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Fisheries (including aquaculture and fishing)

Individual Documents

Title: Child Labour in the Myanmar Fishing Sector.
Date of publication: October 2018
Description/subject: "The fishing industry has been a significant driver of Myanmar’s economic growth in the last decade. However, Myanmar’s fishing industry has simultaneously been associated with alleged child labour issues. Human Rights Now (HRN), a Tokyobased international human rights NGO, sent a fact-finding mission in July 2017 to investigate the alleged child labour situation in the Myanmar fishing industry. Over the course of five visits from 6 July 2017 to 25 July 2017, the fact-finding mission conducted interviews with labourers at San Pya market, one of the largest wholesale fish markets in Yangon, as well as at two villages across the Yangon River, Aye and Ba Done Nyunt villages. The fact-finding team conducted interviews with 19 people, including 12 child labourers1. While acknowledging the limited scope of the fact-finding mission, HRN uncovered abject working conditions and the use of child labour in the fishing sector in Myanmar. Child participation in the Myanmar labour force is widespread due to poverty, little knowledge about the issue, shortcomings in the country’s education system and a lack of services aimed at poor children and families.2 Furthermore, Myanmar lacks a coherent legal framework against the practice of child labour and, simultaneously, for the protection of young workers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business via "Human Right Now"
Format/size: html, pdf (961K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/child-labour-fishing-sector.html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2018

Title: Fishery exports break 20-year record, could double within two years
Date of publication: 10 April 2018
Description/subject: " Myanmar exported over 560,000 tonnes of fishery products in 2017-18, the highest in 20 years, according to data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MOALI). At those levels, the exports are worth $711 million. That could more than double to $2 billion-$3 billion within the next two years, if the right technology, resources and equipment are deployed, said U Htay Myint, chair of the Myanmar Fishery Federation. This includes developing ponds for aquaculture, processing factories and cold storage facilities. The Ministry of Planning and Finance has agreed to provide funds of up to K100 billion to develop the supply chain and modernise the aquaculture process, U Htay Myint said. Earlier this year, MOALI launched dialogues for the drafting a National Aquaculture Development Plan to preserve the country’s fish supplies."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 April 2018

Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: "....CONCLUSIONS Agricultural mechanization is already well advanced in the village tracts surveyed, almost completely replacing the use of draft cattle. Economic reforms and the growth in the non-farm sector from 2011 have stimulated an ongoing process of structural transformation, in which labor is moving from agriculture to the more productive urban industrial and service sectors. Resultant rural labor shortages and increases in real wage rates have been major drivers of mechanization in agricultural sector, particularly from 2013 onwards. The declining real price of some types of machinery has contributed to the acceleration of this process. The increasing availability of financial services following reforms post-2011 is also likely to have accelerated the adoption of large-scale agricultural machinery, particularly from 2013 onwards. The rise of rental markets, especially for large-scale equipment (combine harvesters and four-wheel tractors), has further improved access to these machines for farmers with small and large landholdings alike."
Author/creator: Myat Thida Win and Aye Mya Thinzar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU)-Food Security Policy Project Research Highlights Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (794K)
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2018

Date of publication: May 2017
Description/subject: Research Paper 52 May 2017 Food Security Policy Project (FSPP)...."Fish farming (aquaculture) has grown rapidly in Myanmar ove r the last two decades and plays an increasingly important role in national fish supply, but its technical and economic characteristics have been poorly studied. This report addresses this knowledge gap by presenting data from the first statistically repre sentative survey of fish farms conducted in Myanmar - t he Myanmar Aquaculture- Agriculture Survey (MAAS) . MAAS was implemented in May 2016. A total of 242 fish farming households (151 growout farms and 73 nurseries) were interviewed in a ‘cluster’ of 25 village tracts as part of a larger survey that covered 1102 households in 40 village tracts in the main fish growing areas of Myanmar in Ayeyarwady and Yangon regi ons. As estimated from satellite images, the village tracts surveyed contained 57% of the total area of inland fish ponds in the Ayeyarwady Delta. Surveyed farms represent the entire population of fish farming households resident in these village tracts. Surv ey results provide a comprehensive ‘benchmark’ of the characteristics of inland aquaculture in Myanmar. Features analyzed include: farm productivity and profitability; farm size; production cycle duration; use of feed, seed and other production inputs; demand for labor; harvesting and marketing behaviors; technological change; the economic and social characteristics of fish farming households; and land access and tenure. The following results stand out:..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton, Mateusz Filipski and Chaoran Hu
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2018

