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Economic zones in Myanmar

Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar seeks new Dawei SEZ partners
Date of publication: 03 December 2013
Description/subject: "Myanmar is allowing international investors to bid for a mammoth project to develop a special economic zone in its southernmost region following the withdrawal of the sole developer, a Thai company, which had been unable to secure partners for the venture, an official said on Monday. Chairman of the Management Committee of Dawei SEZ Han Sein told a press conference in Yangon that developer Italian-Thai Development Pcl - Thailand's largest construction group - had terminated its work on the project in Myanmar's Tanintharyi region to make way for international bidders. "Myanmar Port Authorities [MPA] and Italian-Thai had an agreement in place to work on this project previously," Han Sein, who is also Myanmar's deputy minister of transport, said at the MPA office. "We ended this [agreement] because we want [to open the project up to] international investment," he said. Plans for the Dawei SEZ include a deep-sea port, industrial zone, steel plant, fertilizer plant, coal and natural gas-fired power plant and water supply system. The SEZ will have a motorway linked to Thailand's Kanchaburi province, as well as a railroad hub, links to oil and gas pipelines, and electrical cable lines..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Lwin Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


  • Laws and regulations

    Individual Documents

    Title: Directives given to local companies to take leading roles in Dawei Special Economic Zone. Myanmar citizens except experts, skilled workers and supervisors must be employed [Pyithu Hluttaw, 24th day]
    Date of publication: 11 August 2012
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw via "The New Light of Myanmar"
    Format/size: pdf (93K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 August 2012


    Title: Myanmar Special Economic Zone Law.
    Date of publication: 27 January 2011
    Description/subject: (The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 8/2011) - The 8th Waning Day of Pyatho, 1372. M.E. (27th January, 2011) - The State Peace and Development Council hereby enacts the following Law: Chapter I - Title and Definition. 1 This Law shall be called the Myanmar Special Economic Zone Law...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
    Format/size: pdf (94K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012


    Title: THE DAWEI SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE LAW/ ထား၀ယ္အထူး စီးပြားေရးဇုံ ဥပေဒ
    Date of publication: 27 January 2011
    Description/subject: The Union of Myanmar (The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 17/2011) 8th Waning of Pyatho, 1372 M.E. ( 27th January , 2011)..... ျပည္ေထာင္စုျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၊ ထား၀ယ္အထူး စီးပြားေရးဇံု ဥပေဒ၊ (ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ ေအးခ်မ္းသာယာေရးႏွင့္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးေရးေကာင္စီ ဥပေဒ အမွတ္ ၁၇/ ၂၀၁၁) ၁၃၇၂ ခုႏွစ္ ျပာသို လျပည့္ေက်ာ္ (၈) ရက္၊(၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ ဇႏၷ၀ါရီလ ၂၇ ရက္)
    Language: English/Burmese
    Source/publisher: The Union of Myanmar, The State Peace and Development Council
    Format/size: pdf (671K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 September 2012


  • Industrial zones - general studies

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Regional Development Policy of Thailand and Its Economic Cooperation with Neighboring Countries
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Thailand has recently strengthened its economic policy toward its neighboring countries in coordination with domestic regional development. It is widely recognized that economic cooperation with neighboring countries is essential in preventing the inflow of illegal labor and effectively utilizing labor and resources through the relocation of production bases. This direction is strengthened by elaborating the GMS-EC and the ECS (Economic Cooperation Strategy). In addition, economic dependency of the neighboring countries on Thailand is generally high. In this report, firstly, Thai regional development policy will be made clear in relation to its economic policy toward neighboring countries as well as the status quo of the industrial estates. Secondly, Thai policy toward the neighboring countries is examined referring to the concept of wide-ranging economic zones, regional economic cooperation and special border economic zones. Thirdly, the paper will discuss how closely the economies between Thailand and the neighboring countries are related through trade and investment. Lastly, some implications on Japan's economic cooperation will also be explored."...Keywords: industrial estates, GMS-EC, ECS, economic corridors, border zones
    Author/creator: Takao TSUNEISHI
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Discussion Paper No. 32
    Format/size: pdf (674K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Dp/pdf/032_tsuneishi.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


    Title: Industrial Development in Myanmar: Prospects and Challenges
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: "...we should look back Myanmar’s history on industrial policy. Every government to date since independence, either civilian or military, and either democratic or socialist, has approached the problem of the pri­vate sector with great concern and trepidation. Whenever they wanted to accommodate and integrate the energy of private enterprises into the na­tional economy, the socialist philosophy, anti-capitalist attitude, control-prone disposition and xenophobia based on the bitter colonial experiences provided obstacles, with the redefinition of the role of the private sector being left vague and halfway. The transition to market-oriented economy in the 1990s seems to be a his­torical exception. The various reform measures taken by the military gov­ernment apparently show their strong commitment toward a full-fledged market economy. The author calls the present transformation of the economy the Third Wave, and assures himself that it has been the biggest wave of liberalization in Myanmar’s industrial history. Compared with the previ­ous two waves, which the author thinks occurred in the latter half of the 1950s and in the mid-1970s, the present regime has committed itself much more clearly to market economic principles and the enhanced role of the private sector. Nevertheless, the history still exhibits a reserve to be fully confident in government policy toward a market economy. Recent backtracking of eco­nomic reforms is certainly something to be worried. It would be necessary for the military government to commit itself again to such ideas as open markets, free competition, transparency, accountability, consistency, level playing field, freedom of information and rule of law, which are the foun­dations for a free and fair market-oriented economy. Without the govern­ ment’s commitment to those ideas, the private sector would never be con­fident on public polices, and as a result, the full-fledged investments would never be forthcoming." See Toshihiro Kudo, “Industrial Policy in Myanamr: Lessons from the Past” in Industrial Devel­ opment and Reforms in Myanmar: ASEAN and Japanese Perspectives, (Bangkok, The Sasakawa Southeast Asia Cooperation Fund, 1999). 43
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
    Format/size: pdf (642K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Industrial_Development_in_Myanmar-Prospects_and_Challenges.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Industrial_Development_in_Myanmar_Prospects_and_Challenges-balan...
    Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


  • Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

    • Dawei (Tavoy) Special Economic Zone

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Dawei Development Association
      Description/subject: DDA (Dawei Development Association) formed by young and active people from Dawei region.DDA will focus on Green Development, Property Right, Land Right, Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Regional Development and Education.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Dawei Development Association via Facebook
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ddamyanmar.com/?p=802
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2012


