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Drugs and Burma: UN System

  • UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

    • UNODC (formerly UNDCP and ODCCP) (English)
      This entity has gone through various names. It is now known as the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: UNODC: search for "Myanmar"
      Date of publication: 27 March 2008
      Description/subject: 6396 results, August 2002; 13300 results, November 2005; 16300 results, October 2006; 2730 results, March 2008; 3020 results, July 2009
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2008


      Title: UNODC Country Office Myanmar -- Library and Links
      Description/subject: Lots of good links including TNI and ICG as well as UNODC reports
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


      Title: UNODC Myanmar Country Office
      Description/subject: "UNODC and its predecessors, the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), have been active in Myanmar since 1978 to reduce the cultivation, production, trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs. In all its projects, UNODC promotes a participatory approach that serves to empower local communities and strengthen civil society, where the focus is on community development rather than relying on top-down methodologies. Because the current scale of intervention efforts is marginal in relation to the magnitude of drug-related problems in Myanmar, the Office focuses on expanding expertise and assistance through partnerships with other UN agencies and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNODC
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: World Drug Report archive
      Description/subject: Formerly "Global Illicit Drug Trends". Online from 1999...Search for Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNODC
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs, Asia and the Pacific, 2012 (Myanmar section and full report)
      Date of publication: December 2012
      Description/subject: Emerging trends and concerns: • Myanmar remains a major source of methamphetamine pills and opiates in South-East Asia, most of which are manufactured in Shan State in the eastern part of the country. • For the first time, a crystalline methamphetamine manufacturing facility was seized in 2012. • Large amounts of methamphetamine in pill and crystalline form originating from Myanmar continue to be seized in neighbouring countries. • Precursor chemicals are trafficked from neighbouring countries to methamphetamine manufacturing centres located near Myanmar’s eastern border, where Government control remains limited. • Preliminary data for 2012 suggests that seizures of illicit drugs and their precursor chemicals have increased significantly. • Opium poppy cultivation has increased in Myanmar for six consecutive years
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (144K-Myanmar_section; 1.32MB-full report)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/documents/eastasiaandpacific/2012/12/ats-2012/2012_Regional_ATS_Report_FINAL_H...
      Date of entry/update: 13 December 2012


      Title: South-East Asia Opium survey 2012 (Myanmar section)
      Date of publication: October 2012
      Description/subject: "...In 2012, the annual opium survey in Myanmar covered Shan State (North, East, and South Shan), and Kachin State, which constitute the country’s principal opium poppy-cultivating regions. The UNODC rapid assessment survey found no evidence of opium poppy cultivation in the Special Regions in Shan (Wa Special Region 2, Kokang Special Region 1 and Special Region 4). However, limited satellite imagery and findings from ground surveillance did find evidence of limited opium poppy cultivation in Chin, though the region was not fully covered in the survey. The total area under cultivation in 2012 was estimated at 51,000 hectares, representing an increase of one sixth on the 2011 level of 43,600 hectares and the sixth consecutive year-on-year increase since the low 2006 level of 21,600 hectares...This increase in opium poppy cultivation was not confined to a specific region, but was actually observed in East, North and South Shan, as well as in Kachin. The area under cultivation continued to be dominated by areas in South and East Shan, which continued to account for more than three quarters of the estimated total, but the increase was most pronounced (in relative terms) in North Shan, where the area rose by nearly half (from 4,300 hectares in 2011 to 6,300 hectares in 2012), and in Kachin, which registered an increase of more than a third (from 3,800 hectares to 5,100 hectares). This explains why the share of the total attributable to Kachin and North Shan (collectively) edged up from 19% in 2011 to 22% in 2012. In absolute terms, East Shan, North Shan and South Shan all registered an increase of approximately 2,000 hectares. The increase in East Shan followed a relatively stable trend over the preceding two years, while the increases in each of the other regions represented a continuation of the recent trend. These figures do not include cultivation in Chin, which, based on limited data, was assessed to be in the order of several hundred hectares in 2012..." [the primary URL does not contain the Lao PDR section, which can be found in the secondary link]
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (4.1MB) with Lao section, 5.55MB)
      Alternate URLs: https://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/sea/SouthEastAsia_Report_2012_low.pdf - full report, containing the LAO PDR section
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


