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Migration
See also Migrants, Rights of, under Human Rights

  • Migrants' rights: standards and mechanisms

    • Migrants' rights: specific international and regional standards and mechanisms (texts)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Committee on Migrant Workers
      Description/subject: Monitoring the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families...The Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (CMW) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families by its State parties. It held its first session in March 2004. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially one year after acceding to the Convention and then every five years. The Committee will examine each report and address its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. The Committee will also, under certain circumstances, be able to consider individual complaints or communications from individuals claiming that their rights under the Convention have been violated once 10 States parties have accepted this procedure in accordance with article 77 of the Convention. At the moment, two States have accepted this procedure. The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year. The Committee also organizes days of general discussion and can publish statements on themes related to its work and interpretations of the content of the provisions in the Convention (general comments).
      Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 February 2010


      Title: International Labour Migration
      Description/subject: Standards, links, documentation, database etc.
      Language: English (Francais, French; Espanol, Spanish)
      Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2005


      Title: International Migration Law Database
      Description/subject: International Instruments; Regional Instruments, National Instruments
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


      Title: Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the human rights of migrants
      Description/subject: "The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants was created in 1999 by the Commission on Human Rights, pursuant to resolution 1999/44 . The mandate was extended for a further three years by the Commission on Human Rights in 2002, at its 58th session (Res. 2002/62 ). The Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to “examine ways and means to overcome the obstacles existing to the full and effective protection of the human rights of migrants, including obstacles and difficulties for the return of migrants who are undocumented or in an irregular situation”. The main functions of the Special Rapporteur are: (a) To request and receive information from all relevant sources, including migrants themselves, on violations of the human rights of migrants and their families; (b) To formulate appropriate recommendations to prevent and remedy violations of the human rights of migrants, wherever they may occur; (c) To promote the effective application of relevant international norms and standards on the issue; (d) To recommend actions and measures applicable at the national, regional and international levels to eliminate violations of the human rights of migrants; (e) To take into account a gender perspective when requesting and analyzing information, as well as to give special attention to the occurrence of multiple discrimination and violence against migrant women; In the discharge of these functions: (a) The Special Rapporteur acts on information submitted to her regarding alleged violations of the human rights of migrants by sending urgent appeals and communications to concerned Governments to clarify and/or bring to their attention these cases. See Individual Complaints. (b) The Special Rapporteur conducts country visits (also called fact-finding missions) upon the invitation of the Government, in order to examine the state of protection of the human rights of migrants in the given country. The Special Rapporteur submits a report of the visit to the Commission on Human Rights, presenting her findings, conclusions and recommendations. See Country Visits. (c) The Special Rapporteur participates in conferences, seminars and panels on issues relating to the human rights of migrants. (d) Annually, the Special Rapporteur, reports to the Commission on Human Rights about the global state of protection of migrants’ human rights, her main concerns and the good practices she has observed. In her report the Special Rapporteur informs the Commission of all the communications she has sent and the replies received from Governments. Furthermore, the Special Rapporteur formulates specific recommendations with a view to enhancing the protection of the human rights of migrants. Upon request of the Commission on Human Rights the Special Rapporteur may also present reports to the General Assembly."
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


      Individual Documents

      Title: International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
      Date of publication: 18 December 1990
      Description/subject: Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990; sometimes called the "1990 Convention". Entered into force 1 July 2003. Neither Burma nor the main destination countries for Burmese migrants are party to the Convention (29 States Parties as of May 2005, all sending countries)
      Language: English (French and Spanish available)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ILO Convention 143: Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
      Date of publication: 24 June 1975
      Description/subject: Only 23 ratifications, of which only Sweden, Norway, Italy and Portugal are credible destinations for Burmese migrants.
      Language: English (French and Spanish available)
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


      Title: ILO Convention 97: Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949
      Date of publication: 01 July 1949
      Description/subject: 43 ratifications of which only Belgium, France, Germany,, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain and the UK are credible destinations for Burmese migrants.
      Language: English (French and Spanish available)
      Source/publisher: International Labour Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    • Migrants' rights: specific international and regional standards and mechanisms (commentaries)

      Individual Documents

      Title: A Clouded Vision
      Date of publication: May 2008
      Description/subject: Critics dismiss Asean plan for free movement of labor... "DESPITE the high-minded ideals of the Asean Vision 2020 plan launched more than a decade ago by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), cynics continue to dismiss its aim of labor mobility in a “community of caring societies” as just so much humbug. A Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, signed by Asean leaders in January 2007, “mandates Asean countries to promote fair and appropriate employment protection, payment of wages and adequate access to decent working and living conditions for migrant workers.” A migrant worker holds his document during a raid by Malaysian civilian volunteers and immigration officers on a construction site in Kuala Lumpur in 2005. (Photo: AP) In reality, the millions of desperate migrants who hope to escape poverty and repression in their home countries, including Burma, by migrating to Thailand and Malaysia find anything but these conditions..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


      Title: The Mekong Challenge - Employment and Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand: National Laws/Practices versus International Labour Standards?
      Date of publication: 2005
      Description/subject: Thai university professor and international law expert, Vitit Muntarbhorn, looks at the application of labour standards as they relate to migrant workers in Thailand. Professor Vitit concludes with a series of 12 recommendations for both government and non-government sectors. This publication also contains copies of all six sub-regional, bilateral, MOUs on counter trafficking and employment cooperation... "...Migrant workers can contribute greatly to their home and destination countries, if the process is well managed and if they are protected from abuse and exploitation. In reality, the situation is rendered complex by that fact that many do not enter the destination countries legally. In the market of demand and supply, regrettably many are victims of human smuggling and trafficking. Moreover, influxes of migrant workers who come without the necessary documents, such as visas and work permits, often result in draconian measures such as deportation from the territory of the destination countries, without adequate guarantees for their safety and dignity. The lesson from Thailand is that to date, a closed door policy on migration from neighbouring countries has not worked, given the porous border and Thailand's own labour market which acts as a pull factor. Wisely the country is now moving towards a new and more open door policy: managing migration through cooperation between the countries of origin and Thailand as a destination country, and synchronizing with Thailand's own labour market. In 2005 the country introduced a regularization process based upon registration of migrant workers and their employers, with guarantees for basic rights, and this needs to be supported well in terms of effective implementation and humane treatment of all workers....CONTENTS: Foreword... Executive Summary... 1. Introduction... 2. Employment/Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand... 3. Thai Laws/Practices... 4. International Labour Standards... 5. National Laws/Practices and International Labour Standards... 6. Directions... 7. Notes.
      Author/creator: Vitit Muntarbhorn
      Language: English, Thai
      Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
      Format/size: pdf (563K)
      Alternate URLs: http://no-trafficking.org/content/Reading_Rooms/reading_rooms_pdf/mekong%20challenge_employment%20a...
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    • Migrants' rights: other relevant international and regional standards and mechanisms

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
      Description/subject: " The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties. The Committee was established under ECOSOC Resolution 1985/17 of 28 May 1985 to carry out the monitoring functions assigned to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in Part IV of the Covenant. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially within two years of accepting the Covenant and thereafter every five years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. The Committee cannot consider individual complaints, although a draft Optional Protocol to the Covenant is under consideration which could give the Committee competence in this regard. The Commission on Human Rights has established a working group to this end. However, it may be possible for another committee with competence to consider individual communications to consider issues related to economic, social and cultural rights in the context of its treaty. [Image: Young women in an adult literacy class in Makthar, Tunisia. (UN Photo #157607)] The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year, consisting of a three-week plenary and a one-week pre-sessional working group. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the provisions of the Covenant, known as general comments..."
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


      Title: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
      Description/subject: "The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination by its State parties. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially one year after acceding to the Convention and then every two years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. In addition to the reporting procedure, the Convention establishes three other mechanisms through which the Committee performs its monitoring functions: the early-warning procedure, the examination of inter-state complaints and the examination of individual complaints. [Image: A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. (UN Photo# 151906C)]The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year consisting of three weeks each. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the content of human rights provisions, known as general recommendations (or general comments), on thematic issues and organizes thematic discussions..."
      Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
      Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Human Rights Committee
      Description/subject: This page provides information on the procedures of the Human Rights Committee, the treaty body which administers the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It also has a link to the text of the Covenant.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


      Individual Documents

      Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 1, "United Nations activities"
      Date of publication: 26 May 2003
      Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum United Nations activities*..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.1) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by providing updated jurisprudence and concluding observations with respect to the rights of non-citizens. This addendum also includes a new section on the relevant jurisprudence of the Committee Against Torture. The jurisprudence and concluding observations in this addendum cover treaty-monitoring body sessions from March 2002 through March 2003..."
      Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1)
      Format/size: pdf (87K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


      Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 2 - "Regional activities"
      Date of publication: 26 May 2003
      Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Regional activities..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.2) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by updating the expanded examination of the rights of non-citizens within regional human rights bodies. The addendum updates the jurisprudence of those regional bodies that have adopted recent decisions related to the rights of non-citizens, including the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. It also contains a new section on the European Social Committee. Finally, it again discusses the Framework Convention on National Minorities, adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe, and include recent decision based on that instrument..."
      Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2)
      Format/size: pdf (88K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


      Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 3, "Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens"
      Date of publication: 26 May 2003
      Description/subject: The rights of non-citizens Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens..."While the main report (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) summarizes the norms that protect the rights of non-citizens, in many countries non-citizens do not actually enjoy those rights. One of the most common problems human rights treaty bodies have encountered in reviewing States' reports is that some national constitutions guarantee rights to "citizens" whereas international human rights law would – with the exception of the rights of public participation, of movement,4 and of economic rights in developing countries5 – provide rights to all persons.6 Of the countries responding to the questionnaire, however, most countries extended constitutionally protected human rights to every person7 or specifically to non-citizens.8 Other countries protect the rights of non-citizens, including refugees, by statute9 or by incorporating treaties into national law.10 Constitutions in some countries, however, inappropriately distinguish between the rights granted to persons who obtained their citizenship by birth and other citizens.11 Furthermore, the mere statement of the general principle of non-discrimination in a constitution is not a sufficient response to the requirements of human rights law..."
      Author/creator: David Weissbrodt,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.3)
      Format/size: pdf (88K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


      Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 4, "Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire"
      Date of publication: 26 May 2003
      Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire..."This Addendum IV summarizes1 the comments received from 22 Member States in response to the questionnaire prepared by the Special Rapporteur and disseminated pursuant to Commission decision 2002/107 of 25 April 2002. For reasons of expense and length it was not possible to reproduce the full text of the responses received from all Member States. Hence, this summary was prepared to express particular appreciation for the quite substantial number of responses received and to give others a sense of the substance contained in the replies. The Special Rapporteur also received responses from 7 intergovernmental organizations and 4 nongovernmental organizations, plus the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights of migrants.2 The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of non-citizens took into account all of the responses in preparing the final report and other addenda and is extremely grateful for all the assistance afforded in those responses..." Includes replies from Thailand and India.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.4)
      Format/size: pdf (101K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2005


      Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report
      Date of publication: 23 May 2003
      Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283..."Based on a review of international human rights law, the Special Rapporteur has concluded that all persons should by virtue of their essential humanity enjoy all human rights unless exceptional distinctions, for example, between citizens and non-citizens, serve a legitimate State objective and are proportional to the achievement of that objective. For example, non-citizens should enjoy freedom from arbitrary killing, inhuman treatment slavery, forced labour, child labour, arbitrary arrest, unfair trial, invasions of privacy, refoulement and violations of humanitarian law. They also have the right to marry, protection as minors, peaceful association and assembly, equality, freedom of religion and belief, social, cultural, and economic rights in general, labour rights (for example, as to collective bargaining, workers� compensation, social security, appropriate working conditions and environment, etc.) and consular protection..."
      Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23)
      Format/size: pdf (83K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


      Title: United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (including the protocols on trafficking and smuggling of persons)
      Date of publication: 15 November 2000
      Description/subject: The Convention entered into force on 29 September 2003... Annex I: United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime... Annex II: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime...Annex III: Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime...Myanmar accession: 30 March 2004... The UNODC page at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/crime_cicp_convention.html contains the finalized instruments; Signatures/Ratifications; Legislative guides; Background information; Conference of the Parties.
      Language: English (Arabic,Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish available)
      Source/publisher: United Nations (A/RES/55/25)
      Format/size: pdf, html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


      Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
      Date of publication: 20 November 1989
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989; entry into force 2 September 1990. For the jurisprudence of the Convention, visit the site of CRC Committee. Myanmar accession: 15 July 1991.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
      Date of publication: 18 December 1979
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979; entry into force 3 September 1981. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CEDAW Committee. Myanmar accession: 22 July 1997.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
      Date of publication: 16 December 1966
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
      Date of publication: 16 December 1966
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966; entry into force 3 January 1976.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
      Date of publication: 21 December 1965
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965; entry into force 4 January 1969. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CERD Committee at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    • Migrants' rights: guides to the mechanisms

      Individual Documents

      Title: The UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Migrant Workers: a Samizdat
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "Whether migrants fall so low so as to be below the guard of protection provided by the ensemble of international human rights treaties is the question at the heart of this research paper. There is a lack of public comprehensive research on whether governments extend the provisions of the international human rights treaties they have ratified to protect the human rights of migrants and not only the rights of their own nationals. To fill this gap, the International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC) and December 18 vzw, with support from UNESCO, engaged in a research project to study country specific conclusions and recommendations issued by bodies of experts tasked with supervising the implementation of these conventions. The research was carried out in Geneva between May and July 2004. The data compiled over the 10-week research period provides some useful initial pointers as to current practice and priorities in the six treaty monitoring bodies (TMB). While irregular migrants make news headlines and occupy centre stage in regional migration management consultative processes, TMB conclusions highlight the existing gap in ensuring non-discrimination and equal treatment with nationals for migrants and members of their families, as provided for in human rights treaties. Migration affects most countries today, yet only half of the TMB conclusions refer to migrant concerns. This research is part of an on-going strategy to enable civil society and other stakeholders to make better use of international human rights treaties and conventions. In order to better protect the human rights of migrants, States parties need to be prompted to follow up the recommendations of treaty monitoring bodies. As the overall UN human rights treaty monitoring system is currently subject to review, this thematic pilot research provides a “horizontal” case-study across several treaty monitoring bodies which could be useful for United Nations, government and NGOs experts engaged in efforts to rationalize and streamline treaty monitoring and observance. This paper is also constructed so as to offer an additional perspective on migrants’ rights and UN human rights treaties for the newly formed Committee on Migrant Workers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Catholic MIgration Commission, December 18
      Format/size: Word (292K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005


      Title: The International Labour Organization: A Handbook for Minorities and Indigenous Peoples
      Date of publication: May 2002
      Description/subject: "This Handbook gives an insider’s view of how the International Labour Organization (ILO) works. It explains how the ILO can be used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and others, to promote and protect minority and indigenous peoples’ rights. The Handbook provides an overview of the ILO’s structure, relevant committees and methods, in an accessible format. It offers practical advice, case studies and step-by-step guidance on working with the ILO; showing, for example, how NGOs can provide information to the ILO, how they can influence its agenda, and how they can work with bodies such as trade unions to further minority and indigenous peoples’ concerns. While this Handbook is aimed at minorities and indigenous peoples’ organizations, and other NGOs working to promote human rights, it will be of interest to anyone wishing to learn more about the ILO and its role in fighting discrimination and protecting rights..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International, Minority Rights Group International
      Format/size: pdf (321K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Migrants: resources and specialist organisations

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Asian Research Center for Migration (ARCM)
    Description/subject: Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


    Title: December 18
    Description/subject: December 18 is a Brussels-based non-profit organization working for the promotion and protection of the rights of migrants worldwide. The name of the organization refers to the day when the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the “International Convention on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families”. Today, the 18th of December is also known as International Migrants Day. December 18 advocates for a world where migrants are not discriminated against because of their sex, race, colour, language, religion or conviction, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, nationality, age, economic position, property, marital status, birth or any other status. A world that understands and accepts migration as normal and takes place within a framework that applies universal human rights norms and standards to all migrants and members of their families. The mission of December 18 is to promote the protection of the rights of migrants worldwide. Our goal is to ensure that the human rights of all migrants are known, recognized and protected effectively, and that an environment is created for migrants to be full participants in any society. We promote an approach to migration policies that is based on existing international and regional human rights instruments and mechanisms.
    Language: English (other languages available)
    Source/publisher: December 18
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)
    Description/subject: "GAATW's mission is to ensure that the human rights of migrant women are respected and protected by authorities and agencies. We advocate for the incorporation of human rights standards in all anti-trafficking initiatives, including in the implementation of the Trafficking Protocol, Supplementary to the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (2000). GAATW strives to promote and share good practices of anti-trafficking initiatives but also to critique and stop bad practices and harm caused by existing practices. GAATW promotes women migrant workers' rights and believes that ensuring safe migration and protecting rights of migrant workers should be at the core of all anti-trafficking efforts. We advocate for living and working conditions that provide women with more alternatives in their countries of origin, and to develop and disseminate information to women about migration, working conditions and their rights. We support the self-organisation of women migrant workers, ensuring their presence and self-representation in international fora. GAATW aims to build new alliances among various sectors of migrants."
    Language: English, Espanol, Spanish, Russian
    Source/publisher: GAATW
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


    Title: International Catholic Migration Comission (ICMC)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: International Labour Migration
    Description/subject: Standards, links, documentation, database etc.
    Language: English (Francais, French; Espanol, Spanish)
    Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 May 2005


    Title: International Labour Organization, Southeast Asia
    Description/subject: Sections on: Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lao P.D.R.. Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation (ILO)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/countries/lang--en/index.htm
    Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


    Title: International Organisation for Migration (IOM) -- Southeast Asia
    Description/subject: Migration in South East Asia: Asia in Motion: Dynamism and intricate flows characterize migration in South East Asia and in particular in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), which comprises migrant sending, receiving and transit countries. The number of migrants on the move in South East Asia has risen dramatically in recent decades, as political and economic change has swept the region... Labour Migration...Irregular Migration & Human Trafficking...Migration & Health
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IOM
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 September 2005


    Title: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Description/subject: Lots of documents to download
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: MAP Foundation
    Description/subject: " In 1996 thousands of migrants were working in Chiang Mai building the hotels, housing estates, and hospitals which now cover the city. At the time there were almost no services available to migrants and when they needed to go to hospital they faced difficulties with language and costs. Migrant Assistance Programme (MAP) started to develop a group of migrants who could interpret in hospitals and provide some health education prevention and promotion on migrant work-sites, mainly construction sites. As MAP became part of the migrant community, the range of issues facing migrant workers became apparent and the activities of MAP expanded to respond to these issues. In 2002 MAP became a registered Thai foundation, taking the Thai name: "Foundation for the Health and Knowledge of Ethnic Labour" but keeping the already English name MAP which had already become familiar with migrant communities..."
    Language: Burmese, English, Karen, Shan, Thai.
    Source/publisher: MAP Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: MAP 10 Year Book '1996 - 2006'
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: CHAPTER ONE: MAP 1996 –2006; Access to Information; Health and Social Rights ; Women’s Rights; Labour Rights; Bridging Communities; Networking CHAPTER TWO: LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS IN THAILAND: Wages; Occupational Health and Safety; Living Conditions; HIV/AIDS... CHAPTER THREE: THE CIRCULATION OF PEOPLE BETWEEN BURMA AND THAILAND: Registrations and Deportations; Rights of Migrants... CHAPTER FOUR: GLOBAL CIRCULATION: Thanks Sources; BOXES: Box 1: Migrant Workers ReceiveCompensation; Box 2: Trade Unions in Thailand; Box 3: MAP Refuses TOTAL; Box 4: Details of MAP’s Legal Cases; Box 5: Forced Labour and Forced Migration; Box 6: Refugees; Box 7: Cross-border Thai-Burma Relations Box 8: International Migrants Day Statement 2001 Box 9: Joint Statement on Finding Solutions 2002 Box10: MOU Process Box11: Medical Check up and Access to health Box12: Open letter on Deposit fees for migrants Box13: Kings Body Concept Co Advert Box14: 420 Kings Body Concept Workers Deported Box15: Meaning of Alien; Box16: Intervention at UN–Civil Society Interactive hearing; Box17: The Death Ship... APPENDIX: Appendix One: Export of Thai labour; Appendix Two: Import of Foreign Labour, Summary of 10 years of Policies.
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: MAP Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (2.24MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mapfoundationcm.org
    Date of entry/update: 02 February 2007


    Title: Human Rights and Development Foundation (HRDF)
    Description/subject: Objectives: 1.To promote and protect human rights, democracy and peace; 2.To strengthen the standards on human rights, democracy and peace whilst promoting and acting to translate the said principles into practice; 3.To support development which promotes and protects human rights, democracy and peace; 4.To promote and safeguard quality of environment, sustainable use of natural resources and people’s rights in this regard; 5.To safeguard consumers’ rights and oppose unfair business or trade competition; 6.To coordinate and collaborate with concerned individuals and organizations committed to human rights issues, either governmental or non-governmental, working to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, 7.To organize educational and training programmes; to disseminate data and information; to organize meetings or conferences, seminars, symposiums and hears; to produce fact-finding reports and/or situation reports, observation reports on elections, reports on observation of trials and court proceedings; to file petitions or complaints; to provide legal aid or to take legal actions and to undertake any litigation in order to achieve the above mentioned objectives.
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: Human Rights and Development Foundation (HRDF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 May 2011


    Title: Solidarity Center
    Description/subject: "Promoting Worker Rights Worldwide"..."In Burma, the Solidarity Center supports union efforts to expose the government's criminal and systematic worker rights violations, promote and protect migrant worker rights, and sow the seeds of democracy."..."In Thailand, the Solidarity Center and its partners push for enforcement of international labor standards and national labor law, strive to protect the rights of migrant workers and prevent human trafficking, and seek legal redress for trafficking victims."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Solidarity Center
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2011


  • Labour migration: global and regional studies

    Individual Documents

    Title: GlobalWork, Surplus Labor, and the Precarious Economies of the Border
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper focuses on the recent emergence of regional production networks and border industrial zones, the labor migrations they are generating, and their consequences for “surplus populations” in the Greater Mekong Subregion (mainland Southeast Asia). In this region the textile and garment industry is employing increasing numbers of workers in border areas on flexible and highly precarious work “contracts”. To understand these emergent labor formations we focus on three scales of analysis through a case study from the Thailand–Burma border. We focus on initiatives led by the Asia Development Bank, accompanying subregional political groupings which aim to facilitate capital flows and trade by reducing transaction time and cost, and a case study of labor recruitment and employment practices in one border town. In examining these three scales, we question the value of characterizing such trans-national, state-led, authoritarian, and racialized labor formations as neoliberal." Keywords: precarious labor,migration, Greater Mekong Subregion, Mae Sot, border industrial zones, racialization, textile and garment industry
    Author/creator: Dennis Arnold and John Pickles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA;
    Format/size: pdf (167K)
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2011


    Title: INFORMAL TRADE AND UNDERGROUND ECONOMY IN MYANMAR - COSTS AND BENEFITS
    Date of publication: June 2011
    Description/subject: Contents: Foreword... Executive summary ... Introduction... 1 - Objective .... 2 - Methodology.... Part 1 - Myanmar’s cross-border trade.... 1 - Impact of sanctions on cross-border trade.... 2 - Local perceptions of cross-border trade.... 3 - The context of informal/illegal cross-border trade .... 4 - Illegal versus illicit products.... 5 - Costs and benefits of informal cross-border trade.... 6 - Case studies related to cross-border trade and its effects...... Part 2 - Cross-border mobility and human smuggling from Myanmar: 1 - Illegal border crossings... 2 - Causes and effects of cross-border mobility.... 3 - Costs and benefits of mobility .... Conclusion.....Executive summary: "Myanmar, the second biggest country in terms of area in mainland South East Asia, borders five neighboring countries: China, Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Lao PDR. Myanmar’s longest borders are with China (approximately 1,357 miles) and Thailand (approximately 1,314 miles), and it shares coastal waters with Malaysia and Singapore. Being a member of at least nine Asia and Pacific inter-governmental organizations that include the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Upper Mekong Commercial Navigation, the Asia Pacific Fishery Commission, Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT), and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Myanmar is actively involved in various economic cooperation programs. However, the pace of Myanmar’s economic development still lags behind that of other members in these organizations. In addition, informal activities and informal moment of goods and people have been quite significant due to many factors. Although various policy measures have been developed to mitigate these informal activities, there has not been any study regarding the sources of these informal activities, their costs and benefits, impacts and consequences of the existence and nonexistence of these activities, or how these activities could be mitigated without having significant negative economic and social impacts on the local people and the economy as the whole. Without knowing causes and effects, costs and benefits, and factors behind informal activities, it is not simple to come up with restrictive policies to control them. In some cases, restrictive policies have caused severe adverse social and economic impacts on the community. Hence, it is very important that proper research is conducted in order to identify multidimensional issues that could effectively be addressed by multidimensional policies through close cooperation among the stakeholders. This paper attempts to identify factors behind causes and effects of informal flows in goods and persons across the borders between Myanmar and its neighboring countries, especially China and Thailand, and to address related issues and possible policy implications."
    Author/creator: Winston Set Aung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Irasec (Carnet de l’Irasec / Occasional Paper Série Observatoire / Observatory Series No 04)
    Format/size: pdf (2.54K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


    Title: A Comparative Picture of Migration in Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: Summary: "Migration for work has become a way of life for thousands of poorly educated, largely unskilled villagers in Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam. They leave home for a variety of reasons most often related to family difficulties, lack of land for agriculture and a general lack of employment opportunities in their region. Migrants of all ages often travel without legal travel documents, sometimes dependent on paid brokers, to find work in Thailand that may involve dirty, dangerous or poor living and working conditions without access to health care. Among their numbers are children as young as 10 and adolescents, and single females, who are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. While some migrants return home with money to pay for a new house or shop or consumer goods, others return only to find they are still faced with economic hardships that lead them to migrate again. Reliable information is generally unavailable to villagers in advance of their departure and they leave home without adequate understanding of travel requirements, employment opportunities and the risks of traveling and living abroad. Few migrants knew of any organization they could contact for information, advice or advocacy abroad. While there have been some gains in passport use and awareness of the risks, migration for work in the five countries surveyed remains a dangerous way of life."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Social Environment Research Consultants (SERC)
    Format/size: pdf (192K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.sercasia.com/images/A%20Comparative%20Study%20of%20Migration_%20Summary.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 May 2010


    Title: Human Development Report 2009 - Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: "Migration not infrequently gets a bad press. Negative stereotypes portraying migrants as ‘stealing our jobs’ or ‘scrounging off the taxpayer’ abound in sections of the media and public opinion, especially in times of recession. For others, the word ‘migrant’ may evoke images of people at their most vulnerable. This year’s Human Development Report, Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development, challenges such stereotypes. It seeks to broaden and rebalance perceptions of migration to reflect a more complex and highly variable reality. This report breaks new ground in applying a human development approach to the study of migration. It discusses who migrants are, where they come from and go to, and why they move. It looks at the multiple impacts of migration for all who are affected by it—not just those who move, but also those who stay. In so doing, the report’s findings cast new light on some common misconceptions. For example, migration from developing to developed countries accounts for only a minor fraction of human movement. Migration from one developing economy to another is much more common. Most migrants do not go abroad at all, but instead move within their own country. Next, the majority of migrants, far from being victims, tend to be successful, both before they leave their original home and on arrival in their new one. Outcomes in all aspects of human development, not only income but also education and health, are for the most part positive— some immensely so, with people from the poorest places gaining the most. Reviewing an extensive literature, the report finds that fears about migrants taking the jobs or lowering the wages of local people, placing an unwelcome burden on local services, or costing the taxpayer money, are generally exaggerated. When migrants’ skills complement those of local people, both groups benefit. Societies as a whole may also benefit in many ways—ranging from rising levels of technical innovation to increasingly diverse cuisine to which migrants contribute. The report suggests that the policy response to migration can be wanting. Many governments institute increasingly repressive entry regimes, turn a blind eye to health and safety violations by employers, or fail to take a lead in educating the public on the benefits of immigration. By examining policies with a view to expanding people’s freedoms rather than controlling or restricting human movement, this report proposes a bold set of reforms. It argues that, when tailored to country-specific contexts, these changes can amplify human mobility’s already substantial contributions to human development. The principal reforms proposed centre around six areas, each of which has important and complementary contributions to make to human development: opening up existing entry channels so that more workers can emigrate; ensuring basic rights for migrants; lowering the transaction costs of migration; finding solutions that benefit both destination communities and the migrants they receive; making it easier for people to move within their own countries; and mainstreaming migration into national development strategies. The report argues that while many of these reforms are more feasible than at first thought, they nonetheless require political courage. There may also be limits to governments’ ability to make swift policy changes while the recession persists..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
    Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