      Title: Dawei Project Watch (DWP)
      Description/subject: The chief aim of DWP is: · To regularly monitor the development of Dawei SEZ and seek justice for the local people... The objectives of DWP are: 1. To raise awareness of the Dawei deep-sea port project 2. To collect feedback from local villagers on the impact of this mega-development project... On May 19, 2008, government ministers from the then-active Burmese military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the Thai government signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop and implement a plan for the Dawei Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The MoU was a bi-literal agreement granting Thai companies monopolistic rights in the construction of the Dawei SEZ project. Later, Burma’s (Myanmar) new government led by Gen. Thein Sein also proposed the Thilawa Special Economic Zone near Rangoon (Yangon) and the Kyaukpyu Special Economic Zone, establishing a long-term plan for economic progress under his administration. The villagers living in areas designated for dawei deep seaport development are closely linked to their lands and agricultural livelihoods; they have no other working skills. None of them know if they are to be relocated, or whether the government will provide them with new land. The villagers are not sure how much compensation they will get if they are forced to move. The entire economic zone is about 250 square meters (or 97 square miles), equating to villagers from 21 communities losing the majority of their property. 30,000 people will be directly affected, or about 5,500 families. The Dawei SEZ authorities and the ITD Company will confiscate around 8, 000 acres of paddy cultivated lands, 10, 000 acres of rubber plantations, 12, 000 to 14,000 acres of cashew-nut plantations, and over 150, 000 acres of orchid plantations..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Mon
      Source/publisher: Dawei Project Watch (DWP)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED (Home Page)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: [Google site-specific search results for Dawei] https://www.google.co.uk/#hl=en&sclient=psy-ab&q=Dawei+site:itd.co.th%2F&oq=Dawei+site:...
      Date of entry/update: 29 September 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar Special Economic Zones, Part III
      Date of publication: 25 October 2014
      Description/subject: "Special economic zones have been highly successful in several East Asian economies, kick-starting new waves of foreign direct investment, employment and growth. Yet despite the success of Shenzhen and a handful of others, most SEZs throughout Asia have cost governments a fortune to build and brought little economic benefit. Given their poor track record, it’s refreshing to see that Myanmar’s most developed SEZ, Thilawa, bears strong resemblance to some of the region’s more successful schemes. Indeed, with finance secured, construction begun, and a dozen foreign investors already signed up, there is every reason to believe that Thilawa can provide a substantial boost to Myanmar’s economic development. In contrast to Dawei and Kyuakphyu, the Thilawa SEZ benefits from its proximity to an urban centre. Located only 20km south of downtown Yangon, Myanmar’s largest city, the site feels worlds apart, with only a smattering of industry breaking up the wide expanse of agricultural plots and untilled grasslands. It’s thus perfectly placed to build and expand whilst simultaneously taking advantage of the goods and services available in the country’s commercial capital..."
      Author/creator: Josh Wood
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar Special Economic Zones, Part II
      Date of publication: 24 October 2014
      Description/subject: "On a little-known island in Myanmar’s Rakhine State, construction is soon set to begin on a deep-sea port, dozens of factories, roads, reservoirs and a power plant to support large-scale industrial activity. Alongside similar projects in Dawei and Thilawa, the Kyaukphyu Special Economic Zone is one of Myanmar’s most ambitious and expensive development strategies. Despite repeated assurances from policy-makers in Naypyidaw and Beijing, the economic justification of the Kyuakphyu SEZ is coming under increased scrutiny. Located in Rakhine State, one of the poorest and least developed regions in Myanmar, Kyaukphyu Township is a sleepy provincial centre. Home to only 60,000 people, many of which rely on fishing and agriculture for their livelihoods, there is, as of yet, no industrial infrastructure of note. Yet a tract of land several miles from the town centre is set to receive unique legal status, billions in infrastructure spending and, if all goes according to plan, large flows of job-creating investment. While the area has some notable natural assets such as large gas deposits and a well-protected harbour, the zone’s prospects of success are poor..."
      Author/creator: Josh Wood
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar Special Economic Zones, Part I
      Date of publication: 23 October 2014
      Description/subject: "Since the first sod was turned in 2008, the Dawei Special Economic Zone has been mired in controversy. Reports of corruption, land grabs and environmental degradation have turned public opinion against the scheme, and, since the withdrawal of the Italian Thai Development Company in 2012, financial backing has yet to be secured. Until a new private investor can be found to continue the zone’s construction, the project survives on life-support from the Thai and Myanmar governments. It remains unclear whether the project will ever be completed. Considering the controversy, it’s surprising that the flimsy economic credentials of the Dawei SEZ have yet to enter the conversation. Debate has generally centred upon the social and environmental costs of the project outweighing the economic benefits, as if such benefits were somehow assured. Yet SEZs often end up costing governments more in infrastructure spending than can ever be recouped through foreign investment. The small number of successful SEZs, such as Malaysia’s Penang and China’s Shenzhen, are exceptions to the rule..."
      Author/creator: Josh Wood
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar: Dawei Special Economic Zone should protect rights of area residents
      Date of publication: 10 October 2014
      Description/subject: "As Thai Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-Ocha visits Myanmar to revive the stalled Dawei Special Economic Zone (SEZ), the governments of Thailand and Myanmar should cooperate to establish a legal framework protecting the human rights of the area’s residents, said the ICJ. The multi-billion dollar Dawei development, strategically located along the Thai-Myanmar peninsula, will be one of Southeast Asia’s largest industrial complexes, with a 250 sq km deep-sea port, petrochemical and heavy industry hub. After the project failed to attract sufficient investment, it was taken over directly by the Dawei SEZ Development Company, jointly owned by the governments of Thailand and Myanmar..."
      Author/creator: Daniel Aguirre, Sam Zarifi,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Commission of Jurists (ICJ)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


      Title: Voices from the ground - Concerns Over the Dawei Special Economic Zone and Related Projects
      Date of publication: September 2014
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "The Dawei Special Economic Zone (DSEZ) project has been carried out through a poor process which breaches many fundamental human rights, indigenous peoples’ rights, and the public commitments made by both the Myanmar and Thai governments on involuntary resettlement and protection of the environment. The community was given limited access to information about the DSEZ project and displacement. Two thirds of households surveyed did not receive any information from the government or company at all. Of those that received information from the government or company, the majority said that the information revealed only positive impacts and benefits of the project. Very few households surveyed knew of the oil, gas and petrochemical industrial complexes to be built in their neighbourhood, despite the fact that these are central components of the SEZ development plan. There was no meaningful consultation with affected persons. Only 27 percent of the respondents had attended any meeting about project implementation. Focus group participants described these meetings as “one-way” presentations. Of those who attended the meetings, 82 percent did not actively participate in the discussion, mostly because they did not understand what was happening or there was no opportunity to ask questions. Only 8 percent of households gave the government their consent prior to the start of the project. The compensation process has not been fair and transparent. Only 15 percent of surveyed households have received compensation. Rates of compensation have been set too low to ensure a sustainable future livelihood for the affected people in the future. The research team highly suspects the presence of corruption in the investment and compensation process. We request the parties involved make public the list of compensation payments made so that the local people can compare the amount of compensation they received with the published amount. In all cases where records are not correct, action must be taken to ensure adequate compensation is fully paid as quickly as possible. The above problems have left affected people in a vulnerable position. The people affected by the DSEZ project relied on agriculture on their own lands and depend on the environment for their income. The loss of lands and other resources, and lack of access to adequate lands and resources in compensation, will affect them profoundly. Already, affected people are in need of urgent assistance so that they can recover new livelihoods and feed themselves and their families. This project is a collaboration between two countries, Thailand and Myanmar. If the relationship with the local people is not improved, the actions of those involved in the project could have a long-lasting negative impact on cross-border relations between Myanmar and Thailand. Myanmar should learn from the missteps of other countries in developing industrial estates to avoid generating major problems for all parties now, and deeper problems decade later. Local people have expressed that they are not against development, but want development that is not harmful to people or the environment. The governments and other project partners should take people’s concerns seriously and work towards sustainable development by improving the livelihood security of the local communities and ensuring environmental sustainability."
      Author/creator: Robert Finch, Alex Moodie, Rebeca Leonard, Luntharimar Longcharoen, Jessica Armour, Ratawit Oouprachanon, Areewan Sombunwattanakun, Napawan Sittisak, Surapongma,n
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Dawei Development Association (DDA)
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2014


      Title: Myanmar seeks new Dawei SEZ partners
      Date of publication: 03 December 2013
      Description/subject: "Myanmar is allowing international investors to bid for a mammoth project to develop a special economic zone in its southernmost region following the withdrawal of the sole developer, a Thai company, which had been unable to secure partners for the venture, an official said on Monday. Chairman of the Management Committee of Dawei SEZ Han Sein told a press conference in Yangon that developer Italian-Thai Development Pcl - Thailand's largest construction group - had terminated its work on the project in Myanmar's Tanintharyi region to make way for international bidders. "Myanmar Port Authorities [MPA] and Italian-Thai had an agreement in place to work on this project previously," Han Sein, who is also Myanmar's deputy minister of transport, said at the MPA office. "We ended this [agreement] because we want [to open the project up to] international investment," he said. Plans for the Dawei SEZ include a deep-sea port, industrial zone, steel plant, fertilizer plant, coal and natural gas-fired power plant and water supply system. The SEZ will have a motorway linked to Thailand's Kanchaburi province, as well as a railroad hub, links to oil and gas pipelines, and electrical cable lines..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Lwin Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