      Title: World Drug Report 2012
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: 1. RECENT STATISTICS AND TREND ANALYSIS OF ILLICIT DRUG MARKETS: A. Extent of illicit drug use and health consequences... B. Illicit opiate market... C. Cocaine market... D. Cannabis market... E. Illicit market for amphetamine-type stimulants..... 2. THE CONTEMPORARY DRUG PROBLEM: CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERNS AND DRIVING FACTORS: A. What are the fundamental characteristics of the contemporary illicit drug problem... B. How have the patterns of the drug problem shifted over time... C. Which factors shape the evolution of the problem... D. Conclusion..... Myanmar features prominently in this report, but there are no country chapters....Search for Myanmar.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (11.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


      Title: South-East Asia Opium survey 2011: Lao PDR, Myanmar
      Date of publication: December 2011
      Description/subject: "...Opium Poppy Cultivation: In 2011, for the fifth year in a row, opium poppy cultivation increased in Myanmar. The total area under opium poppy cultivation was estimated at 43,600 ha, an increase of 14% compared to 2010 (38,100 ha). This upward trend started in 2007 after six years of decline between 2001 and 2006. Shan State accounted now for 91% of opium production in Myanmar, while the largest increase in poppy cultivation was observed in Kachin State (+27%). In Shan State most of the increase in the area cultivated took place in South Shan (+21%) followed by North Shan (+17%). There was no significant change in East Shan (+1%)...Opium yield and production In 2011, the national average opium yield was estimated at 14.0 kg per hectare, which represents a decrease of 8% compared to last year’s yield. Nevertheless, the larger area under cultivation resulted in an increase in total opium production of 5%, from 580 mt in 2010 to 610 mt in 2011... Opium prices: Opium prices in Myanmar have significantly increased in 2011. The average farm-gate price of opium (weighted by the estimated area under cultivation) was US$ 450/kg in 2011, up some 48% from US$ 305/kg in 2010. Opium prices have continued to increase since 2002. The most recent increase can be explained by the strong demand in opium from neighbouring countries as well as the depreciation of the Kyat against the US$ (by some 14% over the past year)... Household income from opium: The average annual cash income of opium-producing households increased by almost 24% in the Shan State, from US$ 830 in 2010 to US$ 1,030 in 2011. However, opium farmers in Myanmar generally remain poorer than non-opium growing farmers. For non-opium cultivating households (including those that never cultivated or have stopped opium poppy cultivation), the average annual cash income was almost US$ 1,200. On average, income from opium accounts for 54% of total cash income among poppy-growing farmers and in South Shan even more than 60%. For Myanmar opium survey 2011 44 these farmers, opium cultivation is the principal income to survive, which is illustrated by the comments of farmers that had stopped cultivating opium and had to purchase food on credit or borrow food and rely on relatives and friends... Addiction: Data on opium and other drug addiction was collected via interviews with village headmen. Headmen were asked about the number of daily opium users and the number of ‘regular’ users of other drugs (without specifying frequency of use). According to the headmen, daily opium use in Shan State and in Kachin affects 0.8% of the population aged 15 years and above. As in previous years, the prevalence rate was higher in opium-growing villages (1.3%) than in non-opiumgrowing villages (0.4%). Although the number of amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) users is increasing, the prevalence rate remained very low, at 0.2% of the population in opium-growing areas which is almost the same ratio as last year. Heroin use is also reported to be very low, affecting less than 0.1% of the population aged 15 and above. However, information on drug use must be interpreted with caution, as respondents may have been reluctant to report opium, heroin and ATS consumption in the context of the Government’s efforts to curb drug use and addiction... Reported Eradication: This survey did not monitor or validate the results of the eradication campaign carried out by the Government of Myanmar (GOUM). According to the GOUM, a total of 7,058 ha were eradicated in the 2010-2011 opium season, which is 15% less the area eradicated in 2009-2010. Most of the eradication continued to take place in Shan State (85% of the total), notably in South Shan (51%). 44% of the eradication concentrated in three townships in the southern part of South Shan, namely Pinlaung, Pekong and Sisaing townships... Food security and coping strategies: Food security remains a major problem in almost all regions where the survey took place for both poppy-growing and non-poppy-growing villages. The erosion of food security is of particular concern because it could trigger a further increase in opium cultivation. In order to meet their food deficit, households across all regions most frequently sought assistance from friends and/or took loans to buy food. The high (and rising) price of opium in Myanmar is making opium production more attractive. In fact, as a proportion of total income, opium income has increased among opium growing farmers. Among opium growing farmers, the proportion of total household income derived from opium production is also now increasing. Between 2003 and 2009, the income generated by opium was a declining proportion of opium-growing farmers’ total cash income falling (from 70% to about 20% during the period). However, in 2010, this trend reversed and the proportion of total cash income coming from opium is now 54%. With the cultivation of one hectare of opium farmers earned 9 times more than from rice cultivation in low lands, and 15 times more than rice cultivated in uplands. This makes it more difficult to convince farmers to abandon opium and switch to other crops. Nonetheless, this survey provides important information to help design and target alternative livelihood-programmes..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf Myanmar section: 1.6MB (low res); Full text: 4.8MB - OBL version; 6.36MB - original
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/sea/SouthEastAsia_2011_web.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/UNODC-Opium_Survey_2011.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2011