    Title: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN THAILAND 2009 (English)
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: International Organization for Migration; International Labour Organization, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Development Fund for Women, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Bank, United Nations Country Team in Thailand...Foreword: Transborder migration is a well-known phenomenon in Thailand. Over the past 30 years, Thailand has promoted and administered the export of its labour as well as hosted hundreds of thousands of nationals from neighbouring countries, who have fled their homelands due to war, internal conflict or national instability. Although the number of people seeking refuge has varied during different periods, Thailand has accommodated these displaced people on a humanitarian basis. In addition, the Royal Thai Government has regularly given refuge and assisted in times of crisis. The government has erected temporary shelter along the border to house them and provided security personnel. Repatriation and resettlement has been on-going. However, with conflict and instability persistent in certain areas, some of the displaced people have been unable to return home and today as many as 130,000 remain in the country. While many of its neighbours have had to deal with internal difficulties, over the past 20 years Thailand has seen remarkable progress in human development. Thailand has demonstrated its success in meeting most, if not all, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and has moved on to set more ambitious targets of MDG “Plus” that go well beyond the internationally agreed MDGs. Thailand reached the international MDG poverty target of halving the proportion of people living in poverty between 1990 and 2015, and will achieve these goals well in advance of 2015. This economic success and development enjoyed by Thailand has attracted thousands of migrants from neighbouring countries looking for a better standard of living. Furthermore, it has shaped migration flows in the region. While 500,000 Thais are reported to be working overseas, it is estimated that there are more than two million migrant workers from neighbouring Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia in Thailand, out of which 501,590 hold a valid work permit. In recent years, international migration is a topic of discussion high on the agenda of governments, the United Nations, international organisations and non-governmental organisations, due to its links to a broad range of economic, social and demographic issues. The United Nations Partnership Framework (UNPAF) 2007-2011 has embraced migration-related issues in its main areas of cooperation to promote the reduction of disparity and sustainable human development. The United Nations Thematic Working Group on International Migration, active since 2004, aims to implement migration-related joint activities in Thailand. Raising the profile of and facilitate better understanding on migration issues will improve the living and working conditions of migrants in Thailand in line with the UNPAF 2007-2011. The member agencies have been cooperating to create a better understanding and developing a common approach of the migration phenomena in Thailand by strengthening coordination mechanisms and information sharing among concerned United Nations agencies, in close cooperation with several Ministries of the Royal Thai Government. The Report is the result of joint collaboration among the members. The second edition (2009 report) has been prepared to review and analyze recent international migration trends and issues in Thailand. This edition is an update of the country's migration situation report published in 2005. Many ministries and offices of the Royal Thai Government have also cooperated closely in the preparation of this report. It is our hope that this 2009 Report will provide valuable, up-to-date information that can be used in policy recommendations on international migration. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this report will be of value to the Royal Thai Government, the United Nations, international organisations and non-governmental organisations in the formulation of policies and implementation of programmes that affect the lives of displaced people, migrant workers and their children and that pave the way for effective migration management.
    Author/creator: Rosalia Sciortino, Sureeporn Punpuing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) et al
    Format/size: pdf (19.06 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/JBRN-7QNFY5?OpenDocument
    Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


    Title: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN THAILAND 2009 (Thai) ?????????????????????????????
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Foreword: Transborder migration is a well-known phenomenon in Thailand. Over the past 30 years, Thailand has promoted and administered the export of its labour as well as hosted hundreds of thousands of nationals from neighbouring countries, who have fled their homelands due to war, internal conflict or national instability. Although the number of people seeking refuge has varied during different periods, Thailand has accommodated these displaced people on a humanitarian basis. In addition, the Royal Thai Government has regularly given refuge and assisted in times of crisis. The government has erected temporary shelter along the border to house them and provided security personnel. Repatriation and resettlement has been on-going. However, with conflict and instability persistent in certain areas, some of the displaced people have been unable to return home and today as many as 130,000 remain in the country. While many of its neighbours have had to deal with internal difficulties, over the past 20 years Thailand has seen remarkable progress in human development. Thailand has demonstrated its success in meeting most, if not all, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and has moved on to set more ambitious targets of MDG “Plus” that go well beyond the internationally agreed MDGs. Thailand reached the international MDG poverty target of halving the proportion of people living in poverty between 1990 and 2015, and will achieve these goals well in advance of 2015. This economic success and development enjoyed by Thailand has attracted thousands of migrants from neighbouring countries looking for a better standard of living. Furthermore, it has shaped migration flows in the region. While 500,000 Thais are reported to be working overseas, it is estimated that there are more than two million migrant workers from neighbouring Myanmar, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia in Thailand, out of which 501,590 hold a valid work permit. In recent years, international migration is a topic of discussion high on the agenda of governments, the United Nations, international organisations and non-governmental organisations, due to its links to a broad range of economic, social and demographic issues. The United Nations Partnership Framework (UNPAF) 2007-2011 has embraced migration-related issues in its main areas of cooperation to promote the reduction of disparity and sustainable human development. The United Nations Thematic Working Group on International Migration, active since 2004, aims to implement migration-related joint activities in Thailand. Raising the profile of and facilitate better understanding on migration issues will improve the living and working conditions of migrants in Thailand in line with the UNPAF 2007-2011. The member agencies have been cooperating to create a better understanding and developing a common approach of the migration phenomena in Thailand by strengthening coordination mechanisms and information sharing among concerned United Nations agencies, in close cooperation with several Ministries of the Royal Thai Government. The Report is the result of joint collaboration among the members. The second edition (2009 report) has been prepared to review and analyze recent international migration trends and issues in Thailand. This edition is an update of the country's migration situation report published in 2005. Many ministries and offices of the Royal Thai Government have also cooperated closely in the preparation of this report. It is our hope that this 2009 Report will provide valuable, up-to-date information that can be used in policy recommendations on international migration. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this report will be of value to the Royal Thai Government, the United Nations, international organisations and non-governmental organisations in the formulation of policies and implementation of programmes that affect the lives of displaced people, migrant workers and their children and that pave the way for effective migration management. Gwi
    Author/creator: Rosalia Sciortino, Sureeporn Punpuing
    Language: Thai
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) et al
    Format/size: pdf (143K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: LABOR MIGRATION in the Greater Mekong Sub-region-- Synthesis Report: Phase I November 2006
    Date of publication: November 2006
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), with a population of 260 million, comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan province in China. Despite marked disparities in economic development between its members, the sub-region is extremely dynamic with annual growth rates averaging above 6 percent in recent years. In the past, economic integration of the GMS countries was hindered by political factors, civil unrest, and sometimes open conflict. However, recently there has been growing momentum to seek new ways to cooperate and enhance economic growth. Labor migration is one of the areas where the benefits to formal cooperation are largest, yet the institutional, political, and technical obstacles to such cooperation are daunting. Migration has been occurring in the GMS for centuries, largely in an informal and unregulated fashion. In recent years, however, cross-border labor migration within the sub-region has increased sharply. The combination of demographic transition and upgrading of the skills of its workforce has left Thailand facing a labor shortage of unskilled labor, which migrants from neighboring countries have been more than willing to fill. Indeed, Thailand’s much higher incomes, fast growth, and more favorable social and political climate act as a magnet for people in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar trying to escape poverty. For many poor households in the sub-region, migration offers an avenue, sometimes the only one, towards jobs and higher incomes, albeit often at a high risk to the migrants themselves. For Thailand, migrants represent an important reservoir of cheap and flexible labor, and a boost to its competitiveness in certain sectors. Recent research indicates that more than 2 million migrants have moved between GMS countries in the last few years due to economic reasons. Thailand alone estimates to have 1.5 to 2 million regular and irregular migrants from the GMS currently living in the country and is also home to about 150,000 refugees. Uneven patterns of development, slowing population growth in Thailand combined with high fertility rates in its neighbors and growing economic integration will ensure that labor mobility in the GMS continues to grow in coming decades. Much of this migration, however, will remain irregular unless greater efforts are made to regulate and manage migration flows. The sending countries generally lack the capacity to properly manage the mass export of labor and to protect the rights of their migrant-nationals abroad. Receiving countries have fairly weak migration policy frameworks, which often have been implemented hastily as an ‘after-the-fact’ response to the arrival of large numbers of migrants. The lack of a legal framework to regulate migration puts migrant workers at a higher risk of abuse, and strengthens the prevalence of smuggling rings, who are also the main actors in human trafficking, be it for sexual exploitation or slave-labor. Absence of an adequate legal and policy framework thus contributes to increasing the costs (and risks) of migration, and to reducing its benefits. GMS governments in both sending and receiving countries face an urgent need to adopt policies that can help manage the increased flows in an efficient yet humane and equitable way."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank?
    Format/size: pdf (1.45MB)
    Date of entry/update: 28 January 2009


    Title: International Migration in Thailand
    Date of publication: August 2005
    Description/subject: RECOMMENDATIONS: "1. International migration policies should be aligned with other economic and social development policies. The Government should consider producing a policy document on international migration and incorporating its recommendations... 2. Because of the broad range of migration issues that Thailand is facing, the Kingdom would benefit from a national comprehensive migration management system, with an appropriate coordination mechanism, that would deal with all types of migration (asylum seekers, regular migrants and irregular migrants) in an integrated manner... 3. The Thai Government should re-establish a border screening mechanism such as the Provincial Admissions Boards in order to provide a means to determine which persons crossing the border from Myanmar are legitimate asylum seekers and deserve the protection of the border camps or the protection afforded those fleeing political persecution. The Government should broaden the concept of persons deserving asylum from those “fleeing fighting” to the definition of a refugee spelled out in the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees... 4. Thailand would benefit from developing and implementing a strategy that would give Thai overseas workers a higher level of comparative advantage by targeting more technical occupations... 5. The process of registering for a work permit in Thailand should be simplified and made less expensive through cooperation among the ministries concerned. The Thai Government should articulate the rights and obligations of migrant workers and their dependents. Sanctions should also be applied to employers and others who withhold original registration documents or work permits. The Ministry of Interior should allow for on-going or renewed registration periods for migrants coupled with adequate publicity campaigns... 6. The Ministry of Labour should carry out a programme of pro-active random inspection of workplaces to ensure that they are complying with labour regulations and standards, including the timely payment of mandated wages... 7. The Ministry of Labour and the police should be more pro-active in investigating workplaces thought to have trafficked persons and those subjecting workers to abuse and exploitation. When enforcing laws against trafficking, forced labour and slavery-like conditions, care should be taken to protect the victims of such practices... 8. HIV/AIDS information and prevention programmes should target such mobile and difficult-to-reach populations as migrant sex workers, seafarers and other migrant workers. More cross-border intervention programmes should be implemented. 9. More comprehensive and higher quality research is required in many areas of international migration affecting Thailand in order to strengthen policy formulation and programme implementation. More research is required on:  The number and characteristics of Thai nationals overseas;  The number and characteristics of the unregistered migrant population in Thailand;  The situation of children of migrants and migrant children in Thailand without their parents;  The volume and types of trafficking to Thailand;  The incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among migrants;  Effective intervention programmes for migrants in vulnerable situations."
    Author/creator: Jerrold W. Huguet, Sureeporn Punpuing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Format/size: pdf (959K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2005


    Title: Labour Migration in Asia: Trends, challenges and policy responses
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: "...Responding to chronic labour shortages in the oil rich Arab states in the 1970s and 1980s, some Asian states have been among the first to develop an active overseas employment or labour migration policy that seeks to provide protection to its nationals working abroad, relieve domestic unemployment and augment foreign exchange earnings. This volume looks at recent trends in labour migration in Asia, the issues and challenges faced by migrants and countries of origin, and policy responses by the state.The report contains articles by labour migration specialists at the ILO, IOM and the APMRN (Asia Pacific Migration Research Network) and includes a compendium of labour migration polices and practices in nine major Asian labour sending states... Table of Contents : Preface * Part I - International Labour Migration in Asia: Trends, Characteristics, Policy and Interstate Cooperation * Protection of Migrant Workers in Asia: Issues and Policies * Capacity building and Interstate Cooperation to Protect Migrant Workers and Facilitate Orderly Labour Migration * Part II - Compendium of Labour Migration Policies and Practices in Major Asian Labour Sending Countries..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Format/size: pdf (187 pages)
    Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


    Title: Asian Labour Migration: Issues and Challenges in an Era of Globalization
    Date of publication: August 2002
    Description/subject: Introduction; ; Notes on terminology;; Popular myths about migrant workers; Labour Migration: Causes and Origins; Reasons for migration; Why do workers migrate? Why do labour-sending countries promote labour migration? What are the economic and structura factors causing migration? Options for countries facing labour shortages; Labour Migration from Asia: Flows and Trends; Migration statistics and data; Migration patterns and trends; Recent trends in Asian labour migration; Most Vulnerable Categories of Migrant Workers in Asia; Women workers: domestic workers and entertainers; Trafficked persons; Irregular migrants; Migrant Workers – Scapegoats of the Asian Economic Crisis? Protecting ‘the Least Protected’: Some Issues; Protection of migrant workers and international instruments; Protection of migrant workers against abuses and malpractices remains a high priority; Dilemma of labour-sending countries: Promotion of labour emigration and protection of national workers abroad; What role can trade unions play in the protection of migrant workers? Policy Implications and Options.
    Author/creator: Piyasiri Wickramasekera
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Labour Office
    Format/size: pdf (981K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2005


  • Migration within Burma

    Individual Documents

    Title: Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study
    Date of publication: July 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract "This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand."
    Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO Discussion Paper 206
    Format/size: pdf (289K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


    Title: The 'everyday politics' of IDP protection in Karen State
    Date of publication: 20 October 2008
    Description/subject: "...While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politically-averse intervention which marginalizes local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the 'everyday politics' of rural villagers. The present article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritize a form of State-centric 'neutrality' and marginalize the 'everyday politics' through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights. (This working paper was presented on the panel 'Migration within and out of Burma' as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference in DeKalb, Illinois in October 2008.)..." A working paper by Stephen Hull, Karen Human Rights Group, for presentation on the panel ‘Migration within and out of Burma’ as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference DeKalb, Illinois, October 2008
    Author/creator: Stephen Hull
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: pdf (84 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w2.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


  • Migration from Burma

    • Migration from Burma: mixed and general articles and reports

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Salween News Network (Thai)/Salween Post (English)
      Description/subject: A useful site focussing on helping Thai people to understand the situation in Burma. The main section is in Thai, with a set of articles from 2005-2007 translated into English... "SNN is a project focusing on information and media, working to produce news and information about Burma in Thai language. So far, no organization in Thailand is focusing specifically on this arena, despite the fact that Thai and Burma are neighbors and a large number of people from Burma have fled to Thailand.... Thailand and Burma are neighboring countries but most of Thai people are still not informed and not understand about situations in Burma. One of the reasons is that there is too little information about Burma in Thai language. Hence, Salween News Network was established to produce and to be a center of information about Burma in Thai language.... Main objectives: 1. To produce and collect information (news, articles ,features ,books etc.) about Burma for Thai society.... 2. To create a network among independent Burmese news agencies and Thai news agencies... 3. To train Burmese and Thai journalists to produce news, articles, features etc. about Burma in Thai mainstream media.... Main Activities: 1. Collect information and write news and articles 2. Publish newsletters and books about Burma in Thai language 3. Provide trainings for Burmese and Thai journalists. 4. Organise meeting for Thai and Burmese journalists.... Publication: 1. Salween News Network’s media 1.1 Listserve by snn_news@cm.ksc.co.thThis e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it 1.2 Newsletter ( every 6 weeks) 1.3 Website www.salweennews.org 1.4 Books.... 2. other media including Thai language newspapers and magazines.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Salween News Network/
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: From the Tiger to the Crocodile - Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand
      Date of publication: 23 February 2010
      Description/subject: The 124-page report is based on 82 interviews with migrants from neighboring Burma, Cambodia, and Laos. It describes the widespread and severe human rights abuses faced by migrant workers in Thailand, including killings, torture in detention, extortion, and sexual abuse, and labor rights abuses such as trafficking, forced labor, and restrictions on organizing.
      Author/creator: Phil Robertson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (2.26MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0
      http://www.hrw.org/en/features/migrant-workers-thailand
      http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/thailand0210webwcover_0.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2010


      Title: Illegal Heroes and Victimless Crimes - Informal Cross-border Migration from Myanmar
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar, many who are involved in the migration process such as migrants, their families, money lenders, brokers, transnational money transferors, etc., intentionally or unintentionally maintain the status of illegality. However, with the objective to negotiate their own way into the new livelihood space to secure their share of development through migration, they see their exercises in maintaining illegality as licit behavior, which is considered legitimate, given the social context in which they live. The gap between what is considered illegal by the state and as illicit by the people gets wider. It is easy for those who are involved in the migration process to define the thin line between illegal and illicit behavior – from their own social perception – which can never be identified or recognized by the existing legal system in any country. Strong social connections and networks of some ethnic groups that have been in existence for a long time between Myanmar and its neighboring countries have fueled cross-border human mobility in both directions, regardless of legal border restrictions. Migration is often seen by the countries of destination as a threat to national security and by the country of origin as a problem to be solved. These negative perceptions got worse when crossborder migration became more dynamic, taking place in various informal/ illegal forms. Most studies attempted to highlight push and pull factors of this dynamic cross-border migration from Myanmar, as well as the living and working conditions of Myanmar migrants living abroad and their remittances. However, there are very few studies that shed light on the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar from the view of migrants, their families and their home community, and its implications on them. Millions of Myanmar migrants are working under undesirable and vulnerable conditions in foreign countries far away from their families. Most of them got into such situations voluntarily, in order to improve the livelihood of their families, and to provide education and health care for their children at home. Although most of them are illegal migrant workers, they are far from being criminals. They are making important sacrifices and live “borrowed lives” in order to send money back home to help their families. They are just ordinary people trying to make ends meet, and for their extraordinary sacrifices, they are considered heroes by their families. Most people in the countries of destination normally hear a single story about illegal migrant workers. There are endless stories of illegal migrants portraying them as people who are sneaking across the border, stealing the jobs of local people, committing crimes, etc. Most people have been so immersed with negative media coverage that migrants have become one thing in their mind, the bad guys. It may not be fair if the bad behavior of few unscrupulous illegal migrants is considered representative of the millions of them working under very hard conditions, simply to provide bread and butter for their families back home and contributing to increased production and economic development in the country of destination. Although the acts of professional traffickers – who are committing serious crimes of human trafficking across borders that have a series of negative social impacts, not only on trafficked victims, but also on the families of those victims – are perceived as illicit, the acts of local brokers who facilitate voluntary cross-border migration of ordinary people (exploring job opportunities across the border) at a reasonable fee, and finding appropriate jobs for them (through their social connections in the country of destination), are not considered illicit by most local people. Far from being thought of as criminals, their services create win-win situations and are considered essential, and their actions – that may have flouted the state’s rules and regulations – cause no victims. This paper highlights the perception of each and everyone involved in the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar in each step they, internationally or unintentionally, maintain the status of illegality. It also attempts to identify the implications of cross-border migration on migrants’ families and their community in the country of origin. Interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in different projects in 2008 and 2009 in different places in Myanmar and neighboring countries, coupled with qualitative and quantitative analyses, attempt to enhance the reliability and representativeness of the findings in this paper."
      Author/creator: Winston Set Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.isdp.eu/images/stories/isdp-main-pdf/2009_set-aung_illegal-heroes-and-victimless-crimes....
      Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


      Title: Island of Peace
      Date of publication: August 2009
      Description/subject: "A Karen village exists where children grow up in peace and security. They go to school and attend church with their families. They are not afraid of soldiers. Their parents vote and travel as they wish. The village has electricity, clean water and shops. It is not in the insurgent territory of Kawthoolei, beleaguered Papun or the cyclone-swept Irrawaddy delta, and it is not one of the fragile border hamlets of Thailand. Middle andaman (seen here in red) is India's largest island, covering more than 1,500 square kilometers. This village is Webi, on an island called Middle Andaman, which belongs to India..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


      Title: Abuse, Poverty and Migration: Investigating migrants' motivations to leave home in Burma
      Date of publication: 10 July 2009
      Description/subject: "International reporting of the large-scale migration of those leaving Burma in search of work abroad has highlighted the perils for migrant during travel and in host countries. However, there has been a lack of research in the root causes of this migration. Identifying the root causes of migration has important implications for the assistance and protection of these migrants. Drawing on over 150 interviews with villagers in rural Burma and those from Burma who have sought employment abroad, this report identifies the exploitative abuse underpinning poverty and livelihoods vulnerability in Burma which, in turn, are major factors motivating individuals to leave home and seek work abroad..." _Thailand-based interviewees explained to KHRG how exploitative abuses increased poverty, livelihoods vulnerability and food insecurity for themselves and their communities in Burma. These issues were in turn cited as central push factors compelling them to leave their homes and search for work abroad. In some cases, interviewees explained that the harmful effects of exploitative abuse were compounded by environmental and economic factors such as flood and drought and limited access to decent wage labour.[17] While the individuals interviewed by KHRG in Thailand would normally be classified as 'economic migrants', the factors which they cited as motivating their choice to migrate make it clear that SPDC abuse made it difficult for them to survive in their home areas. Hence, these people decided to become migrants not simply because they were lured to Thailand by economic incentives, but because they found it impossible to survive at home in Burma. Clearly, the distinction between push and pull factors is blurred in the case of Burmese migrants. The concept of pull factors for migrants is further complicated because migrants are not merely seeking better jobs abroad, but are instead pulled to places like Thailand and Malaysia in order to access protection. For refugees and IDPs, protection is a service that is often provided by government bodies, UN agencies and international NGOs. For refugees in particular, protection is often primarily understood to mean legal protection against refoulement - defined as the expulsion of a person to a place where they would face persecution. Beyond legal protection against refoulement, aid agencies have implemented specific forms of rights-based assistance, such as gender-based violence programmes, as part of their protection mandates. However, for migrants from Burma the act of leaving home is overwhelmingly a self-initiated protection strategy through which individuals can ensure their and their families' basic survival in the face of persistent exploitative and other abuse in their home areas. This broader understanding of protection goes beyond legal protection against refoulement and the top-down delivery of rights-based assistance by aid agencies. It involves actions taken by individuals on their own accord to lessen or avoid abuse and its harmful effects at home.[18] KHRG has chosen to use the term self-initiated protection strategy, rather than a more generic concept like 'survival strategy', in order to highlight the political agency of those who choose such migration. By seeing this protection in political terms, one can better understand both the abusive underpinnings of migration from Burma as well as the relevance of such migration to the protection mandates of governments, UN agencies and international NGOs currently providing support to conventional refugee populations. Understanding protection in this way presents opportunities for external support for the many self-initiated protection strategies (including efforts to secure employment without exploitation, support dependent family members, enrol children in school and avoid arrest, extortion and deportation) which migrant workers regularly use._
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2009-03)
      Format/size: pdf (English Version: 2.6 MB), (Burmese Version: 383 KB, Thai version 991K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0903.html
      http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/KHRG%20Migrant%20report-Thai%20translation.pdf
      http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0903_burmese_lang.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


      Title: Occupational Hazard
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "MAP Foundation, an innovative migrant workers’ support group based in Chiang Mai, has launched a short animated documentary on DVD to promote safety and health in the workplace aimed at migrant workers. In a humorous but informative way, the 10-minute cartoon deals with the hazards that lurk in factories, construction projects and farms. The moral of the documentary is that migrant workers are particularly vulnerable to physical dangers and must take steps to protect themselves, for instance, by wearing protective clothing or by opposing reckless employers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


      Title: For Greener Pastures
      Date of publication: October 2008
      Description/subject: "With few opportunities at home, many young Burmese look overseas for work. But before migrants can earn a dollar abroad they have to face queues, fees, bribes and sometimes danger..."
      Author/creator: Aung Thet Wine
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


      Title: Tears and Paint
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Migrant artist shares his earnings with the refugees who people his canvases... "Suffering from depression and weighed down by the hardships of life in Burma, Maung Maung Tinn finally decided to leave his home town, Moulmein, capital of Mon State. That was in 1994. “I felt I had no future there, so I left my home,” the soft-spoken painter said. The child of a Shan father and Karen mother, Maung Maung Tinn felt hopelessness at not being able to help his parents and grandparents. They were helping to pay for his studies at Moulmein University, while he did his best to lighten the load o­n them by working as a clerk in a government-owned electricity plant. Like many other Burmese, he made for Mae Sot, in Thailand, where he rapidly found employment at Dr Cynthia Maung’s Clinic, working at first as a chef, preparing meals for patients and medical staff, and then becoming a trained medic and health worker in the clinic’s outpatient department. His real talent surfaced, however, during his free time—hours he spent drawing and painting. He had shown promise at school, inspired by such famous Burmese artists as Wa Thone and Myo Myint..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
      Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (760K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: A Seat at the Table
      Date of publication: January 2006
      Description/subject: In addition to greater international attention on their plight in exile, Thailand’s growing community of Burmese Muslims wants a voice in the political future of their country... "...The desire for equal protection—at home and in exile—seems to be the order of the day for Mae Sot’s Burmese Muslim community. Like the majority of refugees, they wait for the opportunity to return to a free Burma. Meanwhile, they do what they can to provide for their families, practice their religion without constraints and hope that greater attention is given to what the IHRC calls “the oppressed of the oppressed.”"
      Author/creator: Edward Blair, Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: Securitizing border-crossing: The case of marginalized stateless minorities in the Thai-Burma Borderlands
      Date of publication: January 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: This paper examines the securitization process of unauthorised migration in Thailand, in particular how the cross-border flows of marginalised minorities, the so-called 'hill tribes' came to be seen as an 'existential threat' to Thai national identity by the state. The paper aims to present a case of societal security by highlighting the importance of national identity. It intends to explore the reasons for portraying cross-border mobility of border minorities as existential threats to the integrity of the Thai state. More specifically, it will investigate the motives of the securitising actor, the Thai state – and examine why the issue evoked security concerns in the wake of the 1997 economic crisis and the way 'emergency measures' were introduced. This paper will illustrate the importance of ethnocized discourses on national identity by broadening the traditional security studies' framework on states and political-military competition at the borderlands.
      Author/creator: Mika Toyota
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies Singapore (Working Paper 102)
      Format/size: pdf (574K -- 44 pages)
      Date of entry/update: 02 March 2009


      Title: Preliminary Survey Results about Burmese Migrant Workers in Thailand: State/division of origin, year of entry, minimum wages and work permits
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: 1. INTRODUCTION: People from Burma have been entering Thailand since the Ne Win coup in 1962. Most of these people have fled civil war, hunger, poverty, unemployment and political oppression. A significant proportion of these Burmese are employed in the lower rungs of the Thai labour market. Despite the large numbers of people from Burma working in Thailand, there has been very little reliable statistical analysis undertaken in order to understand the situation faced by these people. The paucity of reliable information in this area led us to conduct a survey of about 1,400 people from Burma working in Thailand.1 The survey was undertaken between October 2003 and March 2004, in the following 12 provinces: • Bangkok • Singburi • Lopburi • Saraburi • Tak (Mae Sot District) • Ratchaburi • Kanchanburi (Kanchanaburi and Sangklaburi Districts) • Ranong (Ranong District) • Samut Sakhon (Mahachai) • Phetchaburi • Chiang Mai (Chiang Mai and Fang Districts)2 • Mae Hong Son (Mae Hong Son District)...The following is a discussion of the results of a partial preliminary statistical analysis of a sample of about 1,100 of these workers with regard to their place of origin, time of arrival, income in the last 20 years, receipt of a minimum wage and their possession of a work permit.3 The analysis does not involve the estimation of population parameters and any consequent inferences about the nature of the population (though inferences about the population will be published later). Rather, the following is a statistical description of Burmese workers in Thailand, which we, argue is important given the paucity of reliable and credible work in this area.
      Author/creator: Wylie Bradford & Alison Vicary
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Economic Watch" 1/2005 pp 3-25
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.econ.mq.edu.au/Econ_docs/bew/1BEW2005.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 October 2005


      Title: A Life in Hiding
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: Karen Internally Displaced Persons wonder when they will be able to go home... "Sitting in his new bamboo hut in Ler Per Her camp for Internally Displaced Persons, located on the bank of Thailand’s Moei River near the border with Burma, Phar The Tai—a skinny, tough-looking man of 60 who used to hide in the jungles and mountains of Burma’s eastern Karen State—waits for the time when he can return home. “We are living in fear all the time,” he says about the lives of IDPs. His words reflect the general feeling among IDPs from Karen State, which has produced the largest number of displaced people in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: Art in Exile
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: Burmese paintings find their home in a Chiang Mai gallery... "It’s a sad reflection on the Rangoon regime’s restrictive policies on artistic expression that one of Southeast Asia’s finest collections of contemporary Burmese art isn’t to be found in Burma, but in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. All the works in Lashio-born Mar Mar’s collection—more than 400 paintings, drawings and collages by 50 or so artists—were created in Burma, but many of them could never be displayed publicly there. They include paintings deemed “political” and nudes that would offend the puritanical tastes of the Rangoon generals..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


      Title: In the Name of Mandalay
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: Preserving Burmese traditions in Thailand... "In 1886 the British finally conquered Mandalay, the historic capital of the last independent Burmese kingdom. San Toe, a servant of the beleaguered King Thibaw and a devout Buddhist, fled the newly colonized city, bringing with him an image of the Buddha crafted by Mandalay artisans. He worked in the logging business as an employee of the Bombay Burma Trading Corporation before settling in the town of Mae Sariang in northern Thailand. There he built a Burmese monastery in 1909 to house his cherished Buddha image. Historically, the Burmese have viewed the city of Mandalay as a source of pride and an important link to Burma’s rich cultural and religious traditions. The name of the monastery in Mae Sariang, Wat Mandalay, reflects this connection and honors the lineage of the monastery’s central religious artifact—the Mandalay-made Buddha image..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


