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Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Results of a Google site-specific search of UNESCAP for irrigation Myanmar
Description/subject: 139 results for irrigation Myanmar site:unescap.org
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: pdf, html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004

Title: Search results for irrigat* in OBL
Description/subject: 34 results
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Maynmar Library
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004

Title: Search results for irrigation Myanmar in Google
Description/subject: 32,000 results
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004

Title: Search results of a Google site-specific search for irrigation Myanmar on the FAO site
Description/subject: 783 results for Google search irrigation Myanmar site:fao.org
Source/publisher: Google/FAO
Format/size: pdf, html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004

Title: Search results of a site-specific Google search for irrigation Myanmar on the UNDP site.
Description/subject: 71 results for irrigation Myanmar site:undp.org
Source/publisher: Google/UNDP
Format/size: pdf, html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004

Individual Documents

Title: Rich Periphery, Poor Center: Myanmar's Rural Economy
Date of publication: March 2004
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper looks at the case of Myanmar in order to investigate the behavior and welfare of rural households in an economy under transition from a planned to a market system. Myanmar's case is particularly interesting because of the country's unique attempt to preserve a policy of intervention in land transactions and marketing institutions. A sample household survey that we conducted in 2001, covering more than 500 households in eight villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, revealed two paradoxes. First, income levels are higher in villages far from the center than in villages located in regions under the tight control of the central authorities. Second, farmers and villages that emphasize a paddy-based, irrigated cropping system have lower farming incomes than those that do not. The reason for these paradoxes are the distortions created by agricultural policies that restrict land use and the marketing of agricultural produce. Because of these distortions, the transition to a market economy in Myanmar since the late 1980s is only a partial one. The partial transition, which initially led to an increase in output and income from agriculture, revealed its limit in the survey period."...There are 2 versions of this paper. The one placed as the main URL, which also has a later publication date, seems to be longer, though it is about 30K smaller.
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto, Kyosuke Kurita, Takashi Kurosaki and Koichi Fujita
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE ( Institute of Developing Economies) Discussion Paper No. 23
Format/size: pdf (213K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.econ.yale.edu/conference/neudc03/papers/1d-kurosaki.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003