      Title: World Drug Report 2011
      Date of publication: 23 June 2011
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar (84 references)..."...While [opium] cultivation in Afghanistan remained stable, the global trend was mainly driven by increases in Myanmar, where cultivation rose by some 20 per cent from 2009. Consequently, opium production in Myanmar increased from 5 per cent of global production in 2007 to 12 per cent in 2010..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (10.54MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2011


      Title: World Drug Report 2010
      Date of publication: May 2010
      Description/subject: 109 references to Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (10.9MB) - 313 pages
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2010


      Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in South-East Asia: Lao PDR, Myanmar (2009)
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: "...In 2009 the annual opium survey in Myanmar covered the Shan State (North, East, and South Shan), Kachin and Kayah States, i.e. all the regions of Myanmar where opium poppy cultivation was reported. As in 2008, the survey included several Special Regions in Shan (Wa Special Region 2, Kokang Special Region 1 and Special Region 4), where rapid assessments were conducted. The survey confirmed the sustainability of the opium-ban in these three Special Regions. In 2009, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar was estimated at 31,700 ha, representing an increase of 11% compared to 28,500 ha in 2008. This upward trend started slowly from 2007 after five years of decline (2002 to 2006)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


      Title: World Drug Report 2009
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar...85 references including in opium, ATS and cannabis
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 28 June 2009


      Title: World Drug Report 2008
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime
      Format/size: pdf (7.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR.html (links to earlier Word Drug Reports0
      Date of entry/update: 15 February 2009


      Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia:: Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2008)
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "...In 2008, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar is estimated at 28,500 hectares, representing an increase of 3 per cent from 27, 700 hectares in 2007. Opium poppy cultivation is concentrated, primarily, in Shan State, where 89 per cent of the total opium poppy was grown. The weighted national average opium yield for 2008 is estimated at 14.4 kilograms per hectare, leading to an estimated potential opium production of 410 metric tones. Compared to the estimated yield of 16.6 per cent and the estimated potential opium production of 460 metric tones in 2007, the estimates this year indicate a drop both in the yield and production of opium by 13 and 11 per cent, respectively..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (6.29MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


      Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia: Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2007)
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: "...In 2007, opium cultivation in Myanmar rose by 29% while production was up 46% thanks to higher yields. These increases are dwarfed by the opium boom in Afghanistan, that produces 20 times more drugs than Myanmar. But they flash a warning sign that reminds us that Myanmar is still, by far, the world's second largest opium producer (at 460 tonnes). Myanmar needs a more effective counter narcotics strategy and more assistance, if it is to reach its target of being opium free by 2014. The situation is particularly worrisome in the South Shan State. Although access for our ground surveyors was difficult, there are signs of significant opium cultivation in this region. Furthermore, there is evidence that double cropping, irrigation and fertilization are resulting in higher yields than in other parts of the country. As in parts of Afghanistan and Colombia where drugs and insecurity overlap, various groups are taking advantage of the situation in the South Shan State to profit from instability. More rural development assistance is essential to reduce the vulnerability to cultivate drugs stemming from poverty. Ridding the Golden Triangle of opium, which has taken a generation, could be quickly undone if farmers see no improvement in their living standards. In Laos, for example, as opium production has fallen, prices have gone up – by 500% in the past five years. Returning to opium is a serious temptation in poor communities which have yet to see the benefits of abandoning poppy. Opium growing regions would also benefit from improved drug treatment in order to cope with disproportionately high rates of addiction. The signs from South East Asia have been encouraging over a number of years. But there is no guarantee that progress can be sustained over time. To consolidate the gains made until recently, national governments and all stakeholders in an opium-free region need to continue their engagement. The Golden Triangle should not be forgotten now that it is no longer notorious..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (9.863K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 October 2007


      Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in the Golden Triangle - Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2006)
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Acreage down, yield up...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "...The 2006 Opium Survey in Myanmar was conducted jointly by the Government of the Union of Myanmar (GOUM) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). An extensive survey, combining the use of satellite images and ground verification, was conducted in Shan State where most of the opium poppy cultivation takes place. A rapid ground survey was conducted in Special Region 2 (Wa) to certify its opium free status. Limited ground surveys were also conducted in townships of Kachin and Kayah States to assess the level of cultivation in these areas and monitor possible displacement of opium poppy cultivation. Opium poppy cultivation In 2006, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar was estimated at 21,500 hectares, representing a decrease of 34% compared to 2005 (32,800 hectares). The largest cultivation areas were found in South Shan where 72% of the national cultivation took place. 21% was cultivated in East Shan State. In North Shan State cultivation continued to decrease and reached a negligible level. In Kayah State, which was surveyed for first time this year, only a few hectares could be found. In 2006, there was also some limited cultivation in Kachin accounting for 5% of the total opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar. The most remarkable change was recorded in Special Region 2 (Wa), where there was no opium poppy cultivation this year, while in 2005 this region represented 30% of the national opium poppy cultivation. Opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar has been decreasing continuously over the last years. Since 1998, the year of the United Nations Special Session on Drugs, the area under opium poppy decreased by 83% from 130,000 ha to 21,500 ha. Since 2002, the year of the first joint GoUM /UNODC survey, opium poppy cultivation fell by 73%.Opium yield and production The weighted national average opium yield for 2006 was estimated at 14.6 kg/ha (against 9.5 kg/ha in 2005). Yields ranged from only 8.9 kg/ha in East Shan State over 16.6 kg/ha in South Shan State up to 21.4 kg/ha on the best irrigated fields in Kachin State. In general, weather conditions were favourable for opium production (sufficient and timely rainfall). In addition, irrigation of opium poppy fields and multistage cropping contributed to yield increases. The considerable yield increase in 2006 offset the decrease in the cultivation area. In 2006, the potential production of opium remained with 315 metric tons almost at the level of 2005 (312 metric tons). The survey results show that the largest increase in production took place in South Shan State. Overall opium production in Myanmar has decreased by 75% since 1998 but the downward trend of recent years has come to a halt due to the production increases in East and South Shan State in 2006..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (5.32MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2006


      Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2005
      Date of publication: 01 November 2005
      Description/subject: "...Opium cultivation in Myanmar has steadily declined since 2000, and two-thirds of poppy crops have disappeared. Compared with the peak in 1996, the number of hectares devoted to opium has been reduced by 80% in 2005, from 163,000 hectares to 32,800 hectares. When adding the weather factor, influencing opium yields on the fields, an 82% decline in the opium production is registered over the same period of time. While the data included in the report is largely positive, certain worrying factors, with a potential to undo this rapid progress, need addressing. Compared to the previous year, opium production has doubled in the southern Shan State despite the acreage showing only a slight increase. This is in part due to additional rains, however, and more disquieting, also due to improved cultivation practices. The latter, in turn, is an indication of more sophisticated criminal activity, transcending poverty, and not dissimilar to the trends witnessed with ATS production: cross-border networking and transfer of new and improved techniques. Even so and taking note of the exception mentioned, general figures overwhelmingly associate opium with marginal economic conditions typical to remote mountainous areas in which most of the opium is grown. Shocking for anybody less familiar to the opium problem in Myanmar, is the low income of farmers in the Shan State. Non-opium growing households in the Shan State earn an average US$364 annually, against only US$292 for an opium farming household, consisting of both parents and two to four children. Half of the households surveyed in the Shan State report food insecurity; a figure that rises to an astounding 90% in concentrated poppy-cultivation areas. With the loss of opium income, these poor farmers and their families not only lose their coping mechanism to deal with endemic poverty and a chronic food shortage; they equally lose access to health services and to schools. They end up very vulnerable to exploitation and misery – from human right abuses to enforce the opium bans, to internal displacement or human trafficking to survive the bans. For the United Nations, replacing one social evil (narcotics) with another (hunger and poverty) is wrong. Therefore the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime calls on the international community to provide for the basic human needs of those affected. The situation in the Golden Triangle is similar to the one in Afghanistan and the Andeans: some of the poorest people are being affected by the loss of income from drugs as cultivation declines. Thus, the international community must have the wisdom to fight drugs and poverty simultaneously, to eliminate both the causes and the effects of these twin afflictions. In other words, the world will not condone counter-narcotic measures that result in humanitarian disasters. If there is one concrete measure that the Government and its development assistance partners can take now to ensure Myanmar’s future, it is this: food security and income generation programmes must remain in place and be strengthened to support both the farmers’ decisions not to plant opium, and enforcement measures to eradicate the opium that is planted against the law..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


      Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2004
      Date of publication: 11 October 2004
      Description/subject: "Today, Myanmar, located in the heart of the “Golden Triangle,” is the main opium producer in Southeast Asia. However, despite its reputation as a leading producer, during the last decade, Myanmar has demonstrated a steady and remarkable reduction in opium poppy cultivation. While the number of hectares devoted to opium cultivation was estimated at 160,000 in the mid-1990s, by early 2004, opium poppy cultivation stood at 44,200 hectares - - a reduction of 73% from the peak in 1996. Together with the parallel decline in opium cultivation in Laos, this trend, if sustained, signals a potential end to more than a century of opium production in the Golden Triangle, a fitting close to one of the most tragic chapters in the history of narcotic drugs. However, as history has proved in other countries, often with tragic consequences, Myanmar now faces a critical, two-fold challenge. First, the country needs to support the decline in its opium supply. Second, Myanmar must strive to prevent the humanitarian disaster threatening opium-growing families who at present live on, or below, the poverty line. These two processes must be implemented simultaneously. Supply control will bring more stability to a country that has been plagued by ethnic tensions, tensions that have often been exacerbated by narco-trafficking. At the same time, without provisions designed to ensure that the basic needs of affected families are met, without the necessary human rights guarantees, the current opium reduction programme may prove unsustainable. Democratization and national reconciliation in Myanmar, as well as a national commitment to drug control, are goals the United Nations has re-affirmed on several occasions. I would thus encourage the Government of Myanmar to adopt the steps recommended by the Secretary- General in his report on the human rights situation in Myanmar, along with the reduction of opium cultivation. The international donor community also carries a responsibility to support this process by providing alternative sources of income to those families in Myanmar whose livelihoods are affected by the loss of opium-generated revenue. The world has watched as various countries have struggled to eliminate the cultivation of opium. Some states have succeeded – others have failed. Those who were able to realize a reduction in poppy cultivation brought both stability and progress to their nations and their citizens. Those who failed at curtailing the production of opium also failed at providing the security the citizens of these nations need and deserve, both within and beyond national their national borders. While the United Nations welcomes any significant progress in opium reduction, we are very much aware that, in Myanmar, there remains a very fine line between success and failure. We continue to believe, however, that the proposed compact between the Myanmar government and the international community is a powerful alternative to failure, and that this compact has both the potential and the support to turn the current crop reduction effort in Myanmar into a sustainable and successful process..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
      Format/size: pdf (3.02MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