Title: Improving Land Governance for more Equitable Fish Farm Development in Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2017
Description/subject: "This note seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates around the revision of Myanmar’s 2012 Farmland Law. It summarizes key findings of research conducted in the main fish farming areas of Myanmar on the relationship between aquaculture (fish farming) and land use. It makes recommendations for the revision of land use regulations that would allow aquaculture to develop in a manner that benefits small producers and yields more equitable outcomes. Aquaculture is a high value activity in comparison with paddy, Myanmar’s most important crop in area terms. Average returns per acre from farming fish are several times higher than those from farming monsoon or dry season paddy ($655/acre versus $98/acre and $126/acre, respectively..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (419K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: September 2016
Description/subject: "...CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn from this analysis: First, MADB is by far the most important source of loans for agriculture, and plays a crucial role in ensuring that most farmers have access to credit at affordable rates. Terms of repayment for MADB loans appear somewhat more flexible than is generally understood, particularly for monsoon loans, which have repayment periods that are two months longer on average than those for loans taken in dry season. (Repayment schedules for dry season loans are presumably more tightly restricted due to the Bank’s need to disperse the main tranche of monsoon loans from July onwards). Perhaps because a degree of flexibility exists, the share of farmers reporting the need to sell crops earlier than they preferred in order to meet MADB loan repayments was lower than expected. Second, informal lenders (predominantly relatives/ friends and moneylenders) are by far the most common sources of informal credit for agriculture, but are also among the most expensive. The least creditworthy agricultural households (those with the smallest landholdings and lowest per capita expenditures) are most heavily dependent on these sources, and thus face a double burden of limited resources and expensive debt. Loans from these two sources also dominate credit utilized for aquaculture. However, despite average operating costs much higher than those in agriculture, only 41% of households practicing aquaculture had accessed a loan for this purpose within the past 12 months, suggesting that the cost of informal credit may act as a disincentive to investment in the activity, likely resulting in sub-optimal productivity. Third, the prevalence of output-tied loans in agriculture is insignificant, with no loans of this type being provided by traders or input suppliers. In the case of aquaculture, such loans are available from fish traders, but only to large farms. Rather than being exploitative, as such arrangements are often perceived to be, these loans are advantageous to borrowers, because average loan sizes and loan durations are greater than for those from other informal sources, and average rates of interest are lower. Fourth, access to loans from microfinance institutions and cooperatives improved sharply between 2011 and 2016. The greater availability credit from these providers appears to be linked to a 12-percentage point reduction in the average rate of interest paid on loans taken from sources other than banks over this period. Although this is a very positive development, loans from these sources represent only a small share of that invested agriculture and aquaculture, suggesting potential to tailor them more effectively to meet the needs of farm households."
Author/creator: Lu Min Lwin and Khun Moe Htun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU)-Food Security Policy Project Research Highlights Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (842k)
Date of entry/update: 19 March 2018

Date of publication: September 2016
Description/subject: "This research highlight is the first in a series of publications designed to summarize and rapidly disseminate key research findings generated by the Food Security Policy Project (FSP) in Myanmar 1. FSP aims to promote inclusive agricultural growth by facilitating improvements in the policy environment. Addressing critical evidence gaps by generating and distributing new knowledge on agri-food value chains and the rural economy is central to this effort..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton and Ellen P ayongayong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 March 2018

Title: Revitalized Agriculture for Balanced Growth and Resilient Livelihoods: Towards a Rural Development Strategy for Mon State
Date of publication: July 2016
Description/subject: "The purpose of this policy brief is to provide national and state-level policymakers, private sector investors, civil society and donors with an analysis of the rural economy of Mon State and pathways to improved prosperity for its population. The analysis is based on a representative survey (the Mon State Rural Household Survey 2015) of 1680 rural households, which comprise 73% of Mon State’s 2 million residents, and extensive interviews with farmers, traders, processors, local leaders and government officials..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) & Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy
Format/size: pdf (209K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018

