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Economic, Social and Cultural issues
In this and the following sections the material is divided into Texts and Commentary. The texts may be adopted laws ("Laws", "Acts") or bills (legislation proposed but not yet adopted) or implementing instruments ("rules", "regulations", "directives", "notifications", "procedures" etc.)

  • Labour issues

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to labour (commentary)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: International Labour Organisation (OBL main section)
      Description/subject: Several hundred documents on the labour situation in Burma/Myanmar - Observations of the Committee of Experts, International Labour Conference and Governing Body debates and documents etc.
      Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2013


      Title: Normlex (ILO) Myanmar profile
      Description/subject: See also the main OBL section on the ILO
      Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Observation (CEACR) - adopted 2011, published 101st ILC session (2012) Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) - Myanmar (Ratification: 1955)
      Date of publication: March 2012
      Description/subject: Concluding remarks: "The Committee fully endorses the conclusions concerning Myanmar made by the Conference Committee and the Governing Body, as well as the general evaluation of the forced labour situation by the ILO Liaison Officer. The Committee welcomes the positive developments, such as submission to Parliament of the draft legislation repealing the Towns Act and the Village Act of 1907; the expanded awareness-raising activities; the improvements in dealing with under-age recruitment by the military, including release of children and imposition of disciplinary and penal sanctions on military personnel; cooperation in the functioning of the SU complaints mechanism and its further extension for another year. However, the Committee observes that, in spite of the efforts made towards the implementation of the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, the Government has not yet fully implemented these recommendations. Besides the steps taken towards the amendment of the legislation, the Government still has to ensure that, in actual practice, forced labour is no longer imposed by the authorities, in particular by the military; and it still has to ensure that penalties for the exaction of forced labour under the Penal Code are strictly enforced against civil and military authorities. While noting the positive developments referred to above, the Committee urges the Government to redouble its efforts towards the full implementation of the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, by implementing the concrete practical requests addressed by the Committee to the Government. It expresses the firm hope that all the necessary measures will be taken without delay to achieve full compliance with the Convention, both in law and in practice, so as to ensure that all use of forced or compulsory labour in Myanmar is completely eliminated."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 March 2012


  • Health

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to health (commentary)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Pharmaceuticals in Myanmar – Law and Procedure
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: "This article considers the National Drug Law, 1992, of Myanmar or Burma. This legislation, which is the main law governing pharmaceuticals in Myanmar, systematically regulates the manufacture, import, export, storage, distribution and sale of drugs in the country. The authors take the reader through the intricacies of the Act and the institutions and regulatory regimes it creates, describing their operations and problems..."
      Author/creator: Thida Aye, and James Finch
      Source/publisher: Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law (2000) 4 pp 115 – 147
      Format/size: English
      Alternate URLs: http://law.nus.edu.sg/sybil/downloads/articles/SJICL-2000-1/SJICL-2000-115.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 August 2013


    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to health and medicine (texts)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Health and Health Related Laws
      Description/subject: A number of health-related laws in Burmese, with short summaries/commentaries in English
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Health
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 August 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Law Amending Eye Donation Law Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Law No. 25/2013 (၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ ၂၅၊၂၀၁၃ - မ်က္စီလႈဒါန္းျခ
      Date of publication: 20 August 2013
      Description/subject: eye donation
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw
      Format/size: pdf (25K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2013


      Title: The Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Product Law - SPDC Law No 5/2006 (English)
      Date of publication: 04 May 2006
      Description/subject: The Union of Myanmar The State Peace and Development Council... The Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Product Law... (The State Peace and Development Council Law No 5/2006) (The 8th Waxing Day of Kason, 1368 ME) (4 May, 2006)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (95K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2013


      Title: The Body Organ Donation Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2004 (English)
      Date of publication: 19 February 2004
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (70K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222808/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml04_01.htm
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2013


      Title: The Blood and Blood Products Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2003 (English)
      Date of publication: 29 January 2003
      Description/subject: Administrative Action Union of Myanmar... The State Peace and Development Council... The Blood and Blood Products Law... (The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 1/2003)... The 12th Waning day of Pyatho, 1364 M.E (29th January 2003)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council
      Format/size: pdf (82K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Law Relating to the Nurse and Midwife - SPDC Law No. 3/2002 (English)
      Date of publication: 26 February 2002
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (64K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222528/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml02_03.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The Myanmar Medical Council Law - SPDC Law No. 1/2000 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 January 2000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (85K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902221853/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml00_01.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The Traditional Medical Council Law - SPDC Law No. 2/2000 (English)
      Date of publication: 14 January 2000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (74K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222615/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml00_02.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2013