Title: Historical Geography of Burma: Creation of enduring patterns in the Pyu period
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "Pyu civilization flourished during most of the first millennium AD at an urban and complex level, and three patterns established by the Pyu were to leave major imprints on the historical geography of Burma that endured until the late nineteenth century, when the colonial conquest transformed the country demographically and economically. Firstly, the Pyu preferred settlement in the Dry Zone, particularly in the valleys of the tributaries of Burma's greatest rivers; secondly, there was development of a repertoire of Pyu irrigation works operating on a variety of scales and firmly imbedded in social structures as well as in these particular environments and economies; and thirdly, at a time of dominance of Mahayana sects in Indian Buddhism, the Pyus adopted Theravada Buddhism, thereby striking a note that has reverberated in Burma ever since..."
Author/creator: Janice Stargardt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: An Economic Assessment of the Myanmar Rice Sector: Current Developments and Prospects
Date of publication: February 1998
Description/subject: ARKANSAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Division of Agriculture University of Arkansas February 1998 Research Bulletin 958 2.0 STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: IN MYANMAR; 2.1 Natural Resources of Myanmar; 2.2 Social and Economic Conditions in Myanmar; 2.3 General Overview of Rice Sector Development; 2.3.1 Historical Development of Rice Production; 2.3.2 Current Development of Rice Production; 3.0 RICE POLICY IN MYANMAR: 3.1 British Colonial Policy, 1885-1948; 3.2 Post-Independence Policy, 1948-1962; 3.3 Socialist Republic Government Policy, 1962-1988; 3.4 State Law and Order Restoration Council, 1988 to Present; 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN MYANMAR: 4.1 Methods of Rice Cultivation; 4.2 Rice Variety Use and Production Constraints; 4.3 Risks in Deep-Water Rice Farming; 4.4 Problems in Input Supply. 5.0 RICE MARKETING IN MYANMAR: 5.1 Farm Marketing; 5.2 Rice Milling; 5.3 Transport and Storage; 5.4 Production Costs and Marketing Margins; 5.5 Rice Consumption; 5.6 Rice Exports. 6.0 CAPACITY OF LAND AND WATER RESOURCES TO INCREASE RICE PRODUCTION: 6.1 Capacity of Land Resources to Increase Rice Production; 6.2 Capacity of Water Resources to Increase Rice Production; 6.3 Importance of Developing Irrigation. 7.0 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF MYANMAR RICE PRODUCTION: 7.1 Production Response to New Technology; 7.2 Constraints to Increase Technology Use in Rice Production; 7.3 Rice Supply Cost; 7.3.1 Farm Gate Cost; 7.3.2 FOB Export Cost. 8.0 PROJECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE: 8.1 Factors Determining Growth of Rice Production; 8.2 Evidence of Possible Short-Term Increased Production ; 8.3 Outlook for Myanmar Export Market...
Author/creator: Kenneth B. Young, Gail L. Cramer and Eric J. Wailes
Language: English
Source/publisher: Division of Agriculture University of Arkansas
Format/size: pdf (382K) 88 pages
Alternate URLs: http://arkansasagnews.uark.edu/958.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Irrigation O & M and system performance in Southeast Asia: an OED impact study
Date of publication: 27 June 1996
Description/subject: Operations Evaluation Study. "This report discusses six gravity irrigation schemes supported by the World Bank in the paddy lands of Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Its main objective is to assess: (i) the agro-economic impacts of these schemes at least five years after completion of the investment operations, and (ii) the influence of operation and maintenance (O & M) performance on the sustainability of those impacts. The finding that dominates the study has little to do with O & M. Offering poor economics and low incomes, these paddy irrigation schemes face an uncertain future. Improved O & M performance will not rescue them. In fact, the study finds that this causality is being reversed. As the uncompetitiveness of paddy farming drives the younger members off farms and the older members to stay behind and concentrate on basic subsistence crops, social capital will erode and O & M standards are likely to suffer. Based on the study of the six schemes, several recommendations have been made and grouped into the following general categories, then expanded on: (1) to sharpen the response to O & M failures; (2) to simplify the technology of infrastructure and operations; (3) to promote the transfer of management to farmers and their Water User Groups; and (4) to improve household earnings." Keywords: Gravity irrigation; Paddyland; Competitiveness; Agricultural productivity; Household income; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming; Farm management; Rural infrastructure; Agro-economic impacts; Operation & maintenance; Water user groups
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (609K), PDF (12415K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Sustainable Agricultural Development Strategies for the Least Developed Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region: Myanmar
Date of publication: 1995
Description/subject: Conclusion and recommendations: Myanmar, like any other developing country, needs to have sectoral policies, objectives and strategies in agriculture, forestry and fisheries which are based on the present socio-economic, political and administrative situation. The three sectors should be monitored, supervised, evaluated and revised as necessary. The ministries concerned should issue documents that formalize the commitment and intent of the government in ensuring sustainable development of the resources for economic and environmental purposes. Surveys and studies which have not been previously or properly carried out (e.g., water demand in industries, soil sedimentation and rehabilitation) should now be undertaken systematically as part of short- and long-term plans; the results should be officially documented and published. With regard to environmental affairs in Myanmar, the concept is: "Everything possible is being done to prevent environmental degradation and make it a heritage that future generations can enjoy". Myanmar, although included among the least developed countries, is well endowed with natural resources for agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Modern technology and capital investment, coupled with a well-prepared plan and proper management, will lead to sustainable utilization of those resources. Priority should be given to self-sufficiency in food in order to contain domestic prices. When any surplus is exported, proper processing, packaging, storage and transportation are prerequisites to meeting international market requirements and standards. The suggested policies in this report, which have been discussed in detail to bring about better comprehension and serious consideration, could be used as a base to modify and improve and, if found feasible, officially adopted. All government policies on the three sectors must be well-defined, officially and legally documented, published and have theirnotification issued by the government. 74 KB
Author/creator: U Myint Thein, Director-General (Retd), Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Yangon)
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCAP
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003