      Title: Dawei SEZ Development Costs Soar to $10.7 Billion
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "A Thai government study says the investment costs of the much-delayed Dawei port and industrial special economic zone in southeast Burma have risen to US $10.7 billion, up from $6.6 billion projected two years ago, The Nation reports. Of the total expenditure $8.2 billion would be spent in Burma, while the remainder would cover transport and power-connections in Thailand. The first project phase, which is scheduled to end in 2015, would cost $6.8 billion. Burma is seeking to replace the previous Italian-Thai project developer with a new holding company comprising the Burmese government, Thai state-owned companies and Japanese investors."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.nationmultimedia.com/business/NESDB-puts-Dawei-project-investment-cost-at-Bt350--3019760...
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Title: NESDB puts Dawei project investment cost at Bt350 billion
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "NAKARIN SRILERT THE NATION January 10, 2013 1:00 am The combined Dawei deep-sea port and industrial-estate project will require an investment of Bt350 billion, according to an estimate by the National Economic and Social Development Board. This is far higher than the earlier estimate of Bt200 billion from Italian-Thai Development, which has won the concession from the Myanmar authorities to develop the facilities. Charnwit Amatamatuchart, deputy secretary-general of the NESDB and among the officials summoned yesterday to the House committee on economic development, said the investment amount had been increased as the overall project would encompass many other projects, including a first-phase 33-megawatt power plant and a cogenerating power plant of 180MW. The two facilities are together worth Bt32 billion, he said..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Nation"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/23695
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Title: 30,000 Dawei Villagers Forced Out by June
      Date of publication: 07 November 2012
      Description/subject: "The forced relocation of more than 30,000 villagers by southern Burma’s Dawei deep-sea port project will take place before June next year, says Dawei Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Support Team Chairman Tin Maung Swe. A total of 16 villages in Yaybyu and Longlon townships in Dawei Province of Tanintharyi Division will be moved to three new locations, he told The Irrawaddy on Wednesday. Tin Maung Swe explained that “two new villages are under construction and some will start moving before the next academic year,” which begins in June. The new residential zones are being built in accordance with the development of a “town plan” and the villagers will be moved after electricity, water supplies and telecommunication are in place, he said..."
      Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


      Title: Our Concern: rights of local villagers trampled by Dawei Development (video)
      Date of publication: 15 October 2012
      Description/subject: Photos of the Dawei SEZ plans, video of Ital-Thai road construction and earth-moving operations, statements by local villagers (not consulted about the project) resisting the project.
      Language: English, Karen
      Source/publisher: Kwekalu.net, "Burma Issues"
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (13 minutes, 49 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 05 January 2013


      Title: Thailand, Burma agree to stronger coordination on Dawei project
      Date of publication: 28 September 2012
      Description/subject: "Thailand and Burma agreed to put together a high-level coordinating committee to speed up the Dawei deep-sea port project, following a meeting between Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra and Burma’s President Thein Sein on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly meeting in New York on Thursday..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima News
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


      Title: Exclusive: Japan, Thailand race to rescue of Myanmar's struggling Dawei
      Date of publication: 21 September 2012
      Description/subject: "After months of negotiations and failed promises, a proposed multi-billion dollar Myanmar port and special economic zone that could transform Southeast Asian trade appears back on track. Thai banks aim to keep the project afloat with short-term loans until an expected Japanese loan of up to $3.2 billion can be secured, officials and sources famliar with negotiations told Reuters. Thailand's largest construction firm, Italian-Thai Development Pcl, signed a deal in 2010 to build a deep-sea port and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in southern Myanmar's coastal Dawei into Southeast Asia's largest industrial complex. But the project foundered, as the Thai builder failed to secure $8.5 billion to finance construction of its first phase -- roads, utilities and a port. Underlining Dawei's strategic importance, Japan and Thailand have since intervened to rescue the project. "Italian-Thai has had difficulty in mobilizing the funding. So now the Thai government has effectively taken over the project," Thaung Lwin, chairman of the Dawei SEZ told Reuters. "The next step is to invite Japan", which he said is committed to seeing the project succeed. Since the Thai and Myanmar governments agreed on July 23 to connect Dawei to the Thai port of Laem Chabang, 100 km southeast of Bangkok, Thai banks led by Bangkok Bank and Siam Commercial Bank have arranged a 10 billion baht ($325 million) bridge loan to sustain it for another 8-10 months, Somjet Thinaphong, managing director of the Dawei Development Co, an Ital-Thai unit, told Reuters in an interview...Just months ago, the project was nearly left for dead, a casualty of simmering local resentment and fragile financial backing. About 30,000 people, mostly impoverished rice, cashew and rubber farmers living in thatch-roof huts, are slated to be moved during 10 years of planned construction. In the Dawei region, many worry about the potential environmental toll and health risks from a project that would be four times bigger than Thailand's largest industrial estate, Map Ta Phut, where pollution between 1996 and 2009 may have contributed to at least 2,000 cancer-related deaths, according to environmental activists who sought legal action to halt the estate in 2009..."
      Author/creator: Jason Szep and Amy Sawitta Lefevre
      Source/publisher: Reuters
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Dawei deep-sea port and industrial zone project in southeastern Burma
      Date of publication: 03 September 2012
      Description/subject: This piece focuses on under-analysed aspects of the Dawei deep-sea port and industrial zone project in southeastern Burma. The first part focuses on Italian-Thai Development, the lead developer of the Dawei project. Part 2 looks at the project from a labour perspective, while Part 3 focuses on women's and gender issues in Dawei.
      Author/creator: Soe Lin Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Soe Lin Aung
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Land Grabbing in Dawei (Myanmar/Burma): a (Inter) National Human Rights Concern
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: "Land grabbing is an urgent concern for people in Tanintharyi Division, and ultimately one of national and international concern, as tens of thousands of people are being displaced for the Dawei Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Dawei lies within Myanmar’s (Burma) southernmost region, the Tanintharyi Division, which borders Mon State to the North, and Thailand to the East, on territory that connects the Malay Peninsula with mainland Asia. This highly populated and prosperous region is significant because of its ecologically-diversity and strategic position along the Andaman coast. Since 2008 the area has been at risk of massive expulsion of people and unprecedented environmental costs, when a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Thai and Myanmar governments, followed by a MoU between Thai investor Italian-Thai Development Corporation (ITD) (see Box 1) and Myanma Port Authority, granted ITD access to the Dawei region to build Asia’s newest regional hub. Thai interest in Dawei is strategic for two reasons. First, the small city happens to be Bangkok’s nearest gateway to the Andaman Sea, and ultimately to India and the Middle East. Second, the project links with a broader regional development plan, strategically plugging into the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) East-West Economic Corridor, a massive transport and trade network connecting Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam; the Southern Economic Corridor (connecting to Cambodia); and the North-South Economic Corridor, with rail links to Kunming, China. If all goes as planned, the Dawei SEZ project, with an estimated infrastructural investment of over USD $50 billion will be Southeast Asia’s largest industrial complex, complete with a deep seaport, industrial estate (including large petrochemical industrial complex, heavy industry zone, oil and gas industry, as well as medium and light industries), and a road/pipeline/rail link that will extend 350 kilometers to Bangkok (via Kanchanaburi). The project even has its own legal framework, the Dawei Special Economic Zone Law, drafted in 2011 to ensure the industrial estate is attractive to potential investors..."
      Author/creator: Elizabeth Loewen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Paung Ku and Transnational Institute (TNI)
      Format/size: pdf (164K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org
      Date of entry/update: 15 October 2012


      Title: Dawei helps Thailand become auto hub
      Date of publication: 01 August 2012
      Description/subject: "The Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) has thrown its full support behind a rail network linking Laem Chabang with Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast. The TDRI says the route will support Thailand's ambition of becoming the region's automotive and logistics hub. However, Narong Pomlaktong, the TDRI's research director of transport and logistics, said the 427-kilometre route should be extended by another 877 km to connect with Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


