VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Religious and ethnic discrimination > Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - global

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - global

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: We the People: Practicing Belonging in a Period of Deep Anxiety
Date of publication: 30 May 2017
Description/subject: "In the aftermath of the 2016 election, many of our foundational values have been called into question. From democracy and human dignity to equality and individual freedom, a collective belief in the founding values and systems of our country has faded from view, leaving many wondering, Is resistance enough? And although we may feel energized by the surge of political activism seen in response to the new, uncharted, and hostile territory we find ourselves in, how has the momentum from our progressive actions provoked an equal and opposite reaction from those who insist we do not belong? Yes, we must refuse the hate directed toward the "have-nots" in society; yes, we must resist all attempts to institutionalize hate into practice and policy. But at the end of the day, what does it mean to practice not only resistance but also an ethics of care—not just for one group or country but a care for all as one global society?.." This talk is from the 2017 Othering & Belonging Conference hosted by the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society at UC Berkeley. For more information, visit www.haasinstitute.berkeley.edu or www.otheringandbelonging.org Category Nonprofits & Activism
Author/creator: john a. powell, Director, Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society and Berkeley Law Professor
Language: English
Source/publisher: Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 March 2018

Title: Othering & Belonging 2017: The Conference Experience
Date of publication: 2017
Description/subject: "Belonging means more than just being seen. Belonging means being able to participate in the design of political, social, and cultural structures. Belonging means the right to contribute and make demands upon society and institutions..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Othering & Belonging Conference
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 29 March 2018

Title: “Overpoliced & Underprotected”: In Michael Brown Killing, Neglect of Black Communities Laid Bare (video and transcript)
Date of publication: 19 August 2014
Description/subject: "As we continue to discuss the developments since the fatal shooting of unarmed black teenager Michael Brown by a white police officer, we turn to john a. powell, professor of law, African American studies and ethnic studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He is the director of the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society. “The black community tends be overpoliced and underprotected,” powell says. “That’s a very serious problem."
Author/creator: John A. Powell, Amy Goodman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democracy Now
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Alternate URLs: https://www.democracynow.org/shows/2014/8/19?autostart=true
https://haasinstitute.berkeley.edu/johnpowell (Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society)
Date of entry/update: 29 March 2018

Title: Ethnic Cleansing
Description/subject: "Ethnic cleansing is the systematic deliberate removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as mass murder and genocidal rape. Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied with the efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, and by the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship. Initially used by the perpetrators during the Yugoslav Wars and cited in this context as a euphemism akin to that of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution", by the 1990s the term gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017

Title: Google search for john a. powell berkeley
Description/subject: About 1,690,000 results (March 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 March 2018

Individual Documents

Title: PLAN OF ACTION for Religious Leaders and Actors to prevent Incitement to Violence
Date of publication: December 2017
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Incitement to violence that targets communities or individuals based on their identity can contribute to enabling or preparing atrocity crimes, (genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity), and is both a warning sign and early indicator of the risk of those crimes . Monitoring, preventing and countering incite- ment to violence, particularly in societies divided along identity lines and in situations where tensions are high, can contribute to prevention efforts . States have the primary responsibility to protect popu- lations from atrocity crimes, as well as their incitement, but other actors can and should play a role . Religious leaders and actors can play a particularly influential role, as they have the potential to influence the behaviour of those who follow them and share their beliefs . Given that religion has been misused to justify incitement to violence, it is vital that religious leaders from all faiths show leadership in this matter . The process that led to the development of the Plan of Action for Religious Leaders and Actors to Prevent Incitement to Violence that Could Lead to Atrocity Crimes, known as the “Fez Process”, stemmed from the need to better understand, articulate and encourage the potential of religious leaders to prevent incitement and the violence that it can lead to, and to integrate the work of religious leaders within broader efforts to prevent atrocity crimes . The “Fez Process” refers to a series of consultations, organised by the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect between April 2015 and December 2016, with religious leaders, faith-based and secular organizations, regional organi- zations and subject matter experts from all regions of the world . The recommendations contained in the Plan of Action were developed by the religious leaders and actors who participated in these consultations . They are relevant not only to situations where there is a risk of atrocity crimes, but also to other contexts, including the protection of human rights, the prevention of vio- lent extremism and the prevention of conflict . As efforts to prevent atrocity crimes and their incite- ment are most likely to succeed when different actors are working in collaboration, the Plan of Action also includes recommendations for other actors, including States and state institutions and civil society, includ- ing new and traditional media . The Plan of Action is founded on human rights principles, in particular the right to freedom of expression and opinion, freedom of religion and belief and the right of peaceful assembly . The Plan of Action contains three main clusters of recommendations that aim to prevent , strengthen and build . Each cluster includes recommendations that are organised according to thematic focus . It is recommended that, under the stewardship of the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, this Plan of Action is imple- mented at regional, national and local levels . For a com- prehensive implementation of the Plan of Action, it is recommended that all relevant stakeholders contribute, including state and religious institutions, secular and religious civil society organizations, new and traditional media, academia and education institutions, as well as regional and international organizations . Implementing this Plan of Action could contribute to the prevention of atrocity crimes worldwide, especially in areas affected by religious and sectarian tensions and violence . Its implementation will also enhance the respect, protection and promotion of human rights."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (2.3-reduced version; 4.9MB - original)
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018