      Title: Blissfully Free
      Date of publication: January 2003
      Description/subject: An independent Thai film with a Burmese migrant in the lead has attracted a lot of attention.
      Author/creator: Anthony Faraday
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Pushing Past the Definitions: Migration From Burma to Thailand
      Date of publication: 19 December 2002
      Description/subject: Important, authoritative and timely report. I. THAI GOVERNMENT CLASSIFICATION FOR PEOPLE FROM BURMA: Temporarily Displaced; Students and Political Dissidents ; Migrants . II. BRIEF PROFILE OF THE MIGRANTS FROM BURMA . III REASONS FOR LEAVING BURMA : Forced Relocations and Land Confiscation ; Forced Labor and Portering; War and Political Oppression; Taxation and Loss of Livelihood; Economic Conditions . IV. FEAR OF RETURN. V. RECEPTION CENTERS. VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.... "Recent estimates indicate that up to two million people from Burma currently reside in Thailand, reflecting one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. Many factors contribute to this mass exodus, but the vast majority of people leaving Burma are clearly fleeing persecution, fear and human rights abuses. While the initial reasons for leaving may be expressed in economic terms, underlying causes surface that explain the realities of their lives in Burma and their vulnerabilities upon return. Accounts given in Thailand, whether it be in the border camps, towns, cities, factories or farms, describe instances of forced relocation and confiscation of land; forced labor and portering; taxation and loss of livelihood; war and political oppression in Burma. Many of those who have fled had lived as internally displaced persons in Burma before crossing the border into Thailand. For most, it is the inability to survive or find safety in their home country that causes them to leave. Once in Thailand, both the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the international community have taken to classifying the people from Burma under specific categories that are at best misleading, and in the worst instances, dangerous. These categories distort the grave circumstances surrounding this migration by failing to take into account the realities that have brought people across the border. They also dictate people’s legal status within the country, the level of support and assistance that might be available to them and the degree of protection afforded them under international mechanisms. Consequently, most live in fear of deportation back into the hands of their persecutors or to the abusive environments from which they fled..." Additional keywords: IDPs, Internal displacement, displaced, refoulement.
      Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette and Mary E. Pack
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Refugees International and Open Society Institute
      Format/size: html (373K) pdf (748K, 2.1MB) 37 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Caouette&Pack.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Economics of migration from Burma/Myanmar -

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar Migrants to Thailand and Implications to Myanmar Development
      Date of publication: October 2012
      Description/subject: "...Given the economic reform in Myanmar, which will flourish within the next five years, the key question related to outbound labour migration to Thailand (and Malaysia and Singapore) will be whether migrant workers, both skilled and less skilled, will remain in destination countries or consider returning home. In the past, average incomes of families were inadequate to meet household consumption expenditures (household income and expenditure survey in 1997). Consequently, people escaped from Myanmar to find higher incomes in Thailand. Now that economic development is in progress and labour demands for economic, social and political development in Myanmar are obvious, migrant workers’ decision to return will depend on two major conditions: political stability and democratic freedom on one hand and economic opportunities on the other hand. The political condition is important because some professionals determined to stay and work in Thailand due to a lack of democratic reform in the past. Less-skilled workers were also affected by the authoritarian regime in the form of corruption, forced labour, forced relocation and armed conflict. Both groups will have a serious consideration to return when they are assured of political stability. Myanmar people are highly attached to their homeland and always want to go back..."
      Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No.7
      Format/size: pdf (237K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    • Education of migrants from Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Education of Burmese outside Burma
      Description/subject: Includes education for refugees and migrants
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 February 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Su Bote Chan New Year .wmv (video)
      Date of publication: December 2010
      Description/subject: "Su Bote Chan is a very different kind of school. You'll find it on the Thailand side of the Moei River that marks the border with Burma (Myanmar). About 5000 migrant workers eke out a living on this sliver of land, usually in local sweatshops and factories. For years, the children of Su Bote Chan had no school - not even a place where they could safely play. But in 2009 everything changed, thanks to the vision of local community workers, and a foreign journalist who raised funds by sharing the children's story with his friends across the world in Canada. The head teacher at Su Bote Chan School (a gifted Burmese musician) believes that learning can only happen when children feel happy and secure - especially children whose lives are filled with so many challenges. That's why music plays an important part in the school's curriculum, along with many other kinds of creative activities. Pupils also study Thai, Burmese, English and Karen, as well as basic mathematics and geography. But nobody can learn on an empty stomach, so the school provides pupils with a simple, nutritious lunch each day. For many, it's the only meal they can rely on. As Su Bote Chan School enters its third year, it's impossible to predict what the future holds. The world of migrant children is a fragile one: especially along the Thai-Burma border. In 2010 the school had to close for a few days because of armed conflict across the river in the Burmese town of Myawaddy. The conflict could flare up again at any time. But as the School welcomed "Happy New Year 2011", the sound of shelling was replaced by the popping of balloons. Parents, caregivers, children, teachers and friends sang together, and shared food. And everyone celebrated."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: maesot11 via YouTube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (2 minutes, 26 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 01 February 2011


      Title: The New Blood School - Maesot Migrant Education (video)
      Date of publication: 25 October 2008
      Description/subject: "The New Blood Foundation has been established to raise awareness of the Burmese migrant/exile situation on the Thai/Burma Border, and to raise money to support this underfunded school."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 888nanwu via YouTube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (2 minutes, 19 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 01 February 2011


      Title: Top of Their Class
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: Karen kids seek good education in refugee camp schools... "Students in developing countries often look to distant lands to fulfill their dreams of a good education and a brighter future. A growing number of young people in Burma’s Karen State, however, find that schools operating in refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border offer them the best chance of achieving these goals. Noh Poe refugee camp in Thailand’s Tak province is one of them..."
      Author/creator: Shah Paung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: From the Street to School
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: "A school in southern Thailand is improving the lives of underprivileged Burmese children, and a family from Rangoon..."
      Author/creator: Shawn L. Nance/
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


      Title: Burmese Children in Thailand: Legal Aspects
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "People from Burma have become the major group of displaced persons in Thailand. Most of them are currently being sheltered along the Thai-Burma border, particularly in the Thai provinces of Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong. It is estimated that there are some 40,000 children from Burma under the age of 15 accompanying their parents. In addition, thousands of unaccompanied children are driven across the border by the desperate circumstances in Burma. ..."
      Author/creator: Nyo Nyo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Mae Sot: Little Burma
      Date of publication: May 1999
      Description/subject: An international symposium on migration in Asia was recently held in Bangkok. Burma sent a delegation led by Deputy Foreign Minister U Khin Maung Win. Independent analysts and NGOs estimate that there are one million Burmese illegally working and living in Thailand. However, Thai officials put the figure at 800,000.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Health of migrants from Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "Health Messenger"
      Description/subject: "Health Messenger" is a distance learning magazine directed at health and social workers and their communities. It is published every three months by Aide Medicale Internationale. The magazine seeks to communicate health information and knowledge to those living in areas where resources are limited. In order to achieve this purpose, all those concerned about health problems should become actively involved in the project. Teaching is more effective if the whole community is involved in the learning process... Medics, nurses, laboratory technicians, home visitors, and school teachers should all join together in this effort. All of us should try to gain more knowledge regarding health problems through any means available in order to help improve health conditions in the camps for temporarily displaced persons and also those outside the camps. Health Messenger serves as one of the means for those who want to benefit from this knowledge and information exchange regarding health and medical problems. To read the Burmese text, you need to have the necessary fonts installed in your computer. These can be downloaded from the OBL Fonts subsection under "Languages of Burma" at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=398&lo=d&sl=0
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


      Individual Documents

      Title: Problem Pregnancies
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: Low paid jobs for Burmese migrants are plentiful—but no babies, please... MAE SOT, Thailand — "A pregnant woman sits on her hospital bed, loudly pleading for an abortion. In the same ward, another woman gazes with devotion at her own newly born child. A third woman attracts my attention because of her dark eyes, wide and innocent, in a pale face, damp with sweat. Ma Khaing is her name. She says she also wanted to abort her baby, by taking the traditional purgative kay thi pan. The herbal concoction only made her ill. The unborn baby was unharmed, although 23-year-old Ma Khaing was clearly not pleased to hear the news from medical staff at Dr Cynthia Maung’s Mae Tao clinic in the Thai-Burmese border town of Mae Sot. She looked downcast as a medic told her the baby would survive. Ma Khaing earns 160 baht (US $5) a day working on a sugar cane plantation near Mae Sot. Pregnancy and the prospect of an infant to care for pose a real threat to her livelihood—and I’m not surprised when she says: “I don’t want the baby. I want to work and save money.” Ma Khaing’s story is typical, according to Mae Tao staffer Naw Pine Mu. She has seen many abortion cases in her five years at the clinic. “All are migrant women, working in the factories or in the sugar cane fields,” Naw Pine Mu says. Pregnancy and motherhood cost them their jobs and push them back into poverty..."
      Author/creator: Aye Chan Myate
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


      Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
      Date of publication: 14 March 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
      Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
      Format/size: pdf (170K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - English
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: Fertility and abortion: Burmese women's health on the Thai-Burma border
      Date of publication: January 2004
      Description/subject: "In Thailand's Tak province there are 60,520 registered migrant workers and an estimated 150,000 unregistered migrant workers from Burma. Fleeing the social and political problems engulfing Burma, they are mostly employed in farming, garment making, domestic service, sex and construction industries. There is also a significant number of Burmese living in camps. Despite Thailand�s developed public health system and infrastructure, Burmese women face language and cultural barriers and marginal legal status as refugees in Thailand, as well as a lack of access to culturally appropriate and qualified reproductive health information and services..."
      Author/creator: Suzanne Belton and Cynthia Maung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forced Migration Review No. 19
      Format/size: pdf (110K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 June 2004


      Title: Post Abortion Care: Who Cares?
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "This article is intended to give health workers an introduction into the individual implications of pregnancy loss as well as local issues on the Thai-Burma border and broader South-east Asian regional issues. I want to focus on the gender and social features rather than pure biomedical information, although this is of course highly important but is covered in other parts of this magazine. I will talk about some women�s stories that were collected in 2002 to outline typical cases, the reasons why the woman chose to end the pregnancy and impact on women�s lives. I will also present some findings from a medical records review conducted with the Mae Tao Clinic and discuss some findings from research in the international arena. So should we care about post abortion care? I hope to show that we should, as not only can it be a life threatening event for the woman but it reflects certain aspects about the communities we live in, social conditions, legal and religious norms, how we value human rights and the status of women..."
      Author/creator: Suzanne Belton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Health Messenger
      Format/size: html (60K)
      Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


      Title: Lady's Love Powder
      Date of publication: June 2002
      Description/subject: This article appeared in Burma - Women's Voices for Change, Thanakha Team, Bangkok, published by ALTSEAN in 2002... "...Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are problems that many Burmese women face with little support and a poverty of health resources. Of course it is difficult to quantify such statements in light of the limited sharing of information that occurs between the Burman military government and the rest of the world. One informed source, Dr Ba Thike (1997), a doctor working in Burma, reported that in the 1980s abortion complications accounted for twenty percent of total hospital admissions and that for every three women admitted to give birth, one was admitted for abortion complications...The records at the Mae Tao Clinic in Thailand, a health service that offers reproductive health services to women coming from Burma as day visitors or as longer-term migrant workers, reflects a crisis in women�s health. In 2001, the Mae Tao Clinic documented 185 abortion complication cases (Out Patients Department) and 231 cases that needed to be admitted into the In-patients Department with complications such as sepsis, dehydration, haemorrhage and shock from abortions and miscarriage..."
      Author/creator: Suzanne Belton (Ma Suu San)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma - Women's Voices for Change (publ. ALTSEAN)
      Format/size: html (24K)
      Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


      Title: "Escape From the Bear and Run Into the Tiger": The Impact of Violence and Fear on Migrants' Reproductive Health
      Date of publication: December 2000
      Description/subject: "The massive influx of migrants from Burma into Thailand is one of the largest migrant populations in Asia. Over one million migrants from Burma are currently residing in Thailand. An ethnically diverse group coming from all over Burma and speaking many different languages, these migrants often lack a common language even among themselves. What they do share are encounters of fear and violence, that affect most facets of their lives. During 1998, an Assessment of Reproductive and Sexual Health Perspectives, Concerns and Realities of Migrant Workers from Burma in Thailand was conducted under the guidance of Mahidol University's Institute of Population and Social Research (IPSR). The recently published results of the study reveal that a fear of violence and a preoccupation with staying safe determines almost every aspect of the migrants' lives, including their health care options and decisions. The study highlights the extremely limited health services that exist in Burma as well as the problems encountered by migrants in Thailand such as the ready availability of medicines without access to health services or education. Consequently, people from Burma suffer from easily treatable conditions, presenting a health care crisis on both sides of the border. Most migrants from Burma in Thailand reside illegally and are generally unable to communicate in Thai. They are often in situations which leave them vulnerable to violence and abuse by employers, authorities and even each other. These experiences, coupled with fears of violence and exploitation, create a vacuum in which the migrants have few or no options for health services. This reality is further compounded by cultural mores and the lack of basic and reproductive health education, which lead to high maternal mortality and morbidity rates, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/ AIDS)..."
      Author/creator: Therese Caouette
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" VOL. VII, NO. 4 WINTER 2000
      Format/size: pdf (329K - article; 1.22MB - full magazine)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/BD2000-V07-N04.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Languages of migrants from Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burmese Border Guidelines - update 2007 - Burmese
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "The Burmese Border Clinical Guidelines are specifically designed to assist medics and health workers practising along the Thailand/ Burma border. They have been adapted from the international treatment guidelines and medical literature of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that focus on common diseases present on the Thailand/ Burma border. Every effort has been made to incorporate the experiences of the local medics and health providers who have been working in the refugee camps and communities on the border for the last twenty years. The language is in simple English...These guidelines should not replace clinical decision-making, but should act as an aid in confirming a diagnosis when you already have an idea of the patient’s disease. These guidelines have been adapted from medical reference books and are simplified for use in the context of refugee camps and peripheral clinics on the Thailand/ Burma border, and therefore may not be appropriate for use elsewhere. The treatment options help you to choose a therapy according to the severity of the disease and the age of the patient. Treatment schedules mentioned in this book are just one way to cure a patient; keep in mind that other therapies (suggested by other guidelines or new health workers) could be used to treat your patient. Read the TEXT for information about the disease. This tells you which signs and symptoms you should expect, which tests you can use to make a diagnosis, which complications or signs of severity to look for, which treatment to use and how to prevent the disease. Read the TABLES for the medicine that you have chosen in order to find the correct dose according to the age or weight of the patient. Here you will find contra indications and warnings for use of medicines..."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale
      Format/size: pdf (2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2007


      Title: Silenced Minorities
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Description/subject: Burmese ethnic minority languages are vanishing in Thailand as refugees and migrants feel pressure to assimilate... "The language of the Lahu is soft and fluid, with long, smooth syllables that don’t interrupt the melody of the words. But nowadays the Lahu living in Thailand shy away from speaking in their mother tongue for fear that they will be branded as outsiders or will inadvertently reveal their illegal status in Thailand. For 16 years—since his first arrival in Thailand from Burma—Win Maung, a 65-year-old ethnic Lahu man, has resisted the urge to speak Lahu outside his home. “I dare not speak my language because Thais would immediately identify me as an illegal,” says Win Maung. When he shops in Chiang Mai, he must rely on his broken Thai, a language he does not know well and prefers not to use. Win Maung holds a Thai identity card, but his documentation does not allow him to move freely throughout Thailand..."
      Author/creator: Louis Reh
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    • Migrant children and youth

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Center for Children in Need
      Description/subject: Center for Children in Need, Mae Tao, Mae Sot, 63110 Tak, Thailand..... Volunteering How to help; News; Children; Links; Contact; Blog....."The Center for Children in Need was founded in 2002. It has a small orphanage and also provides free of charge foster care for single parents. We are a Karen family and help any child in danger or need. They can stay with us for a short time or as long as they need. We are motivated by our Christian faith, but we work with children of any religion and respect their beliefs. We give orphans and abandoned children a safe and loving home and provide a healing environment for traumatized children. We offer education for disadvantaged children. Orphanage and Foster Care We look after children of all ethnics, religions and nationalities. We give care and shelter in emergencies, for longer or shorter periods. We also work with single mothers and look after children in their families. We take children at any time. And of any age. We often have newborns who mostly come very sick to us. Kids with special needs Several of our kids have special needs and learning diabilities. They have problems in the local schools. We give them special tuition in English and Burmese plus supervise their homework. Hopefully they can join a Thai school soon, which will open them much more possibilities for their future. our aims are protection of children and women from violence and abuse incl. trafficking to give orphans and abandoned children a safe and loving home education, especially of disadvantaged children to provide a safe and healing environment for traumatized children we provide shelter and protection in emergencies health care care for prematurely born infants counseling for traumatized children and women family and couple counseling education in English and Burmese with the option for university education activities as music and dance trainings, computer we need volunteers!!!! please look at our volunteering info We take short and long-term volunteers, if we have space even on short notice. One staff member is a medical doctor and psychiatrist and psychotherapist with qualification in single, group, couple and family counseling and dance therapy. The Center relies on private donations. The income we can create ourselves is not sufficient for the day-to-day running of the orphanage as well as providing proper nutrition, clothing, school and medical care. Please help and support us by donations and by sponsoring a child. We are a non-profit grass root project and it is very hard to find the funds for all the children that are in our care. We are struggling from month to month and really need your help. For details about our needs see News. Donations can be made through: www.betterplace.org (under construction) http://www.chipin.com (under construction) or directly to our bankaccounts! We have a German donation account, that was set up by school friends, so that it is possible to sponsor a child or donate monthly within Europe without paying high bank fees." Send me an email and I will give you the details: s_e_r_2@yahoo.com
      Language: English
      Subscribe: Center for Children in Need
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


      Title: Results of a Google search for ORPHAN MAESOT
      Description/subject: 2012-04-23: 162,000 results... orphanage Maesot got 393,000
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Google
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/search?num=100&hl=en&safe=off&q=orphanage+maesot&oq=orphana...
      Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


      Title: Safe Haven Orphanage
      Description/subject: In 1987 Mrs. Tasanee Keereepraneed started to care for orphaned children in her village of Ban Tha Song Yang (also known as Mae Tawo), Thailand. Having lost her own father at a young age and her children also having lost their father, Tasanee decided that she would care for the orphaned children of Thailand and Burma. Ban Tha Song Yang is about 2 hours north of Mae Sot on the Thai/Burma border. It is a picturesque Karen village in northern Thailand. It sits next to the Moei River, is surrounded by jungle and beautiful limestone mountains. It’s a small village where all the kids play together and all the parents know each other. Tasanee and her brother converted their childhood home into an open space to accommodate the children. Starting with whatever funds were available, she built the foundation of what has become the first Safe Haven Orphanage. Relying on her personal funds and the donations of the people of Mae Sot, she was able to expand and take on more children. She now has over fifty children under her care. Mission & Aims Safe Haven Orphanage is a home that provides disadvantaged children with proper nurture, nutrition, shelter, clothing, medical care, and education. Safe Haven Orphanage is open to children from all communities, faiths, and cultures. Who runs Safe Haven Orphanage? Tasanee and a number of staff run Safe Haven Orphanage. Volunteers from around the world teach English at the local school and provide support at the orphanage. Supporters Donations received from volunteers and visitors are used to cover the daily costs of running the orphanage. We also receive support from some Non-Government Organizations (NGO’s) who assist with food supplies and health checks.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Safe Haven Orphanage
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


      Title: Volunteering in grassroot orphanage in Thailand
      Description/subject: Home... Contact... Homestay... Travel... Mae Sot Photo... Burma videos... Hip Hop... Scribd... facebook... facebook volunteerin...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Center for Children in Need
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Migrant Life through Children's Eyes
      Date of publication: June 2010
      Description/subject: An annual exhibition of art and handicrafts by the children of Burmese migrants in Thailand has found a regular place on the cultural calendar of Chiang Mai... "The fifth annual exhibition, organized by Studio Xang, opened at the Lanna Cultural Museum in the northern Thai city on May 8 and ran until the end of the month..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


      Title: FEELING SMALL IN ANOTHER PERSON’S COUNTRY - The situation of Burmese migrant children in Mae Sot Thailand
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "...There are an estimated 200,000 Burmese children living in Thailand, many of whom are working, with 20% of the migrant workforce thought to consist of children aged 15 to 17 years of age. It was seen to be a standard practice for parents to send children out to work, especially once they have reached the age of 13 years and seen to be physically capable of bringing in extra income for the family. Children may voluntarily leave or be taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factory or fields, as domestics or as service workers in shops and restaurants. Researchers have found that children working in Mae Sot factories and the agricultural area are subject to the worst forms of child labour, working long hours and being exposed to hazardous chemicals and conditions that are in direct violation of Thai labour law. The difficulty of obtaining registration and the work permit makes for a tenuous existence. Consequently, young people can be coerced or forced into bad employment situations... As parent’s lives are consumed by the need to work and make money, children can be denied the love, care and guidance essential to their healthy growth and development and may be separated from or even abandoned by parents. Some parents abuse and exploit their children by telling them not to come back home if they cannot earn a fixed amount per day. Consequently these children go out on the streets looking for daily work to survive; this can include begging, collecting recyclable rubbish and carrying heavy loads. This pressure is seen to change the moral character of children with some turning to stealing. Children who are unemployed, neglected, abandoned, or orphaned can end up permanently on the streets. Being out of school and on the streets increases the risk of being trafficked and recruitment by gangs, who physically threaten and may even kill children who try to escape... Statelessness is a real risk for children who are unable to receive identity registration in Burma and for those born in Thailand of migrants, especially unregistered parents. Despite the ratification of conventions, such as the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), and the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that stipulate birth registration of all children born in Thailand, in reality only registered migrants who hold a work permit can register their child’s birth. A change in the Civil Registration Act, effective from the 23rd August 2008, will allow all children born on Thai soil, regardless of their status, to register their births and obtain a birth certificate; however it remains to be seen how this will be implemented. In the meantime the Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma) (CPPCR), a Burmese CBO established in 2002, provides a registration service for children from Burma that in some cases, has been recognized by some Thai schools and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2009


      Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
      Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
      Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
      Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
      Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
      http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Migrant Children in Difficult Circumstances in Thailand
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: * Summary of report; * Chapter 1: Migrant Children in Thailand - a Result of Globalisation... * Chapter 2: Migrant Child Labor in Thailand... * Chapter 3: Migrant Children in Prostitution in Thailand... * Chapter 4: Migrant Street Children in Thailand: * Indicators of Migrant Children in Thailand; * Links to organisations working with Migrant Children in Thailand.
      Author/creator: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Siwaporn Auasalung, Supang Chantavanich
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Asian Research Center For Migration (ARCM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
      Format/size: pdf (147.99 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://books168.com/migrant-children-in-mae-sot-pdf.html
      Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


    • Migrant women

      Individual Documents

      Title: Do dreams come true? ‘Illegal’ young female Shan refugees in Northern Thailand: coping with contradicting (in)securities.
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: "...This thesis consists out of seven chapters. The next chapter on theory will address important political and theoretical debates within the arena of displacement and refugee studies. Chapter three will present the methodological approach taken within the research. Chapters four and five are the data chapters of this thesis addressing various layers of insecurities through thematic chapters. The chapters are based on the most important themes that arose during fieldwork. How young Shan women first reacted to state terror, and the impact of this on their daily lives, is highlighted in chapter four. Chapter five will explain what it means to be a young Shan female, revealing the daily life practices and the influences they have on life chances and future aspirations. Finally, I shall conclude by referring to the debates discussed within the theory chapter. The key words of this research are displacement, young female Shan refugees, future aspirations and human (in)security..."
      Author/creator: Ursula Cats
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Masters Thesis - Social and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
      Format/size: pdf (4.9 - original version; 2.4 - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/MASTER-THESIS-Final-version1-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 September 2010


    • Policies towards Burmese migrants and refugees

      Individual Documents

      Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
      Date of publication: 14 March 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
      Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
      Format/size: pdf (170K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


      Title: Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Thai Policy toward Burmese Refugees and Migrants
      Date of publication: 25 February 2004
      Description/subject: "The report, Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Thai Policy toward Burmese Refugees, documents Thailand’s repression of refugees, asylum seekers, and migrant workers from Burma. "The Thai government is arresting and intimidating Burmese political activists living in Bangkok and along the Thai-Burmese border, harassing Burmese human rights and humanitarian groups, and deporting Burmese refugees, asylum seekers and others with a genuine fear of persecution in Burma..." 1. Introduction... 2. New Thai Policies toward Burmese Refugees and Migrants: Broadening of Resettlement Opportunities; Suspension of New Refugee Admissions; The “Urban” Refugees; Crackdown on Burmese Migrants; Forging Friendship with Rangoon; History of Burmese Refugees in Thailand... 3. Expulsion to Burma: Informal Deportees Dropped at the Border; The Holding Center at Myawaddy; Into the Hands of the SPDC; Profile: One of the Unlucky Ones—Former Child Soldier Deported to Burma; Increasing Pressure on Migrants... 4. Protection Issues for Urban Refugees:- Impacts of the Move to the Camps; Profile: Karen Former Combatant; Suspension of Refugee Status Determination; Security Issues for Refugees in Bangkok... 5. Attempts to Silence Activist Refugees... 6. New Visa Rules: Screening Out the “Troublemakers”... 7. Conclusion... 8. Recommendations: To the Royal Thai Government; To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); To Donor Governments; To the Burmese Authorities... 9. Appendix A: Timeline of Arrests and Intimidation of Burmese Activists in 2003 (3 page pdf file)... 10. Appendix B: Timeline of Harrassments of NGOs in 2003 (2 page pdf file)... 11. Appendix C: Timeline of Arrests and Harrassment of Burmese Migrant Workers in 2003 (2 page pdf file)...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (244K, 1MB), html
      Alternate URLs: http://hrw.org/reports/2004/thailand0204/profiles.pdf (refugee profiles)
      http://hrw.org/reports/2004/thailand0204/thailand0204.pdf (printer-friendly)
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


      Title: MIGRANT WORKERS FROM BURMA AND THAILAND: POLICY REVIEW AND PROTECTION MECHANISMS
      Date of publication: 21 February 2003
      Description/subject: COMMEMORATING 10 YEARS OF POLICY GOVERNING MIGRANT WORKERS FROM BURMA...CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION: Summary of Migrant Worker Policy in Thailand and Recommendations for Reform; Policy Governing Migrant Workers in Thailand: An Examination of Policy and its Critics (Alison Vicary, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)... B. MIGRANT WORKERS IN THAILAND: Opening Remarks and Keynote Speech - Nakorn Silap-acha, Director of the Ministry of Labour; Resolutions of the Alien Labour Policy Committee - Dr. Premsak Piayura, Chairman of the Labour Committee House of Representatives, Thai Rak Thai M.P for Khon Kaen; Policy Motivations behind the Cabinet Resolutions of 2001 and 2002 - Sumsak Kanchnaborn, Representative from the Ministry of Labour; Migrant Worker Policy: Where to Now? Dr. Supang Chantavanich, Director of the Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University; Case Study of Migrant Labour Policy: The Textile and Garment Industry in Mae Sot - Dr. Sirinan Kittisubsatit, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University; The Problems of Migrant Workers from Burma - Nay Min, Migrant Workers from Burma, Representative; The Failure of the Thai Legal System: The Case of Ma Suu Preeda Tongchumnun and Surapong Kongchantuk - Law Project Coordinator Law Society of Thailand Forum Asia Human Rights of Stateless Persons and Ethnic Minorities Subcommittee; Migrant Workers from Burma: The Thai Government’s Policy Confusion - Bandit Thanchaisettawut, NGO Researcher, Arom Pongpa-Ngun Foundation;l The Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand - Adisorn Kerdmongkol, Thai NGO Network on Migrants and their Families in Thailand, Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma (TACDB)... C. MIGRANT WORKERS FROM THAILAND: Overview: Thai Migrant Workers - Dr. Supang Chantavanich, Director of the Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University; Inequality in Thailand: The Cause of Migration - Dr. Yongyuth Chalamwong, Research Director Human Resources and Social Development Program, Thai Development Research Institute (TDRI); The Problems and Solutions for Thai Workers in Japan - H.E. Mr. Kasit Piromya, Ambassador of Thailand to Japan; Human Security Issues for Thai Migrant Workers - Salika Sorapipatana and Taksa Aura-ek, Asian Research Centre for Migration (ARCM), Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University; Closing Speech - Somchai Homlaor, Secretary General, Forum Asia Foundation... APPENDIX 1: Workers’ Demands in a Textile and Garment Factory, Mae Sot - Yaung Chi Oo Workers’ Association, Information Release 24 June 2003... APPENDIX 2: Case Summaries: Migrant Workers from Burma - Interpretation and Translation Service (ITS)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch (BEW)
      Format/size: PDF (304.85 K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