      Title: Conference and Photography exhibit highlight Dangers of Dawei Seaport
      Date of publication: 27 July 2012
      Description/subject: "Landscape photography taken in Dawei in the southern part of Burma was exhibited at a two-day conference in Chiang Mai addressing the Dawei Seaport and Special Economic Zone. The photos captured images of marine life, pristine beaches, and local people who fish and garden for their livelihoods. The activists from the Dawei Development Association (DDA) also displayed photos of environments that have been destroyed by the development project. “We intend to let people know what is going on, like issues of land confiscation and unequal of compensation, forced relocation, and environmental pollution. This is why we are here,” said Ko Lay Lwin, a coordinator of DDA. Ko Lay Lwin continued that the Italian-Thai Development Company (ITD), the lead developer working on the Dawei projects, will build a dam in the area of Nabule that will destroy Ko lone ta village. The area is the primary construction site for the special economic zone, for which the dam is meant to provide water. “Due to the dam construction, we are worried that all the village will be underwater.” He also said that the village was established by ethnic Karen in Dawei many decades ago, and is a very peaceful place with much marine and wildlife..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kaowao Newsgroup
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2012


      Title: Development, Democracy, and Human Security in Myanmar: A Case Study of the Dawei Special Economic Zone
      Date of publication: 27 July 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is in the process of ending a two-decade long military rule and the country’s transition to democracy is now at a critical juncture. With a promise to establish clean government and good governance, Myanmar’s government has initiated dramatic political, social and economic reforms. Acknowledging that the economy lagged behind other countries in the ASEAN region, the Myanmar government has sought opportunities to re-engage with the regional and global economy. Along with key economic reforms in the areas of fiscal and monetary policies, the government has significantly reduced restrictions on foreign direct investments (FDI), allowing a hundred percent ownership of a foreign companies in Myanmar. The government has also created new Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in the coastal regions to attract FDI with unprecedented packages of tax exemptions and other investment incentives to end the long-term economic stagnation of the country. With the vision to become the regional hub of industry, trade and logistics, the government of Thailand and Myanmar agreed to construct a new special economic zone and deep seaport in Dawei on the southern Andaman coastline of Myanmar, connected via road and rail links to Kanchanaburi of Thailand. In this bilateral cross-border investment project, the Myanmar government granted a 60-year concession to Thailand’s construction company Italian-Thai Development Public Co., Ltd. (ITD) to develop the infrastructure and manage the Dawei deep seaport and SEZ. This mega project started conducting a site survey in 2008 and estimated an initial investment of more than US $8 billion was necessary for infrastructure development. This paper identifies the potential risks and benefits of the Dawei Deep Seaport and SEZ, in particular from the perspective of local communities, the Thai and Myanmar Governments and the project developers. The paper reviews the recent political and economic reforms in Myanmar, and their implications for trends in Thailand – Myanmar trade relations. The development of the Dawei project is mapped out chronologically against Myanmar’s changing political economy to explore the context of the project’s decision-making process to date. The paper identifies a range of issues associated with the project related to political risk and various dimensions of human security including: the rule of law, the quality of foreign investments, energy, land acquisition, involuntary resettlement, compensation and environmental challenges. The paper concludes that to date key decision makers from the two governments and the ITD have focused heavily on the economic benefits of the project, paying significantly less attention to the environmental and socio-cultural impacts, and that if the project were to proceed, far greater regard needs to be played to public participation and the role of civil society."
      Author/creator: Naruemon Thabchumpon, Carl Middleton and Zaw Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2nd International Conference on International Relations and Development (Chiang Mai, 26-27 July 2012)
      Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.icird.org/2012/abstracts_authors.html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: Complaint letter to Burma government about value of agricultural land destroyed by Tavoy highway
      Date of publication: 24 July 2012
      Description/subject: "The complaint letter below, signed by 25 local community members, was written in July 2011 and raises villagers' concerns related to the construction of the Kanchanaburi – Tavoy [Dawei] highway linking Thailand and the Tavoy deep sea port. Villagers described concerns that the highway would bisect agricultural land and destroy crops under cultivation worth 3,280,500 kyat (US $3,657). In response to these concerns, local community members formed a group called the 'Village and Public Sustainable Development' to represent villagers' concerns and request compensation."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b69.html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: ADB: Don't rush Dawei - Sufficient time needed to do it right
      Date of publication: 22 June 2012
      Description/subject: "The capital-intensive Dawei project in Myanmar needs time to ensure adequate preparation, while investment and assurance from relevant governments are also critical, says the Asian Development Bank. The ADB, which is part of the Greater Mekong Subregion secretariat, has concluded that the GMS's Southern Economic Corridor should be extended to include Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast, said Arjun Goswami, the bank's director of regional cooperation and operations coordination in Southeast Asia. But he said this type of large infrastructure project requires time for good preparation and careful planning. For example, the preparation stage for the Nam Theun 2 hydropower project in Laos lasted 10 years. "The project needs to complete all feasibility studies including environmental and social impact assessments as well as due diligence. You should not rush into it," Mr Goswami told Euromoney's Greater Mekong Investment Forum..."
      Author/creator: Nareerat Wiriyapong
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 June 2012


      Title: 88 Generation Leaders Hear Dawei Fears
      Date of publication: 19 May 2012
      Description/subject: "Residents of Dawei, the southern seaport that is set to become the site of Burma’s largest industrial zone, say they welcome the opportunities the project may bring but worry that it could cost them their land and livelihoods, according to members of a leading activist group. The residents expressed their concerns during a series of briefings held by the 88 Generation Students Group, which has been touring the Dawei region since May 15. Their trip is expected to end on Saturday. Dawei—also known as Tavoy—is the the site of a US $50 billion deep-sea port and industrial complex that will be built by Italian-Thai Development Plc (ITD), Thailand’s biggest construction company. Pyone Cho, a leading member of the 88 Generation Students Group, told The Irrawaddy on Friday that many local residents came to meet them when they held public briefings about peace and the emergence of an open society in every village they visited. The villagers also spoke out frankly about the difficulties they are facing—especially their concerns about the planned construction of a special economic zone near Dawei. “The common problem they are facing now is land confiscation. They said they accept the development, but they also fear that they will lose their living and rights to property,” said Pyone Cho..."
      Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: NO RIGHTS TO KNOW: The Collective Voices of Local People from the Dawei Special Economic Zone
      Date of publication: April 2012
      Description/subject: "...The Dawei Special Economic Zone (Dawei SEZ) will be implemented with a joint venture between Thai companies and Burmese companies and business cronies close to the regime. Accordingly to the source from Rangoon (Yangon), one of the regime’s closest cronies, Max Myanmar Company headed by Zaw Zaw, have already been awarded huge contracts related to the Dawei project along with Italia-Thai company. Zaw Zaw also accompanied with Burma’s top generals on a tour of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in China in 2011...The Tavoy deep seaport and special industries lie in Yebyu township and is between Tavoy town in the south and Yatana pipeline in the north. 213.7 square meters comprises two town quarters in Yebyu Town, 11 village tracks in Yebyu Township and one village track in eastern part of project site in Long-lon Township. In the project site, a population of 30,000 will be directly affected, comprising of 21 communities and about 5,500 families. In order to go ahead with the project the Burmese government authorities and the companies will move the communities out to make way for the project site. The ethnic Tavoyan people are the majority affected population in coastal areas and many Karen communities in the eastern part of project site will be seriously affected by the dam construction and road construction to Thailand. However, when the Dawei Project Watch’s (DPW) field workers (reporters) traveled to the area and conducted interviews especially with the Tavoyan and Mon villagers they found that the villagers had no idea what would happen to them..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Dawei Project Watch
      Format/size: pdf (8.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/N0_Rights_to_Know-Dawei-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 June 2012


      Title: Dawei Deep Seaport & Industrial Estate Development Project, February-2012
      Date of publication: February 2012
      Description/subject: DAWEI AND THE REGION... GMS Southern Corridor: Road link to Thailand... Asia Regional Hub... DAWEI PROJECT OVERVIEW... PROJECT OVERVIEW AND FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT... DAWEI SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE STRUCTURE... LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF DSEZ LAW... DSEZ LAW INVESTMENT PROMOTION... PROJECT INVESTIGATION... ITD INVESTIGATION – SITE SELECTION... PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PLAN... BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE PREPARATION... DAWEI PROJECT ACCESS ROAD... CORRIDOR LINK TO THAILAND... RESERVOIR AND WATER SUPPLY... POWER DEVELOPMENT PLAN... PROJECT LAYOUT... DAWEI DEEP SEA PORT... DAWEI ROAD LINK... TOWNSHIP DEVELOPMENT... LOCAL TOWNSHIP... DAWEI EXPATRIATE TOWNSHIP... ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT... BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY FOR INVESTORS... DAWEI PROJECT INVESTMENT STRUCTURE... WORK PROGRESS AND PHOTOS... SITE PHOTO... SOIL BORING... ROAD LINK SURVEY AND CLEARING... VISITOR CENTER... ITD CAMP AND LOCAL ROAD IN DSEZ... TEMPORARY BRIDGE CROSSING DAWEI RIVER... DAWEI SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE STRUCTURE
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (1.63MB)
      Date of entry/update: 27 September 2012


