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Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: United Nations Population Fund - Myanmar (Publications pages)
Description/subject: Numerous publications on the 2014 census, Myanmar's population etc.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/myanmar/census/
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Individual Documents

Title: 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census - Occupation and Industry report (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: "လူ၀င္မႈႀကီးၾကပ္ေရးႏွင့္ျပည္သူ႔အင္အား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္သူ႔အင္အားဦးစီးဌာနသည္ ၂၀၁၄ ခုႏွစ္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံလူဦးေရႏွင့္အိမ္အေၾကာင္းအရာသန္းေခါင္စာရင္းကုိ ၂၀၁၄ ခုႏွစ္၊ မတ္လတြင္ ေကာက္ယူခဲ့ပါသည္။ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းေကာက္ယူေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ႀကီးတြင္ ကုလသမဂၢလူဦးေရရံပုံေငြအဖြဲ႔ႏွင့္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးမႈမိတ္ဖက္ႏုိင္ငံမ်ားျဖစ္ၾကေသာ ၾသစေၾတးလ်၊ ဖင္လန္၊ ဂ်ာမဏီ၊ အီတလီ၊ ေနာ္ေ၀၊ ဆြီဒင္၊ ဆြစ္ဇာလန္၊ ၿဗိတိန္ႏွင့္ အေမရိကန္ျပည္ေထာင္စုတုိ႔ ပါ၀င္ကူညီေပးခဲ့ၾကပါသည္။ ၂၀၁၄ ခုႏွစ္ လူဦးေရႏွင့္ အိမ္အေၾကာင္းအရာသန္းေခါင္စာရင္းသည္ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း (၃၀) ေက်ာ္ၾကာၿပီးေနာက္ ပထမဆုံးျပန္လည္ေကာက္ယူခဲ့ေသာ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ယခင္သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းမ်ားကုိ ၁၉၇၃ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ တစ္ႀကိမ္၊ ၁၉၈၃ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ တစ္ႀကိမ္ေကာက္ယူခဲ့ပါသည္။ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းေကာက္ယူျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကုိ ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ဇူလုိင္လတြင္ ျပဌာန္းခဲ့သည့္ လူဦးေရႏွင့္အိမ္အေၾကာင္းအရာ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းဥပေဒႏွင့္အညီ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ့ပါသည္။ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းမွရရွိေသာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္ေရးစီမံကိန္းမ်ား ခ်မွတ္ရန္အတြက္ မရွိမျဖစ္လုိအပ္ပါသည္။ သန္းေခါင္စာရင္းအခ်က္အလက္မ်ားသည္ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္၏ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မ်ား၊ မူ၀ါဒမ်ားခ်မွတ္ေရးႏွင့္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္ေရးစီမံကိန္းမ်ားအတြက္ အေထာက္အပံ့ျဖစ္ေစပါသည္။..."
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Ministry of Immigration and Population
Format/size: pdf (24MB)
Alternate URLs: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/myanmar/?publications=13677
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2016

Title: 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census - Occupation and Industry report (English)
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: "The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census was conducted in March 2014 by the Ministry of Immigration and Population (MOIP). It was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and development partners, namely Australia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. This is the first census in over three decades; the last censuses being in 1983 and 1973. This census was undertaken within the provisions of the Population and Housing Census Law enacted in July 2013. Its results are vital to the planning and development of Myanmar. The results will inform on-going reforms, policy making and planning for development at all levels. The results of the 2014 Census have been published so far in three volumes. The first was the Preliminary Results (Census Volume 1), which was released in August 2014. The Census Main Results were launched in May 2015 by H.E. U Thein Sein, the President of the Union of the Republic of Myanmar. These included The Union Report (Census Report Volume 2), Highlights of the Main Results (Census Report Volume 2-A), and the reports of each of the 15 States and Regions (Census Report Volume 3-(1 to 15)). Dissemination of census data is now taking place across the whole country, so that existing and potential users understand how to interpret, use and apply the data in prioritizing needs for planning and services improvement at all administrative levels. These events have involved participation from government, parliamentarians, civil society organizations, political parties, media and leaders of religious, ethnic and communities, among others. The report on Occupation and Industry is now being released as part of the Main Results (Census Report Volume 2-B). In the case of this report, coding of open-ended responses on questions related to occupation and industry was still underway at the time when the main results were published. The Government of Myanmar extends its sincere gratitude and thanks to development partners for providing technical, financial and administrative support throughout the census process. Thanks also go to the MOIP Permanent Secretary and his team, who have authored this report. Last but not least, the people of Myanmar deserve special praise for their participation in the census. It is their answers that form the basis for the data in these reports. The Government as a whole hope that the data contained in the census reports will contribute to improving the welfare of all people in Myanmar...."
Language: pdf (5.4MB)
Source/publisher: Ministry of Immigration and Population
Alternate URLs: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/myanmar/?publications=13677
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2016

