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Economic, Social and Cultural issues
In this and the following sections the material is divided into Texts and Commentary. The texts may be adopted laws ("Laws", "Acts") or bills (legislation proposed but not yet adopted) or implementing instruments ("rules", "regulations", "directives", "notifications", "procedures" etc.)

  • Labour issues

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to labour (commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: International Labour Organisation (OBL main section)
      Description/subject: Several hundred documents on the labour situation in Burma/Myanmar - Observations of the Committee of Experts, International Labour Conference and Governing Body debates and documents etc.
      Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2013


      Title: Normlex (ILO) Myanmar profile
      Description/subject: See also the main OBL section on the ILO
      Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Observation (CEACR) - adopted 2011, published 101st ILC session (2012) Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) - Myanmar (Ratification: 1955)
      Date of publication: March 2012
      Description/subject: Concluding remarks: "The Committee fully endorses the conclusions concerning Myanmar made by the Conference Committee and the Governing Body, as well as the general evaluation of the forced labour situation by the ILO Liaison Officer. The Committee welcomes the positive developments, such as submission to Parliament of the draft legislation repealing the Towns Act and the Village Act of 1907; the expanded awareness-raising activities; the improvements in dealing with under-age recruitment by the military, including release of children and imposition of disciplinary and penal sanctions on military personnel; cooperation in the functioning of the SU complaints mechanism and its further extension for another year. However, the Committee observes that, in spite of the efforts made towards the implementation of the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, the Government has not yet fully implemented these recommendations. Besides the steps taken towards the amendment of the legislation, the Government still has to ensure that, in actual practice, forced labour is no longer imposed by the authorities, in particular by the military; and it still has to ensure that penalties for the exaction of forced labour under the Penal Code are strictly enforced against civil and military authorities. While noting the positive developments referred to above, the Committee urges the Government to redouble its efforts towards the full implementation of the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, by implementing the concrete practical requests addressed by the Committee to the Government. It expresses the firm hope that all the necessary measures will be taken without delay to achieve full compliance with the Convention, both in law and in practice, so as to ensure that all use of forced or compulsory labour in Myanmar is completely eliminated."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2012