      Title: Newly Emerging Industrial Development Nodes in Myanmar: Ports, Roads, Industrial Zones along Economic Corridors
      Date of publication: 2012
      Description/subject: Introduction 1. Dawei 2. Kyauk Phyu 3. Sittway 4. Thilawa 5. Monywa 6. Pakokku 7. Challenges of Connectivity Conclusion....."Considering the cross-border transport infrastructure in East Asia, the location of Myanmar is crucial in connecting China, India and ASEAN countries. As a matter of fact, neighbouring countries have started infrastructure investment in Myanmar. Thailand is enthusiastic in developing deep sea ports and industrial complexes at Dawei, which will create a new alternative international trade route other than the present maritime route through the Malacca Strait. China has undertaken the deep sea port at Kyauk Phyu and the pipeline to Yunnan Province in order to build a logistic route to supply energy such as petroleum from Middle East and natural gas from the Shwe Gas Project near Kyauk Phyu. And China is also interested in investing in the port and industrial complex at Thilawa, a city located about 30 km from Yangon, and now it will appear as a special economic zone (SEZ). India has started to develop the port of Sittway in order to open a gateway from the northeastern part of India and link to a sea line through the Kaladan River and Sittway Port. The development of these port areas increases the connectivity among Thailand, India, China and Myanmar. In addition, the cities on the opposite shore of the Ayeyawady River, such as Monywa and Pakokku, have obtained a better possibility of being industrialized by constructing new bridges. On the other hand, the government of Myanmar has issued the Special Economic Zone Law and the Dawei Special Economic Zone Law. Similar laws for Thilawa and Kyauk Phyu would be enacted. The purpose of this study is to make clear the government plan for regional 187 ." development in Myanmar, and examine the connectivity between the designated regions . " and metropolises such as Yangon and Mandalay and the potential for industrial development on the routes to metropolises. In order to realize further industrialization and smooth logistics in the metropolitan area, it is necessary to point out the locations of industrial estates, ports and harbors, and airports. At the same time, the supply and demand of the infrastructure should be important. On the other hand, the development of roads and city planning has to accompany the growth of the region. In order to identify these challenges, a field survey was conducted in some local cities and ports of Yangon in August 20 11, collecting various data on industrial estates, ports and harbors, airports, roads, railways and other development projects. 1 This chapter describes the situation of 4 local cities in Myanmar; Dawei, Kyauk Phyu, Monywa and Pakokku; and identifies their potential as emerging development nodes of new economic corridors in Myanmar as well as in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)..."
      Author/creator: Aung Min and Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Emerging Economic Corridors in the Mekong Region, edited by Masami Ishida, BRC Research Report No.8, Bangkok Research Center, IDE-JETRO, Bangkok, Thailand.
      Format/size: pdf (1.01MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/08.html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED - Annual Report 2011
      Date of publication: 31 December 2011
      Description/subject: Corporate Information ... Summary of Financial Information ... Message from the President ... Organization Chart ...Nature of Business ... Review of Construction Operation for 2011... Shareholders and The Management... Board of Directors and Board of Management... Number of Shares Held by ITD Directors and Directors Remuneration... Report of the Audit Committee For the Year 2011... Report of the Risk Management Committee... Marketing and Competition... Risk Factors... Sales Structure ... ITD Investment in Related Companies... Related Party Transaction... Management’ s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition... As at December 31, 2011... Auditors’ Remuneration... Dividend Policy... The Board of Director’s Report on their Responsibilities for Financial Reports for the year 2011... Report of Independent Auditor... Financial Statement
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED
      Format/size: pdf (7.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.itd.co.th/annual_report/AR_ENG/ar-2010-e.pdf
      [Google site-specific search results for Dawei] https://www.google.co.uk/#hl=en&sclient=psy-ab&q=Dawei+site:itd.co.th%2F&oq=Dawei+site:...
      Date of entry/update: 29 September 2012


      Title: Italian-Thai Development Public Company Limited Profile Dawei Deep Seaport & Industrial Estate Project
      Date of publication: 21 October 2011
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (516K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 September 2012


      Title: Second regular session of First Pyithu Hluttaw continues for 12th day. 10 questions raised and answered, amendment bill approved, two proposals discussed, three new proposals submitted
      Date of publication: 07 September 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pyithu Hluttaw via "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (117K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2011


      Title: Dawei Special Economic Zone: Its Prospects and Challenges
      Date of publication: 19 August 2011
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Burma/Myanmar is now in its critical juncture of the transition from the military rule to the civilian governance. The country has turned to the direction of reestablishing the democratic characteristics such as the introduction of a new constitution and electoral system, the formation of the political parties, election process, and the establishment of the new bicameral parliament and a civilian government as well as regional parliaments and governments. Other new institutions such as the election commission, constitutional court and financial commission are now in place. However, there are parties domestically and internationally that largely viewed the country’s political changes as nominal. Despite that, the new government recently acknowledged that the country’s economy has been lagged behind other countries in the region and planned to take a further step to gain the economic growth by creating the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) specifically to attract the foreign direct investments (FDIs) with the unprecedented package of tax exemptions and other investment incentives in order to end the long-stagnant economic condition. In the past two decades, the country has been encountering the endless debates on what should be prioritized between democracy and development. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the pro-democracy movement, holds the policy that democracy and development must go hand-in-hand, but prioritizes that the restoration of the democratic institutions is a must for the right discourse of development. This policy believed that development under the weak democratic institutions with the lack of transparency, accountability and the rule of law couldn’t be sustainable. However, practicing the authoritarian governance for half a century, the military leaders believe that “economic growth” as a form of development in their definition is a prerequisite to democratization. Inheriting the legacy of the military regime, the new government is reluctant to speed up the democratic reforms which they may feel could loosen their power centralized on the basis of the military institution. The two different policies have so far been unable to be reconciled each other. However, with the establishment of the Dawei Special Economic Zone (DSEZ), the government has taken a step forward to liberalize the market with the intention to engage more with the regional and global markets. But it is still a partial economic liberalization, delinking the SEZs with the rest domestic economy in order to protect the weak domestic market from the adverse impacts of the stronger multinational companies. The two central issues that this paper will examine are whether the new government’s SEZ model could really take off the economy while this industrialization plan could maintain the livelihoods security and sustainable development of the local communities." Key Words: Dawei Special Economic Zone, industrialization, involuntary resettlement, human security, and sustainable development
      Author/creator: Zaw Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 4th International Conference on Human Rights & Human Development
      Format/size: pdf (689K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Dawei Deep Seaport & Industrial Estate Development Project (June - 2011)
      Date of publication: June 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED & DAWEI DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LIMITED
      Format/size: pdf (1.66MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 September 2012


      Title: Land Survey Department research near Tavoy spark fears of impending land confiscation
      Date of publication: 18 January 2011
      Description/subject: "In early January representatives from the local land-surveying department in Tennaserim Division, visited villages that fall within the project area of Thai-Italian Development Company’s slated Tavoy deep-sea port project. While only preliminary information has been collected, residents see the research as a warning sign of the imminent seizer of their land. Without compensation the livelihoods of Tavoy’s landowners would be destroyed, and already, there are indications that the numbers of residents fleeing the area for migrant work in Thailand, has increased..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Rehmonnya
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED - Annual Report 2010
      Date of publication: 31 December 2010
      Description/subject: In terms of overseas markets, the Company was successful being awarded a 75 years concession to develop the Dawei Project in Myanmar... The Company was granted a 75 years concession to develop the Dawei Project in Myanmar, including a deep sea port, road, rail, industrial complex and power plant.... In Myanmar, the Company was granted the concession to develop the Dawei Project, which is worth more than USD 50,000 Million, and is currently undertaking coal mining and power plant projects.... In November 2010, the Company entered into Framework agreement with Myanma Port Authority to develop the Dawei Deep Sea Port, Industrial Estate and Road link between Thai and Union of Myanmar. The project shall be built, operated and transferred (BOT). Myanma Port Authority establishes the Dawei special economic zone (DSEZ), with investment incentive and promotion privilege tax. The Company, holding the concession, will invite suitable potential partners to invest and operate in each activity accordingly.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ITALIAN-THAI DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED
      Format/size: pdf (1.41MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 September 2012