Date of publication: 28 January 2016
Description/subject: "Fish farming (aquaculture) is important to Myanmar’s food security and is developing and transforming quickly. This study presents findings from a new field survey of the farmed fish value chain that is more detailed and broader than any previous study conducted in Myanmar. Many of our findings are at odds with what we perceive as conventional wisdom about fish farming in Myanmar. The findings have important policy implications to unlock the sector’s full growth potential and food security contributions....Fish is important for domestic food security – it is the leading purveyor of animal protein and the lead provider of micronutrients, important especially for child development, to Myanmar consumers. Fish is important in the food budget of households: nearly as much is spent on fish (14% of food expenditure) as on rice (19% of food expenditure). Fish farming also generates a lot of employment – about twice as much per acre as paddy farming. Fishfarming accounts for about 20% of domestic fish consumption in Myanmar. This is a long way behind neighboring Thailand and Bangladesh (about 80% and 55%, respectively); farmed fish already accounted for about 20% of the fish consumed in both these countries by the late 1980’s....Even though it is a common perception that aquaculture output is mainly exported, in fact, roughly 20% is exported, and 80% goes to the domestic market. We anticipate that the export share will even decline further in the near to medium term as the Myanmar urban market grows...."
Author/creator: Ben Belton1, Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, L. Seng Kham, Ulrike Nischan, Thomas Reardon, Duncan Boughton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU), Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Center for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/MSU-2015-aquaculture_value_chain_report_sm.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2016

Title: Launch of research report into aquaculture (introduction, presentations and press release)
Date of publication: 28 January 2016
Description/subject: "Rapid growth in Myanmar’s fish farming industry is supporting higher rural incomes, greater job opportunities, and improved nutrition, health and well-being, according to research by the Centre for Economic and Social Development (CESD), Michigan State University (MSU) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The research report, “Aquaculture in transition: Value chain transformation, fish and food security in Myanmar”, was released to industry stakeholders and government representatives at a workshop in Yangon on 28 January 2016. In his opening remarks, Dr Duncan Boughton, Professor, International Development at Michigan State University, said good information and reliable data was vital for effective policy making. The CESD, MSU and IFPRI research provides data for the aquaculture (fish farming) industry that has not previously been available, and that differs from some of the conventional wisdom about Myanmar’s fish farming industry. The research will provide valuable input into policy discussions and the development of policy that supports and promotes a sustainable and equitable growth in the aquaculture industry. Presentations from the launch and workshop, a press release and a link to the findings of the aquaculture research are provided below. Launch and workshop for the “Aquaculture in transition: Value chain transformation, fish and food security in Myanmar”, 9am – 1pm, Thursday 28 January 2016, at Sedona Hotel, Yangon. Agenda (PDF; English version; 1 page; 135 Kb) Presentation 01: “The status of aquaculture in Myanmar: A review of existing data”, by Kyan Htoo, Research Associate, CESD English version (PDF; English version; 23 pages; 966 Kb) Myanmar version (PDF; Myanmar version; 23 pages; 970 Kb) Presentation 02: “The structure and performance of aquaculture value chains in Myanmar”, by Dr Ben Belton, Assistant Professor, Michigan State University English version (PDF; English version; 26 pages; 2,569 Kb) Myanmar version (PDF; Myanmar version; 25 pages; 2,748 Kb) Presentation 03: “Policy options for inclusive aquaculture growth”, by Aung Hein, Research Associate, CESD English version (PDF; English version; 8 pages; 142 Kb) Myanmar version (PDF; Myanmar version; 8 pages; 166 Kb) Press release English version (PDF; English version; 3 pages; 736 Kb) (and copied below) Myanmar version (PDF; Myanmar version; 5 pages; 731 Kb) Aquaculture research paper and policy brief....."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016

Title: A Quiet Revolution Emerging in the Fish-farming Value Chain in Myanmar: Implications for National Food Security
Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Fish farming (aquaculture) is important to Myanmar’s food security and is developing and transforming quickly. This brief presents findings from a new field survey of the farmed fish value chain that is more detailed and broader than any previous study conducted in Myanmar. Many of our findings are at odds with what we perceive as conventional wisdom about fish farming in Myanmar. The findings have important policy implications to unlock the sector’s full growth potential and food security contributions."
Author/creator: Ben Belton, Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, L. Seng Kham, Ulrike Nischan, Thomas Reardon and Duncan Boughton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD), Michigan State University, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Livelihood and Food Security Trust Fund
Format/size: pdf (198K-reduced version; 273K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/CESD-2015-11-A_Quiet_Revolution_Emerging_in_the_Fish-farming-en....
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016