      Title: Abusing Aid, Eliminating Trust
      Date of publication: February 2004
      Description/subject: "Proponents of increased counter-narcotics assistance for Burma should be reminded of how it was misused in the past. As the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, or UNODC, lobbies governments to increase their contributions to opium eradication projects, it is worth looking back on the last major phase of international funding of narcotics suppression, to be reminded of what Burma’s military government did with it. In particular, the misuse of US aid should provide a cautionary tale to any bilateral or multilateral donors..."
      Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


      Title: Myanmar: Country Profile and Strategic Programme Framework for 2002
      Date of publication: 04 September 2003
      Description/subject: Strategic Programme Framework UN Drug control activities in Myanmar... "The proliferation of drugs over the past 30 years is an example of the previously unimaginable becoming reality very quickly."... Table of contents:... List of acronyms 2 Drug control overview and situation update;;The role of the UN and drug control; Past and present activities: I. Internal fighting hinders effective drug control (1976 to 1988); II. National unification dominates drug control (1988 to 1996); III. Drug control successes (1996 to 2001); IV. Funding shortfall (2001 to 2003)... Discussion: I. Drug control fits within the wider UN agenda for Myanmar; II. Financial constraints hold back the ongoing interventions; III. Strategic alliances; IV. Innovation through involvement of the civil society... Proposed strategy: Resource requirements; Annexes: A Map of Myanmar; B Map of ongoing UN drug control interventions in Myanmar; C Map of Shan State – Special regions; D Map of Shan State – Opium cultivation; E Map of alternative development pilot project in Special Region 2 of the Shan State; F Letter of the UN Country Team in Myanmar; G ODCCP 2001 Country Profile; H UNDCP programme in Myanmar - Matrix 1976 to 2005; Opium poppy flower (Southern Wa); Picture: UNDCP Yangon.
      Source/publisher: Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP)
      Format/size: pdf (2.94MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2003


      Title: MYANMAR Opium Survey 2003
      Date of publication: 18 June 2003
      Description/subject: Executive Summary:- "In Myanmar, the problem of opium and heroin production has deep historical roots that reach back to the 19th century. Second source of illicit opium and heroin in the world after Afghanistan during the last decade, the country has recorded an encouraging decline of illicit opium poppy cultivation since the mid-1990s. Results of the extensive fieldwork and satellite imagery analysis conducted by the last UNODC-supported opium survey confirm the continuation of the positive trend in 2003. With a further one-year decline of 24%, opium poppy cultivation is now down to 62,200 ha (against 81,400 ha in 2002). Since 1996, cultivation has declined by more than 100,000 ha, or 62%...[chart]... The largest cultivation decrease this year took place in the Northern Shan State (- 50%). It is attributed to farmers’ compliance with the Government’s request not to plant opium poppy. Important decreases also took place in the Southwestern (-18%) and Southeastern areas (-26%) of the Shan State. By contrast, cultivation increased by 21% in the Wa Special Region 2, and 6% in the Central Shan region. As a result, the Wa Special region 2 now ranks first for opium poppy cultivation, with 34% of the national total, and the Northern Shan region second with 29%, in 2003. Based on an estimated harvest of about 810 metric tons of opium, and a price of approximately 130 US$/kg, the total farmgate value of the 2003 opium production in Myanmar would amount to around US$ 105 million. The estimated 350,000 households who cultivated opium poppy in the Shan State this year would earn an average of about US$ 175 from the sale of their individual opium harvest. Although seemingly very small, this income makes opium by far the first source of cash for those families, accounting for 70% of their total annual cash income (about US$ 230)"... Table of contents:- INTRODUCTION... FINDINGS: OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION; YIELD AND PRODUCTION OPIUM PRICES AND CASH INCOME; FIELD DAMAGE; ADDICTION; ERADICATION... WA ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT SURVEY FINDINGS: OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION; OPIUM YIELD AND PRODUCTION; OPIUM PRICES METHODOLOGY: ORGANISATION AND STAFF; OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION ESTIMATES; YIELD ESTIMATION... ANNEXES: Annex 1 Satellite images used for the 2003 Opium Survey; Annex 2 Calculation for Opium Area Estimates; Annex 3 Opium Cultivation Area and Production by township; Annex 4 Opium Survey Results By Administrative Zones for 2002 and 2003... Maps: Map 1 2003 Survey Regions; Map 2 2003 Distribution of Opium Poppy Cultivation over Agricultural Areas; Map 3 2003 Opium Poppy Cultivation (by Township); Map 4 Shan State - Change in Opium Poppy Cultivation 2002-03; Map 5 2003 Opium Production (by township); Map 6 WADP townships; Map 7 Sampled village tracts in the Shan State; Map 8 Landsat7 and IKONOS map used for the 2003 Myanmar opium survey; Map 9 Shan State – Administrative Regions.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2003