      Title: Land price increase in Tavoy deep seaport area
      Date of publication: 2010
      Description/subject: Rai Maroah: Land prices around the Tavoy Deep Seaport Project Area in Tavoy Township, Tenasserim Division (southern Burma) has increased tenfold since the project, which will begin construction in 2011, started. Wealthy Rangoon residents are still buying land even after the price increase, explained a resident who wished to buy land in the area. Yet, currently, it has been difficult to purchase land in the project area..."...UNDAATED. PERHAPS 2010
      Source/publisher: IMNA
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Dawei Deep Sea Port, Industrial Zone Development and the Environmental Pollution That should be CAUTIONED
      Description/subject: 1. The locations and physical features of Dawei Deep Sea Port and the Zonal Industrial.... 2. Environmental Assessment and norms of Zonal Industrial workplace... 3. Grounds and evidence for environmental pollution... 4. Instructions for industries in Dawei Special Economic Zone to prevent destructions and pollution... 4.1. Instructions and control on water pollution by the waste products from the factories... 4.2. Instructions and control on the pollution of the air caused by the gases emitted from the factories... 4.3. Instructions and control on the pollution of the soil caused by the waste products produced from the factories 4.4. Controlling the poisonous waste products coming out from the factories... 5. Law related on prevention and controlling on environmental pollution caused by industries in the Dawe special economic zone... 6. Evaluation and future prospects
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (843K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 September 2012


      Title: Dawei Integrated Regional Development
      Author/creator: Prof.Dr. Aung Tun Thet
      Language: English
      Format/size: pdf (833K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 September 2012


    • Other Special Economic Zones

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar Thilawa SEZ
      Description/subject: "The Thilawa Special Economic Zone - located on the outskirts of Yangon - is the first Special Economic Zone (SEZ) to be built in Myanmar, and will be fully (commercially) operational within 2015. Inside Thilawa SEZ, (where) both (the) hard and soft infrastructure - from roads and utilities to supporting services such as maintenance - will be developed up to the international standard..."..... "Demand for Thilawa SEZ land tremendously increased... Thilawa Management Committee provides students from Project Affected Households and other Project Affected Persons (other family members) with assistance... Local initial public offering of Thilawa SEZ Public Company completed successfully... Jobs open up for Project Affected Persons (PAPs)... Three Japanese industrial biggies will launch special economic zone in Myanmar..... Latest Download: Environmental Impact Assessment.pdf... Basic facts about Thilawa SEZ development (Myanmar version) PDF... Resettlement Work Plan PDF... Myanmar SEZ Law PDF.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: http://myanmarthilawa.com/
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: Evictions at Thilawa push families into poverty
      Date of publication: 02 December 2014
      Description/subject: "...I visited the [Thilawa] relocation site last month and met several families who told me that the loss of their farmland has meant not only that they have no more income, but that they are now unable to feed their families. The results of a survey conducted by Physicians for Human Rights bear out the individual stories I heard. After displacement average household income plummeted by 78 percent among those displaced and 14 of 29 families surveyed dropped below the poverty line. Adding to the concerns of the families, the sanitary conditions at their new homes fail to meet the minimum standards for a refugee camp, much less for permanent relocation. These conditions were avoidable if the Myanmar and Japanese governments had followed international standards on forced displacement. Although both governments have committed to comply with the international guidelines regarding displacement, neither did so at Thilawa. These standards include ensuring that those moved are no worse off following relocation and that they should benefit from the development process on a sustainable basis. While initial compensation and housing was provided to these families, they are clearly worse off and have no sustainable way to provide for themselves following displacement. JICA released its own report on the status of the displaced families in which it refuted allegations of non-compliance with its own environmental and social standards. Specifically, JICA claims that Thilawa villagers were not intimidated during the relocation process. Yet every family I spoke with and 93 percent of those surveyed by PHR reported that they felt threatened or afraid of what would happen if they refused to move..."
      Author/creator: DeDe Dunevant
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2014


      Title: A Foreseeable Disaster in Burma: Forced Displacement in the Thilawa Special Economic Zone
      Date of publication: November 2014
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "The displacement in Thilawa took place amid a broader climate of state-sponsored abuse in Burma, where people have no recourse to challenge illegal government action. Specifically, the displacement process in Thilawa violated residents’ human rights, negatively affected their ability to provide for themselves, and resulted in deteriorating food security and limited ability to access health care. The TSEZMC will relocate 846 more households when development begins on phase two of the project. If the TSEZMC, the Burmese government, and JICA continue to operate as they did in the first phase of the project, these households will suffer the same fate. Burma requires economic development, but given the historical context of forced displacement, impunity for human rights violations, weak rule of law, and corruption, there is great risk that economic development projects will benefit a select few in power at the expense of deepened deprivation and poverty for many others. Although the results of this survey cannot be generalized for the country as a whole, the survey does highlight risks inherent to any major development project in Burma. Having recently emerged from more than 50 years of military dictatorship, it will take time and commitment to build a strong civil society that is capable of educating people in Burma about their rights. Residents generally fear their government, which for decades has controlled the population by force. The government has yet to implement sufficient mechanisms to protect people from human rights abuses and ensure justice for victims. Given this context, any development project in the country carries great risk of human rights violations. JICA and other organizations implementing such projects should make every effort to proactively identify the potential negative outcomes and consult with the affected community about how best to minimize or eliminate these risks. The Thilawa case suggests that foreign organizations cannot rely on the Burmese government to protect the human rights of forcibly displaced populations..."
      Author/creator: Andrea Gittleman, Widney Brown
      Language: English, Japanese
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
      Format/size: pdf (557K-English version; 334K-Japanese reduced version; 2.32MB-Japanese original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/PHR-2014-11-Burma-Thilawa_Report-jp-red.pdf
      https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_Reports/Burma-Thilawa-English-Report-Nov2014.pdf
      https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_Reports/burma-displacement-report-japanese-2014.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 November 2014


      Title: Investigation Report - Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project
      Date of publication: November 2014
      Description/subject: Investigation Report Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project In The Republic of the Union of Myanmar November 2014 The Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations.....To ensure compliance with the “Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations” published in April 2010 (hereinafter referred to as the “Guidelines”) of Japan International Cooperation Agency (hereinafter referred to as “JICA”), JICA has appointed external examiners for the Guidelines (hereinafter referred to as the “Examiners”), who are to report their findings directly to the President of JICA (hereinafter referred to as the “President”) and are independent from the departments of JICA responsible for individual projects and environmental analysis (hereinafter referred to as the “Operational Departments”).
      Author/creator: The Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations
      Language: English (original is in Japanese)
      Source/publisher: Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/social_environmental/guideline/pdf/guideline100326.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/JICA_Guidelines-en.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


      Title: Kyaukphyu SEZ ‘Key’ to China Business Corridor, But Doubts Remain
      Date of publication: 19 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Kyaukphyu port on Burma’s western coast could play a key role in a Beijing-led economic corridor plan linking neighbors India, Bangladesh and China. But economists and foreign policy analysts are divided over whether the Naypyidaw government’s ambitions for a special economic zone (SEZ) around Kyaukphyu in Arakan State are viable. The so-called BCIM Corridor, for Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar, was a key issue of discussion by China’s President Xi Jinping this week on a rare visit to India by a Chinese head of state. A pivotal spot along the corridor would be Mandalay, linking China’s Yunnan province capital Kunming with northeast India and on into Bangladesh. But observers see the BCIM proposal as also instrumental in giving China access to the Indian Ocean. The BCIM is a grand plan for Beijing to “gain access to multiple coastal zones that are considered crucial for the next-generation Chinese economy,” commented India’s Telegraph business newspaper. Within Burma this points to Kyaukphyu for the Chinese, who have already built a crude oil transshipment terminal there as well as controversial oil and gas pipelines that start at Kyaukphyu and run the length of Burma into Yunnan... However, Chinese plans for a railway linking Yunnan with Kyaukphyu have soured amid a cooling relationship between Naypyidaw and Beijing..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014