  • Education

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to education (commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Monywa Students Protest Education Bill
      Date of publication: 25 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Students from Monywa University in Sagaing Division on Wednesday launched a campaign opposing the National Education Bill. The controversial bill, passed by parliament at the end of July, has been a subject of criticism among educators and students alike. Several student protests have been held around the country, claiming that the new bill would centralise decision-making and grant too much power to the Ministry of Education. Around 50 students from the Monywa University Students’ Union Network on Wednesday distributed leaflets and spoke to fellow students at the gate to the campus, explaining why they believed the National Education Bill should be rejected. “We demand the abolition of the National Education Commission and the Coordination Committee for Higher Education (CCHE), which both centralise control of our education,” said San Wai Phyo, coordinator of the Monywa University Students Union Network. “We want to see the inclusion of articles in the bill that allow freedom to students and lecturers to form associations and unions at their campus.” The protestors at Monywa University also called for a tri-lingual education system – in Burmese, English, and ethnic languages – which, they said, would promote ethnic unity in the multinational Union of Burma. A clause in chapter four of the draft National Education Bill said centralisation of power would be decreased only if teachers and lecturers “display good conduct and attitude”, which students deemed an insult to teachers and education staff. University students across Burma, since March this year, have been campaigning against the bill, even before it was approved by parliament. The CCHE to date has not responded to their calls. San Wai Phyo said the Monywa student protestors will now step up their campaign in solidarity with student associations from other universities."
      Author/creator: Nang Mya Nadi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Democratic Voice of Burma"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: MPs to Vote on Education Bill
      Date of publication: 22 September 2014
      Description/subject: "The National Education Bill was approved by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw on July 31. Faced with the choice of signing it into law or proposing changes, President U Thein Sein sent it back with 25 suggestions. On September 11, the Joint Bill Committee delivered its report to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, recommending representatives approve 19 of the president’s proposed changes and reject six, including one that would delay the full introduction of reforms from 2019 to 2027. U Myat Nyarna Soe, secretary of the Amyotha Hluttaw Education Development Committee, said he was hopeful MPs would vote in line with the committee’s recommendation. “The government needs to undertake reforms to give universities real autonomy within five years,” he said. The Joint Bill Committee also rejected the president’s suggestions to make both primary and middle school free and compulsory, instead advising MPs to opt for the original version, which states that free and compulsory basic education should be implemented “step by step” throughout primary, middle and high school. It also rejected the president’s request to remove a provision requiring the government to get parliamentary approval when forming the National Education Committee, and to place some universities under the responsibility of other government ministries, such as defence and religious affairs. If the original version is maintained, military training schools, such as the elite Defence Service Academy, will become independent."...
      Author/creator: Wa Lone
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Times
      Alternate URLs: www.mmtimes.com
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: Burma’s Teachers Chime in on Education Reform
      Date of publication: 15 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Opposition to Burma’s National Education Bill continues to grow as the draft moves closer to approval. The Myanmar Teachers Federation (MTF) has joined the long list of students and educators that oppose the legislation. “We would like to announce to the people that we strongly believe the National Education Law affects not only the education sector but the entire country and the people,” the MTF said in a statement released on Monday. “Therefore, the Myanmar Teachers Federation will fully cooperate with student unions across the country who are pushing for education reform that will truly benefit the country.” Related Stories The bill, drafted by the government’s Education Promotion Implementation Committee (EPIC) and submitted to parliament in March 2014, was recently passed by both houses of parliament and now awaits the president’s signature. Controversial from the outset, the bill has sparked heated demonstrations in Mandalay, Sagaing and Rangoon divisions. The bill’s detractors claim that the education reform process lacks transparency and could ultimately serve to centralise education, granting too much power to the government. History has shown a tendency to marginalise minorities through the education system, which is in poor shape after decades of fiscal and administrative neglect."...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
      Alternate URLs: www.dvb.no
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: University Students Union Opposes Education Bill
      Date of publication: 10 September 2014
      Description/subject: "The University Students Union released a statement on Wednesday denouncing the National Education Bill; at the same time it launched an awareness campaign in front of the University for Computer Studies, 25km north of Rangoon. A spokesperson for the students’ union, commonly known in Burma as the ta-ka-tha, said the event was not a demonstration but rather “a gathering to raise awareness about the weaknesses of the education bill”, and that they had timed it to meet students who were entering the campus to sit for exams on Wednesday morning. The draft National Education Bill awaits the president’s signature since being approved by both houses of parliament in late July. Controversial from the outset, the bill’s detractors claim that it was drafted unilaterally and without enough transparency. Last month, a group of almost 100 students gathered at Mandalay’s Yadanabon University to voice opposition to certain aspects of the bill, claiming that it creates excessive restrictions on the formation of student unions and centralises Burma’s education system. Related Stories The All Burma Federation of Students Unions, or ba-ka-tha, has also released statements opposing the current draft of the Education Bill, as has the National Network for Education Reform, an independent oversight body. Burma has a high literacy rate – 93 percent, according to World Bank data released in 2012. However, the country’s education system was stymied under decades of military rule, and remains sorely short of highly-skilled instructors. The budget allocated for education in Burma is under six percent of national spending."
      Author/creator: KAUNG HTET KYAW
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: ‘We Will Create an All-Inclusive Education System’
      Date of publication: 08 September 2014
      Description/subject: "In late July, the Union Parliament approved the National Education Bill and the legislation, which is still awaiting approval by the president, is meant to overhaul Burma’s derelict education system. Under previous military governments, the system suffered from neglect, underfunding and outdated teaching methods. The new bill includes a range of reforms for all education levels, but has come in for criticism from independent organizations, who said it continues unnecessary central government controls on education. In the basic education sector, the bill strives to ensure enrollment of every school-age child, provision of free schooling and the use of student-centered teaching methods. San San Yi, director of the Ministry of Education’s No. 3 Basic Education Department, spoke with The Irrawaddy about how the new legislation would change basic education in Burma."...
      Author/creator: HTET NAING ZAW
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: New law to see private universities use State curriculum
      Date of publication: 03 July 2014
      Description/subject: "Currently private universities are responsible for their own curriculum and many receive assistance in developing their courses from foreign universities. This will change after the National Educational Bill, which was submitted to parliament earlier this year, is enacted, said the official, who asked not to be named. “By the time the National Education Law is enacted, the curriculums of those private universities have to be [the same as] those of the state-owned universities,” the official said. He insisted that this would “not degrade” the standards of the private sector. “If they cannot teach it, we cannot recognise those schools. If every school teaches their own curriculum, we cannot know which school is better.” Private universities, of which there are more than 10 in Myanmar, say they are opposed to the provision in the draft law. U Nay Win Naing from Victoria College said students would lose out if the law is passed in its current form. “We are opening this university in this country and so we are going to follow this country’s law. However, the curriculum should not be degraded. If this happens, students will lose out,” he said. The NLD, which has been at the forefront of the push for education reform, is in favour of private universities being independent. It argues that rather than force private universities to adhere to the state curriculum, the state universities should raise their standards to those of the private sector."...
      Author/creator: May Thinzar Naing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.mmtimes.com/
      Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