Title: Muslim Minorities in Transitional Societies: Different Myanmar Muslim Groups’ Different Experiences In Transition
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: " Political and social liberalizations in Myanmar since 2011 have received wide acclaim especially from the international community. However, the experience on the part of Myanmar has not been a bed of roses. With the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and occurrence of violent sectarian conflicts in 2012 and 2013, the ‘Myanmar Muslim minority’ has caught the headlines and attention of both academic and policy circles in the international domain. It generally hholds true that Myanmar Muslims have experienced social suffering and an identity crisis as a community over the last three years. The issue of the Rohingya, who have suffered most, has understandably become the dominant topic in all the talks and writings on Myanmar Muslims in general. However, there are a few other Muslim minorities whose experiences in the transition have been different depending on their identity and dwelling place. This paper will highlight the experiences of two Muslim groups in Myanmar–ethnic Kamans and Mandalay an Muslims–who have also been affected by the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and violent/non-­violent conflicts and argue that their sufferings different from the Rohingya’s imply that there are Muslim minorities, not a Muslim minority, in Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nyi Nyi Kyaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (421K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015

Title: Keeping the Faith: A Study of Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion in ASEAN, (Myanmar section)
Date of publication: May 2015
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "To conclude, the right to freedom of religion is still a very novel concept in Myanmar’s newly emerging political and social milieu. Against the backdrop of Myanmar’s so-called political liberalisation in 2011 and sectarian conflicts that ensued in 2012- 13, the nationwide Buddhist nationalist movement led by Ma-Ba-Tha and the 969 movement’s leaders has emerged and grown. An increasingly populist stance by the ruling Thein Sein administration has emerged, amidst calls by popular democratic leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other activists to amend the constitution and to reduce the military’s involvement in politics. Moreover, due to political and moral sensitivities posed by Ma- Ba-Tha and led by senior Buddhist monks, the opposition, except women’s rights groups and human rights networks, have been largely silent about the race protection bills. Due to dominance of the military representatives (25%) and the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party in the parliament, when the four bills are debated and voted by lawmakers, the liberal opposition may not have a final say in their passage. In an environment of increasingly intense political competition over various issues between the ruling USDP and the NLD (led by Aung San Suu Kyi), both of whom are eyeing the 2015 elections, Ma-Ba-Tha and its influence is expected to grow. If passed, the four race protection bills to restrict religious conversion, polygamy, interfaith marriage and population growth demanded by Ma-Ba-Tha are expected to affect interfaith relationships and freedom of religion especially of minorities. This is because the bills ultimately aim to ensure Buddhist dominance in Myanmar on the pretext of promoting religious harmony. That said, hate speech which has been widespread across Myanmar since sectarian Rakhine riots in June 2012, has been accepted as a serious impediment to Myanmar’s democratization by many activists, commentators and to some extent, by the government itself. The Panzagar movement led by former political prisoner and blogger Nay Phone Latt with the slogan of “End Hate Speech with Flower Speech” has provided a warning to the larger Myanmar society. However, whether those civilian activists including Nay Phone Latt are able to counter the enormous influence that Buddhist Sangha has in Myanmar society is yet to be seen. The fact that a section of people accept that hate speech is dangerous137 does not mean that the “flower speech” campaign will result in the elimination of these messages, nor will it tackle deeper issues for which only the state, and Myanmar people as a whole, can be deemed responsible.".....In addition to the Myanmar section, we include a link to the full report
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Resource Centre
Format/size: pdf (731K-Myanmar section; 5MB-full report)
Alternate URLs: http://hrrca.org/system/files/Book%20of%20Keeping%20the%20Faith_web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2015

Title: Causes of intolerance and prejudice in Buddhism
Date of publication: 21 July 2014
Description/subject: "A sense of bewilderment is often apparent when news of violence appears with regard to Sri Lanka and Burma. The incredulity could be summarized in two ways. For the Asian Buddhist the idea is dismissed that the teachings of the Buddha could ever lead to hostility. ‘Buddhism’ is airbrushed from the scenes of violence and in its place the only thing seen is the threat to the nation, a threat to the culture and a threat to the religion. For the Western observer there is the idea that those committing these acts are not ‘real’ Buddhists. The original teachings have mingled with culture to such an extent as to become unrecognizable – dig beneath the culture, to the text, and there the ‘real’ message of the Buddha will be found. For the West (and I use the term ‘West’ not in a geographic sense but to imply those societies irrevocably influenced by modernity), Buddhism has to be separated from its cultural environment. This is out of necessity – for it is assumed that Buddhism is not a ‘religion’ at all. It is a pristine ‘other’, standing alone and somewhat aloof from the messiness of the masses. The notion that Buddhism is not a ‘religion is often a shared idea of the modern West and modern Asia..."
Author/creator: Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 December 2014