      Title: Pushing Past the Definitions: Migration From Burma to Thailand
      Date of publication: 19 December 2002
      Description/subject: Important, authoritative and timely report. I. THAI GOVERNMENT CLASSIFICATION FOR PEOPLE FROM BURMA: Temporarily Displaced; Students and Political Dissidents ; Migrants . II. BRIEF PROFILE OF THE MIGRANTS FROM BURMA . III REASONS FOR LEAVING BURMA : Forced Relocations and Land Confiscation ; Forced Labor and Portering; War and Political Oppression; Taxation and Loss of Livelihood; Economic Conditions . IV. FEAR OF RETURN. V. RECEPTION CENTERS. VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.... "Recent estimates indicate that up to two million people from Burma currently reside in Thailand, reflecting one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. Many factors contribute to this mass exodus, but the vast majority of people leaving Burma are clearly fleeing persecution, fear and human rights abuses. While the initial reasons for leaving may be expressed in economic terms, underlying causes surface that explain the realities of their lives in Burma and their vulnerabilities upon return. Accounts given in Thailand, whether it be in the border camps, towns, cities, factories or farms, describe instances of forced relocation and confiscation of land; forced labor and portering; taxation and loss of livelihood; war and political oppression in Burma. Many of those who have fled had lived as internally displaced persons in Burma before crossing the border into Thailand. For most, it is the inability to survive or find safety in their home country that causes them to leave. Once in Thailand, both the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the international community have taken to classifying the people from Burma under specific categories that are at best misleading, and in the worst instances, dangerous. These categories distort the grave circumstances surrounding this migration by failing to take into account the realities that have brought people across the border. They also dictate people’s legal status within the country, the level of support and assistance that might be available to them and the degree of protection afforded them under international mechanisms. Consequently, most live in fear of deportation back into the hands of their persecutors or to the abusive environments from which they fled..." Additional keywords: IDPs, Internal displacement, displaced, refoulement.
      Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette and Mary E. Pack
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Refugees International and Open Society Institute
      Format/size: html (373K) pdf (748K, 2.1MB) 37 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Caouette&Pack.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Land of Guile: Migrant Workers in Thailand
      Date of publication: October 2002
      Description/subject: "Thus far, the government's labor legislation has brought few benefits to Thailand's migrant work force which continues to withstand deep-seated corruption and abuse...However precarious the situation may be for migrant workers in Thailand, it will continue as long as cheap sources of labor remain a vital component for a healthy and vibrant Thai economy. The time is ripe for both the Thai and Burmese governments to implement genuine measures that would help ensure the just and dignified treatment of Burmese workers in Thailand..."
      Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 10, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Come to Singapore And Leave Your Views Behind
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: "...The only type of foreigner more unwelcome in Singapore than an illegal migrant is an exiled dissident. Singapore’s intolerance of political dissent is a fact of life that is not lost on anyone who lives here. .."
      Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Laboring in the Lion City
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: "Burmese workers in Singapore make great sacrifices to make ends meet. With its own economy wracked by decades of mismanagement, many Burmese workers look overseas to make their financial dreams come true. But for workers wishing to jump Burma’s sinking economic ship to go work in Singapore, they must first clear a series of legal hurdles, leaving many migrant workers wondering if making the journey is worth the effort..."
      Author/creator: Moe Kyaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas
      Date of publication: 17 July 2002
      Description/subject: "...In February and March 2002 Amnesty International interviewed some 100 migrants from Myanmar at seven different locations in Thailand. They were from a variety of ethnic groups, including the Shan; Lahu; Palaung; Akha; Mon; Po and Sgaw Karen; Rakhine; and Tavoyan ethnic minorities, and the majority Bamar (Burman) group. They originally came from the Mon, Kayin, Shan, and Rakhine States, and Bago, Yangon and Tanintharyi Divisions.(1) What follows below is a summary of human rights violations in some parts of eastern Myanmar during the last 18 months which migrants reported to Amnesty International. One section of the report also examines several cases of abuses of civilians by armed opposition groups fighting against the Myanmar military. Finally, this document describes various aspects of a Burmese migrant worker's life in Thailand..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced labour, refugees, land confiscation, forced relocation, forced removal, forced resettlement, forced displacement, internal displacement, IDP, extortion, torture, extrajudicial killings, forced conscription, child soldiers, porters, forced portering, house destruction, eviction, Shan State, Wa, USWA, Wa resettlement, Tenasserim, abuses by armed opposition groups.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International
      Format/size: PDF version (126K) 48pg
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2002/en
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/007/2002/en/7471b112-d81a-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/asa1... (French)
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


      Title: Burmese Children in Thailand: Legal Aspects
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "People from Burma have become the major group of displaced persons in Thailand. Most of them are currently being sheltered along the Thai-Burma border, particularly in the Thai provinces of Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong. It is estimated that there are some 40,000 children from Burma under the age of 15 accompanying their parents. In addition, thousands of unaccompanied children are driven across the border by the desperate circumstances in Burma. ..."
      Author/creator: Nyo Nyo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burmese Migrant Workers in Thailand: Policy and Protection
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "It is estimated that the overall number of Burmese migrants in Thailand is somewhere in between 800,000 and one million. Cross-border migration into Thailand has steadily increased in recent years. Since the 1960s, hundreds of thousands of Thais have gone to work abroad. Refugees from Burma, Laos and Cambodia have since filled this labour shortage in Thailand. However, many of them are undocumented, illegal workers and thus constitute the most vulnerable section of the work force. As illegal non-citizens, they are least protected by a national legal system. The Thai Cabinet recently announced a new policy on migrant workers..."
      Author/creator: Darunee Paisanpanichkul
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal_Issues_on%20Burma_Journal_10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Trafficking of migrants

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked : The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand (Volume 1)
      Date of publication: 13 December 2006
      Description/subject: "...Thailand has emerged as the number one destination in cross-border trafficking of children and women. Many children and young women from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR migrate to Thailand in search of better life. Often their journey leads them to a life of exploitation. A significant percent of these young migrants work in four employment sectors; agriculture, fishing boats and fish processing, manufacturing and domestic work. While they become an integral part of the economy, they remain invisible and face exploitation. Exploitation is widespread and ranges from non-payment or underpayment of wages, a requirement to work excessive hours sometimes involving the use of hazardous equipment - to even more serious violations of forced labour and trafficking..."
      Author/creator: Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing, Aree Jampaklay, Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Aree Prohmmo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children, ILO
      Format/size: pdf (English - 2.5MB, 5.23 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.humantrafficking.org/uploads/publications/underpaid-eng-volume1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 April 2008


      Title: Trafficking on the Thai-Burma Border
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: Informal Burmese networks supply teenaged girls to customers of Thailand’s commercial sex industry.
      Author/creator: Colin Baynes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
      Date of publication: 14 July 2004
      Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
      Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
      Format/size: pdf (853K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


      Title: Trafficking: The Realities for Burmese Women
      Date of publication: November 2003
      Description/subject: "...In 1993 Human Rights Watch published a report, ‘A Modern Form of Slavery – Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand’. The report was compiled through interviews with 30 Burmese women working in brothels in Thailand. Most were from remote rural villages in Shan state, entering Thailand via the Tachilek/Mae Sai border in Northern Thailand, and most were from peasant or agricultural labourer backgrounds. They ranged in age from 12 to 22, with the average age being 17. All but one had been lured to Thailand by the prospect of improving their economic situation. Only four knew they would be working as prostitutes and even those four had no idea what the actual work would be like. With no reliable sources available from the information-repressed vacuum that Burmese media operates in, the realities of life in Thailand are never seen. Individual laws applicable to migration and other valuable information that would allow women to make an informed choice are simply not available. The situation of deception, coercion and abuse detailed in the 1993 report appears to have changed little in the last ten years. Kidnappings of young women at the Tachilek/Mae Sai border who are then taken to work in brothels in Chiang Mai are not uncommon and the phenomenon of young women and girls being sold by relatives and forced to work as sex workers continues to this day. But what of adult women who choose to come to Thailand as sex workers? Women who choose to work as sex-workers need to be distinguished from women who are trafficked – as not all women working as sex-workers have been trafficked. What then defines trafficking? – for one definition there is the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. This protocol covers recruitment, transportation and harbouring of trafficked persons. It also includes the various means of acquiring the trafficked person and describes various forms of exploitation..."
      Author/creator: Jam Juree
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Issues" Newsletter Volume 13 , Number 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 November 2003


      Title: Trafficking Report Says Burma's Military Uses Forced Labor. Also cites sexual exploitation
      Date of publication: 12 June 2003
      Description/subject: "The State Department designated Burma as a Tier 3 government in its third annual Trafficking in Persons Report due to the Burmese government's lack of significant efforts to meet congressionally set standards for combating human trafficking. The report, released June 11, faults Burma's military rulers for continued extensive use of internal forced labor. "The military is directly involved in forced labor trafficking," the report says. The report acknowledges that the military junta ruling Burma has taken steps to combat trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation, but it describes Burma's record as "inadequate." "The Government of Burma does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so," the report says. The State Department is required to report to Congress annually whether foreign governments fully meet the minimum standards set for the elimination of trafficking as detailed in the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of October 2000. Governments that are not making significant efforts to meet the standards are placed on the Tier 3 list.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: U.S. Dept of State
      Format/size: html, pdf (4.52 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/
      http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/21273.htm
      Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


      Title: MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
      Date of publication: January 2002
      Description/subject: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
      Author/creator: Brenda Belak
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Images Asia
      Format/size: PDF (567K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Trafficking in Burmese women
      Date of publication: 19 November 1999
      Description/subject: Interview by Samuel Grumiau, ICFTU Online..., 214/991116/SG, 18 November 1999 "Every year, thousands of Burmese women fall into the hands of mafias who force them into prostitution in Thailand. How is this traffic organised? Hseng Noung Lintner, an activist in the "Shan Women Action Network", an NGO that assists women from the Shan ethnic group, explains..."
      Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ICFTU
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


      Title: A MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY:
      Date of publication: August 1993
      Description/subject: A substantial and important report. ""Lin Lin" was thirteen years old when she was recruited by an agent for work in Thailand. Her father took $480 from the agent with the understanding that his daughter would pay the loan back out of her earnings. The agent took "Lin Lin" to Bangkok, and three days later she was taken to the Ran Dee Prom brothel. "Lin Lin" did not know what was going on until a man came into her room and started touching her breasts and body and then forced her to have sex. For the next two years, "Lin Lin" worked in various parts of Thailand in four different brothels, all but one owned by the same family. The owners told her she would have to keep prostituting herself until she paid off her father's debt. Her clients, who often included police, paid the owner $4 each time. If she refused a client's demands, she was slapped and threatened by the owner. She worked every day except for the two days off each month she was allowed for her menstrual period. Once she had to borrow money to pay for medicine to treat a painful vaginal infection. This amount was added to her debt. On January 18, 1993 the Crime Suppression Division of the Thai police raided the brothel in which "Lin Lin" worked, and she was taken to a shelter run by a local non-governmental organization. She was fifteen years old, had spent over two years of her young life in compulsory prostitution, and tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. "Lin Lin" is just one of thousands of Burmese women and girls who have been trafficked and sold into what amounts to female sexual slavery in Thailand. In the last two years, Thai NGOs estimate that at a minimum, some twenty thousand Burmese women and girls are suffering Lee's fate, or worse, and that ten thousand new recruits come in every year. They are moved from one brothel to another as the demand for new faces dictates, and often end up being sent back to Burma after a year or two to recruit their own successors..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Watch and the Women's Rights Project (Human Rights Watch)
      Format/size: html (394K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Migrant Workers from Burma

      • Migrant workers from Burma - specialist organisations and resources

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Yaung Chi Oo Workers' Association
        Date of publication: 14 March 2009
        Description/subject: YCOWA was founded in July 1999 by Burmese student activists and migrant workers, with the goal of improving working and living conditions for the Burmese migrant laborers in the Mae Sot area of Thailand. Since then, it has mainly focused on in the field of protecting worker rights, providing rights education, supporting for health care and facilitating social activities. YCOWA concentrates on activities that encourage workers to collaborate with each other to improve their living situations and working conditions. Currently YCOWA has 700 members from 10 different factories, who actively participate in meetings, trainings, and other activities. YCOWA has also got involved in the facilitation of the network of the Burmese workers’ groups in Mae Sot, Bangkok and the southern provinces of Thailand. In addition, YCOWA works with the Lawyer Council of Thailand, MAP Foundation, and other Thai and International NGOs to advocate for increased protection and rights for migrants from Burma. YCOWA is an active member of the Action Network for Migrants (ANM), a coalition of 15 NGOs that focus on labor, health, and women’s rights. Thai NGO Network members include MAP Foundation, Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma (TACDB), Rak Thai CARE, Friends for Women Foundation, and EMPOWER. The Lawyer Council of Thailand and sub committee on Stateless, migrants and nationality of the National Human Rights Commission are affiliates. YCOWA is also a member of the Asian Transnational Corporation (ATNC) Monitoring Network, which comprises 13 members in eight Asian countries. Aims and Objectives of YCOWA are as follows: · To strengthen social relationship and solidarity among Burmese migrant workers · To encourage Burmese migrant workers for the practice of self-organized and collective actions for protection of their rights · To provide Burmese migrant workers in Thailand with legal advice and counseling, rights education and vocational trainings, health care and social services · To inform the international community the updated situation of Burmese migrant workers in Thailand · To facilitate non-violence participation of migrant workers in the movement for democratic change in Burma...publishes a magazine in Burmese (download from site)
        Language: Burmese, English
        Source/publisher: Yaung Chin Oo Workers' Association
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 14 March 2009


        Title: Burma Labour Solidarity Organization (BLSO)
        Description/subject: Activities: Training and Education / Workers / BLSO School / News Bulletins / archive]
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Labour Solidarity Organization (BLSO)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: MAP Foundation
        Description/subject: " In 1996 thousands of migrants were working in Chiang Mai building the hotels, housing estates, and hospitals which now cover the city. At the time there were almost no services available to migrants and when they needed to go to hospital they faced difficulties with language and costs. Migrant Assistance Programme (MAP) started to develop a group of migrants who could interpret in hospitals and provide some health education prevention and promotion on migrant work-sites, mainly construction sites. As MAP became part of the migrant community, the range of issues facing migrant workers became apparent and the activities of MAP expanded to respond to these issues. In 2002 MAP became a registered Thai foundation, taking the Thai name: "Foundation for the Health and Knowledge of Ethnic Labour" but keeping the already English name MAP which had already become familiar with migrant communities..."
        Language: Burmese, English, Karen, Shan, Thai.
        Source/publisher: MAP Foundation
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 January 2007


        Title: MIGRANT WORKER RIGHTS NETWORK ( MWRN )
        Description/subject: "M.W.R.N was established in March 2009 to promote Rights of Myanmar Migrant Workers in Thailand. M.W.R.N is located in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand, where over hundreds of thousands of Myanmar Migrant Workers working in the majority of seafood industries."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ , English
        Source/publisher: MIGRANT WORKER RIGHTS NETWORK ( MWRN )
        Alternate URLs: http://en.mwrn.org/about-mwrn.html
        Date of entry/update: 20 February 2014


      • Migrant workers from Burma in China

        Individual Documents

        Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (Burmese)
        Date of publication: February 2012
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
        Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
        Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


        Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (English)
        Date of publication: February 2012
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed.
        Language: English and Burmese
        Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
        Format/size: pdf (764K-English; 2.95-Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://womenofburma.org/Report/Forgotten-workforce-Bur.pdf
        http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
        Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


      • Migrant workers' registration in Thailand - Thai Government documents

        Individual Documents

        Title: New deadline for foreign workers
        Date of publication: 16 January 2013
        Description/subject: "The Cabinet yesterday gave the green light to a Labour Ministry proposal that the process of verifying the nationality of foreign migrant workers be extended until April 15, according to Labour Minister Phadermchai Sasomsap. He said that with the relaxation of the deadline, the 266,677 workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia who failed to complete the verification before the December 15 deadline could now live and work in Thailand until the new deadline..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Nation" (Thailand)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 January 2013


        Title: Forms to be used in the migrant registration process 2011 (Thai, some English)
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Language: Thai, English
        Source/publisher: Thai Ministry of Labour
        Format/size: pdf (332K)
        Date of entry/update: 31 May 2011


        Title: Thai Cabinet resolution on new round of migrant registration (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 26 April 2011
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Royal Thai Government
        Format/size: pdf (67K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Thai Cabinet resolution on new round of migrant registration (Thai)
        Date of publication: 26 April 2011
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: Royal Thai Government
        Format/size: pdf (69K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Thai Cabinet Decision on Nationality Verification etc. (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 19 January 2010
        Description/subject: . "Today (19th Jan 2010) at 09:00am in the Cabinet meeting room on the 2nd floor of the office of the Cabinet secretariat, Mr. Abhisit Vejjaajiva, Prime Minister of Thailand, was the Chair of the meeting of Thailand's Cabinet. Agenda Item 12: Extension of the Time Period for Nationality Verification and Granting an Amnesty to Remain in the Kingdom of Thailand to Alien Workers/Creating an Additional Committee Member for the Alien Workers Management Committee. The Cabinet agreed with the recommendations of the Ministry of Labour as follows:..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Royal Thai Government
        Format/size: pdf (56K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 February 2010


        Title: Thai Cabinet Decision on Nationality Verification etc. (English)
        Date of publication: 19 January 2010
        Description/subject: Unofficial ENGLISH TRANSLATION by HRDFs Migrant Justice Programme... "Today (19th Jan 2010) at 09:00am in the Cabinet meeting room on the 2nd floor of the office of the Cabinet secretariat, Mr. Abhisit Vejjaajiva, Prime Minister of Thailand, was the Chair of the meeting of Thailand's Cabinet. Agenda Item 12: Extension of the Time Period for Nationality Verification and Granting an Amnesty to Remain in the Kingdom of Thailand to Alien Workers/Creating an Additional Committee Member for the Alien Workers Management Committee. The Cabinet agreed with the recommendations of the Ministry of Labour as follows:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Royal Thai Government (unofficial translation by Human Rights and Development Foundation (HRDF))
        Format/size: pdf (103K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.thaigov.go.th
        Date of entry/update: 10 February 2010


        Title: Thai Cabinet Decision on Nationality Verification etc. (Thai original)
        Date of publication: 19 January 2010
        Description/subject: "Today (19th Jan 2010) at 09:00am in the Cabinet meeting room on the 2nd floor of the office of the Cabinet secretariat, Mr. Abhisit Vejjaajiva, Prime Minister of Thailand, was the Chair of the meeting of Thailand's Cabinet. Agenda Item 12: Extension of the Time Period for Nationality Verification and Granting an Amnesty to Remain in the Kingdom of Thailand to Alien Workers/Creating an Additional Committee Member for the Alien Workers Management Committee. The Cabinet agreed with the recommendations of the Ministry of Labour as follows:..."
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: Royal Thai Government
        Format/size: pdf (77K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 February 2010


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Employment and Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand: National Laws/Practices versus International Labour Standards?
        Date of publication: 2005
        Description/subject: Thai university professor and international law expert, Vitit Muntarbhorn, looks at the application of labour standards as they relate to migrant workers in Thailand. Professor Vitit concludes with a series of 12 recommendations for both government and non-government sectors. This publication also contains copies of all six sub-regional, bilateral, MOUs on counter trafficking and employment cooperation... "...Migrant workers can contribute greatly to their home and destination countries, if the process is well managed and if they are protected from abuse and exploitation. In reality, the situation is rendered complex by that fact that many do not enter the destination countries legally. In the market of demand and supply, regrettably many are victims of human smuggling and trafficking. Moreover, influxes of migrant workers who come without the necessary documents, such as visas and work permits, often result in draconian measures such as deportation from the territory of the destination countries, without adequate guarantees for their safety and dignity. The lesson from Thailand is that to date, a closed door policy on migration from neighbouring countries has not worked, given the porous border and Thailand's own labour market which acts as a pull factor. Wisely the country is now moving towards a new and more open door policy: managing migration through cooperation between the countries of origin and Thailand as a destination country, and synchronizing with Thailand's own labour market. In 2005 the country introduced a regularization process based upon registration of migrant workers and their employers, with guarantees for basic rights, and this needs to be supported well in terms of effective implementation and humane treatment of all workers....CONTENTS: Foreword... Executive Summary... 1. Introduction... 2. Employment/Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand... 3. Thai Laws/Practices... 4. International Labour Standards... 5. National Laws/Practices and International Labour Standards... 6. Directions... 7. Notes.
        Author/creator: Vitit Muntarbhorn
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (563K)
        Alternate URLs: http://no-trafficking.org/content/Reading_Rooms/reading_rooms_pdf/mekong%20challenge_employment%20a...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      • Migrant workers' registration in Thailand - articles, statements, texts and guidelines

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: IOM Migrant Information Notes (Burmese, English, Thai)
        Description/subject: IOM has published Migrant Information Notes in Burmese, English and Thai since June 2009. If the latest issue is not yet online at this web-page, it can be accessed via the Online Burma/Myanmar Library at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2552&lo=d&sl=0 From June 2007 to March 2009, IOM published "Migrant News" as a bimonthly and quarterly newsletter. The archive is [maybe] online at this web-page.
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ English, Thai, Lao, Khmer
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


        Title: Labour Migration Programme
        Description/subject: Research and Reports; Conferences; Training Manuals on Migrant Rights and Obligations; Migrant Information Notes; other publications/materials
        Language: Burmese, English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2011


        Individual Documents

        Title: Employers need to resolve migrant mess
        Date of publication: 17 March 2014
        Description/subject: "An estimated 2 million migrants from Myanmar working across Thailand remain anxious about an irrational deadline imposed on permission to work here. The two countries agreed in 2003 that these workers could remain in Thailand only for four years before returning home for at least three years prior to any possible return. This limit on migrant’s stay in Thailand was imposed on ‘legal’ workers who, since 2009, completed a Nationality Verification regularisation process (NV). Wound up in late 2013, NV resulted in issuance by Myanmar of 2 million ‘temporary’ passports but was dogged by lack of transparency, corrupt officials, unregulated agents and high costs. Employers and workers could not navigate the process themselves without influential agents opening doors to those who paid and firmly blocking those who didn’t..."
        Author/creator: Andy Hall
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 March 2014


        Title: Myanmar visa overstay eased
        Date of publication: 04 March 2014
        Description/subject: "Authorities are softening their stance against Myanmar labourers who overstay their working visas pending the new government's policy. Department of Employment director-general Prawit Khiengpol addressed the issue as he met representatives of the Immigration Bureau and the Royal Thai Police Office (RTPO) on Monday. Referring to Myanmar workers whose four-year working visas have expired, Mr Prawit said..."
        Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2014


        Title: Myanmar Migrant Workers in Thailand Face Visa Extension and Passport Issuance Chaos and Extortion
        Date of publication: 20 February 2014
        Description/subject: "There are currently 2.5 to 3 million workers from Myanmar in Thailand. Since June 2009, these migrants had to enter a national verification process (NV) involving Thai/Myanmar government officials, in line with a 2003 MOU on Cooperation in Worker Employment. On completion of NV, workers became regularised through issuance of a temporary Myanmar passport with validity of 6 years, a 2 year Thai visa and a Thai work permit. In line with the 2003 MoU, the 2-year NV visa was extendable only for 2 years prior to a compulsory return to country of origin for at least 3 years. By August 2013, over 1.7 million migrants had completed the NV process. The 4 year limit on working in Thailand imposed by the 2003 MoU, effective since June 2013, has proved impractical for Myanmar workers and their employers. As a result, in September 2013 mid ranking officials from both countries agreed to find a way to allow these workers to remain in Thailand beyond 4 years. This agreement on extension of stay permission was not then transparently implemented in a timely and clear fashion and the processes involved for workers remaining in Thailand beyond 4 years remain worryingly vague..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Migrant Worker Rights Network (MWRN)
        Format/size: pdf (82K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2014


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #22- 2014-01-00 (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
        Date of publication: January 2014
        Description/subject: "This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) highlights the latest news/updates on labour migration policies in Thailand, including updates on the OSSC for migrants, the Thai-Lao Technical Meeting on Lao Migrant Workers in Thailand, the migrant workers' repatriation fund and exemption of work permit fee for victims of human... trafficking. One Stop Service Centers (OSSC): One Stop Service Centers for visa renewal (for migrants who have completed 4 years of employment in Thailand) have not yet opened. This is creating challenges for migrant workers to retain their regular status... Thailand-Myanmar negotiations on Migrant Workers in Thailand: * Thai and Myanmar officials are discussing a return period to Myanmar of only one day, in lieu of three years, for migrant workers who have already completed four years of employment in Thailand, in order to re-apply for employment... *As of March 2014, ordinary passports will be issued to Myanmar workers entering Thailand through the MOU process. This was agreed upon during the bilateral meeting between Myanmar and Thai officials in October 2013....."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (96K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2014


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #22- January 2014 (English)
        Date of publication: January 2014
        Description/subject: "This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) highlights the latest news/updates on labour migration policies in Thailand, including updates on the OSSC for migrants, the Thai-Lao Technical Meeting on Lao Migrant Workers in Thailand, the migrant workers' repatriation fund and exemption of work permit fee for victims of human... trafficking. One Stop Service Centers (OSSC): One Stop Service Centers for visa renewal (for migrants who have completed 4 years of employment in Thailand) have not yet opened. This is creating challenges for migrant workers to retain their regular status... Thailand-Myanmar negotiations on Migrant Workers in Thailand: * Thai and Myanmar officials are discussing a return period to Myanmar of only one day, in lieu of three years, for migrant workers who have already completed four years of employment in Thailand, in order to re-apply for employment... *As of March 2014, ordinary passports will be issued to Myanmar workers entering Thailand through the MOU process. This was agreed upon during the bilateral meeting between Myanmar and Thai officials in October 2013.....
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (179K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2014


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #22- January 2014 (Thai)
        Date of publication: January 2014
        Description/subject: "This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) highlights the latest news/updates on labour migration policies in Thailand, including updates on the OSSC for migrants, the Thai-Lao Technical Meeting on Lao Migrant Workers in Thailand, the migrant workers' repatriation fund and exemption of work permit fee for victims of human... trafficking. One Stop Service Centers (OSSC): One Stop Service Centers for visa renewal (for migrants who have completed 4 years of employment in Thailand) have not yet opened. This is creating challenges for migrant workers to retain their regular status... Thailand-Myanmar negotiations on Migrant Workers in Thailand: * Thai and Myanmar officials are discussing a return period to Myanmar of only one day, in lieu of three years, for migrant workers who have already completed four years of employment in Thailand, in order to re-apply for employment... *As of March 2014, ordinary passports will be issued to Myanmar workers entering Thailand through the MOU process. This was agreed upon during the bilateral meeting between Myanmar and Thai officials in October 2013....."
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (247K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 March 2014


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #21- September 2013 (English)
        Date of publication: September 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) highlights the Thai Government's latest policy on low-skilled Myanmar/Burmese, Lao and Cambodian migrant workers, the Ministry of Public Health's new measures on health examinations and insurance for migrants, and the latest statistics on the migrant regularization, Nationality Verification and MOU processes. Thai Cabinet Resolution on extension of regularization period of Myanmar/Burmese, Lao and Cambodian migrant workers On 6 August 2013, the Thai Cabinet passed a Resolution that extended for an additional year the deadline for completion of the regularization process for irregular migrants in Thailand. The Resolution specifically applies to two groups of migrants:...This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) highlights the Thai Government's latest policy on low-skilled Myanmar/Burmese, Lao and Cambodian migrant workers, the Ministry of Public Health's new measures on health examinations and insurance for migrants, and the latest statistics on the migrant regularization, Nationality Verification and MOU processes. Thai Cabinet Resolution on extension of regularization period of Myanmar/Burmese, Lao and Cambodian migrant workers On 6 August 2013, the Thai Cabinet passed a Resolution that extended for an additional year the deadline for completion of the regularization process for irregular migrants in Thailand. The Resolution specifically applies to two groups of migrants:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (124K-OBL version; 82K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/IOM-Migrant_Info_Note_No_21-en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #20 - June 2013 (English)
        Date of publication: 01 July 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) provides an overview of the latest regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand, including the exemption from work permit fees for victims of human trafficking; the ministerial regulation on contributions to the Migrant Repatriation Fund; details on undergoing health exams and acquiring health insurance for migrant workers, as well as updates on the new locations of the Immigration Bureau’s migrant service centers and the migrant regularization process. Statistics of migrants in Thailand are also presented..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (86K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 July 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #20 - June 2013 ( Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
        Date of publication: June 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) provides an overview of the latest regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand, including the exemption from work permit fees for victims of human trafficking; the ministerial regulation on contributions to the Migrant Repatriation Fund; details on undergoing health exams and acquiring health insurance for migrant workers, as well as updates on the new locations of the Immigration Bureau’s migrant service centers and the migrant regularization process. Statistics of migrants in Thailand are also presented..."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (98K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #20 - June 2013 (Thai)
        Date of publication: June 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) provides an overview of the latest regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand, including the exemption from work permit fees for victims of human trafficking; the ministerial regulation on contributions to the Migrant Repatriation Fund; details on undergoing health exams and acquiring health insurance for migrant workers, as well as updates on the new locations of the Immigration Bureau’s migrant service centers and the migrant regularization process. Statistics of migrants in Thailand are also presented..."
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (184K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #19 - March 2013 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 18 April 2013
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest updates and developments relating to the cabinet resolution on the regularization of migrant workers following the NV deadline of 14 December 2012.
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (61K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #19 - March 2013 (English)
        Date of publication: 18 April 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest updates and developments relating to the cabinet resolution on the regularization of migrant workers following the NV deadline of 14 December 2012."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (48K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #19 - March 2013 (Thai)
        Date of publication: 18 April 2013
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest updates and developments relating to the cabinet resolution on the regularization of migrant workers following the NV deadline of 14 December 2012.
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (148K)
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #18 - January 2013 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 22 February 2013
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) explores the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including information relating to the latest cabinet resolution on the regularization of migrant workers following the NV deadline of 14 December 2012; the rights of domestic workers; and an overview of the measures taken by the Ministry of Labour for the establishment of seven Seafarer’s Coordination Centers".....The original (English) version of this Note was published 18 January - Burmese version 22 February
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (370K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 March 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #18, January 2013 ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 18 – มกราคม 2556 (Thai)
        Date of publication: 21 February 2013
        Description/subject: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ได้นำเสนอข่าวสารต่างๆและกฎระเบียบที่เกี่ยวกับประชากรข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย ได้แก่ มติคณะรัฐมนตรีเรื่องกระบวนการปรับสถานะแรงงานข้ามชาติ หลังจากการสิ้นสุดการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ เมื่อวันที่ 14 ธันวาคม 2555 รวมถึง นำ เสนอข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับสิทธิของแรงงานที่ทำ งานรับใช้ในบ้าน และมาตรการของกระทรวงแรงงานในการจัดตั้งศูนย์ประสานแรงงานประมงทั้ง 7 ศูนย์
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (213K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 March 2013