Title: Fish, Rice and Agricultural Land Use in Myanmar: Preliminary findings from the Food Security Policy Project
Date of publication: 05 May 2015
Description/subject: "... Food Security Policy Project Components: • Value chains and livelihoods research • Mon State rural livelihoods and economy survey • Fish value chain • Other product and input value chains assessments • Policy Advising (e.g. Mon State Rural Development Strategy) • Training and Outreach..."
Author/creator: Ben Belton, Aung Hein, Kyan Htoo, Seng Kham, Paul Dorosh, Emily Schmidt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute (MDRI)
Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2016

Title: The Threat to Fisheries and Aquaculture from Climate Change
Date of publication: 08 May 2014
Description/subject: Key Messages: • Significance of fisheries and aquaculture. Fish provide essential nutrition and income to an ever-growing number of people around the world, especially where other food and employment resources are limited. Many fishers and aquaculturists are poor and ill-prepared to adapt to change, making them vulnerable to impacts on fish resources. • Nature of the climate change threat. Fisheries and aquaculture are threatened by changes in temperature and, in freshwater ecosystems, precipitation. Storms may become more frequent and extreme, imperilling habitats, stocks, infrastructure and livelihoods. • The need to adapt to climate change. Greater climate variability and ncertainty complicate the task of identifying impact pathways and areas of vulnerability, requiring research to devise and pursue coping strategies and improve the adaptability of fishers and aquaculturists. • Strategies for coping with climate change. Fish can provide opportunities to adapt to climate change by, for example, integrating aquaculture and agriculture, which can help farmers cope with drought while boosting profits and household nutrition. Fisheries management must move from seeking to maximize yield to increasing adaptive capacity.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Fish Center
Format/size: pdf (747K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Climate%20Change%20and%20Fisheries.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014

Title: Coping and Adaptation against Decreasing Fish Resources :Case Study of Fishermen in Lake Inle, Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2012
Description/subject: Abstract: "Fishermen depend on Lake Inle in Myanmar for their livelihood. However, the lake has been undergoing environmental degradation over the years. Adding to the long-term decrease in the catch because of this degradation, these fishermen faced extremely low water levels in 20 I 0, which they had previously not experienced. Based on field surveys, this paper aims to reveal how fishermen adapted and coped with the changing environment as well as the sudden shock of the abnormally low water levels"....Keywords: coping, adaptation, resource, fishermen
Author/creator: Ikuko OKAMOTO
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 329
Format/size: pdf (183K)
Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012

Title: Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: Abstract "This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand."
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO Discussion Paper 206
Format/size: pdf (289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Issues_Affecting_the_Movement_of_Rural_Labour_in_Myanmar-Rakhine...
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009

Title: The Shrimp Export Boom and Small-Scale Fishermen in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This paper examines the impact of the recent shrimp export boom in Myanmar on the economic state of small-scale fishermen. Results indicate that there has been an active increase in shrimp fishing stimulated by expanding export demand. With this, the income of shrimp fishermen has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. However, future prospects appear gloomy due to the possibility of over exploitation of shrimp resources... Keywords: Fishery, Resources, Export JEL classification: N5, Q2
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 135)
Format/size: pdf (248 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/135.html
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010

Title: Trends of Development of Myanmar Fisheries: With References to Japanese Experiences
Date of publication: February 2008
Description/subject: "Judging by the increase in landing volume, Myanmar fisheries is developing fast. Due to the amount of export earning fisheries sector have its role as one of the main contributors to the national GDP. Thus fisheries are recognized as an important economic sector for the country. The fisheries landing is significantly increasing in recent years. It is more than three times larger than that of 1990s. In 1990-91 the earning form fisheries export was only US$ 13 million. It has been significantly increased in 10 years to US$ 218 million in 2000-2001 and then US$ 250 million in 2001-2002. Thereby fisheries export is promoted and the landings are given priority for exporting. Due to the lack of proper reporting and recording system, it is difficult to clarify the actual domestic utilization of fisheries products in terms of food or non food..."
Author/creator: Khin Maung Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (VRF paper 433)
Format/size: pdf (599K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008

