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Home > Main Library > Agriculture and fisheries > Crops (global and Burma/Myanmar) > Pulses

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Title: Cultivating Inequality (Review of Ikuko Okamoto's "Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar" )
Date of publication: July 2008
Description/subject: A Japanese study illustrates how farmers created an agricultural market in spite of the military government’s bureaucrats... "Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar" by Ikuko Okamoto. National University of Singapore Press, 2008... "THE devastation caused by Cyclone Nargis and spiraling global food prices have placed even more pressure on the agricultural sector of Burma, once the world’s largest rice exporter and potentially one of Asia’s most prodigious producers of agricultural staples. The majority of the Burmese labor pool is in farming, and rice production remains not just a national priority but an obsession of the junta. Successive regimes have attempted a number of initiatives to increase agricultural production, first through disastrous socialist policies, and since 1988 with piecemeal open market reforms which have continued to stifle the true promise of the agricultural sector. Ikuko Okamoto’s book looks at one success story in this sad litany of state failure. Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar is an academic analysis of the rapid increase in production of pulses in one township close to Rangoon. A pulse is a bean, in this case one called pedishwewar, or golden green gram, otherwise known as the mung bean. It is a close study of the relationship between Burmese farm laborers, rural traders, tractor dealers, some available land, rice paddy crops and a fortuitous gap in the global rice market that produced a pulse market where before there was none. The sting is that most of the people on the lower rungs—the farmer-laborers—profited least from their labors. Pulses brought in a total of 3.6 billion kyat (US $3 million) in 2007, mainly due to India, which reduced pulse cultivation, allowing farmers and traders in Burma to fill the demand. Okamoto, a researcher at Japan’s Institute for Developing Economies, spent several years studying production techniques in Thongwa Township, east of Rangoon and home to 64 villages and about 150,000 people. In this well-designed and detailed study, she looks at how the dramatic growth in green gram production produced an export success..."
Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008

Title: Green Gram Rotation Effects on Maize Growth Parameters and Soil Quality in Myanmar
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "At present maize–green gram crop rotations are not widely practiced among farmers in Myanmar. However, this cropping system might become more popular in the future given raising prices for green gram and maize grain and scarcity of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers in this Asian country. The results of a cropping systems experiment with continuous maize versus a green gram-maize rotation, manure application (0 and 2 tha−1) and phosphorus (P) fertilization (0 and 15 kg P ha−1) in each of five consecutive seasons revealed a strong decline in total dry matter and grains yields for both crops irrespective of the treatment. Treatment effects on yield components, nutrient concentrations, mycorrhizal infection and nematode infestation were small or negligible. The data show that in addition to manure used at 2 t ha−1, application of mineral N fertilizers is essential to maintain particularly maize yields. A comparison of different green gram cultivars did not indicate genotype specific effects on maize growth. The incorporation of legume residues, unless they are used as animal feed, is recommended to increase the recycling of N and to balance N fluxes when green gram is cultivated for seed."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics Volume 109, No. 2, 2008, pages 123–137
Format/size: pdf (190K)
Date of entry/update: 08 March 2016