, this background paper synthesizes the best available data and information on poverty, nutrition, and vulnerability to food insecurity in Myanmar to identify key vulnerable populations, and outlines a set of strategic options to improve the food security of the most vulnerable households. This synthesis is based on a rapid assessment conducted during a three‐week field visit (October 28 to November 17, 2012), and pre‐ and post‐field visit desk research. The research draws from three broad types of information: 1) national surveys on poverty, malnutrition, and health outcomes; 2) food security assessments conducted by UN agencies, donors, and Non‐governmental Organizations (NGOs) in select geographic areas; 3) and semi‐structured qualitative interviews with key stakeholders across seven of the 14 states/regions in Myanmar’s Delta, Dry Zone, and hilly regions that the team accessed during the field visit. Data availability and reliability are major constraints to proper assessment in Myanmar. The Government of Myanmar (GOM) has not conducted a population census since 1983 and this inaction casts doubt on all other survey work since. The world’s longest running civil war and military‐government policies have restricted surveyors’ access to many parts of the country; even the two relatively reliable surveys intended to document poverty and nutrition conditions face these limitations. Very few surveys provide sex‐disaggregated data, which limits analysis of gender aspects of poverty and vulnerability. The authors fully recognize this obstacle and yet are in agreement with one long‐time observer of Myanmar; the data may not be rigorous but are “good enough to program against.” This synthesis therefore intends to provide a broad brush picture of the landscape of poverty, malnutrition, and vulnerability across Myanmar and focuses on providing a typology of vulnerability to inform USAID’s initial dialogue about possible program and policy design to improve household food security..."
Author/creator: Shannon Wilson and Naw Eh Mwee Aye Wai
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.6 MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: Current Situation and Future Opportunities in Agricultural Education, Research and Extension in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: "... Myanmar is an agricultural based country and the agriculture sector is the backbone of its economy. The agriculture sector contributes 34% of GDP, 23% of total export earnings, and employs 63% of the labour force. About 75% of the total population reside in rural areas and are principally employed in the agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors for their livelihood. Rice is the most important dominating crop and is grown in saline area mostly found in lower Myanmar especially in Ayeyarwady, Yangon, Taninthayi Divisions and also in Yakhine and Mon States. Deep-water rice is usually grown in areas of some restricted belts in Ayeyarwady, Bago, Taninthayi Divisions and Rakhine, Mon and Kayin States. Out of the total crop sown area of 10 million hectares, about 13% is under irrigation. The rest of the land has to rely on the rain for crop production. The population will grow to about 60 million by the year 2010 and the demand for local rice consumption alone, will be in the proximate of 20 millions tons. To be able to supply enough food for the increasing population and export the surplus, rice production will have to be increased up to 25 millions tons, by expanding the rice growing area up to 6 millions hectare. This scheme will further be enhanced by the adoption of modern proven technologies and provision of the required inputs in full. The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is making all-out efforts for the development of agriculture, taking measures as: efficient utilization of land and water resources; farm mechanization; introduction of new technologies; and supply of farm inputs. Agriculture being the largest economy of the country, the Ministry tries to stimulate public awareness and interest for better participation and investment in the sector. The government of the Union of Myanmar remains committed to the contribution of national as well as world food security. The Agriculture sector in Myanmar occupies a dominant position in the development of the national economy, and has a definite bearing on other socio-economic activities. Because of the high potential of land, water resources, man power resources and other mineral resources, Myanmar has been prominent as an agricultural country for many years and will continue to be so in the future. Given the importance of agriculture in Myanmar, agricultural education, research and extension are important priorities. In the process of developing the agricultural sector, conducting training and offering educational programs of international standard are crucial to the development of human resources..."
Author/creator: Khin Mar Cho
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)
Format/size: pdf (667K)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: Rapid Value Chain Assessment: Structure and Dynamics of the Rice Value Chain in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: This Background Paper is an integral part of the Diagnostic Assessment. It involves an assessment of the Myanmar rice value chain within the context of the Myanmar rice industry. Special focus is paid to its structure and performance, dynamics, and future prospects. Also included is a consideration of its weaknesses and constraints that had influenced the development of the industry as well as an evaluation of the prospect of improving the value chain and consequently the industry and suggesting crucial steps that should be taken for the short game and the long game. Basically, the report integrates the findings from intensive literature review and desk research coupled with observations and interviews conducted during field visits in October and November 2012 and supplemented by persona communication with key players in the public and private sectors as well as civil society at various levels of the rice value chain.
Author/creator: Larry C.Y. Wong and Eh Mywe Aye Wai
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: Rice Productivity Improvement in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: "... Rice productivity in Myanmar has stagnated in comparison with other rice producers in the region. Once the world’s largest rice exporter, Myanmar is now a relatively minor player exporting an average 631,000 MT annually over th past 4 years. However, the nation’s export potential remains high because of abundant land and water resources, recent indications of progressive policy reforms, increased agricultural investment, and constructive international engagement. Growing global demand for rice, increasing public and private investment in infrastructure, and the potential for significant yield increases, all point to a strong return on investments to improve rice productivity in the country..."
Author/creator: Glenn Denning, Kye Baroang, Tun Min Sandar and other MDRI and MSU colleagues
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)
Format/size: pdf (711K)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: A strategic agricultural sector and food security diagnostic for Burma
Date of publication: 01 January 2013
Description/subject: "Despite its enormous potential, Myanmar’s agriculture has underperformed over the past fifty years. Furthermore, given that two-thirds of the population works primarily in agriculture, low farm productivity translates into high rates of poverty and food insecurity. The current paper explains that a series of institutional, policy and structural constraints has hampered agricultural growth and contributed to Myanmar’s current high rates of hunger and malnutrition. The most critical of these problems include: a highly skewed land distribution, poor water control systems, a high-cost transportation system, weak rural financial institutions, and weak links between extension services and farmers. However, the paper argues that all of these impediments can be remedied through good policies, institutional reforms and key public investments. Accordingly, the author strongly advocates a strategy focused on the “Long Game” approach (policy reforms necessary for rapid, broad-based agricultural), particularly a set of early actions necessary for enabling necessary structural reforms. Yet, at the same time, this must be complemented by “Short Game” interventions (improving performance without policy reforms) that help to increase incomes, assets, farmer skills and water management systems that expand productive potential in the “Long Game”. Equally important, the document underlines that the long-term political stability is also imperative for agricultural productivity growth."
Author/creator: S. Haggblade (ed); D. Boughton; G. Denning
Language: English
Source/publisher: Department of Agricultiral Economics, Michigan State University via Eldis
Format/size: pdf (1MB-reduced version; 1.82MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/papers/idwp131_revised.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 January 2015

Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES: 5-pager... I. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities... II. Government’s Sector Strategy... III. ADB Sector Experience... Problem Tree for Agriculture, Renewable Natural Resources and Environment Sector
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (63K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-agriculture.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012

Title: Study on the Evolution of the Farming Systems and Livelihoods Dynamics in Northern Chin State
Date of publication: August 2012
Description/subject: Conclusions: "Chin State has been often characterized among all States and Regions by the highest poverty gap ratio, highest occurrence of food deficits, poor road connectivity, low population density but lowest percent availability of cultivable lands and high percentage of waste and scrub lands, adherence to the shifting cultivation system, lack of rural based industries, and higher rate of out migration. In order to pull the local people out of these traps, fundamental problems will have to be addressed. The public goods such as infrastructure, roads and electricity should receive the priority agenda for development. Without this development framework, attempts to address the issues of community development, food security, natural resources management and community empowerment will give no significant impact on the local communities. The government bodies and the development agencies should participate in and coordinate the formulation of the development agenda and afterwards respective organizations and institutions will focus on their relevant tasks with their set targets. Assuming that these preconditions have been or will be met soon or in parallel manner, the following agenda are suggested as far as the sustainable livelihood improvement and farming systems development with better natural resources management are concerned to us..." Table of Contents: I. INTRODUCTION: 1. Objectives of the Study... 2. Expected Mission Outcomes... 3. Methodology... II. Presentation of the survey cases: 1. Location and Geography... 2. Settlement Pattern... 3. Upland Ecology, Households, Land and Land Tenure Bounded by Tribal Community Culture... 4. Location of Village in Relation to Forests, Taun-yar (Lopils) and Paddy Land... 5. Farming Systems of the Study Areas... 6. Past and Present Situation of Taun-yar or Shifting Cultivation... III. Evolution of farming systems & Livelihood Dynamics: 1. Good Practices and Weaknesses in Taun-yar Farming... 2. Changing Process of Lowland Paddy Growing and Terrace Farming... 3. Process and Pattern of Terraced Farm Development... 4. Legal Aspects and Land Registration in Permanent Farming Plots... 5. Land Use Types in Relation to Wealth Classes in Sample Villages... IV. Food Security Attained by Different Livelihood Activities: 1. Sources of staple food... 2. Change in Dietary Habit over 20 Year- Period... 3. Demand and Supply Situation of Rice in Northern Chin State... V. Examination of the Population Dynamics and Land Cover changes: 1. Population status and evolution... 2. Migration Dynamics... 3. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of the Land Resources... 4. Land Cover Changes... VI. Activities and Programmes of the Developement Agencies and Local Initiatives for Livelihood Improvement and NRM in Northern Chin State: 1. Development Agencies... 2. The Government and Non-Government Activities for Crops Development... VII. Recommendations and Conclusions: VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: IX. REFERENCES: X. APPENDIX.
Author/creator: U San Thein
Language: English
Source/publisher: Group of Research and Exchange of Technologies (GRET), LIFT
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 March 2014