Title: Who's Counting? Ethnicity, Belonging, and the National Census in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 28 January 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Partially rooted in British colonial ethnology and administration, the ethnic categories of the 2014 Myanmar census have attracted controversy, particularly from representatives of non-Burman political organizations. The categories themselves, as well as the bureaucratic exercise of the census, have a complex genealogy which offers considerable insight into understanding the contemporary situation. Drawing from Hirschman’s theory that the study of measurements of ethnicity is a unique resource for understanding the meaning of ethnicity in a society, this article discusses the controversy surrounding the 2014 census, and how some census-related issues have been crucially framed by bureaucratic structures that came before...." Keywords: Myanmar - Burma - census - ethnicity - colonialism - bureaucracy
Author/creator: Jane M. Ferguson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Department of Anthropology, University of Sydney
Format/size: pdf (348K)
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2015

Title: Myanmar’s unreliable narrators
Date of publication: 04 May 2014
Description/subject: "Teaching, although not always highly regarded, does afford a valuable perspective on aspects of a country and in this case – ethnicity. Last year I was fortunate enough to teach on an academic development course which enrolled students from across the country; Wa Chin, Karen- even a young Rohingya man were among our particularly diverse cohort. So when I thought about the upcoming census and the heated question of ethnicity, I considered it in terms of that school and of those students. And I realised there was particular problem when asking someone their ethnicity – it is subjective. It is likely to shift depending on who they spoke to. They were often unreliable narrators of their own identity..."
Author/creator: Matthew Gibbons
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014

Title: Myanmar up for the count
Date of publication: 01 April 2014
Description/subject: "On Sunday Myanmar started its first census in 30 years. And while the national survey poses many challenges and risks, including sectarian violence, it also presents some opportunities, says New Mandala co-founder Nicholas Farrelly. Speaking to the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific from Myanmar’s capital Naypyitaw, Farrelly said the census highlights a “huge conundrum”. “We don’t know what we don’t know,” he said. “Across the gamut of Myanmar society the information available to decision-makers is incomplete and inconsistent. For example, are all 135 national races recognised by the country viable categories?..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014

Title: Ethnicity without Meaning, Data without Context - The 2014 Census, Identity and Citizenship in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 24 February 2014
Description/subject: Conclusions and Recommendations: "The 2014 Population and Housing Census is likely to undertake the most significant ethnic and political boundary making in the country since the last British census in 1931. However, by using flawed designations that date from the colonial era and ignoring the considerable complexity of the present political situation in Myanmar, the census is likely to raise ethnic tensions at precisely the moment that peace negotiations are focused on building trust. Ethnic politics, democratic reform and conflict resolution are at a critical juncture. If carried out in an inclusive, transparent and ethically implemented fashion, a census could support national reconciliation and momentum towards reform. Instead, many ethnic groups fear that its timing, format and methodology, with an unwarranted array of questions and overseen by law enforcement officers, will further diminish and marginalise the political status of non- Bamar groups. Citizenship rights for some people could even be under threat, based on census results. The timing of the census in the year before a key general election raises additional concerns. Statistical reports that result from it could have confusing and negative impact on political debate and ethnic representation in the legislatures, as defined by the 2008 constitution. There are many communities and internallydisplaced persons in the conflict zones of the ethnic borderlands who will not be properly included as well as others with marginal legal status who would prefer to disappear in an official counting exercise. Through inclusive dialogue, planning and timing, many of these controversies could have been addressed. The UNFPA and Western government donors, with a projected US$74 million budget, have a special responsibility to ensure accurate research, definitions, data collection and inclusion in any process of this magnitude. Difficulties have been treated purely as technical problems with simple, “one-sizefits- all” solutions, rather than as fundamentally political and ethnic challenges that need resolution. Instead of creating the opportunity to improve inter-ethnic understanding and citizenship rights, the census promises to compound old grievances with a new generation of complexities"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI), Burma Centrum Nederland
Format/size: pdf (661K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/bpb_13.pdf
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2014

Title: Burma’s Census: Not Worth Dying For
Date of publication: 19 February 2014
Description/subject: "At the end of March, Burma is due to hold its first official census for almost thirty years. The census is being carried out by the government of Burma in conjunction with the United Nations and with significant other international technical and financial support, including more than sixteen million dollars from the British government. On the face of it, holding a census is an obvious and important step to take. The information it provides will be important in making future economic plans, developing infrastructure, allocating resources for public services, and prioritising international aid. Furthermore, some ethnic and religious minorities who have been suffering repression and discrimination see the census as an opportunity to be officially recognised, seeing this as a step towards asserting their status and rights. However, in the current Burma context, the census could also lead to violent attacks against religious minorities, increase ethnic tensions, and provide inaccurate data. On balance, the potential risks appear to outweigh the potential benefits. As a result, Burma Campaign UK believes the census should be postponed to avoid these very real risks, which could include conflict and loss of life..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK (Burma Briefing No. 32)
Format/size: pdf (345K)
Date of entry/update: 19 February 2014

Title: Myanmar Conflict Alert: A Risky Census
Date of publication: 12 February 2014
Description/subject: "The nationwide census planned for 30 March to 10 April 2014 risks inflaming tensions at a critical moment in Myanmar’s peace process and democratic transition. The census process should be urgently amended to focus only on key demographic questions, postponing those which are needlessly antagonistic and divisive – on ethnicity, religion, citizenship status – to a more appropriate moment. By doing so, the government, United Nations and donors can demonstrate that they are sensitive to the serious risks presented by the census as currently conceived, and that they are willing to respond to the deep reservations expressed by many important groups in the country..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2014