        Title: Thailand Extends Migrant Worker Registration Deadline
        Date of publication: 18 January 2013
        Description/subject: "BANGKOK — Labor activists in Thailand are welcoming the government's extension of a deadline for close to two million undocumented migrant workers to become legal. The illegal migrants now have four additional months to register through a new simplified process. But, activists say the new rules still allow room for exploiting foreign workers mainly from Burma, Cambodia and Laos. Thailand this week announced a four-month extension on a deadline for undocumented foreign workers to become registered. Missed deadline The extension comes after a month of wrangling over a December 14 deadline and threats of mass deportation for over a million workers. Thailand has an estimated 2.5 million migrant workers, mostly from Burma, but less than a million met the deadline to get their permits. Thai authorities threatened to deport the remaining migrants, including tens of thousands whose paperwork was still being processed. The threats were never enforced and on Tuesday Thai media reports said a deal was reached to extend the deadline to April 14 and allow all undocumented workers to participate..."
        Author/creator: Daniel Schearf
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Voice of America (VOA)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 January 2013


        Title: New deadline for foreign workers
        Date of publication: 16 January 2013
        Description/subject: "The Cabinet yesterday gave the green light to a Labour Ministry proposal that the process of verifying the nationality of foreign migrant workers be extended until April 15, according to Labour Minister Phadermchai Sasomsap. He said that with the relaxation of the deadline, the 266,677 workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia who failed to complete the verification before the December 15 deadline could now live and work in Thailand until the new deadline..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Nation" (Thailand)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 January 2013


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #18 - January 2013
        Date of publication: January 2013
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) explores the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including information relating to the latest cabinet resolution on the regularization of migrant workers following the NV deadline of 14 December 2012; the rights of domestic workers; and an overview of the measures taken by the Ministry of Labour for the establishment of seven Seafarer’s Coordination Centers
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (97K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 February 2013


        Title: Three-month extension period for Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand
        Date of publication: 20 December 2012
        Description/subject: Nay Pyi Taw, 19 Dec — "Issuance of temporary passports for Myanmar migrant workers in Myanmar is being carried out at five centres in Thailand. As the process is due to expire on 14 December this year Thailand has proposed to stop the process of issuing documents to Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand and to carry out the process at the new centres on the side of Myanmar...President U Thein Sein held coordination on Myanmar migrant workers with Prime Minister of Thailand Ms. Yingluck Shinawatra in Dawei of Taninthayi Region, calling for extension of deadline without stopping the ongoing process. The Thai PM approved to extend the deadline for another three months and, if necessary, deadline will more be extended..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
        Format/size: pdf (72K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 December 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #17 – October 2012 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: October 2012
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including information relating to victims of trafficking, labourers working in the fishing industry, a possible new import of migrant workers and a new strategy to combat irregular migration.
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (82K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 November 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #17 – October 2012 (English)
        Date of publication: October 2012
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including information relating to victims of trafficking, labourers working in the fishing industry, a possible new import of migrant workers and a new strategy to combat irregular migration.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (75K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 November 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #17, October 2012 ่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 17 – ตุลาคม 2555 (Thai)
        Date of publication: October 2012
        Description/subject: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ได้นำเสนอรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับประเด็นและกฏระเบียบล่าสุดที่เกี่ยวกับ ประชากรข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย ซึ่งได้แก่ ข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับการค้ามนุษย์ แรงงานในกิจการประมง การนำเข้า แรงงานข้ามชาติ และยุทธศาสตร์ในการต่อต้านการโยกย้านถิ่นฐานแบบไม่ปกติ
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (192K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 November 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #16 – August 2012 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: August 2012
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including news on work permit renewals, health exams and insurance, workers’ compensation and efforts to deal with human trafficking in the fisheries sector..."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (69K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #16 – August 2012 (English)
        Date of publication: August 2012
        Description/subject: This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in migration issues and regulations in Thailand, including news on work permit renewals, health exams and insurance, workers’ compensation and efforts to deal with human trafficking in the fisheries sector.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (68K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


        Title: Migrant Information Note Issue #16 – August 2012 ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 16 – สิงหาคม 2555 (Thai)
        Date of publication: August 2012
        Description/subject: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ได้นำเสนอรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับข้อปรับปรุงล่าสุดด้านกฎ ระเบียบ ข้อบังคับของ ประเทศไทยด้านการย้ายถิ่นฐาน ซึ่งได้แก่ ข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับการยื่นขอใบอนุญาตทำงาน การตรวจสุขภาพและ ประกันสุขภาพของแรงงานข้ามชาติ 3 สัญชาติ ได้แก่ พม่า ลาว และกัมพูชา การให้ความคุ้มครองแรงงานข้าม ชาติที่ประสบอันตรายหรือเจ็บป่วยเนื่องจากการทำงาน และความพยายามแก้ไขปัญหาการค้ามนุษย์ในภาคการ ประมง
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (166K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE (MIN) Special Issue – June 2012: Extension of Nationality Verification deadline to 14 December 2012 (English)
        Date of publication: June 2012
        Description/subject: "Following the recent meeting of the National Committee on Alien Workers Administration (known in Thai as Kor Bor Ror), the Thai Minister of Labour has stated that the Committee has approved the extension of the deadline for completion of nationality verification (NV) of registered migrant workers from Myanmar/Burma, Lao PDR and Cambodia for six months from 14 June 2012 to 14 December 2012. The extension of the deadline has already been approved by the Cabinet. In addition, the Committee agreed to set up a sub‐committee to study the social security benefits of migrant workers, chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour. The Committee will assess appropriate social security benefits for migrant workers of regular status, including those who have passed nationality verification or have entered the country under the MOUs between Thailand and the three neighboring countries..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (139K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 June 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 15 – May 2012 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: May 2012
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in the nationality verification procedures for Cambodian, Lao and Myanmar/Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and specifically addresses their access to the social security system and health care. In addition, it discusses the recent increase in minimum wage standards implemented nationwide, offers the latest available statistics on migrants with work permits in Thailand, and outlines progress made by government agencies in terms of anti-human trafficking, migrant education, social wellbeing and quality of life..."
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (212K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 June 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue #15-May 2012 (English)
        Date of publication: May 2012
        Description/subject: "This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note (MIN) details the latest developments in the nationality verification procedures for Cambodian, Lao and Myanmar/Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and specifically addresses their access to the social security system and health care. in addition, it discusses the recent increase in minimum wage standards implemented nationwide, offers the latest available statistics on migrants with work permits in Thailand, and outlines progress made by government agencies in terms of anti-human trafficking, migrant education, social wellbeing and quality of life."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (67K)
        Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 14 – February 2012 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: 14 February 2012
        Description/subject: "The flood crisis of 2011 forced many migrant workers in Thailand to flee flood-affected areas and return to their countries of origin – a substantial number of which are thought to have since returned to work in Thailand. The disruptions to efforts to efficiently manage migration in and out of Thailand during the floods, together with the closing of registration opportunities for irregular migrants in Thailand, have let to a shift in focus towards facilitating more efficient import of migrant workers under the MOUs signed between Thailand and its neighbouring countries. Concurrently, improved cooperation between Thai and Myanmar/Burmese authorities signals progress towards ensuring over 850,000 migrants who registered in the final registration round in 2011 are able to complete the Nationality Verification (NV) process. This Migrant Information Note details the latest developments pertaining to the NV process in Thailand as well as the steps for migrant workers who registered in 2011 to undergo the collection of bio-data and acquire work permits."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (107K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 14 – February 2012 ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 14 – กุมภาพันธ์ 2555 (Thai)
        Date of publication: 14 February 2012
        Description/subject: วิกฤตการณ์น้ำท่วมในปี 2554 ทำให้แรงงานข้ามชาติจำนวนมากต้องอพยพออกจากพื้นที่ที่ได้รับ ผลกระทบจากน้ำท่วมและต้องเดินทางกลับไปยังประเทศต้นทาง ซึ่งแรงงานจำนวนมากคาดว่าได้ เดินทางกลับมายังประเทศไทยเพื่อทำงานต่อ อย่างไรก็ตาม การขาดความพยายามในการบริหารจัดการ แรงงานข้ามชาติในการเดินทางเข้า-ออกจากประเทศไทยอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพในช่วงน้ำท่วม ประกอบกับการสิ้นสุดการจดทะเบียนแรงงานข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย ทำให้เกิดการมุ่งประเด็น ความสนใจไปที่การนำเข้าแรงงานข้ามชาติอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพโดยผ่านกระบวนการนำเข้าตาม ข้อตกลงไทยและประเทศเพื่อนบ้าน (MOUs) นอกจากนี้ การกระชับความร่วมมือระหว่างเจ้าหน้าที่ ของไทยและพม่า เป็นสัญญาณที่ดีที่แสดงถึง ความก้าวหน้าที่ในการดำเนินการให้แรงงานข้ามชาติกลุ่ม ใหม่ที่จดทะเบียนในปี 2554 จำนวนกว่า 850, 000 คน ไปดำเนินการพิสูจน์สัญชาติให้แล้วเสร็จ จดหมายข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ นำเสนอข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับความคืบหน้าในการพิสูจน์สัญชาติสำหรับ แรงงานข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย รวมทั้ง ขั้นตอน สำหรับแรงงานข้ามชาติที่ได้จดทะเบียนในปี 2554 และได้รับใบอนุญาตทำงาน ให้ไปดำเนินการเกี่ยวกับการจัดทำประวัติตัวบุคคล (bio data)
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (153K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2012


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 14 – February 2012 (English)
        Date of publication: February 2012
        Description/subject: "The flood crisis of 2011 forced many migrant workers in Thailand to flee flood-affected areas and return to their countries of origin – a substantial number of which are thought to have since returned to work in Thailand. The disruptions to efforts to efficiently manage migration in and out of Thailand during the floods, together with the closing of registration opportunities for irregular migrants in Thailand, have let to a shift in focus towards facilitating more efficient import of migrant workers under the MOUs signed between Thailand and its neighbouring countries. Concurrently, improved cooperation between Thai and Myanmar/Burmese authorities signals progress towards ensuring over 850,000 migrants who registered in the final registration round in 2011 are able to complete the Nationality Verification (NV) process. This Migrant Information Note details the latest developments pertaining to the NV process in Thailand as well as the steps for migrant workers who registered in 2011 to undergo the collection of bio-data and acquire work permits."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (70K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


        Title: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 13 – ตุลาคม 2554 - MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 13 – October 2011 (Thai))
        Date of publication: October 2011
        Description/subject: ในการจดทะเบียนแรงงานข้ามชาติรอบล่าสุดที่ได้สิ้นสุดลงในเดือนสิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2554 นั้น มีจำนวน แรงงานข้ามชาติถึง 1,011,443 คนที่ได้ทำการจดทะเบียน (คนพม่า 657,024 คน, คนลาว 105,364 คน และ คนกัมพูชา 249,055 คน) โดยแรงงานเหล่านี้จะสามารถยื่นขอรับใบอนุญาตทำงานได้จนถึงวันที่ 12 ตุลาคม พ.ศ.2554 นอกจากประเด็นการจดทะเบียนแล้ว ยังมีข่าวสำคัญที่กระทรวงแรงงานได้ออก ประกาศกระทรวงเกี่ยวกับการซื้อประกันภัยสำหรับแรงงานข้ามชาติที่จดทะเบียนเพื่อได้รับ ความคุ้มครองในกรณีที่แรงงานได้รับบาดเจ็บ หรือ เจ็บป่วยจากการทำงาน อีกทั้งรัฐบาลไทยใน ปัจจุบันได้ทำการเจรจากับประเทศต้นทางเพื่อพิจารณาว่าแรงงานจากประเทศเหล่านั้นควรจะเข้าสู่ กระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติหรือไม่ และอย่างไร จดหมายข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ นำเสนอข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับนโยบายและกฎหมายรัฐล่าสุดที่เกี่ยวข้อง กับแรงงานข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย รวมถึงสถิติของการจดทะเบียนแรงงาน การพิสูจน์สัญชาติ และ การนำเข้าแรงงานข้ามชาติล่าสุด
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (147K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 13 – October 2011 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: October 2011
        Description/subject: "The latest round of registration for migrant workers closed in August 2011, with a total of 1,011,443 migrant workers having registered (657,024 from Myanmar/Burma, 105,364 from Lao PDR, and 249,055 from Cambodia). Work permit applications were ongoing until 12 October 2011. In an important development, the Ministry of Labour (MOL) announced the details of a private insurance fund covering those migrant workers who registered in cases of work-related accidents or illness. The Thai Government is now in the process of negotiating with sending countries as to whether and how these migrants will go through nationality verification (NV). This Migrant Information Note details the latest developments in policy and legislation affecting migrants in Thailand, together with updated statistics on registered, NV and MOU migrant workers."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (82K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 13 – October 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: October 2011
        Description/subject: "The latest round of registration for migrant workers closed in August 2011, with a total of 1,011,443 migrant workers having registered (657,024 from Myanmar/Burma, 105,364 from Lao PDR, and 249,055 from Cambodia). Work permit applications were ongoing until 12 October 2011. In an important development, the Ministry of Labour (MOL) announced the details of a private insurance fund covering those migrant workers who registered in cases of work-related accidents or illness. The Thai Government is now in the process of negotiating with sending countries as to whether and how these migrants will go through nationality verification (NV). This Migrant Information Note details the latest developments in policy and legislation affecting migrants in Thailand, together with updated statistics on registered, NV and MOU migrant workers."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (63K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 12 – August 2011 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: August 2011
        Description/subject: "The new round of registration for migrant workers and their dependents from Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia and Lao PDR took place between 15 June and 14 July 2011. A total of 996,278 migrant workers registered during this time – 648,921 from Myanmar/Burma, 242,429 from Cambodia and 104,928 from Lao PDR. The registration for migrant workers in the fishing sector will continue until 13 August 2011. This Migrant Information Note details the latest progress and statistics from the new round of registration, together with other important regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (56K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 12 – August 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: August 2011
        Description/subject: "The new round of registration for migrant workers and their dependents from Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia and Lao PDR took place between 15 June and 14 July 2011. A total of 996,278 migrant workers registered during this time – 648,921 from Myanmar/Burma, 242,429 from Cambodia and 104,928 from Lao PDR. The registration for migrant workers in the fishing sector will continue until 13 August 2011. This Migrant Information Note details the latest progress and statistics from the new round of registration, together with other important regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (47K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 August 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 12 – August 2011 (Thai)
        Date of publication: August 2011
        Description/subject: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 12 – สิงหาคม 2554... เมื่อวันที่ 15 มิถุนายน – 14 กรกฎาคม 2554 ได้มีการเปิดจดทะเบียนรอบใหม่สำหรับแรงงานข้ามชาติ ชาวพม่า ลาว กัมพูชา และผู้ติดตามที่เป็นบุตร โดยมีแรงงานข้ามชาติจำนวน 996,278 คน ได้มายื่นขอ ขึ้นทะเบียนแรงงานในช่วงเวลาดังกล่าว ในจำนวนดังกล่าว มีแรงงานจากพม่าจำนวน 648,921 คน แรงงานกัมพูชา 242,429 คน และ แรงงานลาว 104,928 คน ส่วนการจดทะเบียนแรงงานในภาคกิจการ ประมงจะดำเนินการถึงวันที่ 13 สิงหาคม 2554 จดหมายข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ นำเสนอข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับการจดทะเบียนรอบใหม่ เช่น สถิติ กฎระเบียบต่างๆที่เกี่ยวข้องกับแรงงานข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (156K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


        Title: IOM Brochure on labour registration ln Thailand (Thai and Burmese)
        Date of publication: 14 June 2011
        Description/subject: "...a bilingual (Thai-Burmese) brochure to disseminate information [on the process for registration of migrant workers and their children, beginning June 15th] in a clear and simple way to migrant communities in Thailand"
        Language: Thai, Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (644K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 June 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 11 – June 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: June 2011
        Description/subject: "On 26 April 2011, the Cabinet approved the opening of a new round of registration for migrant workers from Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia and Lao PDR, as well as their children not exceeding 15 years of age. The Cabinet Resolution also included a number of additional provisions, such as the prevention and suppression of irregular migration and expediting the process of the recruitment of migrant workers from the three neighbouring countries. This IOM Migrant Information Note examines the details of the Cabinet Resolution and specifies the procedures involved in the registration of migrant workers and their children..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (93K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 June 2011


        Title: Forms to be used in the migrant registration process 2011 (Thai, some English)
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Language: Thai, English
        Source/publisher: Thai Ministry of Labour
        Format/size: pdf (332K)
        Date of entry/update: 31 May 2011


        Title: Summary of preliminary guidelines & process for migrant workers registration 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: Text and chart outlining the registration process
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Agencies
        Format/size: pdf (188K)
        Date of entry/update: May 2011


        Title: Summary of preliminary guidelines & process for migrant workers registration 2011(Burmese)
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: Text and chart outlining the registration process
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Agencies
        Format/size: pdf (174k)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Summary of preliminary guidelines & process for migrant workers registration_2011 (Thai)
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: Text and chart outlining the registration process
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: Agencies
        Format/size: pdf (420K)
        Date of entry/update: 31 May 2011


        Title: A positive U-turn, but still no real long-term solution
        Date of publication: 22 April 2011
        Description/subject: "...on Tuesday, the Illegal Alien Workers Management Committee, chaired by Deputy Prime Minister Sanan Kachornprasart, approved the new registration opportunity for millions of nameless workers from Cambodia, Laos and Burma working in Thailand without documents. Around 85% are likely from Burma. Although final approval for the policy remains with the cabinet, opening of registration is expected to be approved and new registration started within weeks..."
        Author/creator: Andy Hall
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Nation"
        Format/size: pdf (69K)
        Date of entry/update: 13 May 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10 – April 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: April 2011
        Description/subject: "From the beginning of the Nationality Verification (NV) process - in 2006 for Cambodians and Laotians and August 2009 for Myanmar/Burmese - until the end of February 2011, a total of 550,003 migrant workers from Cambodia (103,826), Lao PDR (93,429) and Myanmar/Burma (352,748) have obtained a temporary passport and permission to legally work and stay in Thailand. As of December 2010, 543,749 migrants had not yet completed the process out of a total of 932,255 eligible in February 2010. Those migrants who have not yet completed NV but wish to stay and work in Thailand were required to renew their work permits by the end of February 2011 while their NV applications continued to be processed by the authorities. 295,136 migrants succeeded in renewing their work permits by this date, indicating a high likelihood that large numbers of migrants failed to renew and thus lapsed back into irregular status. But discussions regarding the opening of a new round of registration for migrant workers have progressed, which could signal a further opportunity for unregistered migrant workers to obtain permission to stay and work in Thailand. This IOM Migrant Information Note details the latest regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand together with the latest statistics on the work renewal and NV processes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10
        Format/size: pdf (42K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10 – April 2011 -- ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 10 – เมษายน 2554 (Thai)
        Date of publication: April 2011
        Description/subject: ตั้งแต่กระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติสำหรับแรงงานลาวและกัมพูชาได้เริ่มขึ้นในปี พ.ศ. 2549 และ สำหรับแรงงานพม่าได้เริ่มขึ้นในปี พ.ศ. 2552 จนกระทั้งเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2554 นั้น มีแรงงานข้ามชาติ จำนวน 550,003 แบ่งเป็น ชาวกัมพูชา 103,826 คน แรงงานชาวลาว 93,429 คน และ แรงงานชาวพม่า 352,748 คน ได้รับหนังสือเดินทางชั่วคราว/เอกสารรับรองบุคคล และ สามารถอาศัยอยู่ในประเทศไทยได้อย่างถูกฎหมาย อย่างไรก็ตามจากสถิติในเดือน ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2553 มีแรงงานถึง 543,749 คน จาก 932,255 คน ที่มีสิทธิในการพิสูจน์สัญชาติจากการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานในเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ ปี พ.ศ. 2553 แต่ ยังไม่ได้รับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ ดังนั้น แรงงานที่ยังไม่ได้รับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ แต่ต้องการทำงานและอาศัยอยู่ในประเทศไทยต่อไป จึงได้ทำการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานอีกครั้งเมื่อเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2554 ในระหว่าง รอกระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติของแรงงานรายนั้นๆให้เสร็จสิ้น ในการยื่นต่ออายุใบอนุญาต พ.ศ. 2554 นื้ มีแรงงาน 295,136 คน ที่ได้ทำการต่ออายุใบอนุญาต ทำงานของตนเองภายในเวลาที่กำหนด อันแสดงให้เห็นว่ามีแรงงานจำนวนมาก ที่ไม่ได้มาต่ออายุ ใบอนุญาตทำงานและกลายเป็นแรงงานที่ไม่ถูกต้องตามกฎหมายเช่นเดิม แต่ทว่าในตอนนี้การหารือเกี่ยวกับการจดทะเบียนรอบใหม่ได้มีความก้าวหน้ามากขึ้น ซึ่งอาจจะเป็น สัญญาณว่าแรงงานที่ยังไม่ได้ลงทะเบียนจะสามารถได้รับการอนุญาตให้ทำงานและอยู่อาศัยใน ประเทศได้ ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้จะนำเสนอข้อมูลกี่ยวกับกฏระเบียบต่างๆที่เกี่ยวข้องกกับแรงงาน ข้ามชาติในประเทศไทย และสถิติที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการต่อใบอนุญาตทำงานและกระบวนการพิสูจน์ สัญชาติ
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10
        Format/size: pdf (127K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10 –April 2011 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: April 2011
        Description/subject: "From the beginning of the Nationality Verification (NV) process - in 2006 for Cambodians and Laotians and August 2009 for Myanmar/Burmese - until the end of February 2011, a total of 550,003 migrant workers from Cambodia (103,826), Lao PDR (93,429) and Myanmar/Burma (352,748) have obtained a temporary passport and permission to legally work and stay in Thailand. As of December 2010, 543,749 migrants had not yet completed the process out of a total of 932,255 eligible in February 2010. Those migrants who have not yet completed NV but wish to stay and work in Thailand were required to renew their work permits by the end of February 2011 while their NV applications continued to be processed by the authorities. 295,136 migrants succeeded in renewing their work permits by this date, indicating a high likelihood that large numbers of migrants failed to renew and thus lapsed back into irregular status. But discussions regarding the opening of a new round of registration for migrant workers have progressed, which could signal a further opportunity for unregistered migrant workers to obtain permission to stay and work in Thailand. This IOM Migrant Information Note details the latest regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand together with the latest statistics on the work renewal and NV processes..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 10
        Format/size: pdf (63K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 9 – January 2011 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: The end of 2010 and beginning of 2011 saw a few important developments in the Royal Thai Government’s continual efforts to regularize and manage migration into Thailand from Myanmar/Burma, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Following the endorsement of the regulation stipulating the required contributions of migrant workers to the Alien Repatriation Fund, one key development was the Cabinet decision to delay implementation of the regulation until 2012. Additionally, the minimum wage was raised across the country, while efforts to ensure migrant workers can complete Nationality Verification (NV) by February 2012 continued. This edition of the MIN details the latest developments and regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand.
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (78K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 9 – January 2011 (English)
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: "The end of 2010 and beginning of 2011 saw a few important developments in the Royal Thai Government’s continual efforts to regularize and manage migration into Thailand from Myanmar/Burma, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Following the endorsement of the regulation stipulating the required contributions of migrant workers to the Alien Repatriation Fund, one key development was the Cabinet decision to delay implementation of the regulation until 2012. Additionally, the minimum wage was raised across the country, while efforts to ensure migrant workers can complete Nationality Verification (NV) by February 2012 continued. This edition of the MIN details the latest developments and regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (49K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 February 2011


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 9 ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 9 – มกราคม 2554 (Thai)
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: ในช่วงปลายปี พ.ศ. 2553 และ.2554 รัฐบาลไทยได้พยายามอย่างยิ่งในการบริหารจัดการ แรงงานข้ามชาติชาวพม่า ลาว และกัมพูชา เพื่อให้สามารถทำ งานได้อย่างถูกต้องตามกฏหมาย หนึ่งในนโยบายที่มีความสำคัญ คือการ ที่รัฐบาลไทยได้เลื่อนการเก็บค่าธรรมเนียมสำหรับกองทุนเพื่อการส่ง คนต่างด้าวกลับออกไปนอกราชอาณาจักร นอกจากนี้ ยังมีการขึ้นอัตราค่าจ้างขั้นต่ำทั่วประเทศ และ ยังคงพยายามสนับสนุนมาตรการที่จะทำให้กระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานข้ามชาติให้เสร็จสิ้นภายใน เดือนกุมภาพันธ์ ปี พ.ศ. 2555...The end of 2010 and beginning of 2011 saw a few important developments in the Royal Thai Government’s continual efforts to regularize and manage migration into Thailand from Myanmar/Burma, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Following the endorsement of the regulation stipulating the required contributions of migrant workers to the Alien Repatriation Fund, one key development was the Cabinet decision to delay implementation of the regulation until 2012. Additionally, the minimum wage was raised across the country, while efforts to ensure migrant workers can complete Nationality Verification (NV) by February 2012 continued. This edition of the MIN details the latest developments and regulations affecting migrant workers in Thailand.
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (137K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2011


        Title: Renewal of Work Permits 2011 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 8 – November 2010
        Format/size: pdf (90K) ... Font: Myanmar3
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


        Title: Renewal of Work Permits 2011 - (English)
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Description/subject: Between January and February 2010, 932,255 migrants from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma renewed their work permits with the Ministry of Labour’s Employment Department (DOE). They were allowed to stay and work in Thailand for an additional year while undergoing the Nationality Verification (NV) process. Entry into the NV process was a condition of renewal of work permits in 2010. Of the 932,255 migrants, 26 per cent (245,121) have completed the NV process and obtained a Temporary Passport or Certificate of Identity, and they are allowed to work legally in Thailand for up to 4 years. However 74 per cent (687,134) are still in the process of getting their NV completed, and they need to renew their work permits before the end of February 2011 if they want to work in Thailand while their NV applications are processed by the relevant authorities. The Ministry of Labour has earlier indicated that that all NV processes should be completed by 28 February 2012. This IOM Migrant Information Note provides the latest migration regulations and detailed information regarding the procedures and timelines for renewal of work permits in 2011.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 8 – November 2010, International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (49K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2010


        Title: Renewal of Work Permits 2011 ... Uการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานประจำปี พ.ศ. 2554 (Thai)
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Description/subject: ระหว่างเดือนมกราคม และ กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2553 แรงงานข้ามชาติชาวพม่า ลาว กัมพูชา ได้ทำการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานกับกรมการจัดหางาน กระทรวงแรงงาน โดยได้รับอนุญาตให้อยู่ และทำงานในประเทศไทยอีก 1 ปี ในระหว่างรอการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ โดยการเข้าสู่กระบวนการ พิสูจน์สัญชาตินั้นถือเป็นหนึ่งในเงื่อนไขในการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานของแรงงานข้ามชาติด้วย จากจำนวนแรงงานข้ามชาติ 932,255 คนนั้น มีแรงงานข้ามชาติประมาณร้อยละ 26 (245,121 คน) ที่ ได้ผ่านกระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ และได้รับหนังสือเดินทางชั่วคราว หรือ เอกสารรับรองบุคคล (Certificate of Identity – C.I) อันจะทำให้พวกเขาจะมีสิทธิทำงานในประเทศไทยเป็นเวลา 4 ปี อย่างไรก็ตามแรงงานร้อยละ 74 (687,134 คน) ที่ยังรอการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ หากพวกเขายังต้องการที่ จะทำงานในประเทศไทยต่อไป จะต้องทำการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานอีกครั้งภายในปลายเดือน กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2554 และรอการไปพิสูจน์สัญชาติให้เสร็จสิ้น โดยกระทรวงแรงงานได้กำหนดไว้ ว่ากระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติทั้งหมดจะต้องเสร็จสิ้นภายในวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2555
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 8 – November 2010
        Format/size: pdf (157K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


        Title: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 7 – กันยายน 2553 -- MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 7 – September 2010 (Thai)
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: รัฐบาลไทยและพม่าได้มีการลงนามในบันทึกความเข้าใจ (MOU) เรื่องความร่วมมือในการจ้างงาน1ในปี พ.ศ.2546 อย่างไรก็ตาม การดำเนินการตามข้อตกลงดังกล่าวได้เริ่มเมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2552 ดังนั้น นับตั้งแต่เดือนกรกฎาคม ปี พ.ศ. 2552 แรงงานข้ามชาติชาวพม่าที่เดินทางเข้ามาทำงานในประเทศไทยอย่างไม่ถูกต้องตามกฎหมาย สามารถเข้าสู่กระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติเพื่อที่จะทำให้พวกเขาได้มีสถานะเป็นแรงงานที่ถูกต้องตามกฎหมายได้2 นอกจากนี้ MOU ดังกล่าว ถือได้ว่าเป็นกรอบการดำเนินการที่ จะทำให้แรงงานทักษะต่ำ (low-skilled) สามารถเดินทางเข้ามาทำงานในประเทศไทยได้อย่างถูกต้องตามกฎหมาย ทั้งนี้ แม้ว่าจะต้องใช้เวลาค่อนข้างนานในการทำให้ข้อตกลงตาม MOU เรื่องการนำเข้าแรงงาน มาสู่การปฏิบัติ แต่ในท้ายที่สุดแล้ว รัฐบาลไทยและพม่าก็ได้ขับเคลื่อนกระบวนการนำเข้าแรงงานนี้ได้เป็นผลสำเร็จ โดยประเด็นหลักของข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้จะเป็นการนำเสนอกระบวนการนำเข้าแรงงานจากประเทศพม่า รวมทั้ง ข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานข้ามชาติชาวกัมพูชา ... "The Memorandum of Understanding on Employment Cooperation between Thailand and Myanmar/Burma was signed in 2003. However, it was not until 2009 that its implementation began. Since July 2009, Myanmar/Burmese migrant workers who had irregularly entered Thailand have been given the opportunity to receive regular status upon completion of the Nationality Verification Process2. The MOU of 2003 also established a framework for low-skilled migrant workers to enter and work in Thailand regularly. It has taken some time for this part of the agreement to become operational but lately both governments have taken steps forward towards this end. This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) looks at the procedures in place to recruit migrant workers from Myanmar/Burma. Information about NV for Cambodian migrant workers is also provided..."
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (202K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