      Title: Making Inroads - an interview with Jean-Luc Lemahieu
      Date of publication: May 2003
      Description/subject: "Jean-Luc Lemahieu is the Rangoon representative of the UN Office of Drugs and Crime. His office works with both the military and ethnic minority groups to wipe out drug production and trafficking in Burma. Through ground research and satellite surveys, the UNODC has made significant progress in identifying production sites and supply routes. He spoke to Aung Zaw... Question: You’ve spoken about evidence of gradual political will from Rangoon in combatting the drug problem. What do you mean by that? Answer: I mean the government still has a long way to go if it they want to be the best student in the class. If you consider the class as the international community, and if every member of the community has obligations to enforce international drug control efforts, you can definitely say this government has good reports. Nonetheless, in the academic world you have primary school, secondary school, you have university. Overall, you could say in terms of drug control we are now here in secondary school ready to go to university. The fact that the money laundering legislation has been approved, that the mutual legal assistance legislation is being formulated is a positive sign. Once that is in place, we can go to university. But getting into university demands added effort from the government. We’re gradually moving forward... Q: What do you make of the drug burning shows, organized by officials in Burma? A: What is more important, the burning of the drugs, or the interception of the drugs? I think the burning of the drugs has a symbolic value and it can serve certain purposes, it can serve as an indicator and as a message of good will, there are different ways to look at it. But obviously, the interest is not how high the flames of the drug burning go, but how we can intercept more drugs. Q: Is a drug-free Burma realistic? A: We’re not aiming for a drug free Burma. We’re aiming for a Burma where drug problems do not negatively affect the daily lives of the thousands of people as it does today..."
      Author/creator: An Interview with Jean-Luc Lemahieu
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