      Title: Higher Education Bill Scrapped over Lack of University Autonomy
      Date of publication: 26 August 2012
      Description/subject: "In a major upset, the Education Ministry’s higher education bill was rejected during the final stages of its passage through Myanmar’s Hluttaw, or parliament, after opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and other legislators criticised it. It is the first time that the lower house has scrapped an entire bill rather than amending it. A new bill to increase university autonomy and place institutions on the road to international competitiveness will be drafted by legislators after the proposed bill was thrown out on 31 July because it would not allow universities enough freedom. Amendments would not be sufficient, Aung San Suu Kyi said, requesting parliament “to bring about a bill that is more suitable, for this country, this era and this world”. Suspension of the ministry’s bill would “enable the Hluttaw to discuss a higher education bill that is more comprehensive, brings more benefit to the country and represents the voice of the students,” said Thein Nyunt, the MP responsible for putting forward the eleventh-hour motion to scrap the bill. Legislators said the ministry’s proposed bill simply mirrored the system set up by the previous military regime, and blamed government control of universities for the collapse of higher education standards in recent decades."...
      Author/creator: Naw Say Phaw Waa
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University World News
      Alternate URLs: www.universityworldnews.com
      Date of entry/update: 25 September 2014


  • Health

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to health (commentary)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Pharmaceuticals in Myanmar – Law and Procedure
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: "This article considers the National Drug Law, 1992, of Myanmar or Burma. This legislation, which is the main law governing pharmaceuticals in Myanmar, systematically regulates the manufacture, import, export, storage, distribution and sale of drugs in the country. The authors take the reader through the intricacies of the Act and the institutions and regulatory regimes it creates, describing their operations and problems..."
      Author/creator: Thida Aye, and James Finch
      Source/publisher: Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law (2000) 4 pp 115 – 147
      Format/size: English
      Alternate URLs: http://law.nus.edu.sg/sybil/downloads/articles/SJICL-2000-1/SJICL-2000-115.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 August 2013


    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to health and medicine (texts)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Health and Health Related Laws
      Description/subject: A number of health-related laws in Burmese, with short summaries/commentaries in English
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Health
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 August 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Law Amending Eye Donation Law Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 25/2013 (၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ ၂၅၊၂၀၁၃ - မ်က္စီလႈဒါန္းျခ
      Date of publication: 20 August 2013
      Description/subject: eye donation
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (25K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2013


      Title: The Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Product Law - SPDC Law No 5/2006 (English)
      Date of publication: 04 May 2006
      Description/subject: The Union of Myanmar The State Peace and Development Council... The Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Product Law... (The State Peace and Development Council Law No 5/2006) (The 8th Waxing Day of Kason, 1368 ME) (4 May, 2006)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (95K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2013


      Title: The Body Organ Donation Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2004 (English)
      Date of publication: 19 February 2004
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (70K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222808/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml04_01.htm
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2013