        Title: ရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအတွက်အသိပေးကြေငြာချက် ထုတ်ဝေချက် ၇ - စက်တင်ဘာ ၂ဝ၁ဝ MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 7 (Burmese)
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: ထိုင်းနှင့်မြန်မာနှစ်နိုင်ငံ ပူးပေါင်းအလုပ်အကိုင်ခန့်ထားရေးဆိုင်ရာ သဘောတူနားလည်မှုစာချုပ်၁ကို၂ဝဝ၃ခုနှစ်တွင် လက်မှတ်ရေးထိုးခဲ့ပါသည်။ သို့ရာတွင်၂ဝဝ၉ ခုနှစ်မတိုင်ခင်အထိအကောင်အထည်ဖော်ဆောင် ရွက်နိုင်ခြင်းမရှိခဲ့ပါ။ ၂ဝဝ၉ခုနှစ်ဇူလိုင်လမှစတင်၍ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံအတွင်းသို့ စည်းစနစ်တကျဝင်ရောက်လာခဲ့ခြင်းမရှိခဲ့ကြသောမြန်မာ/ဗမာ နိုင်ငံသားရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအားနိုင်ငံသား စိစစ်အတည်ပြုခြင်း( Nationality Verification၊နိုင်/စစ်) လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်၂ဆောင်ရွက်ပြီးစီးသည်နှင့်တစ်ဦပိင်နက်တရားဝင်အလုပ် လုပ်ကိုင်ခွင့်ကိုပေးအပ်ခဲ့ပါသည်။၂ဝဝ၃ခုနှစ် သဘောတူနားလည်မှုစာချုပ်သည်အရည်အချင်း နိမ့်ရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအားထိုင်းနိုင်ငံအတွင်း တရားဝင်ဝင်ရောက်အလုပ်လုပ်ကိုင်နိုင်စေမည့်မူဝါဒ တစ်ရပ်ကိုလည်းချမှတ်ပေးခဲ့ပါသည်။သဘောတူညီချက် အားအကောင်အထည်ဖော်ဆောင်ရွက်ရာတွင်လုပ်ငန်းလည်ပတ်အောင် အချိန်ယူ၍ဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့ကြပြီး မကြာသေးမီကနှစ်ဘက်အစိုးရ များသည်နောက်ဆုံးအဆင့်များသို့ရောက်ရှိပြီးစီးအောင် ရှေ့ဆက်ဆောင်ရွက်လျက်ရှိကြပါသည်။ ..... "The Memorandum of Understanding on Employment Cooperation1 between Thailand and Myanmar/Burma was signed in 2003. However, it was not until 2009 that its implementation began. Since July 2009, Myanmar/Burmese migrant workers who had irregularly entered Thailand have been given the opportunity to receive regular status upon completion of the Nationality Verification Process2. The MOU of 2003 also established a framework for low-skilled migrant workers to enter and work in Thailand regularly. It has taken some time for this part of the agreement to become operational but lately both governments have taken steps forward towards this end. This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) looks at the procedures in place to recruit migrant workers from Myanmar/Burma. Information about NV for Cambodian migrant workers is also provided..."
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Subscribe: PLEASE USE MYANMAR3 FONT
        Format/size: pdf (142K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 7 – September 2010 (English)
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: "The Memorandum of Understanding on Employment Cooperation1 between Thailand and Myanmar/Burma was signed in 2003. However, it was not until 2009 that its implementation began. Since July 2009, Myanmar/Burmese migrant workers who had irregularly entered Thailand have been given the opportunity to receive regular status upon completion of the Nationality Verification Process2. The MOU of 2003 also established a framework for low-skilled migrant workers to enter and work in Thailand regularly. It has taken some time for this part of the agreement to become operational but lately both governments have taken steps forward towards this end. This issue of the Migrant Information Note (MIN) looks at the procedures in place to recruit migrant workers from Myanmar/Burma. Information about NV for Cambodian migrant workers is also provided..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (55K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ฉบับที่ 6 - มิถุนายน 2553 (Thai) -- MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 6 – July 2010 (Thai)
        Date of publication: July 2010
        Description/subject: " เมื่อเดือนมิถุนายน 2553 รัฐบาลไทยได้เปิดจดทะเบียนแรงงานต่างด้าวรอบที่ 7 และเป็นรอบ สุดท้ายสำหรับการจดทะเบียนแรงงานสัญชาติพม่า ลาว กัมพูชา หลังจากนั้น ได้มีการออกกฎระเบียบต่างๆ สำหรับแรงงานต่างด้าว เช่น กระบวนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานพม่าซึ่งได้เริ่มตั้งแต่เดือนสิงหาคม 2552 หลังจากนั้น ได้มีปรับเปลี่ยนห้วงเวลาที่เกี่ยวกับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ โดยแต่เดิมกำหนดให้แรงงานยื่นใบ ขอรับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติภายในวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2553 แต่ต่อมาได้เลื่อนไปเป็นวันที่ 2 มีนาคม 2553 เนื่องจากติดวันหยุดราชการ นอกจากนี้ ได้มีการขยายระยะเวลาการยื่นเอกสารสำหรับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ จนถึง 31 มีนาคม 2553 และ ได้มีการขยายระยะเวลาการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ จากวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2553 ไป เป็นวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2555 ทั้งนี้ มีแรงงานต่างด้าวกว่า 1.3 ล้านคนที่มีใบอนุญาตทำงานและต่อ ใบอนุญาตแล้วในช่วงปี 2552-2553 ในจำนวนนี้มีแรงงานกว่า 1 ล้าน คนที่ได้ยื่นคำขอพิสูจน์สัญชาติ พร้อม ทั้งยื่นเอกสารเกี่ยวกับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ แล้วภายในระยะเวลาที่กำหนด (31 มีนาคม 2553) ประเด็นที่น่าสนใจ ก็คือ การทำให้แรงงานกว่า 1 ล้าน คนที่ได้ยื่นขอพิสูจน์สัญชาติสามารถพิสูจน์ สัญชาติให้แล้วเสร็จภายในเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ 2555 รวมทั้ง การหาทางแก้ไขปัญหาสำหรับแรงงานที่ไม่ได้ยื่น แบบพิสูจน์สัญชาติตามกำหนด ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ จะนำเสนอข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับระเบียบ กฎเกณฑ์ ต่างๆด้านการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ ที่ออกมาในช่วงเมษายนและปลายเดือนมิถุนายน 2553 ..."
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        Format/size: pdf (148K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: ရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအတွက် အသိပေးကြေငြာချက် ထုတ်ဝေချက် ၆ - ဇူလိုင် ၂ဝ၁ဝ -- MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 6 –
        Date of publication: July 2010
        Description/subject: ၂ဝဝ၉ခုနှစ်ဇွန်လတွင်ထိုင်းတော်ဝင်အစိုးရမှကမေ္ဘာဒီးယား၊လာအိုနှင့် မြန်မာ/ဗမာနိုင်ငံတို့မှ ရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအတွက်သတ္တမနှင့်နောက်ဆုံးအကြိမ်မြောက်နှစ်စဉ်မှတ်ပုံ တင်ခြင်းလုပ်ငန်းများ ဖွင့်လှစ် ဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့ပါသည်။ ၂ဝဝ၉ ခုနှစ် သြဂုတ်လတွင် မြန်မာ/ဗမာနိုင်ငံသားများ၏ နိုင်ငံသားစိစစ်အတည်ပြုခြင်း လုပ်ငန်းစဉ် (Nationality Verification၊ နိုင်/စစ် ) အကောင်အထည်ဖော်ဆောင်ရွက်မှု စတင်ပြီးနောက် ရွေ့ပြောင်း အလုပ်သမားများနှင့် စပ်လျဉ်းသောစည်းမျဉ်းသတ်မှတ်ချက်များအား တိုးချဲ့ထုတ်ဖော်မှုများ ရှိခဲ့ပါသည်။ လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်တွင် ပြောင်းလဲတိုးချဲ့ ထုတ်ဖော်မှုများကို အကောင်အထည်ဖော်နိုင်ရန် နောက်ဆုံးသတ်မှတ်ရက်များ ကိုလည်း အခါအားလျှော်စွာ ပြင်ဆင်သတ်မှတ်ခဲ့ပါသည်။ ရွေ့ပြောင်းအလုပ်သမားများအတွက် နိုင်/စစ်လုပ်ငန်း လျှောက်ထားရမည့် မူလ နောက်ဆုံးသတ်မှတ်ရက်မှာ ၂ဝ၁ဝ ခုနှစ် ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလ ၂၈ရက် ဖြစ်သည် (သို့ရာတွင် အများပြည်သူအားလပ်ရက် ရှိသောကြောင့် ၂ဝ၁ဝ မတ်လ၂ရက်အထိ၊သက်ဆိုင်သောနိုင်/စစ်စာရွက်စာတမ်းများ နောက်ဆုံးထားပေးပို့ရန် ၂ဝ၁ဝမတ်လ၃၁ရက်အထိရက်ကာလတိုးမြှင့်ပေးခဲ့ပါသည်)။ထို့အပြင် နိုင်/စစ်လုပ်ငန်းစဉ် ပြီးစီးရန် နောက်ဆုံးသတ်မှတ်ရက်ကို ၂ဝ၁ဝ ခုနှစ် ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလ ၂၈ရက် မှ ၂ဝ၁၂ ခုနှစ် ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလ၂၈ရက် အထိ မကြာသေးမီက တိုးမြှင့်ခဲ့ပြန်ပါသည်။ ၂ဝဝ၉-၂ဝ၁ဝ ခုနှစ်အတွင်း အလုပ်လုပ်ကိုင်ရန် ခွင့်ပြုချက် (Work Permit) အသစ်ရရှိသူ (သို့) အသစ် လဲလှယ်ပြီးသူ၊ နိုင်/စစ်လုပ်ငန်းစဉ် ဆောင်ရွက်နိုင်သည့် ရွေ့ပြောင်းသူများ ဦးရေ (၁.၃) သန်းခန့် ရှိပါသည်။ ထို (၁.၃) သန်းမှ တစ်သန်းကျော်သာ နိုင်/စစ် လုပ်ငန်းစဉ် လျှောက်ထားခဲ့ကြပြီး သက်ဆိုင်သော နိုင်/စစ် စာရွက်စာတမ်းများအား ၂ဝ၁ဝ မတ်လ ၃၁ ရက်နေ့ နောက်ဆုံး ထား၍ ပေးပို့ခဲ့ကြပါသည်။ ယခုအချိန်တွင်နိုင်/စစ်လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်လျှောက်လွာတင်ပြီးခဲ့ကြသောရွေ့ပြောင်းသူတစ်သန်း ကျော်အတွက်၂ဝ၁၂ခုနှစ် ဖေဖော်ဝါရီလထက်နောက်မကျဘဲ လုပ်ငန်းစဉ် ပြီးဆုံးသည်အထိ ဆောင်ရွက်နိုင်ရန်နှင့်နိုင်/စစ်လျှောက်ထားရန်နောက်ဆုံးရက်ကိုမမီလိုက်သော ရွေ့ပြောင်း ၂ အလုပ်သမားများ၏အခြေအနေအား ဖြေရှင်းရန်နည်းလမ်းများရှာဖွေနေမှုတို့ကိုအထူး ဂရုပြု၍ဆာင်ရွက်နေကြပါသည်။ဤကြေငြာချက်တွင်၂ဝ၁ဝခုနှစ်ဧပြီလကုန်ပိုင်းမှ ဇွန်လ ကုန်ပိုင်းအတွင်းနိုင်/စစ်လုပ်ငန်းစဉ်စည်းမျဉ်းများနှင့်ပတ်သက်သော နောက်ဆုံး အခြေအနေများ ပါဝင်သည်။
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (Migrant Information Note Issue # 6 – July 2010)
        Subscribe: PLEASE USE MYANMAR3 FONT
        Format/size: pdf (84K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: MIGRANT INFORMATION NOTE Issue # 6 – July 2010 (English)
        Date of publication: July 2010
        Description/subject: "In June 2009 the Royal Thai Government (RTG) opened the 7th and last round of the yearly registrations for migrant workers from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma. Since then there have been many developments regarding regulations for migrant workers starting with the implementation of the Nationality Verification (NV) process for Myanmar/Burmese nationals in August 2009. Since then, deadlines have occasionally been adjusted to accommodate changes in the process. The deadline for migrants to apply for NV was originally 28th February 2010 (but then extended to 2nd March 2010 due to a public holiday with a 31st March 2010 deadline for submitting all relevant NV documentation). In addition, the deadline to complete NV was recently extended from 28 February 2010 to 28 February 2012. About 1.3 million migrants obtained a new work permit or had one renewed in 2009-2010 and were eligible for NV. Over 1 million of these 1.3 million applied for NV and submitted all relevant documents by the deadline of 31st March 2010. Attention is now focused on ensuring that the over 1 million migrants who applied for NV be able to complete the process by February 2012, and finding solutions to address the situation of migrants who missed the NV application deadline. This MIN includes updates on NV related regulations from late April through late June 2010..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (Migrant Information Note Issue # 6 (July 2010) (English)
        Format/size: pdf (70K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: NATIONALITY VERIFICATION REGULATIONS: FEBRUARY- APRIL 2010 UPDATES (ENGLISH)
        Date of publication: April 2010
        Description/subject: "Following the Cabinet Resolution of 19 January 2010, additional developments regarding the nationality verification process have taken place between February and April 2010. These include letters from the Department of Employment of the Ministry of Labour. While the last Migrant Information Note focused on the 19 January Cabinet Resolution, this issue provides in chronological order, an overview of the latest developments of nationality verification regulations and how they affect migrants in Thailand..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (Migrant Information Note Issue # 5 – April 2010)
        Format/size: pdf (40K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: Extension of Nationality Verification Process FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions (Burmese)
        Date of publication: February 2010
        Description/subject: Important policy developments affecting migrant workers from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma in Thailand were made at the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010. One important development was the 19 January 2010 Cabinet Resolution to extend the nationality verification process. In addition, a Regulation passed by the Ministry of Labour on 21 December 2009 established new “work fees” and “levy fees”1. This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note provides some answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding the latest policies of the Royal Thai Government and how they affect migrant workers in Thailand.
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for (Migration Information Note No. 4)
        Format/size: pdf (115)
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2010


        Title: Extension of Nationality Verification Process FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions (English)
        Date of publication: February 2010
        Description/subject: "Important policy developments affecting migrant workers from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma in Thailand were made at the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010. One important development was the 19 January 2010 Cabinet Resolution to extend the nationality verification process. In addition, a Regulation passed by the Ministry of Labour on 21 December 2009 established new “work fees” and “levy fees”1. This issue of the IOM Migrant Information Note provides some answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding the latest policies of the Royal Thai Government and how they affect migrant workers in Thailand..."...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migration Information Note No. 4)
        Format/size: pdf (51K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2010


        Title: Extension of Nationality Verification Process FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions (Thai)
        Date of publication: February 2010
        Description/subject: เมื่อปลายปี 2552 และ ต้นปี 2553 รัฐบาลได้ออกนโยบายที่เกี่ยวกับแรงงานต่างด้าว1ชาวพม่า ลาว กัมพูชา เช่น มติคณะรัฐมนตรีวันที่ 19 มกราคม 2553 เรื่องการขยายเวลาการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ นอกจากนี้ ยังมีการออกกฎกระทรวงกำหนดค่าธรรมเนียมการทำงานและการจ้างคนต่างด้าว2 เมื่อ วันที่ 21 ธันวาคม 2552 สำหรับข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติฉบับนี้ จะตอบข้อซักถามเกี่ยวกับนโยบายล่าสุดของรัฐและผล ของนโยบายที่มีต่อแรงงานต่างด้าวในประเทศไทย
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (Migration Information Note No. 4)
        Format/size: pdf (170K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2010


        Title: Managing Migration in 2010: Effective Registration or Effective Deportation?
        Date of publication: 12 January 2010
        Description/subject: "On 20th January (or in just 8 working days) the end of the �permission to stay and work in Thailand for one year, pending deportation� for 61, 543 Burmese, Cambodian and Laotian migrants who �illegally� entered the country will arrive. As the first migrant work permit renewal deadline of the year it is somewhat different to past deadlines however. For if any of these workers refuse to go through the Royal Thai Government�s (RTG) Nationality Verification (NV) process, policy announcements suggest they will be deported. Whether deportation starts then or on 28th February (the �final� deadline to agree to NV or be deported for the other million or so registered migrants whose work permits expire on that day) remains unclear..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights and Development Foundation
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2010


        Title: Registration and Nationality Verification 2009 at a Glance (Burmese)
        Date of publication: December 2009
        Description/subject: The first two issues of the Migrant Information Note analysed Registration and Nationality Verification (NV) procedures in detail. It has now been four months since the start of the new round of registration and the NV process between the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the Burma/Myanmar government. This information note is intended to provide an overview of both processes and updates on the latest policy developments and statistics. Background In 2009, the RTG has continued its initiative to regularize low-skilled migrant workers from Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) and taken new steps to start the process with the government of Burma/Myanmar. In addition to the yearly work permit renewal, which allows migrants holding a valid work permit to renew it for a year, the RTG announced in July 2009 the opening of a new registration round (the 7th and the last one) to allow unregistered migrant workers the opportunity to obtain a temporary stay registration (Tor/Ror 38/1) and a work permit. Work permits have been renewed/ issued until 28 February 2010 and migrants have to complete the NV process by this date. A valid work permit is required in order to apply for NV and to get a temporary passport and visa. If migrants successfully complete the NV by 28 February 2010, they will be allowed to lawfully live and work in Thailand for up to four years. If they do not complete the NV by the end of February 2010, they will be deported..."...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migration Information Note No. 3)
        Format/size: pdf (175K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2010


        Title: Registration and Nationality Verification 2009 at a Glance (English)
        Date of publication: November 2009
        Description/subject: "The first two issues of the Migrant Information Note analysed Registration and Nationality Verification (NV) procedures in detail. It has now been four months since the start of the new round of registration and the NV process between the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the Burma/Myanmar government. This information note is intended to provide an overview of both processes and updates on the latest policy developments and statistics. Background In 2009, the RTG has continued its initiative to regularize low-skilled migrant workers from Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) and taken new steps to start the process with the government of Burma/Myanmar. In addition to the yearly work permit renewal, which allows migrants holding a valid work permit to renew it for a year, the RTG announced in July 2009 the opening of a new registration round (the 7th and the last one) to allow unregistered migrant workers the opportunity to obtain a temporary stay registration (Tor/Ror 38/1) and a work permit. Work permits have been renewed/ issued until 28 February 2010 and migrants have to complete the NV process by this date. A valid work permit is required in order to apply for NV and to get a temporary passport and visa. If migrants successfully complete the NV by 28 February 2010, they will be allowed to lawfully live and work in Thailand for up to four years. If they do not complete the NV by the end of February 2010, they will be deported..."...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migration Information Note No. 3)
        Format/size: pdf (143K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2010


        Title: Registration and Nationality Verification 2009 at a Glance (Thai)
        Date of publication: November 2009
        Description/subject: ตามที่ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติสองฉบับแรกได้วิเคราะห์ขั้นตอนการจดทะเบียนและการพิสูจน์ สัญชาติโดยละเอียด จวบจนปัจจุบัน(พฤศจิกายน 2552) นั้นเป็นเวลา 4เดือนแล้วนับแต่รัฐบาลไทย และรัฐบาลสหภาพพม่าได้เปิดให้มีการจดทะเบียนรอบใหม่ ดังนั้น ข่าวแรงงานอพยพฉบับนี้จึงมี วัตถุประสงค์ในการนำเสนอภาพรวมของกระบวนการจดทะเบียนและการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ และ รายงานความคืบหน้าล่าสุดของนโยบายรัฐบาลและสถิติที่เกี่ยวข้อง ความเป็นมา ในปี พ.ศ. 2552 รัฐบาลไทยยังคงดำเนินการปรับเปลี่ยนสถานะของแรงงานไร้ฝีมือ (lowskill) ชาวกัมพูชาและลาวให้ถูกต้องตามกฎหมายและเริ่มดำเนินการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานพม่า ร่วมกับรัฐบาลพม่า นอกจากการต่ออายุใบอนุญาตทำงานเป็นรายปี (ซึ่งอนุญาตให้แรงงานผู้ถือ ใบอนุญาตทำงานที่ยังไม่หมดอายุต่ออายุได้ในลักษณะปีต่อปี ) รัฐบาลไทยยังได้เปิดให้มีการจด ทะเบียนใหม่ในเดือนกรกฎาคม 2552 (เป็นการจดทะเบียนครั้งที่ 7 และครั้งสุดท้าย) เพื่อเปิดโอกาส ให้แรงงานที่ยังไม่ได้จดทะเบียนได้รับใบอนุญาตให้อยู่ในราชอาณาจักรเป็นการชั่วคราว (ทร. 38/1) และได้รับใบอนุญาตทำงาน ทั้งนี้ แรงงานจะได้รับใบอนุญาตทำงานให้ทำงานได้จนถึงวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2553 ซึ่งเป็นวันสุดท้ายที่แรงงานจะต้องทำการพิสูจน์สัญชาติให้เสร็จสมบูรณ์ ทั้งนี้ แรงงานจะต้องเตรียมใบอนุญาตทำงานเพื่อยื่นเรื่องขอพิสูจน์สัญชาติ หากผ่านการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแล้ว แรงงานจะได้รับหนังสือเดินทางชั่วคราวและการตรวจลงตรา (Visa) ในกรณีที่ผ่านการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ ภายในวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2553 แรงงานจะได้สิทธิอาศัยและทำงานโดยถูกกฎหมายในประเทศไทย เป็นระยะเวลา 4 ปี ในทางตรงกันข้าม หากแรงงานผู้ใดไม่สามารถดำเนินการพิสูจน์สัญชาติให้แล้ว เสร็จภายในสิ้นเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ 2553 แรงงานผู้นั้นจะถูกผลักดันกลับประเทศของตน ...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migration Information Note No. 3)
        Format/size: pdf (304K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 February 2010


        Title: Procedures for nationality verification of Myanmar/ Burma nationals in Thailand (English)
        Date of publication: August 2009
        Description/subject: "On 15th July 2009, the process of nationality verification of Myanmar/Burma migrants living and working in Thailand began to be implemented. Under the MOU that Thailand signed with Myanmar/Burma in June 2003, migrants from Myanmar/Burma in Thailand are entitled to legally stay and work in the country upon verification of their nationality. After this, a temporary passport can be issued by the Myanmar/Burma authorities, and a visa by Thailand. The procedure that migrant workers and employers have to follow to complete the nationality verification process is quite complex. Below is a step-by-step guide..."...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration Migrant Information Note No. 2
        Format/size: pdf (43K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 February 2010


        Title: Procedures for nationality verification of Myanmar/ Burma nationals in Thailand (Thai)
        Date of publication: August 2009
        Description/subject: ข่าวแรงงานข้ามชาติ ประจำเดือนสิงหาคม 2552* ขั้นตอนการดำเนินการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานพม่าในประเทศไทย ขั้นตอนการดำเนินการพิสูจน์สัญชาติแรงงานพม่าผู้ซึ่งอาศัยและทำงานในประเทศไทยได้เริ่มมีการ ดำเนินการเมื่อวันที่ 15 กรกฎาคม 2009 ภายใต้ข้อตกลงความเข้าใจร่วมกัน (MOU) ที่ประเทศไทย ได้ลงนามร่วมกับรัฐบาลประเทศพม่าเมื่อเดือนมิถุนายน 2546 ซึ่งระบุว่าแรงงานข้ามชาติชาวพม่าที่อยู่ ในประเทศไทยมีสิทธิอยู่อาศัยและทำงานอย่างถูกกฎหมายเมื่อได้รับการพิสูจน์สัญชาติ โดยภายหลัง การพิสูจน์สัญชาติ แรงงานจะได้รับหนังสือเดินทางชั่วคราวซึ่งออกให้โดยเจ้าหน้าที่รัฐบาลพม่า และ การตรวจลงตราโดยรัฐบาลไทย ขั้นตอนการพิสูจน์สัญชาติที่แรงงานพม่าและนายจ้างจะต้องปฏิบัติตามในการเข้าสู่กระบวนการ พิสูจน์สัญชาติเป็นขั้นตอนที่ค่อนข้างซับซ้อน และมีขั้นตอนการดำเนินการตามลำดับ ดังนี้... On 15th July 2009, the process of nationality verification of Myanmar/Burma migrants living and working in Thailand began to be implemented. Under the MOU that Thailand signed with Myanmar/Burma in June 2003, migrants from Myanmar/Burma in Thailand are entitled to legally stay and work in the country upon verification of their nationality. After this, a temporary passport can be issued by the Myanmar/Burma authorities, and a visa by Thailand. The procedure that migrant workers and employers have to follow to complete the nationality verification process is quite complex. Below is a step-by-step guide..."...The Migrant Information Notes are endorsed by Thailand’s Ministry of Labour and they aim to provide current, reliable information on the latest migration policy developments, regulations and procedures in Thailand.
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migration Information Note No. 2)
        Format/size: pdf (120K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 February 2010


        Title: Thailand Approves a New Registration Round for Irregular Migrant Workers from Myanmar/Burma, Lao PDR and Cambodia (English)
        Date of publication: June 2009
        Description/subject: "A total of about 1.8 million migrants were living and working in Thailand in 2008. Of these, only about 500,000 were registered and allowed to stay and work in the country. The Thai government has signed MOUs with Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma and under these MOUs established mechanisms to allow foreigners to migrate legally into its territory, and also granting to those already registered in Thailand a stay and work permit on condition that their nationalities have been verified by the respective governments. The government of Thailand has decided to proceed with the seventh (7th) and final registration round to allow irregular migrants to stay and work in Thailand until 28 February 2010. After this date, all migration flows from neighbouring countries into Thailand will be regulated according to the mechanisms established under the MOUs. On the 26 May, 2009, the cabinet of the Thai government passed a resolution to register irregular migrant workers from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar/Burma. Migrants who work in six specific sectors that include fishery, agriculture/livestock, construction, fishery processing, domestic work and other sectors1, will be eligible to register and apply for temporary work permits. The Ministry of Interior will oversee the registration, including agency coordination and advertisement. The details of the registration process were drawn up by the National Committee on Illegal Worker Administration. The plan for the new registration round includes three procedural stages for the migrant to obtain a work permit. This note will serve as a guide to these procedures..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (Migrant Information Note [No. 1])
        Format/size: pdf (43K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 February 2010


      • Migrant worker' registration in Thailand - articles/commentary

        Individual Documents

        Title: Govt gives illegals last chance to register before crackdown
        Date of publication: 14 May 2011
        Description/subject: "Illegal labourers from Cambodia, Laos and Burma will be given a last chance to report to the government or face a tough crackdown if they continue to work without permission. About two million workers from the three countries are estimated to have entered Thailand illegally and they will be subject to a stricter watch, said permanent secretary for labour Somkiat Chayasriwong. They are being told to register with branch offices of the Department of Employment from June 15 to July 14 for the right to stay in Thailand for one year. Their accompanying children aged less than 15 will also be allowed to live with them...@
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
        Format/size: pdf (50K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 May 2011


        Title: Another 'last chance' for migrant workers
        Date of publication: 12 May 2011
        Description/subject: "Authorities yesterday announced a "final chance" for immigration workers to register from June 15 onwards. The registration period is expected to last about a month. Estimates put the number of workers at 2 million, employed by about 200,000 Thai or foreign employers..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Nation"
        Format/size: pdf (80K)
        Date of entry/update: 13 May 2011


        Title: More migrant offices to open: Abhisit ... but Myanmar says no decision made yet
        Date of publication: 11 May 2011
        Description/subject: "THAILAND plans to accelerate the registration process of undocumented migrant workers from neighbouring countries, including Myanmar, Prime Minister Mr Abhisit Vejjajiva said last week..." ....."A DECISION has still not been made on whether to open two new offices in Thailand where migrant workers from Myanmar could apply for temporary passports, following discussions on the subject between the governments of Thailand and Myanmar in January, said a senior official from Special Branch under the Ministry of Home Affairs..."
        Author/creator: Nyunt Win, Kyaw Hsu Mon
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
        Format/size: pdf (95K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 May 2011


        Title: Migration management in Thailand reaches a crossroads
        Date of publication: 04 May 2011
        Description/subject: "Last Tuesday the Cabinet approved a new registration amnesty for millions of undocumented migrants from Cambodia, Laos and Burma working in Thailand..."
        Author/creator: Andy Hall
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: "The Nation"
        Format/size: pdf (146K)
        Date of entry/update: 13 May 2011