Title: Myanmar Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION: International mission team members; Myanmar fisheries sector... MYANMAR - MISSION REPORT ON INLAND AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES: Myanmar - aquaculture and inland fisheries: Inland fisheries and aquaculture resources; The role of inland fisheries and aquaculture in people's livelihoods in Myanmar; Participation in capture fisheries; Gender aspects; Securing food; Fish consumption; Identifying the poor; Understanding peoples livelihoods... Leasable fisheries; Auction process, duration of lease and renewal; Fishery management; Thaung Tha Man - Mandalay; Mandalay town; South Mandalay; Inle Lake; Open fisheries and rice field resources: Enhancement of freshwater leasable fisheries/culture-based fisheries; Reservoirs; Freshwater aquaculture: Land use for aquaculture; Rice-fish culture; Pond aquaculture; Freshwater species cultured in Myanmar; Stocking and harvesting; Government hatcheries; Private hatcheries; Feeds and feeding... Marketing: Inle Lake fishery and marketing; Institutions and their roles; The role of the Department of Fisheries (DoF); The role of Myanmar Fisheries Federation (MFF)... Inland fisheries and aquaculture: conclusions and recommendations; Information and statistics and appropriate valuation of fisheries resources; Aquaculture and aquatic resources in rural development; Institutions, communications and networking; Research... MYANMAR - MISSION REPORT ON COASTAL AQUACULTURE: Myanmar - coastal aquaculture; Coastal aquaculture in Myanmar; Coastal habitats and resources; Brief history and status of coastal aquaculture... Sub-sector analysis: Shrimp farming; Crab farming; Marine and brackishwater fish culture (groupers and seabass); Other species; Role of coastal aquaculture in people's livelihoods in Myanmar... Gender: Role of small-holder aquaculture? Income diversification... Resources management and environmental issues: Coastal mangrove forests; Coral reef resource systems; Other environmental management issues for aquaculture... Government policies, plans and institutions: Institutions; Land use planning and coastal management; Business investment in coastal aquaculture; Market trends and implications... Coastal aquaculture: conclusions and recommendations: Coastal communities; Environmental issues and resource sustainability; Aquaculture technology; Institutional support and capacity building; Aquatic animal disease control and health management; Business investment in coastal aquaculture; Market trends and implications; Coastal fisheries resources; Entry points for support in coastal aquaculture... ANNEX 1: MISSION ITINERARY; ANNEX 2: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MYANMAR LEASABLE FISHERIES; ANNEX 3: LIST OF PERSONS MET; ANNEX 4: READING AND REFERENCES.
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/ad497e
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010

Title: Myanmar Fisheries Profile
Date of publication: October 2001
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index.asp?lang=en&iso3=MMR&subj=6
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010

Title: What's Wrong in Ranong
Date of publication: February 2001
Description/subject: Ranong is the second largest Burmese community in Thailand, where many migrants work in the fishing and its related industries. However, the community has been hit by an economic downturn in part caused by the loss of fishing concessions from Burma.
Author/creator: John S. Moncrief/Ranong, Thailand and Kawthaung, Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Support to Special Plan for Prawn and Shrimp Farming, Myanmar.
Date of publication: 1999
Author/creator: Basir Kunhimohamed, A.
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Reformulation and Strengthening of Fisheries Statistics System
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: An account is given of activities implemented during the Technical Cooperation Programme project 'Reformulation and strengthening of fisheries statistics system' in Myanmar which included the following: 1) computer training for staff; 2) species guide for field enumerators and for training purposes; 3) frame survey of Yangon Division; 4) data collection and catch analysis on industrial fisheries (trawlers); 5) training on grouping and ranking programme; 6) species coding list for industrial landing forms; 7) a study tour to Mee Pya and Thi La War fishing villages; 8) a visit to Marine Resources Centre and Fish Landing Site; 9) assistance to national gear technologist and aquaculturist; 10) training on 'The collection of catch and effort statistics, and basic sampling theory'; and, 11) workshop on Fisheries Resources Management. CATCH COMPOSITION, DATA ANALYSIS, DATA COLLECTION, DATA PROCESSING, FISHERY DATA, MARINE FISHERIES, STATISTICAL METHODS. Fisheries production, Mathematical and statistical methods. Bangkok 1997
Author/creator: Dr Sann Aung (FAO National Expert/Fisheries Statistician)
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO (TCP/MYA/4553)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Site selection towards sustainable shrimp aquaculture in Myanmar
Date of publication: 1998
Author/creator: Charles L. Angell (FAO Shrimp Culture Environment Expert)
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: The Freshwater Fisheries Law - SLORC Law No. 1/91 (English)
Date of publication: 04 March 1991
Language: English
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222123/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/myanmar%20law/Indexs/lr_law...
Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010

Title: The Myanmar Marine Fisheries Law - SLORC Law No. 9/90 (English)
Date of publication: 25 April 1990
Language: English
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
Format/size: pdf (82K), html
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222005/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml90_09....
Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010