      Title: The Blood and Blood Products Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2003 (English)
      Date of publication: 29 January 2003
      Description/subject: Administrative Action Union of Myanmar... The State Peace and Development Council... The Blood and Blood Products Law... (The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 1/2003)... The 12th Waning day of Pyatho, 1364 M.E (29th January 2003)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (82K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Law Relating to the Nurse and Midwife - SPDC Law No. 3/2002 (English)
      Date of publication: 26 February 2002
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (64K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222528/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml02_03.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The Myanmar Medical Council Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2000 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 January 2000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (85K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902221853/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml00_01.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The Traditional Medical Council Law - SPDC Law No. 2/2000 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 January 2000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (74K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222615/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml00_02.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The National Food Law - SLORC Law No. 5/97 (English)
      Date of publication: 03 March 1997
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The National Food Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/97)... The 9th Waning Day of Tabodwe, 135S M.E. (3rd March, 1997)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Traditional Drug Law - SLORC Law No. 7/96 (English)
      Date of publication: 25 July 1996
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Traditional Drug Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/96)... The 10th Waxing Day of 2nd Waso, 1358 M.E. (25th July, 1996
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (80K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Eye Donation Law - SLORC Law No. 2/96 (English)
      Date of publication: 19 February 1996
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Eye Donation Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.2/96)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Tabaung, 1357 M.E. (19th February, 1996
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (71K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law - SLORC Law No 1/95 (English)
      Date of publication: 20 March 1995
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 1/95)... The 5th Waning of Taboung, 1356 ME (20th March, 1995)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (74K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association Law - SLORC Law No. 12/93 (English)
      Date of publication: 21 September 1993
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 12/93) - The 6th Waxing Day of Tawthalin, 1355 M.E. (21st September, 1993)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2013


      Title: The National Drug Law - SLORC Law No. 7/92 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 October 1992
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The National Drug Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/92) - The 5th Waning Day of Tazaungmon, 1354 M.E. (30th October, 1992)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (81K), html (56K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Drug_Law_of_1992.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Law relating to the Nurse and Midwife - SLORC Law No. 19/90 (English)
      Date of publication: 17 October 1990
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law relating to the Nurse and Midwife - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 19/90) - 14th Waning Day of Thadinkyut, 1352 M.E. (17th October, 1990
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (72K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 June 2013


      Title: The Dental and Oral Medicine Council Law - SLORC Law No. 5/89 (English)
      Date of publication: 10 March 1989
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Dental and Oral Medicine Council Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/89) - The 4th Waxing Day of Tabaung, 1350 M.E. (10th March. 1989)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Medical Act, 1957 - SLORC Law No.3/89 (English)
      Date of publication: 24 January 1989
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Medical Act, 1957 - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.3/89) - The 3rd Waning Day of Pyatho, 1350 M.E. (24th January, 1989)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (76K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - SLORC Law No. 7/88 ( ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ၿငိမ္၀ပ္ပိျပားမႈတည္ေဆာက္ေရးအဖြဲ႕ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ ၀၇/၁၉၈
      Date of publication: 12 October 1988
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (168K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 August 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - SLORC Law No. 7/88 (English)
      Date of publication: 12 October 1988
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/88) - 10-12 The 2nd Waxing Day of Thadingyut , 1350 M.E. (12th October, 1988)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2013


      Title: THE MYANMAR RED CROSS SOCIETY ACT, 1959 (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 21 September 1959
      Description/subject: Act No. 25/1959 (21 September 1959) (As amended up to May 2001)
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: pdf (301K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.icrc.org/ihl-nat.nsf/0/6B23258912659C59C12576CD00501A17
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2013


  • Religion

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to religion (commentary)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Law and Religion in Burma
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "Burma was annexed by the British through the three wars in 1824-1826, 1852-1853 and 1885-1886. When colonial rule started, it was British policy (as in other British colonies) not to interfere with local religion. The British did not want to create further confrontations. If they had not adopted this policy, there would have been more uprisings and more discontent among the people. And that would have endangered the position of the British. The policy reflected the experience of the colonial administrators in the implementation of colonial rule in India in the 18th century...Although according to the regime there is religious freedom in Burma, the reality is that there is religious discrimination. The junta is suppressing Muslims and Christians in order to disperse them, while it pretends to promote Buddhism. Buddhism is promoted by the military at the expense of other religions to increase SPDC?s nationalism. The generals systematically use propaganda in their attempts to falsely convince the Buddhists that the military regime is representing their interests.49 Such is the state of Law and Religion in Burma today. Under the cloak of law, Buddhists are suppressed and the Sangha curtailed, as these are among the most active in the struggle for the restoration of democracy and human rights."
      Author/creator: Peter Gutter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003