      Title: The National Food Law - SLORC Law No. 5/97 (English)
      Date of publication: 03 March 1997
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The National Food Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/97)... The 9th Waning Day of Tabodwe, 135S M.E. (3rd March, 1997)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Traditional Drug Law - SLORC Law No. 7/96 (English)
      Date of publication: 25 July 1996
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Traditional Drug Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/96)... The 10th Waxing Day of 2nd Waso, 1358 M.E. (25th July, 1996
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (80K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Eye Donation Law - SLORC Law No. 2/96 (English)
      Date of publication: 19 February 1996
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Eye Donation Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.2/96)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Tabaung, 1357 M.E. (19th February, 1996
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (71K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law - SLORC Law No 1/95 (English)
      Date of publication: 20 March 1995
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 1/95)... The 5th Waning of Taboung, 1356 ME (20th March, 1995)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (74K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association Law - SLORC Law No. 12/93 (English)
      Date of publication: 21 September 1993
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 12/93) - The 6th Waxing Day of Tawthalin, 1355 M.E. (21st September, 1993)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2013


      Title: The National Drug Law - SLORC Law No. 7/92 (English)
      Date of publication: 30 October 1992
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The National Drug Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/92) - The 5th Waning Day of Tazaungmon, 1354 M.E. (30th October, 1992)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (81K), html (56K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Drug_Law_of_1992.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Law relating to the Nurse and Midwife - SLORC Law No. 19/90 (English)
      Date of publication: 17 October 1990
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law relating to the Nurse and Midwife - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 19/90) - 14th Waning Day of Thadinkyut, 1352 M.E. (17th October, 1990
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (72K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 June 2013


      Title: The Dental and Oral Medicine Council Law - SLORC Law No. 5/89 (English)
      Date of publication: 10 March 1989
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Dental and Oral Medicine Council Law - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 5/89) - The 4th Waxing Day of Tabaung, 1350 M.E. (10th March. 1989)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Medical Act, 1957 - SLORC Law No.3/89 (English)
      Date of publication: 24 January 1989
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Medical Act, 1957 - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No.3/89) - The 3rd Waning Day of Pyatho, 1350 M.E. (24th January, 1989)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (76K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 June 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - SLORC Law No. 7/88 ( ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ၿငိမ္၀ပ္ပိျပားမႈတည္ေဆာက္ေရးအဖြဲ႕ ဥပေဒအမွတ္ ၀၇/၁၉၈
      Date of publication: 12 October 1988
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (168K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 August 2013


      Title: The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - SLORC Law No. 7/88 (English)
      Date of publication: 12 October 1988
      Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council - The Law Amending the Myanmar Red Cross Society Act, 1959 - (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 7/88) - 10-12 The 2nd Waxing Day of Thadingyut , 1350 M.E. (12th October, 1988)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
      Format/size: pdf (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2013


      Title: THE MYANMAR RED CROSS SOCIETY ACT, 1959 (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
      Date of publication: 21 September 1959
      Description/subject: Act No. 25/1959 (21 September 1959) (As amended up to May 2001)
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: pdf (301K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.icrc.org/ihl-nat.nsf/0/6B23258912659C59C12576CD00501A17
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2013


  • Religion

    • Laws, decrees, bills and regulations relating to religion (commentary)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Law and Religion in Burma
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "Burma was annexed by the British through the three wars in 1824-1826, 1852-1853 and 1885-1886. When colonial rule started, it was British policy (as in other British colonies) not to interfere with local religion. The British did not want to create further confrontations. If they had not adopted this policy, there would have been more uprisings and more discontent among the people. And that would have endangered the position of the British. The policy reflected the experience of the colonial administrators in the implementation of colonial rule in India in the 18th century...Although according to the regime there is religious freedom in Burma, the reality is that there is religious discrimination. The junta is suppressing Muslims and Christians in order to disperse them, while it pretends to promote Buddhism. Buddhism is promoted by the military at the expense of other religions to increase SPDC?s nationalism. The generals systematically use propaganda in their attempts to falsely convince the Buddhists that the military regime is representing their interests.49 Such is the state of Law and Religion in Burma today. Under the cloak of law, Buddhists are suppressed and the Sangha curtailed, as these are among the most active in the struggle for the restoration of democracy and human rights."
      Author/creator: Peter Gutter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003