      Title: Alternative Development: Sharing Good Practices, Facing Common Problems
      Date of publication: 06 March 2003
      Description/subject: Regional Seminar on Alternative Development for Illicit Crop Eradication Policies, Strategies and Actions. 16-19 July 2001, Taunggyi, Myanmar...List of Contents: Alternative Development is a Polity for Rural Justice, Freedom and Peace - - Foreword by Dr. Sandro Calvani; Working Together Towards an Enhanced Alternative Development Strategy in East Asia - - Dr. Sanong Chinnanon; Opium Poppy Control and Alternative Development Efforts Promoted by the Yunnan Provincial Government in the Border Areas of Its Neighboring Countries - - Mr. Song Shiyin; A Balanced Approach to Elimination of Opium Poppy Cultivation in Lao People’s Democratic Republic - - Mr. Kou Chansina & Mr. Shariq Bin Raza; UN - Nonghet Alternative Development Project - - Dr. Bounpone Sirivong; Long Alternative Development Project (LADP)- Mr. Khamsao & Mr. Krister Winter; Beng Alternative Development Micro-Project - Mr. Houmphanh Bouphakham; The Lao-German Drug Control Project - Ms. Andrea Kuhlmann; Village Based Development Component in a Pilot Project on Stabilization of Shifting Cultivations in Houaphan Province - Mr. Mahinada Kurukulasuriya; Myanmar Country Paper - Mr. U Nyi Nyi & Lt. Colonel Wa Tin; Wa Alternative Development Project - Mr. Xavier Bouan; Support for Opium Eradication Programmes in Kokang Special Region No.1 and Nam Tit Township, Wa Special Region No.2, Shan State - U Kyaw Thu; Thailand Country Paper - Mr. Pittaya Jinawat; The Role of Non-Agricultural Development in the Doi Tung Development Project - - Mom Rajawongse Putrie Viravaidya; Royal Project Foundation - Dr. Santhad Rojanasoonthon; Thai-German Highland Development Program (TG-HDP) in Northern Thailand - Mr. Hagen Dirksen; Sustainable Agricultural Development Project - Mr. Prasong Jantakad; Eliminating Opium : Lessons From Thailand - Dr. Ronald Renard; Vietnam: Results of Drug Control Programme in 1998-2000 and Future Directions in 2001-2005 - Mr. Ha Dinh Tuan; Ky Son Alternative Development Project in Vietnam - UNDCP Hanoi; An Overview Of Alternative Development And Illicit Crop Eradication Policies, Strategies and Actions in The Region - Mr. Leik Boonwaat Summary of Key Issues Raised after Presentations and During Discussions; Consolidated Summary of Recommendations from Group Discussions; Appendices: Consultations and Sharing Best Practices: Seminar Proceedings; Elimination of Illicit Drugs is a National Duty for Myanmar - Police Major General Soe Win; Opening Welcoming Remarks - Colonel Win Hlaing We Look Forward to an Enhanced Cooperation - Dr. Sanong Chinnanon; Concluding remarks from heads of delegations; Seminar Programme; Summary of Evaluation from the Seminar; Karamosia International Japan; List of Participants and Contact details.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNDCP Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2003


      Title: REPLACING OPIUM IN KOKANG AND WA SPECIAL REGIONS, Shan State, Myanmar
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "In March 2003, a joint assessment team comprising international NGOs and UN agencies operating in Myanmar traveled to the Kokang and Wa Special Regions in north-eastern Shan State. Their purpose was to assess the humanitarian impact of the opium ban in the Kokang region, and the potential impact of a similar ban due to go into effect in the Wa region in June 2005. The following is the report submitted by this team after their mission. It is unedited and unabridged. Maps used in the report have been removed to reduce the file size. They are available from the UNODC Myanmar Office upon request."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Joint Kokang-Wa Humanitarian Needs Assessment Team
      Format/size: pdf (83K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


      Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2002
      Date of publication: 27 August 2002
      Description/subject: "...The 2002 opium poppy survey was the first comprehensive survey implemented throughout the Shan State of Myanmar by the Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control (CCDAC) of the Government of Myanmar in co-operation with UNDCP, in the framework of UNDCP?s Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP)...The present report consists of three main chapters. Chapter one describes the methodology and the implementation of the survey. Chapter two presents the main findings of the opium survey. A third chapter presents a brief socio-economic profile of the northern Wa Special Region which accounts 22% of the poppy cultivation in Myanmar. This study, the first of its kind, could be used for planning activities to tackle the supply and demand sides of opium use in this area. Several annexes present the breakdown of the estimates as well as maps illustrating some of the survey findings..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNDCP/CCDAC
      Format/size: pdf (3.6MB) 77 pages
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Drug Control Situation in the Union of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 21 February 2001
      Description/subject: A Compilation of UN Data and Sources Prepared by the UNDCP Office for Myanmar "...This report provides a general overview of the drug situation in Myanmar using UN data and sources with the objective of providing a detached and technical view...".....This document is no longer accessible on the UN site but is archived at www.archive.org ...Graphic features like photos and maps are not available, though some can be seen at the original source, e.g. the World Drug Report for 2000.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNDCP
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003