Title: Agro-Based Industry in Myanmar - Prospects and Challenges
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: 400-page book in image files divided into chapters..... Title page, Content, etc...Acknowledgement...Chapter 1- Introduction...Chapter 2 - Agro-Based Industrializing Strategy...Chapter 3 - Rice Industry...Chapter 4 - Wheat Flour Industry...Chapter 5 - Pulses Industry...Chapter 6 - Feed Industry...Chapter 7 - Edible Oil Industry... Chapter 8 - Growth, Survival and and Prospects of Sugar Processing SMEs...Chapter 9 - Cotton textile Industry... Chapter 10 - Facts About Myanmar Jute Industries...Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Rubber& Rubber Product Industry
Author/creator: U Tin Htut Oo and Toshihiro Kudo
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2012

Title: Agricultural diversification and rural industrialization as a strategy for rural income growth and poverty reduction in Indochina and Myanmar
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: Abstract: CONTENTS: Introduction; concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in areas and production of crops and meat production; agricultural exports; future challenges and guiding principles; references....Keywords: Agricultural diversification Economic aspects.; Indochina Economic policy.; Poverty alleviation.; Myanmar Economic policy.; Meat industry and trade.
Author/creator: Francesco Goletti
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Food Policy Research Institute
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008

Title: The Role of Agriculture in the Development of Myanmar Economy
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: "...Myanmar is on the path of a progressive trend in food, agriculture and forestry sector and is fully committed to contribute its utmost towards global efforts on food for all. All-out efforts are thus made in the direction of developing the agriculture sector in Myanmar in accordance with one of the national economic objectives “ Development of Agriculture as the base and all-round development of other sectors of the economy as well” "
Author/creator: Nyein Zin Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: KDI School of Public Policy and Management (Seoul, ROK)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Upland Agriculture, Myanmar
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: "Myanmar is the largest Asian mainland country excluding India and China. Its land area is 676 577 sq. km divided into seven states and seven divisions. The population is estimated at 46 million, of whom 75% live in rural areas. Agriculture dominates the economy constituting 36% of the GDP in 1998 and 35% of export earnings. There is great potential for expansion of arable land. In 1998 only 12 million of the available 18 million hectares were cultivated. Rice, beans, pulses and sugar cane are the principal crops. Rice alone accounts for 25% of the GDP in Myanmar. The per capita GDP is 220 USD (in 1995) and makes Myanmar one of the Least Developed Countries. But the country has substantial human resources and economic potential including underdeveloped arable lands, resources to expand irrigation and energy supply capacity as well as natural gas, marine resources and mineral wealth...Of all the GMS countries Myanmar has the greatest potential to expand its agricultural production area. There is also great potential for increasing exports of field and horticultural crops. The policy framework encourages foreign investment in the sector and promotes export-driven agricultural sector growth. This creates an enabling environment for diversifying and intensifying agricultural production, which is of benefit to the remote watershed development initiatives of concern to us. Major issues to consider in planning an upland development initiative relate to access to support services in the agricultural as well as social sectors. Access to production inputs (seed, fertilisers, livestock, machinery, etc.), and rural services such as credit, markets and agricultural extension vary and have a significant impact on the development potential of a community..."
Author/creator: Eija Pehu
Language: English
Source/publisher: Regional Environmental Technical Assistance 5771 Poverty Reduction & Environmental Management in Remote Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Watersheds Project (Phase I).
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003