      Title: Burma Economic Zone to ‘Go Down in History'
      Date of publication: 04 November 2013
      Description/subject: "Burma’s first special economic zone is set to begin operations next month on a sprawling complex about 25 kilometers south of Rangoon, and Set Aung is playing a major role. As chairman of the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) management committee, he has helped oversee preparations to launch the Japanese-backed zone, which is 51 percent Burmese owned and will include a deep sea port, factories and large housing projects. The Thilawa SEZ has been controversial among local farmers, who say their land was confiscated without proper compensation, but despite complaints the project has moved forward, and last week Japan’s Thilawa SEZ Company Ltd. (JTSC) signed a joint-partnership agreement in Tokyo with Myanmar Thilawa SEZ Holdings Public Ltd. (MTSH). In this interview, Set Aung offers more details about the timeline, investment and possible benefits of the special economic zone, while also responding to allegations of unfair compensation..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Hsu Mon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar's not so special economic zones
      Date of publication: 25 October 2013
      Description/subject: "This is the final article in a two-part series, Myanmar's False Frontier. Part 1: Economic reform as flawed ideology The Framework for Economic and Social Reforms (FESR) announced by Myanmar President Thein Sein earlier this year detailed reforms aimed at fostering the country's transition to a "modern, developed and democratic nation by 2030". Its strategy outlines a series of economic and social measures aimed at achieving macro-economic stability, permissible levels of inflation, and strong industrial growth..."
      Author/creator: David Baulk
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 May 2014


      Title: THILAWA SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT
      Date of publication: September 2013
      Description/subject: "Myanmar government places a priority on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in order to achieve an economical development, especia lly in Thilawa as Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Under these circumstances, Myanmar-Japan consortium have deci ded to develop Thilawa SEZ Class A and carried out Feasibility Study (F/S) for this Project since September in year 2012. Thilawa SEZ is located beside the Thanlyin and Kyauktan towns, about 20 km southeast side of Yangon city. Project area with 400ha is center of Thilawa SEZ with an area of about 2,400 ha. Thilawa SEZ is surrounded by ring road and accompanied with the container ports along the Yangon River. As of September 2013, there is no detailed legal process of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Myanmar. However, Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF) has been drafting the EIA Procedures which is defined detailed legal process regard ing preparation of EIA report, Environmental Management Plan (EMP), public involvement, approval of EIA report by MOECAF, and stakeholder meeting, and monitoring process after approval of EIA report. In this connection, the Project proponent decided to prepare independent EIA report including EMP. Based on the results of F/S, the Terms of Reference (TOR) for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) investigation was agreed between the Project Proponent and MOECAF in the middle of February 2013 and discussed in 1st stakeholder meeting held in April 10th 2013. The field survey was implemented in accordance with the TOR from March to August 2013 and the result of EIA investigation including draft EMP was discussed in 2nd stakeholder meeting held on August 23rd 2013. Then EIA Report was submitted to MOECAF on 30th September 2013 with some modification based on the stakeholders’ comments on Limited EIA Report which was prepared on August 30th 2013. ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: THILAWA SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (CLASS A) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT September 2013 Myanmar and Japan Consortium for Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project
      Format/size: pdf (8.73MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/Thilawa_EIA-2013.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


      Title: Myanmar, Japan to build vast industrial zone
      Date of publication: 21 December 2012
      Description/subject: "Myanmar and Japan agreed to start work next year on a huge industrial zone near Yangon, officials from the two countries said Friday, as the impoverished nation hungrily eyes foreign investment. The 2,400-hectare Thilawa project will include a port and industrial park and be up and running in 2015, according to Japan’s Ministry for Economic, Trade and Industries (METI)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AFP
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


      Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 17 December 2012
      Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


      Title: Rohingya miss boat on development
      Date of publication: 09 November 2012
      Description/subject: "The ethnic conflict that ravaged much of Rakhine State in western Myanmar last month was an opportunity for more than settling old and new scores between Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhines and co-religionist new arrivals from elsewhere in the country. Those involved were also clearing land in a densely populated area that is set to be among the country's prime bits of real estate as energy-related projects start transforming the impoverished state. More than 100 people (some reports indicate many times that number) were killed last month, untold others were wounded, and an estimated 28,000 fled or were driven from their homes in clashes between the stateless Rohingya and Buddhist citizens in a recurrence of violence last June. They are the latest incidents involving evicted ethnic groups around the country weeks before US President Obama visits Myanmar later this month. "The government has taken the opportunity to create more violence allowing a destabilized and vulnerable state which they can then take the natural resources from. This is believed to be the main reason to why so many villages [in Rakhine State] were razed to the ground," the representative of one non-government organization (NGO) told Asia Times Online, citing the source as a Rakhine resident..."
      Author/creator: Syed Tashfin Chowdhury and Chris Stewart
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


      Title: Thilawa SEZ by Early 2013: Govt Official
      Date of publication: 24 October 2012
      Description/subject: "The Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located 25 km south of Rangoon should be operational early next year, Dr. Kan Zaw, Burmese Minister for National Planning and Economic Development, told a seminar on Sunday. The project will be jointly controlled by the Japan External Trade Organization and the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (UMFCCI) with a 49 and 51 percent share respectively, said the government official. “All these instances of sound economics have materialized after we implemented reform,” said Kan Zaw. “We invited international investment. This Thilawa SEZ is the product of creating an investor-friendly environment.” Under the umbrella of the UMFCCI, shareholders of many associations from difference industrial sectors are expected to invest, but critics have complained about a lack of transparency and the possibility of a monopoly..."
      Author/creator: May Lay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 October 2012


      Title: Four more special industrial zones set for Burma
      Date of publication: 03 October 2012
      Description/subject: "Burma plans to set up seven more local industrial zones in addition to the existing 18 in the country, official state-run media said on Wednesday. The seven planned new industrial zones will be located in Tatkon in Naypyitaw, Yadanarbon in Mandalay, Hpa-an, Myawaddy and Phayathonzu in Kayin state, Ponnagyun in Rakhine State and Namoum in Shan state, the Ministry of Industry announced in the New Light of Myanmar. The expansion will bring the number of such zones to 25 in the country, the report said, adding that the new industrial zones will be able to generate many jobs for local residents. Burma also has several special economic zone (SEZ) projects such as Thilawa in Yangon's Thilawa Port, Dawei in southern Taninthayi region and Kyaukphyu in western Rakhine State..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Mizzima" News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


      Title: Three Japanese industrial groups to establish special economic zone in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 02 September 2012
      Description/subject: "Three Japanese industrial and economic groups have reached an agreement with the Myanmar government to jointly establish a special economic zone (SEZ), Thilawa, in Yangon's Thilawa Port, local media Voice reported Sunday. Under the agreement, Japan's Mitsuibishi Corporation, Marubeni Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation will obtain 49 percent of stake to run the 2,400-hectare Thilawa SEZ, while Myanmar entrepreneurs in the form of public company, will take 56 percent, Myanmar's Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry was quoted as saying. The Japanese side will provide financial assistance to the SEZ' s infrastructural development such as factories and workshops and one natural-gas-fired power plant, the report said. In addition to foreign investors, Myanmar government has also invited domestic entrepreneurs to make investment in the project through share. However, the permitted amount of the investment and the duration of the project and other details have not been revealed, the report added..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Business Network
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: Myanmar, foreign companies to implement SEZ in southwestern region
      Date of publication: 19 January 2012
      Description/subject: "Some three Myanmar companies and four foreign ones will jointly implement a special economic zone (SEZ) project in Pathein, southwestern Ayeyawady region in 2013 in a bid to promote national economy, a local media reported Thursday. Two companies from Thailand, one each from China's Hong Kong and Indonesia and Myanmar big companies -- Shwe Than Lwin Co.,Htoo Trading Co.and IGD will be involved in implementing the project named Myanmar Super Axis worth about 5.5 billion U.S. dollars, the 7-Day News said. The project, covering an area of 3,037 hectares and including a deep sea-port, ecotourism and three industrial zones, represents the largest project in the region. The project, which is expected to be completed by 2025, was granted by the Myanmar government. Meanwhile, a special economic zone (SEZ) in Myawaddy, southeastern Kayin State, is also being planned with the cooperation of Thailand. The economic zone also includes the Hpa-an industrial zone and more such zones will follow in Thingan Nyinaung in the same state as well as in Mon, Shan and Tanintharyi states and region."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Xinhua
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012


      Title: Newly Emerging Industrial Development Nodes in Myanmar: Ports, Roads, Industrial Zones along Economic Corridors
      Date of publication: 2012
      Description/subject: Introduction 1. Dawei 2. Kyauk Phyu 3. Sittway 4. Thilawa 5. Monywa 6. Pakokku 7. Challenges of Connectivity Conclusion....."Considering the cross-border transport infrastructure in East Asia, the location of Myanmar is crucial in connecting China, India and ASEAN countries. As a matter of fact, neighbouring countries have started infrastructure investment in Myanmar. Thailand is enthusiastic in developing deep sea ports and industrial complexes at Dawei, which will create a new alternative international trade route other than the present maritime route through the Malacca Strait. China has undertaken the deep sea port at Kyauk Phyu and the pipeline to Yunnan Province in order to build a logistic route to supply energy such as petroleum from Middle East and natural gas from the Shwe Gas Project near Kyauk Phyu. And China is also interested in investing in the port and industrial complex at Thilawa, a city located about 30 km from Yangon, and now it will appear as a special economic zone (SEZ). India has started to develop the port of Sittway in order to open a gateway from the northeastern part of India and link to a sea line through the Kaladan River and Sittway Port. The development of these port areas increases the connectivity among Thailand, India, China and Myanmar. In addition, the cities on the opposite shore of the Ayeyawady River, such as Monywa and Pakokku, have obtained a better possibility of being industrialized by constructing new bridges. On the other hand, the government of Myanmar has issued the Special Economic Zone Law and the Dawei Special Economic Zone Law. Similar laws for Thilawa and Kyauk Phyu would be enacted. The purpose of this study is to make clear the government plan for regional 187 ." development in Myanmar, and examine the connectivity between the designated regions . " and metropolises such as Yangon and Mandalay and the potential for industrial development on the routes to metropolises. In order to realize further industrialization and smooth logistics in the metropolitan area, it is necessary to point out the locations of industrial estates, ports and harbors, and airports. At the same time, the supply and demand of the infrastructure should be important. On the other hand, the development of roads and city planning has to accompany the growth of the region. In order to identify these challenges, a field survey was conducted in some local cities and ports of Yangon in August 20 11, collecting various data on industrial estates, ports and harbors, airports, roads, railways and other development projects. 1 This chapter describes the situation of 4 local cities in Myanmar; Dawei, Kyauk Phyu, Monywa and Pakokku; and identifies their potential as emerging development nodes of new economic corridors in Myanmar as well as in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)..."
      Author/creator: Aung Min and Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Emerging Economic Corridors in the Mekong Region, edited by Masami Ishida, BRC Research Report No.8, Bangkok Research Center, IDE-JETRO, Bangkok, Thailand.
      Format/size: pdf (1.01MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/08.html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: The price of Special Economic Zones
      Date of publication: 03 August 2011
      Description/subject: "A lot have been said about the benefits of establishing a special economic zone (SEZ). It is seen to boost national economy as it would attract foreign investments brought by a much friendlier set of regulations in terms of duties and tariffs which results in an atmosphere more conducive to a smoother influx of goods and services. This may result in employment and, probably, development of new technologies. Establishment of SEZs is part of the Asian Development Bank's "economic corridor" approach to development which includes construction of super highways, railways and transmission lines to hasten trade and investment among countries in a given region. An SEZ complements this development approach as it opens up a country to the global economy. However, there are tradeoffs that may come with SEZs: prostitution, human trafficking, displacement and even drug abuse. Here's a compelling story that provides a glimpse of how SEZs affect local communities. Focusing on Laos, the author shares the impact of establishing SEZs. Without putting the right safeguards in place to hold the government and the ADB accountable, local communities are exposed to exploitation..."
      Author/creator: Burrito
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: Boom or Bust?
      Date of publication: August 2010
      Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
      Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


      Title: GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS
      Date of publication: 01 April 2010
      Description/subject: "...Japan’s ODA Charter states that in formulating and implementing assistance policies, Japan will take steps to assure fairness. This will be achieved by giving consideration to the conditions of the socially vulnerable and to the gap between rich and poor, as well as the gaps among various regions in developing countries. Furthermore, when im plementing ODA, great attention will be paid to factors such as environmental and soci al impacts on developing countries. JICA, which is responsible for ODA, plays a key role in contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. The inclusion of environmental and social costs in development costs and the social and institutional framework that makes such inclusion possible are crucial for sustainable development. Internalization and an institutional framework are requirements for measures regarding environmental and social considerations, and JICA is required to have suitable consideration for environmental and social impacts..."
      Language: English (original is in Japanese)
      Source/publisher: JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)
      Format/size: pdf (248K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/social_environmental/guideline/pdf/guideline100326.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


      Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
      Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (760K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


  • Industrial estates and other zones (excluding SEZs)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN MYANMAR: 1995 – 2005
    Description/subject: "This compendium focuses on recent articles related to the development of industrial estates in the major urban centres of Myanmar. Although the clustering of traditional craft industries was common in towns and cities throughout Burma in the colonial era, it was not until the 1950s that modern industrial complexes such as those in the Pyay district of central Burma and in several parts of Rangoon began to take shape. The displacement of urban core residents and small enterprises that took place in the late fifties also led to the development of industrial sites in satellite towns on the east side of the capital. But it was only in the 1990s, following the opening to privately owned industries by Burma’s military government, that the push to develop industrial zones throughout the country began in earnest. Today there are more than fifty industrial parks scattered throughout the country, about half of them in the area around the national capital. Some, like the new complexes at Indagaw near Bago and the two near Kyaukse in Upper Myanmar are exclusively reserved for state-owned factories. Others are being developed with foreign capital for foreign-owned enterprises or foreign companies that have entered into joint-venture agreements with holding companies of the military government. Most of the new industrial estates are being developed by the Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development of the Ministry of Construction specifically for privately owned industries. Over 6,000 of the 50,000 privately owned manufacturing enterprises in the country are now accommodated in these zones. Recently, several privately owned land development companies have begun their own industrial parks in the Yangon area in collaboration with the DHSHD. The articles in the compendium are arranged in chronological order with the most recently published at the top of the list. The articles have been selected on the basis that they are representative of initiatives and challenges faced in the rapidly developing industrial zones of Myanmar. Internet search engines such as Google will yield many more references on any one of the many zones named here. Researchers should bear in mind that place names in Myanmar are frequently spelled in a variety of ways in English. Thus, the use of different spellings as search words may result in a considerable increase in the amount of information generated."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
    Format/size: html (445K), Word (558K), pdf (786K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.doc
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
    Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
    Format/size: pdf (760K)
    Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
    http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    Title: INDUSTRIAL BELT TAKES SHAPE AROUND CAPITAL
    Date of publication: 17 January 1997
    Description/subject: "...Sources say the industrial zones are creating another headache: forced relocations of villagers. The source says that farmers have been forced to give up their prized land in Mingaladon north of Rangoon to make way for Mitsui's industrial park. "There is no negotiation between the farmers and the government. The govenrment simply puts up a sign saying, 'Everybody must move by this date.' Everybody must obey it or else. Villages are silently angry but they don't dare protest." Adds another local resident, explaining the public mentality about reallocations, "We have to obey the king. When the king says move, we have to move."..."
    Author/creator: B.J. Lee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Nation"
    Format/size: html (22K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 January 2007