      • Migrant Worker Remittances to Burma

        Individual Documents

        Title: Remittances: Impact on Migrant Workers Quality of Life (Burma section)
        Date of publication: October 2010
        Description/subject: "...It is clear that remittances send to Burma are both intended and utilised for the daily survival of migrant sending families. Studies of remittance use by families in Burma show that the majority of money received is spent on daily living expenses, followed by expenditure on housing, education and health.37 This demonstrates the intensity of poverty within Burma and the dependency on migrant families for remittances to sustain basic survival. Additionally one study found that a significant proportion of migrant-sending families in Burma (over a third of those in the study) also used remittance funds for coerced payment to security officers including military and police, demonstrating the state of insecurity and violation that families in Burma continue to live with.38 The studies found that the majority of families in Burma were not able to use the remittance money for income generating activities or investments, either because there was insufficient money left over after spending on daily needs, or due to the fact that there are limited opportunities for productive investment due to weak infrastructure and wide-spread poverty within sending communities.39 It appears that despite migration and remittance sending over a period from three to ten years there has been no significant industry, income generation or economic improvements within the villages and home communities of Burmese migrants in Thailand.40 These studies suggest that any local or national economic development benefit derived from remittances are largely absent in the Burma context due to the political economy which undermines these processes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: CARAM-Asia (Coordination of Action Research on AIDS & Mobility)
        Format/size: pdf (312K - Burma extract; 7.6MB - full text)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/CARAM-Remittances_Report-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 December 2010


        Title: Migrant Worker Remittances and Burma: An Economic Analysis of Survey Results
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: Abstract" In recent years great interest has awakened in the question of migrant remittances. A phenomenon hitherto regarded as of little consequence, the potential for remittances to act as a means for poverty alleviation and economic development has increasingly come to enjoy a broad consensus. In the light of this, and the recognition that for many developing countries remittances constitute a larger and more stable source of foreign exchange than either trade, investment or aid, a vast and growing literature on the topic has emerged. However, and notwithstanding this broad interest, there is yet to appear any major study with respect to the question of migrant remittances to Burma. This paper seeks to at least partially redress this void by examining the extent, nature and pattern of remittances made by Burmese migrant workers in Thailand. Drawing upon a survey of such workers conducted by the authors, we find that remittances to Burma are large, disproportionately used to ensure simple survival, and are overwhelmingly realised via informal mechanisms. The latter attributes are a direct consequence of Burma’s dysfunctional economy, which sadly also severely limits the gains to the country that remittances might otherwise bring..... JEL Classification: O16, P34, Q14..... Keywords: Remittances, Burma, Migration, Development Finance.
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell, Alison Vicary and Wylie Bradford
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch/Economics Department Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
        Format/size: pdf (449K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2008


      • Migrant workers from Burma : general and mixed articles and reports

        Individual Documents

        Title: GlobalWork, Surplus Labor, and the Precarious Economies of the Border
        Date of publication: October 2011
        Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper focuses on the recent emergence of regional production networks and border industrial zones, the labor migrations they are generating, and their consequences for “surplus populations” in the Greater Mekong Subregion (mainland Southeast Asia). In this region the textile and garment industry is employing increasing numbers of workers in border areas on flexible and highly precarious work “contracts”. To understand these emergent labor formations we focus on three scales of analysis through a case study from the Thailand–Burma border. We focus on initiatives led by the Asia Development Bank, accompanying subregional political groupings which aim to facilitate capital flows and trade by reducing transaction time and cost, and a case study of labor recruitment and employment practices in one border town. In examining these three scales, we question the value of characterizing such trans-national, state-led, authoritarian, and racialized labor formations as neoliberal." Keywords: precarious labor,migration, Greater Mekong Subregion, Mae Sot, border industrial zones, racialization, textile and garment industry
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold and John Pickles
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA;
        Format/size: pdf (167K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 November 2011


        Title: Understanding Recruitment Industry in Thailand
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Description/subject: "Main objectives for this research report on Understanding Recruitment Industry in Thailand are: 1. Study the structure, profile and characteristics of Thai employment agencies 2. Examine the practices of licensed employment agencies in recruiting Thai migrant workers for employment abroad 3. Explore possible ties between the employment agencies and government officials and politicians 4. Investigate the enforcement of the labor recruitment law with respect to employment agencies, as well as possible links to human trafficking. The study examined the existing 218 licensed employment agencies in Thailand located in both Bangkok and upcountry. Through cooperation with the Thailand Overseas Employment Administration (TOEA), Department of Employment (DOE) and Ministry of Labor, information about employment agencies was analyzed and categorized by target destination country and sectors for employment opportunities..."
        Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Samarn Laodumrongchai, Premjai Vangsiriphisal, Aungkana Kamonpetch, Pairin Makcharoen, Pattarin Kaochan
        Language: English (English and Thai references)
        Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
        Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 1.32MB-original ) 202 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Understanding_Recruitment_Industry_in_Thailand-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


        Title: Myanmar Migrant Laborers in Ranong, Thailand
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: Abstract: "Thailand is the major destination for migrants in mainland Southeast Asia, and Myanmar (Burmese) migrants account for the dominant share. This paper sheds light on the actual working conditions and the life of Myanmar migrants in Thailand, based on our intensive survey in Ranong in southern Thailand in 2009. We found a wide range of serious problems that Myanmar migrants face in everyday life: very harsh working conditions, low income, heavy indebtedness, risk of being human-trafficking victims, harassment by the police and military (especially of sex workers), high risk of illness including malaria and HIV/AIDS and limited access to affordable medical facilities, and a poor educational environment for their children."... Keywords: Migration, Household, Myanmar, Thailand
        Author/creator: Koichi Fujita,Tamaki Endo, Ikuko Okamoto, Yoshihiro Nakanishi, Miwa Yamada
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Jetro (IDE Discussion Paper No. 257)
        Format/size: pdf (553K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 October 2010


        Title: Rapid Assessment on The Impacts of the Economic Downturn on Workers in Thailand (Phase I & II)
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acknowledgements... Phase I: Introduction... Government Policy and Gaps... Trends and future forecast for employment during the economic crisis from business sectors... Impact of the Crisis on Informal Workers... Impact of the Crisis on Formal Sector Work and Remittances to Rural Households... Conclusion... References... Appendix..... Phase II: Summary of findings... . Introduction... Informal workers in urban settings... . The rural poor... Workers in the formal sector... Migrant workers and the unemployed... Specific impacts on male and female formal and informal workers... Conclusion... Annexes.
        Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Samarn Laodumrongchai, Mya Than, Artit Wong-a-thitikul
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (1.06MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Rapid_Assessment.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


        Title: Hard Labor
        Date of publication: March 2010
        Description/subject: The harsh conditions under which Burmese migrants are employed in Thailand are documented in an exhibition of the work of British photographer John Hulme that opens in Chiang Mai in April.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17934
        Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


        Title: From the Tiger to the Crocodile - Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand
        Date of publication: 23 February 2010
        Description/subject: The 124-page report is based on 82 interviews with migrants from neighboring Burma, Cambodia, and Laos. It describes the widespread and severe human rights abuses faced by migrant workers in Thailand, including killings, torture in detention, extortion, and sexual abuse, and labor rights abuses such as trafficking, forced labor, and restrictions on organizing.
        Author/creator: Phil Robertson
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (2.26MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0
        http://www.hrw.org/en/features/migrant-workers-thailand
        http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/thailand0210webwcover_0.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 February 2010


        Title: Abuse between borders: vulnerability for Burmese workers deported from Thailand
        Date of publication: 22 February 2010
        Description/subject: "The Royal Thai Government appears poised to deport as many as 1.4 million workers that fail to complete “nationality verification” procedures by the end of February 2010. The majority of these workers are Burmese. Based upon extensive research conducted by KHRG and other organisations, it is likely that many of these workers came to Thailand not out of an apolitical desire for economic opportunity, but as a protection strategy initiated in response to the exploitative and violent abuse that drives poverty in their home areas. Moreover, even workers who do not face abuse upon return face abuse at the checkpoints to which Thai authorities transfer them during deportation procedures. These abuses include taxation, forced labour, beatings, killing and rape. Incidents documented in this report took place between November 2009 and February 2010..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-F1)
        Format/size: pdf (481K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 February 2010


        Title: Illegal Heroes and Victimless Crimes - Informal Cross-border Migration from Myanmar
        Date of publication: December 2009
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar, many who are involved in the migration process such as migrants, their families, money lenders, brokers, transnational money transferors, etc., intentionally or unintentionally maintain the status of illegality. However, with the objective to negotiate their own way into the new livelihood space to secure their share of development through migration, they see their exercises in maintaining illegality as licit behavior, which is considered legitimate, given the social context in which they live. The gap between what is considered illegal by the state and as illicit by the people gets wider. It is easy for those who are involved in the migration process to define the thin line between illegal and illicit behavior – from their own social perception – which can never be identified or recognized by the existing legal system in any country. Strong social connections and networks of some ethnic groups that have been in existence for a long time between Myanmar and its neighboring countries have fueled cross-border human mobility in both directions, regardless of legal border restrictions. Migration is often seen by the countries of destination as a threat to national security and by the country of origin as a problem to be solved. These negative perceptions got worse when crossborder migration became more dynamic, taking place in various informal/ illegal forms. Most studies attempted to highlight push and pull factors of this dynamic cross-border migration from Myanmar, as well as the living and working conditions of Myanmar migrants living abroad and their remittances. However, there are very few studies that shed light on the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar from the view of migrants, their families and their home community, and its implications on them. Millions of Myanmar migrants are working under undesirable and vulnerable conditions in foreign countries far away from their families. Most of them got into such situations voluntarily, in order to improve the livelihood of their families, and to provide education and health care for their children at home. Although most of them are illegal migrant workers, they are far from being criminals. They are making important sacrifices and live “borrowed lives” in order to send money back home to help their families. They are just ordinary people trying to make ends meet, and for their extraordinary sacrifices, they are considered heroes by their families. Most people in the countries of destination normally hear a single story about illegal migrant workers. There are endless stories of illegal migrants portraying them as people who are sneaking across the border, stealing the jobs of local people, committing crimes, etc. Most people have been so immersed with negative media coverage that migrants have become one thing in their mind, the bad guys. It may not be fair if the bad behavior of few unscrupulous illegal migrants is considered representative of the millions of them working under very hard conditions, simply to provide bread and butter for their families back home and contributing to increased production and economic development in the country of destination. Although the acts of professional traffickers – who are committing serious crimes of human trafficking across borders that have a series of negative social impacts, not only on trafficked victims, but also on the families of those victims – are perceived as illicit, the acts of local brokers who facilitate voluntary cross-border migration of ordinary people (exploring job opportunities across the border) at a reasonable fee, and finding appropriate jobs for them (through their social connections in the country of destination), are not considered illicit by most local people. Far from being thought of as criminals, their services create win-win situations and are considered essential, and their actions – that may have flouted the state’s rules and regulations – cause no victims. This paper highlights the perception of each and everyone involved in the course of cross-border migration from Myanmar in each step they, internationally or unintentionally, maintain the status of illegality. It also attempts to identify the implications of cross-border migration on migrants’ families and their community in the country of origin. Interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in different projects in 2008 and 2009 in different places in Myanmar and neighboring countries, coupled with qualitative and quantitative analyses, attempt to enhance the reliability and representativeness of the findings in this paper."
        Author/creator: Winston Set Aung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.isdp.eu/images/stories/isdp-main-pdf/2009_set-aung_illegal-heroes-and-victimless-crimes....
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 21: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: 23 November 2009
        Description/subject: "Every year, around 50,000 people reportedly leave Burma in search of work elsewhere. Estimates of the number of Burmese migrant workers who live outside Burma’s borders have varied greatly however, and depend on whether both registered and illegal workers are taken into account. While Burma’s Prime Minister, Thein Sein, claimed in December 2008 that a mere 46,057 Burmese migrant workers were legally employed abroad, Burma Economic Watch has estimated that around two million migrant workers and refugees live elsewhere. In contrast, Irrawaddy has reported that, of the estimated three million Burmese migrant workers who are employed abroad, around half work illegally.3 In contrast to this figure, Moe Swe of the Burma Workers’ Rights Protection Committee (BWRPC) has put the overall figure at four million. It has also been estimated that up to ten percent of the Burmese population resides outside of Burma. Such patterns of migration are likely to persist, as the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has stated that it expects the flow of Burmese migrant workers to increase in the coming years...Many Burmese migrant workers have not fled for a single reason or because of a single event. Rather, many have left as a result of what Andrew Bosson has described as the “cumulative impact” of coercive measures and economic conditions, which push down families’ incomes until they can no longer survive in their present locations.14 For instance, the Burmese junta’s policies of forced labour, land confiscation and compulsory cropping have further impoverished an already desperate rural population. The result, Bosson argues, has not been a dramatic or spontaneous exodus of migrant workers and refugees, but rather a slower process of “gradual displacement.”..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (1.38MB)
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


        Title: PERCEPTIONS OF BORDERS AND HUMAN MIGRATION: THE HUMAN (IN)SECURITY OF SHAN MIGRANT WORKERS IN THAILAND
        Date of publication: October 2009
        Description/subject: "...While there are many prior studies to date on the internal conflicts in Burma, these are mostly focused on the human rights situation within the country. In addition, many previous marked studies, such as works from Thai academics, International Organizations or the World Health Organization, have highlighted the human securities of migrant workers in the destination country whereby the process of migration has already taken place. However, none of them have focused on the phenomenon of migration in relation to perceptions of borders and human security. The lack of study addressing the influence of borders and human securities as the key indicators to people's migration behaviour supports the significance and relevance of this research...This research aims to understand the differences in the perceptions of borders between the Thai government, Shan migrant workers, Thai employers, and informal brokers, which perpetuate the flow of illegal migration. Due to the increasing number of illegal Shan migrant workers who are living, producing and consuming products and services in Thailand, or in other words, being absorbed into and continuing to contribute to the Thai economy, it is necessary to map out a framework of borders, human migration and human security for policy-makers to approach and use in addressing the migration issue as a basis for future theoretical development. A focus on the different perceptions of borders in the migration phenomenon may lead toward a more comprehensive view of the international migration process, particularly for ASEAN to have more realistic border and migration policies. Based on the purpose of the research mentioned above, my hypothesis is as follows: "The flow of illegal migrant workers is continuing and increasing due to the differences in the perceptions and functions of borders between the Thai government, Shan migrant workers, Thai employers and informal brokers". The actual primary data is derived from fieldwork conducted both in Thailand and Burma. In addition, secondary data collected from available literature was processed and reviewed in order to support the borders approach in addressing human security and migration. Finally, a comparative case study of Cambodian migrant workers is examined based on fieldwork made in the Rayong province of Thailand..."
        Author/creator: Ropharat Aphijanyatham
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: IRASEC - I'Institut de Recherche sur l'Asie du Sud-Est Contemporaine (Research Institute on Contemporary Southeast Asia): Carnet de l'Irasec / Occasional Paper Serie Observatoire / Observatory Series no. 01
        Format/size: pdf (1.95K) 90 pages
        Date of entry/update: 04 November 2009


        Title: Brokers and Labor Migration from Myanmar: A Case Study from Samut Sakorn
        Date of publication: August 2009
        Description/subject: "The aim of this study is to establish a clearer view and a mutual understanding to the situation of migrant workers in Thailand, in order to find the right measures to reduce the problems related to migrant workers. These problems include human right violations, exploitation of migrant workers, human trafficking, for instance..."
        Author/creator: Sompong Sakaew, Patima Tangpratchakoon
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Labour Rights Promotion Network (LPN),
        Format/size: pdf (315K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Brokers_&_labour_migration_from_Myanmar-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


        Title: Occupational Hazard
        Date of publication: February 2009
        Description/subject: "MAP Foundation, an innovative migrant workers’ support group based in Chiang Mai, has launched a short animated documentary on DVD to promote safety and health in the workplace aimed at migrant workers. In a humorous but informative way, the 10-minute cartoon deals with the hazards that lurk in factories, construction projects and farms. The moral of the documentary is that migrant workers are particularly vulnerable to physical dangers and must take steps to protect themselves, for instance, by wearing protective clothing or by opposing reckless employers..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


        Title: ROHINGYA, ASYLUM SEEKERS & MIGRANTS FROM BURMA: A HUMAN SECURITY PRIORITY FOR ASEAN
        Date of publication: 30 January 2009
        Description/subject: Since October 2006, about 10,000 Rohingya have boarded boats in Bangladesh and Burma and headed for Thailand and Malaysia. The thousands of Rohingya boat people are only the tip of the iceberg. Millions of Burmese have fled the country in the past decade, with two million in Thailand alone... ASEAN must be proactive in pressuring Burma’s military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) to cease perpetuating the severe persecution and economic mismanagement that has been forcing millions of people to flee to neighboring countries.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: pdf (124K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 February 2009


        Title: For Greener Pastures
        Date of publication: October 2008
        Description/subject: "With few opportunities at home, many young Burmese look overseas for work. But before migrants can earn a dollar abroad they have to face queues, fees, bribes and sometimes danger..."
        Author/creator: Aung Thet Wine
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007 - Chapter 18: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: "...Migration is usually a response to a combination of push and pull factors. In Burma the push factors have been economic deterioration and human rights abuses, while the pull factors have centred around the strong economies of neighbouring countries and their demands for labour. A significant proportion of Burma’s middle class continues to be attracted by the higher salaries and better standard of living on offer in countries like Singapore. However, for the large part of Burma’s population already living in poverty, the push factor becomes stronger every year and many now see migration as a question of survival. [2] The level and extent of migration in Burma has now reached a point where it has become partially self-perpetuating. In a report for the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (iDMC), Andrew Bosson, explains the cycle of cause and effect behind displacement in Burma. In rural areas of Burma, people survive largely on subsistence agriculture. The initial push factors of forced labour, extortion, agricultural restrictions, land confiscation, economic sabotage and ongoing violence are often exacerbated by a reduction in numbers of farmers, which pushes more people to leave and reduces the numbers yet again. When SPDC forces or ethnic militias make demands on villages for food, money or labour the villagers have little choice and the fewer there are to share the burden the heavier it is. If a large number of people have been taken to work as porters, for example, and not enough are left to tend the farms, then the village faces starvation. The poorest often have little choice but to leave. [3] (For more information, see Chapter 1: Forced Labour and Forced Conscription and Chapter 6: Deprivation of Livelihood). For this group migration is about finding whatever work is available. This generally means taking jobs in what is described as the “3D” category i.e. dirty, demeaning and dangerous. It also means working in sectors where national laws are ignored and international standards are considered irrelevant. Legal registration is often both difficult and expensive. It is also of limited benefit given the number of employers who confiscate their employees’ documents. Many migrants therefore live in a state of legal limbo and the constant fear of arrest and deportation. On top of all this, they also have to deal with largely negative attitudes from their host countries where migrant workers are often the scapegoat for myriad social problems..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html; pdf (1.07MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU-archive/Burma%20Human%20Righ/pdf/migrants.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: A Dangerous, Difficult Life
        Date of publication: May 2008
        Description/subject: The tragic deaths of 54 Burmese migrant workers highlight once again the hazards of working illegally abroad... "THERE were 10 men lying beside me in the back of a pickup truck. Our bodies were covered with a thick plastic sheet and it was extremely hot. I couldn’t see a thing. I could only hear the sound of cars and trucks going by,” recalled Yan Naing Htun, a migrant worker who came to Thailand from Burma eight years ago, when he was just 10 years old. Yan Naing Htun said he left the Burmese border town of Myawaddy after his father, who raised him and his sister alone, died of malaria. Accompanied by a close friend of his father, he made the journey to Bangkok because he had no way to support himself in Burma. Burmese migrant workers take the lowest paying and most dangerous jobs in Thailand. (Photo: The Irrawaddy) Now, sitting in a square, featureless room that he shares with four other Burmese migrant workers in Mahachai, an industrial area on the outskirts of Bangkok, he looks frail, with sunken cheeks as colorless as the wall behind him..."
        Author/creator: Violet Cho
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


        Title: Fear Comes with the Job
        Date of publication: February 2008
        Description/subject: "The grass is greener in Thailand for migrant workers, but it’s stained with blood... Thailand offers a greener pasture for many Burmese migrant workers, but for some it can be a very dangerous place indeed. In the middle of a September night in 2007, Thein Aung and four other Burmese laborers were taken by three Thai men from the huts where they lived at a sweet corn plantation in the village of Ban Jaidee Koh near the Thai-Burmese border town of Mae Sot. The five Burmese were handcuffed and led to another village where the killing began. Four of the captives—Than Tun, 35, Kala Gyi, 27, Paw Oo, 28, and Naing Lin, 18—were shot in cold blood. The fifth man, Thein Aung, 58, feigned death and escaped..."
        Author/creator: Shah Paung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Migrants Are Not Commodities
        Date of publication: February 2008
        Description/subject: "Thailand has a love-hate relationship with migrant workers... Since the December elections in Thailand, much of the country’s politics have been in limbo until a new government takes power. Of all the policies awaiting review, the new Thai government would be wise to prioritize a policy concerning the 2 million migrant workers. Are migrant workers a real threat to the national security of Thailand? Or are they contributing to the economic growth of the country, especially in border areas that were long ago left behind while the rest of the nation developed? The International Labor Office’s recent report, “Thailand: Economic Contribution of Migrant Workers” by Prof Philip Martin, an expert on international migration from the University of California at Davis, stated: “The Thai labor force of 36 million in 2007 included about 5 percent or 1.8 million migrants.” The report said that last year, migrant workers contributed US $2 billion to the Thai gross domestic product, a figure nearly three times higher than in 1995. It was a clear indication of Thailand’s growing dependency on migrant labor in the 21st century..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Stop the abuse of migrant workers
        Date of publication: 19 December 2007
        Description/subject: "Thais remain ignorant of the massive contribution made to our economy by foreign labourers...Not only do Thais fail to acknowledge the many positive contributions made to this country by foreign workers, but many also perpetuate prejudices against them. Thailand's lack of a coherent policy on migrant workers from neighbouring countries, who come in large numbers to do hard, physical jobs shunned by most locals, is preventing it from optimising the benefits of labour migration and protecting the rights of migrant and Thai workers. Those who benefit most in the absence of any genuine attempt to regulate the inflow of migrants from Burma, Cambodia and Laos are unscrupulous Thai employers bent on exploiting labour to maximise profits. Successive governments, including the outgoing Surayud government, have been complicit in the systematic exploitation of migrants, for failure to secure borders, and lax enforcement of laws relating to immigrants and employers who hire them..."
        Author/creator: Editorial
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Nation" (Bangkok)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Main findings and conclusions of report:"The Contribution of Migrant Workers to Thailand:"
        Date of publication: 18 December 2007
        Description/subject: "...If migrants are as productive as Thai workers in each sector, their total contribution to output should be in the order of $11 billion or about 6.2 per cent of Thailand’s GDP. If they were less productive (say only 75% of Thai worker output) their contribution would still be in the order of $8 billion or 5 per cent of GDP. Migrants contribute anywhere from 7 to 10 per cent of value added in industry, and 4 to 5 per cent of value added in agriculture...."
        Author/creator: Philip Martin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ILO Bangkok
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Caught Between Two Hells
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: The Report Highlights the Situation of Women Migrant Workers in Thailand and China...Executive Summary: Ten BWU researchers eondueted 149 in-depth interviews with migrant women and girl workers in Chiang Mai, Mae Sot, Ranong (Thailand) and Rulli (China) between November 2006-March 2007. Women working in diverse areas of work, ethnicity and age were asked to participate in the research so that the report could represent a wide range of experiences... The research highlights the atrocious day-to-day working conditions and human rights abuses encountered by migrant women and girls working in irregular situations and provides insight into the occupational hazards and harms migrants from Burma face in Thailand and China. The interviews were designed to provide women workers with a much-needed opportunity to speak their mind and assert their own "voice" regarding their work, a power that was often denied in their host countries... The research has showed that: . Migrant women and girl workers from Burma have very limited work opportunities in their host countries due to their irregular status and are often relegated to working in so-called 3Ds jobs (dirty, dangerous and demeaning) with little or no labor rights. . Migrant women and girl workers are doubly marginalized and highly vulnerable to abuses of their human rights due to both their lack of legal status and their gender. Security concerns for migrant women and girl workers are grave as they regularly experience threats of sexual harassment and violence while working in host countries... The BWU strongly urges the SPDC and governments of the host countries to consider migrant workers' needs and basic human rights. BWU insists that international human rights law be upheld and states work to protect migrants working in irregular settings, by protecting their human and labour rights, and by providing channels for redress when they are abused.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union
        Format/size: pdf (2.74MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/Caught_between_two_hells.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 January 2008


        Title: Border Industry in Myanmar: Turning the Periphery into the Center of Growth
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Myanmar economy has not been deeply integrated into East Asia's production and distribution networks, despite its location advantages and notably abundant, reasonably well-educated, cheap labor force. Underdeveloped infrastructure, logistics in particular, and an unfavorable business and investment environment hinder it from participating in such networks in East Asia. Service link costs, for connecting production sites in Myanmar and other remote fragmented production blocks or markets, have not fallen sufficiently low to enable firms, including multi-national corporations to reduce total costs, and so the Myanmar economy has failed to attract foreign direct investments. Border industry offers a solution. The Myanmar economy can be connected to the regional and global economy through its borders with neighboring countries, Thailand in particular, which already have logistic hubs such as deep-sea ports, airports and trunk roads. This paper examines the source of competitiveness of border industry by considering an example of the garment industry located in the Myanmar-Thai border area. Based on such analysis, we recognize the prospects of border industry and propose some policy measures to promote this on Myanmar soil." Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), regional cooperation, border industry, cross-border trade, migrant workers, logistics, center-periphery JEL classification: F15, F22, J31, L67
        Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 122)
        Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


        Title: Unsafe Harbor
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: Malaysia provides no protection for its refugee population... "I’ve always thought that the lives of Burmese refugees were much the same from place to place. They’re generally unwanted, have few opportunities to better their lives and in many cases suffer unconscionable abuse. An Irrawaddy correspondent witnesses the hardships facing migrant in Malaysia Witnessing the appalling conditions endured by Burmese refugees in Malaysia, however, has brought their misery and lack of hope into greater focus. During a visit to the Ampang suburb of the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur, a Rohingya community leader casually pointed to a group of young Burmese children playing near the small hut that served as their home. “Look,” he said, pointing in their direction. “None of these children can read or write.” None of the schools in Malaysia accepts refugee children from Burma, so these children are unlikely ever to learn while they remain in the country..."
        Author/creator: Violet Cho
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: June 2007
        Description/subject: "...The number of registered migrant workers in the Thailand by the end of 2006 was roughly 400,000, whilst the number of undocumented migrants has been estimated as anywhere between 800,000 and two million, with those from Burma accounting for approximately 80 percent of this number, [4] with many working in the illegal, unregulated labor market, and in “3-D jobs” (dangerous, dirty and difficult) that often pay well below the minimum wage. The migrant community from Burma is comprised of a myriad of ethnic groups from across all of Burma’s 14 states and divisions, with the majority coming from the ethnic states which share a border with Thailand. Due to the combination of economic and humanitarian reasons prompting migration into Thailand, it is difficult to distinguish between economic migrants and asylum seekers. While many are forced to flee their homes in Burma due to continuing systematic human rights violations, migrants are also drawn across Thailand’s expansive border to escape Burma’s continually deteriorating economy in the hopes of benefiting from Thailand’s booming economy and constant demand for cheap labour. Regardless of the motivations perpetuating the constant flow of migrants from Burma into Thailand, the Royal Thai Government (RTG) maintains a strict and sometimes arbitrary policy on classifying those arriving from Burma as illegal immigrants with many victims of direct human rights abuses refused access to refugee camps, international humanitarian aid, and subject to deportation. Neither Thailand nor Burma are signatories to the 1990 UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, which provides basic human rights to those crossing international borders..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: pdf, html
        Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/HRDU2006-CD/migrants.html
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: Lion City Lament
        Date of publication: March 2007
        Description/subject: Burmese professionals earn good money in Singapore but still miss home... "I feel I am nothing,” said Bo Bo Win—a statement that’s hard to believe in view of his successful life in Singapore. Although he holds down a well-paid job as a senior engineer, with degrees from Burma’s best technical university and Singapore’s National University, Bo Bo Win is not a happy man. “It’s so sad that we cannot contribute to the country where we were born and were first educated,” he says. “There’s nothing here.” Bo Bo Win, who is in his thirties, is o­ne of an estimated 50,000 Burmese working in the city-state, most of them educated and skilled people who have joined a brain drain that puts additional strains o­n Burma’s weak economy. The loss of so many young professionals also weakens the country’s middle class, which is best equipped to help reduce poverty and strengthen the economy..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


        Title: Malaysia Malaise
        Date of publication: March 2007
        Description/subject: Burmese migrants battle bureaucracy and exploitation in their search for a new life... "When he came to Malaysia 10 years ago, Tun Min Naing was full of hope. The 21-year-old even broke off his further education as a third-year student at a Rangoon university. His goal was to help his family survive in crisis-ridden Burma. But Tun Min Naing’s Malaysian journey ended behind bars at the Semenyih detention camp outside Kuala Lumpur, where about 1,000 illegal immigrants wait for deportation or, in rare cases, recognition as bona fide refugees. Several hundred are Burmese, many of them registered with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


        Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
        Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (760K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Flexible Labor in the Thai-Burma Border Economy
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: Capital Expansion and Migrant Workers... "...The research looks at the plight of Burmese migrant workers on the border between Thailand and Burma, in particular the town of Mae Sot. Mae Sot has become notorious for the amount, and severity of the human rights abuses. The research demonstrates that the changes to manufacturing, labour, and capital investment has led to a systematic erosion of labor rights. As argued in the thesis, labour rights are consistently sacrificed in order to attract and maintain investment, raising questions as to who are the primary beneficiaries of capitalist development. As Thailand and neighboring countries take further steps to increase border industrialization and development, labor standards are being pushed down both directly for the migrant workers employed in border industries, and often for domestic workers who are being forced to accept lower standards. The research examines the international economic context to the rise of Mae Sot as a manufacturing centre. It also looks at the groups involved in protecting workers rights, specifically the role of trade unions, and suggests that social and political organizing workers must be reignited in order to ensure their protection..."
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Office of Human Rights Studies and Social Development, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University (Human Rights in Asia Series)
        Format/size: pdf (520K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: The economic contribution of migrant workers to Thailand: towards policy development (English)
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: "This paper highlights the contributions of migrant workers to Thailand and recommends policies to promote economic development and decent work in both receiving and sending countries. The ILO views labour migration as a positive force that can stimulate economic growth and development in both labour-sending and labour– receiving countries, and has developed a framework of principles, guidelines and examples to ensure that labour migration contributes to decent work for all (ILO, 2004, 2006)...In 2007, migrant workers in Thailand totaled 1.8 million, comprising 5 per cent of the Thai labour force. They are mainly from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR, and are employed mostly in agriculture and fisheries, construction, manufacturing, and services such as domestic workers. They are primarily young workers, in the age group that typically pays taxes rather than receives tax-supported services. The report estimates that, in recent years, migrants have made a net contribution of about US$53 million annually to the Thai economy. The report proposes changing migration policy to make it more flexible, with separate registration procedures for different economic sectors, and placing recruitment and deployment under Memoranda of Understanding with migrant sending countries. Labour migration is a process to be managed and not a problem to be solved, argues the report. By recognizing the contributions of migrant workers to the economy and following the proposed adjustments to migration policy, the Thai government could better manage labour migration while protecting migrants."
        Author/creator: Philip Martin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation (ILO)
        Format/size: pdf (518K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: The economic contribution of migrant workers to Thailand: towards policy development (Thai)
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: This paper highlights the contributions of migrant workers to Thailand and recommends policies to promote economic development and decent work in both receiving and sending countries. The ILO views labour migration as a positive force that can stimulate economic growth and development in both labour-sending and labour– receiving countries, and has developed a framework of principles, guidelines and examples to ensure that labour migration contributes to decent work for all (ILO, 2004, 2006)...In 2007, migrant workers in Thailand totaled 1.8 million, comprising 5 per cent of the Thai labour force. They are mainly from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR, and are employed mostly in agriculture and fisheries, construction, manufacturing, and services such as domestic workers. They are primarily young workers, in the age group that typically pays taxes rather than receives tax-supported services. The report estimates that, in recent years, migrants have made a net contribution of about US$53 million annually to the Thai economy. The report proposes changing migration policy to make it more flexible, with separate registration procedures for different economic sectors, and placing recruitment and deployment under Memoranda of Understanding with migrant sending countries. Labour migration is a process to be managed and not a problem to be solved, argues the report. By recognizing the contributions of migrant workers to the economy and following the proposed adjustments to migration policy, the Thai government could better manage labour migration while protecting migrants.
        Author/creator: Philip Martin
        Language: Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation (ILO)
        Format/size: pdf (435K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2011


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: July 2006
        Description/subject: "Throughout 2005 thousands of people from Burma continued to leave their country in order to seek employment abroad. Due to a range of political, economic and social factors, the population of Burma is highly mobile. Mass migration out of Burma has continued since the 1962 Ne Win military takeover of the country. The ongoing exodus represents one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. It is estimated that 10 percent of Burma’s population has migrated to other countries. Most migration from Burma involves overland cross-border travel to neighboring countries, including Bangladesh and India to the west, China to the north, and Laos, Malaysia and Thailand to the east. The greatest concentration of migrant workers from Burma is in Thailand followed by Malaysia, Singapore and Japan. Accurate demographic data of migrant workers from Burma in most countries however is difficult to obtain because many are undocumented and unregistered in their destinations. In many cases migration is the only option for those targeted by the regime and caught in the middle of military conflict, particularly those of ethnic minority groups. Systematic human rights violations such as mass forced relocation, arbitrary arrest, torture, rape, and extra judicial killings carried out by the SPDC leave no other option other then to seek refuge in other countries. Because entry into refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh is limited and only some are granted refugee status, many are forced to either enter the camps illegally or seek unauthorized employment. Many who have fled severe human rights abuses in Burma with valid claims to refugee status are categorized as economic migrants and therefore are vulnerable to involuntary repatriation..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: Die Lebensqualität von Migrant/innen in Thailand
        Date of publication: 29 December 2005
        Description/subject: Politik und Gesetzgebung für Arbeitsmigrant/innen, Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen, Bildung in Thailand, Probleme der Rückkehr und Wiedereingliederung, Sicherheit, Bewegung und Reisen keywords: migrant workers, working conditions
        Author/creator: Jackie Pollock (Übersetzung von Daniel Hilbring)
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: 01 October 2005
        Description/subject: "Throughout 2004, large numbers of people continued to leave Burma to seek work abroad. Approximately ten percent of Burma’s population migrates to other countries, according to a report, Migration, Needs, Issues and Responses in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2002, by the Asian Migrant Center. People leave Burma for a number of reasons. Rampant inflation, a deteriorating economy and general lack of employment and educational opportunities are factors that cause many people to emigrate. In addition to these hardships, many people living in rural areas are forced to pay heavy taxes to local officials and the military and to sell a large percentage of their crops to the government at below-market prices. The regime’s gross and continued violation of fundamental human rights resulted in the extension of U.S. trade sanctions and the institution of EU non-trade related sanctions in August 2004, placing further economic pressure on the citizens of Burma (source: World Factbook, CIA, 2004). For these reasons, many Burmese view their migration as less of a decision than an economic necessity. Ethnic minority people living in civil war zones often have no choice about emigrating, as they are forced to flee their homes to avoid brutal campaigns of violence perpetrated against them by SPDC soldiers. Every year thousands of people flee across the border, primarily into Thailand, to escape human rights violations which include mass forced relocation, arbitrary arrest, torture, rape and extra-judicial killing. Some of these people are able to enter refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh. However, many of those fleeing human rights violations are not recognized as refugees by the governments of countries neighboring Burma to which they usually arrive. These individuals are left with the choice of trying to enter refugee camps illegally or else trying to survive as migrant workers. Migration from Burma is facilitated by the fact that seven of Burma’s 14 states and divisions share borders with neighboring countries. In the west, Burma borders Bangladesh and India, in the north and northeast China, and in the east Laos, Malaysia and Thailand. In a 1999 report by Save the Children UK, Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar, and Thailand, the authors note that in the past ten years the largest flow of migrants in the Mekong region has been concentrated along the borders of China, Burma and Thailand, with Burmese people making up the largest percentage of the population migrating. The report goes on to note that while China, India, Bangladesh and Thailand have collectively reported hosting over two million Burmese migrants, the actual population of people from Burma living in these countries is likely to be much higher. However, it is extremely difficult to obtain accurate estimates as to the number of Burmese working abroad, as many are illegal, and the migrant population as a whole is highly mobile. In addition, some migrant groups are ethnically similar to indigenous populations of neighboring countries, making them difficult to identify as non-natives..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: EXPLOITATION IN GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS: BURMESE MIGRANT WORKERS IN MAE SOT, THAILAND
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: CONCLUSIONS As outlined, the situation in Mae Sot makes it difficult for organisations to operate effectively in support of Burmese workers. In mid-2004 there were no Thailand-based organisations working specifically on labour issues in Tak. As we have shown, migrant workers are in a vulnerable situation and greater organisational and protection efforts are needed. This organisational and political weakness is in stark contrast to that of employers who enjoy the support of the state. This imbalance makes it difficult for workers to organise to protect or promote their rights. The handful of Burmese organisations attempting to assist workers is limited because of their problematic legal status in Thailand and the intimidation prevents them from operating without fear of reprisals. Structural factors promote the exploitation and human rights violations of Burmese migrant labourers. Burmese leave Burma due to political oppression and socio-economic hardship, and subsequently have a high threshold for the difficulties they endure in Thailand. Thai authorities and employers, regardless of nationality, are eager to exploit this vulnerability in their effort to maximise profits. A lack of corporate social responsibility and adherence to corporate codes of conduct means workers at the bottom of the supply chain, in places such as Mae Sot, produce textiles and garments and other products for developed country markets in a state of constant exploitation and oppression. It is obvious that Burmese migrant workers in Thailand face a myriad of human rights issues in Thailand and Burma. Denying the freedom to organise effectively undermines any attempts by migrant workers to improve their situation. The policy of the Thai government towards Burmese refugees and migrants is changing. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s government has forged closer economic and political ties with the Burmese junta and this has involved an increasingly hard-line stance towards Burmese migrants and refugees. Some million and a half Burmese migrant workers in Thailand are now stuck between one the most brutal military dictatorships in the world, and a Thai government intent on maintaining good relations. While the Thai government trumpets “constructive engagement,” there is no doubt that the government’s attitude is driven by business interests. It is worth noting that the traditional gap between migrant support organisations and workers, and Thai labour organisations has been reduced over the last year or so. This, in combination with greater advocacy for migrant rights – by Thailand’s Human Rights Commission, international and global trade unions, academics in Thailand and the region, governments and human and labour rights organisations both in the region and internationally – is creating space and the potential for greater transparency and respect for labour rights and adherence to labour laws and standards. It may enhance the ability of migrant workers to organise and improve work conditions, but the struggle will still be a long and difficult one.
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold, Kevin Hewison
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 35 No. 3, 2005, pp. 319-340.
        Format/size: pdf (145K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 October 2005


        Title: Preliminary Survey Results about Burmese Migrant Workers in Thailand: State/division of origin, year of entry, minimum wages and work permits
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: 1. INTRODUCTION: People from Burma have been entering Thailand since the Ne Win coup in 1962. Most of these people have fled civil war, hunger, poverty, unemployment and political oppression. A significant proportion of these Burmese are employed in the lower rungs of the Thai labour market. Despite the large numbers of people from Burma working in Thailand, there has been very little reliable statistical analysis undertaken in order to understand the situation faced by these people. The paucity of reliable information in this area led us to conduct a survey of about 1,400 people from Burma working in Thailand.1 The survey was undertaken between October 2003 and March 2004, in the following 12 provinces: • Bangkok • Singburi • Lopburi • Saraburi • Tak (Mae Sot District) • Ratchaburi • Kanchanburi (Kanchanaburi and Sangklaburi Districts) • Ranong (Ranong District) • Samut Sakhon (Mahachai) • Phetchaburi • Chiang Mai (Chiang Mai and Fang Districts)2 • Mae Hong Son (Mae Hong Son District)...The following is a discussion of the results of a partial preliminary statistical analysis of a sample of about 1,100 of these workers with regard to their place of origin, time of arrival, income in the last 20 years, receipt of a minimum wage and their possession of a work permit.3 The analysis does not involve the estimation of population parameters and any consequent inferences about the nature of the population (though inferences about the population will be published later). Rather, the following is a statistical description of Burmese workers in Thailand, which we, argue is important given the paucity of reliable and credible work in this area.
        Author/creator: Wylie Bradford & Alison Vicary
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Economic Watch" 1/2005 pp 3-25
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.econ.mq.edu.au/Econ_docs/bew/1BEW2005.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 11 October 2005


        Title: Thailand: The Plight of Burmese Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: 08 June 2005
        Description/subject: "...The material below seeks to examine some of the key issues and problems faced by Burmese migrant workers and their families, the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the employers. These include flaws in the registration implementation process; the RTG’s obligations under international law; and the general lack of labour rights for migrant workers in Thailand, including adequate pay, living and working conditions; freedom from arbitrary arrest and deportation; and adequate health care. The report also describes those industry sectors employing migrant labour, including factories, fisheries, agriculture, and domestic and day labour. The material is based on testimonies from migrant workers, official documents and media reports...Amnesty International welcomes the initiatives which the Royal Thai Government has taken to regularize migrant labour within its borders. However it remains concerned that labour protection measures, such as payment of a minimum wage; protection from arbitrary arrest, detention, and deportation; and opportunities for migrants to seek asylum are not enforced by the government. Moreover, working and living conditions for migrant workers and members of their families fall far short of international standards. Employers, local police, and smugglers often exploit migrant workers, taking advantage of the fact that some workers are unregistered. Moreover it is extremely costly and difficult for migrants to register their labour, which is compounded by the fact that they must employed before they attempt to do so. As explained above, many of them only work seasonally making it even more difficult for them to register with the government. Amnesty International calls on the Royal Thai Government to:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 39/001/2005)
        Format/size: html (94K)
        Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs3/Migrant-workers2005-OO.html
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA39/001/2005/en/6c36f007-d4e2-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/asa3...
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA39/001/2005
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: Pity the Burmese Tsunami Survivors in Thailand
        Date of publication: January 2005
        Description/subject: "Burma escaped the worst ravages of the Tsunami that devastated other countries in the Indian Ocean, but Burmese migrant workers along Thailand’s western seaboard have fared poorly...Although Burma escaped the worst of the tsunami, tragically many Burmese working on Thailand’s western seaboard were swept away by the wave. Before the disaster there were 60,000 registered Burmese workers in Thailand’s six western seaboard provinces— Phang Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Ranong, Trang, and Satun—and an unknown number of illegal Burmese migrants..."
        Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004: The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma
        Date of publication: December 2004
        Description/subject: "...Throughout 2003, large numbers of people continued to leave Burma to seek work abroad. Approximately ten percent of Burma’s population migrates to other countries, according to a report, Migration, Needs, Issues and Responses in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2002, by the Asian Migrant Center. People leave Burma for a number of reasons. Rampant inflation, a deteriorating economy and general lack of employment and educational opportunities are factors that cause many people to emigrate. In addition to these hardships, many people living in rural areas are forced to pay heavy taxes to local officials and the military and to sell a large percentage of their crops to the government at below-market prices. For these reasons, many Burmese view their migration as less of a decision than an economic necessity. One migrant worker who had recently arrived to Mae Sot, Thailand said, "The price of airplane and bus tickets have gone up 3 times since January first, and all the edible and household goods have also gone up." Ma Kyi, age 40, and a mother of four, continued," so I have to come here. I have never dreamed to come to Thailand. I have never thought to leave my family. My husband's income is not enough to feed the whole family," (source: "Rapprochement Continues," Irrawaddy, 14 January 2003)..."... Background: Situation for Women Migrant Workers; Situation for Migrant Children...Burmese Migrants in Thailand: Patterns of Migration and Trafficking; Living and Working Conditions; The Memorandum of Understanding; Thai Migration Policy and Legal Registration of Migrant Workers; Deportation of Migrants; 2003 Timeline of Events for Burmese Migrants in Thailand...Burmese Migrants in Malaysia: Burmese deported after labor complaint...Burmese Migrants in Japan... Burmese Migrants in India... Burmese Migrants in Singapore
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 May 2005


        Title: The Situation of Burmese Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
        Date of publication: September 2004
        Description/subject: CONCLUSION: As briefly outlined, the situation in Mae Sot makes it difficult for Burmese worker support organisations to operate effectively. As late as mid-2004 there were no Thailand-based labour organisations or trade unions working specifically on labour or trade union rights in Tak with an office and staff located there on a full time basis. The workers themselves are in an extremely vulnerable situation and greater organisational and protection efforts are needed. This organisational and political weakness is in stark contrast to that of the authorities, police and employers. This imbalance makes it difficult for workers to organise to protect and promote their rights. The handful of Burmese organisations attempting to assist workers is limited because of their problematic legal status in Thailand and the intense pressure preventing them from operating without fear of reprisal. Structural factors promote the gross exploitation and human rights violations of Burmese migrant labourers in Mae Sot. Burmese leave Burma due to political oppression and socio-economic hardship, and subsequently have a high threshold for difficulties they endure in Thailand. Thai authorities and employers, regardless of nationality, are eager to exploit this vulnerability for windfall profits. A lack of corporate social responsibility and adherence to corporate codes of conduct means workers at the bottom of the supply chain, in places such as Mae Sot, produce textiles and garments and other products for Northern markets in a state of acute vulnerability. It’s obvious that migrant workers in Thailand, particularly the Burmese, bear a lot of pressure from nearly every direction, both in Burma and Thailand. A myriad of human rights are abused in both systematic and random ways. Denying the right to freedom of association and right to organise effectively pulls out any attempts by migrant workers to improve their situation at the roots. The policy of the Thai government towards Burmese refugees and migrants is in the process of changing, for better or worse remains to be seen. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s forging of closer economic and political ties with the Burmese government has resulted in an increasingly hard-line stance by Thailand towards Burmese migrant workers and refugees, many of the latter have become migrant workers. Some million and a half Burmese migrant workers in Thailand are now stuck between one the most brutal military dictatorship in the world, and a Thai government intent on good relations with them, with an eye on increased revenue for businessmen operating in Thailand, and for Thai business operating in Burma. It is worth noting that the traditional gap between migrant support organisations and workers, and Thai unions and labour organisations has been reduced over the last year or so. This, in combination with greater advocacy for migrant rights – by Thailand’s Human Rights Commission, international and global trade unions, academics in Thailand and the region, governments and human and labour rights organisations both in the region and internationally – is creating space and the potential for greater transparency and respect for labour rights and adherence to labour laws and standards. It also enhances the ability of migrant workers to organise and improve work conditions."
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Southeast Asia Research Centre (SEARC) of the City University of Hong
        Format/size: pdf (294K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 October 2005


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: November 2003
        Description/subject: "Throughout 2002 large numbers of people continued to leave Burma to seek work abroad. Approximately ten percent of Burma’s population migrates to other countries, according to a report Migration, Needs, Issues and Responses in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2002, by the Asian Migrant Center. People leave Burma for a number of reasons. Rampant inflation, a deteriorating economy and general lack of employment and educational opportunities are factors that cause many people to emigrate. In addition to these hardships, many people living in rural areas are forced to pay heavy taxes to local officials and the military and to sell a large percentage of their crops to the government at below-market prices. For these reasons, many Burmese view their migration as less of a decision than an economic necessity. Ethnic minority people living in civil war zones often have no choice about emigrating, as they are forced to flee their homes to avoid brutal campaigns of violence against them by the Burmese Military. Every year thousands of people flee across the border, primarily into Thailand, to escape these human rights violations which include mass forced relocation, arbitrary arrest, torture, rape, and extra-judicial killing. Some of these people are able to seek asylum in refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh, however many of those fleeing human rights violations are not recognized as refugees by the Thai and Bangladeshi Governments. These individuals are left with the choice of trying to enter refugee camps illegally or else trying to survive as migrant workers. Migration from Burma is facilitated by the fact that 7 of Burma’s 14 States and Divisions share borders with neighboring countries. In the west, Burma borders Bangladesh and India, in the north and northeast China, and in the east Laos and Thailand. In a 1999 report by Save the Children UK, Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar, and Thailand, the authors note that in the past ten years the largest flow of migrants in the Mekong region has been concentrated along the borders of China, Burma and Thailand, with Burmese people making up the largest percentage of the population migrating. The report goes on to note that while China, India, Bangladesh and Thailand have collectively reported hosting over two million Burmese migrants, the actual population of people from Burma living in these countries is likely to be much higher. However it is extremely difficult to obtain accurate estimates as to the number of Burmese working abroad, as many are illegal, and the population as a whole is highly mobile. In addition, some migrant groups are ethnically similar to indigenous populations of neighboring countries, making them difficult to identify as non-natives..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: Background: "Throughout 2002 large numbers of people continued to leave Burma to seek work abroad. Approximately ten percent of Burma’s population migrates to other countries, according to a report Migration, Needs, Issues and Responses in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2002, by the Asian Migrant Center. People leave Burma for a number of reasons. Rampant inflation, a deteriorating economy and general lack of employment and educational opportunities are factors that cause many people to emigrate. In addition to these hardships, many people living in rural areas are forced to pay heavy taxes to local officials and the military and to sell a large percentage of their crops to the government at below-market prices. For these reasons, many Burmese view their migration as less of a decision than an economic necessity. Ethnic minority people living in civil war zones often have no choice about emigrating, as they are forced to flee their homes to avoid brutal campaigns of violence against them by the Burmese Military. Every year thousands of people flee across the border, primarily into Thailand, to escape these human rights violations which include mass forced relocation, arbitrary arrest, torture, rape, and extra-judicial killing. Some of these people are able to seek asylum in refugee camps in Thailand and Bangladesh, however many of those fleeing human rights violations are not recognized as refugees by the Thai and Bangladeshi Governments. These individuals are left with the choice of trying to enter refugee camps illegally or else trying to survive as migrant workers...Situation for Women Migrant Workers; Situation for Migrant Children... Burmese Migrants in Thailand: hai Migration Policy and Legal Registration of Migrant Workers; Working and Living Conditions; Repatriation of Migrant Workers; 2002 Timeline of Events for Burmese Migrants in Thailand...Situation of Burmese Migrants in Singapore...Situation of Burmese Migrants in Malaysia: SPDC and Malaysian Government Continue Agreement to Issue Work Permits; Five Workers Drown in Attempts to Avoid Arrest; Illegal Migrants Face Fines, Imprisonment and Whipping.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 May 2005


        Title: Pushing Past the Definitions: Migration From Burma to Thailand
        Date of publication: 19 December 2002
        Description/subject: Important, authoritative and timely report. I. THAI GOVERNMENT CLASSIFICATION FOR PEOPLE FROM BURMA: Temporarily Displaced; Students and Political Dissidents ; Migrants . II. BRIEF PROFILE OF THE MIGRANTS FROM BURMA . III REASONS FOR LEAVING BURMA : Forced Relocations and Land Confiscation ; Forced Labor and Portering; War and Political Oppression; Taxation and Loss of Livelihood; Economic Conditions . IV. FEAR OF RETURN. V. RECEPTION CENTERS. VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.... "Recent estimates indicate that up to two million people from Burma currently reside in Thailand, reflecting one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. Many factors contribute to this mass exodus, but the vast majority of people leaving Burma are clearly fleeing persecution, fear and human rights abuses. While the initial reasons for leaving may be expressed in economic terms, underlying causes surface that explain the realities of their lives in Burma and their vulnerabilities upon return. Accounts given in Thailand, whether it be in the border camps, towns, cities, factories or farms, describe instances of forced relocation and confiscation of land; forced labor and portering; taxation and loss of livelihood; war and political oppression in Burma. Many of those who have fled had lived as internally displaced persons in Burma before crossing the border into Thailand. For most, it is the inability to survive or find safety in their home country that causes them to leave. Once in Thailand, both the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the international community have taken to classifying the people from Burma under specific categories that are at best misleading, and in the worst instances, dangerous. These categories distort the grave circumstances surrounding this migration by failing to take into account the realities that have brought people across the border. They also dictate people’s legal status within the country, the level of support and assistance that might be available to them and the degree of protection afforded them under international mechanisms. Consequently, most live in fear of deportation back into the hands of their persecutors or to the abusive environments from which they fled..." Additional keywords: IDPs, Internal displacement, displaced, refoulement.
        Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette and Mary E. Pack
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Refugees International and Open Society Institute
        Format/size: html (373K) pdf (748K, 2.1MB) 37 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Caouette&Pack.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: The Situation of Migrant Workers
        Date of publication: September 2002
        Description/subject: "There are an estimated 1 million illegal immigrants from Burma and other neighboring countries working in Thailand. Migrant workers from Burma come from a variety of geographical locations and ethnic groups and work in several different industries and service sectors in Thailand. There are both push and pull factors at work when people make the decision to migrate to Thailand. The pull factors include the close geographical location of Thailand to Burma as well as the demand in Thailand for cheap labor. The push factors include the poor state of the Burmese economy and massive human rights violations that occur all over the country. Many workers have come to Thailand to escape the demands for forced labor and in their home states and divisions. In the case of the more than 300,000 Shans working in Thailand, the majority of them have fled from human rights abuses that include forced labor, forced relocations, arbitrary arrest and rape, but are denied refugee status by Thailand and therefore are considered illegal migrants..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: "The one million Burmese migrant workers in Thailand are one of the largest migrant populations in Asia. Migrant workers from Burma come from a variety of geographical locations and ethnic groups and work in several different industries and service sectors in Thailand. There are both push and pull factors at work when people make the decision to migrate to Thailand. The pull factors include the close geographical location of Thailand to Burma as well as the demand in Thailand for cheap labor. The push factors include the poor state of the Burmese economy and massive human rights violations that occur all over the country. Many workers have come to Thailand to escape the demands for forced labor on infrastructure and other projects in their home states and divisions. In the case of the more than 100,000 Shans working in Northern Thailand, the majority of them have fled from human rights abuses that include forced labor, forced relocations, arbitrary arrest and rape, but are denied refugee status by Thailand and therefore are considered illegal migrants..." Background: Situation in Mae Sot, Thailand; Situation in Myawaddy; Time-line of the Thai authorities’ operation to repatriate Burmese migrant workers in Mae Sot, and related events in December 2000; Situation for workers in CKI Factory, Mae Sot; Raid on factory by Thai authorities; workers arrested and beaten, one killed; Employment Conditions of CKI Factory as of December 2000... Situation for Shans in Fang District, Chiang Mai...Situation in Samut Sakon, Thailand...Situation in Mizoram State, India...Situation for illegal migrant Rohingya women in Pakistan...Partial List of Incidents...Personal Accounts...Photos of The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 May 2005


        Title: Cycle of Suffering
        Date of publication: September 2000
        Description/subject: A report on the situation for migrant women workers from Burma in Thailand, and violations of their human rights... "In the 1960s Thailand was besieged by the issues of refugees and for three to four decades this issue has come in one big circle. Today, Thailand faces yet another issue, that of undocumented migrant workers whose visibility and problems have become more sensitive and difficult. Undocumented labor- mostly Burmese -left their country for political reasons, or due to internal fighting and insecurity. Recent reasons are more economic. To escape hardship in their home country, they find work as unskilled laborers in three Ds- dirty- difficult and dangerous jobs in Thailand. Unlike many other migrant labor situation where most migrants are young men, women constitute a significant segment of the approximately one million of migrant population in Thailand. Women from Burma who migrate to Thailand, much like other people migrating all over the world, move from their homes and families in search of job opportunities in more prosperous areas. Human rights violations in Burma often cause economic hardship. However, determining whether people leave Burma due to the hardships they suffer as a result of human rights violations is not always easy to distinguish from purely economic difficulty. Some migrant women have stated that they left Burma solely because of economic hardship. However, many other flee because of serious human rights violations. Many who have fled do not have enough to eat because unpaid forced labor under harsh conditions prevents them from earning a living. The distinction between economic hardship and violations of civil and political rights is not necessarily a clear one. Many of these people have been unable to make a living due to continuing unpaid forced labor and forced relocation from the homes. With little knowledge of the country to which they are moving and working, its language and it laws, women migrating from Burma are in vulnerable position. Labor exploitation, sexual assault by their employers and law enforcement officers, abuse of power during detention and deportation against undocumented migrant women in Thailand are systematically documented..."
        Author/creator: Aung Myo Min
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU), Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
        Format/size: pdf (887K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 January 2006


      • Agricultural workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Home Stretch
        Date of publication: October 2010
        Description/subject: Many Burmese working in Thailand’s rubber industry extend their stay indefinitely, as dreams of returning home with substantial savings prove elusive... "With rubber plantations covering nearly four percent of its total land area, Thailand is the world’s largest producer and exporter of rubber. But achieving an output of more than three million tons of rubber each year takes more than just vast expanses of land. It also requires a huge workforce, and in Thailand, this comes largely courtesy of neighboring Burma. Nobody knows exactly how many Burmese work in Thailand’s rubber plantations, but it is generally acknowledged that the industry couldn’t survive without them. Tapping the trees and harvesting the latex to make sheets of raw rubber is labor-intensive work, demanding full attention both night and day. It’s not a job that appeals to many Thais, but Burma’s crippled economy means that Thailand’s rubber plantations have no shortage of ready and willing workers..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Thein Kha
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 July 2012


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (1) - The Agriculture Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation Although forced labour is negligible in Nakhon Pathom's agriculture sector, migrant workers faced several forms of labour exploitation, particularly a lack of freedom of movement, and regular days off. Also, many were not in possession of their identification documents, while they do not receive paid leave... 4.2 Legal status and registration Although the registration of workers provides some legal protection and minimizes the exploitation of migrant workers, over a third of workers in agriculture are not registered. Approximately two thirds of registered workers who had their registration costs paid by the employers were in effect bonded labour and were required to pay back the costs via deductions from their wages. Nonetheless, the majority of workers expressed positive attitudes towards registration, particularly with regard to job security, safety and health insurance. A lack of time to register and lack of information regarding the registration process were the main reasons why some migrants did not register... 4.3 Working conditions The challenges facing migrants in terms of working conditions included very low pay, restricted freedom of movement, long working hours without overtime pay and not having possession of their original ID documents. The average daily payment of 100- 150 baht per day for agricultural workers is below the minimum wage. Low wages is one reason why migrant workers switch farms in search of higher wages. A high turnover of workers is of great concern amongst employers. Yet perhaps if they were willing to pay rates equal to or above the minimum wage, the migrant workers would not be in such a hurry to leave. Nearly all migrant workers live on the site of their workplace. Workers are isolated from the local community and seldom integrate with the community. None of the employers speak the language of their migrant workers and at the same time the majority of workers have little knowledge of Thai. However, given the nature of farm work, there seems little that can be done in this regard, except perhaps consider more mobile services, which could visit migrant workers living on farms... 4.4 Employers' attitudes Some negative attitudes towards migrant workers exist among employers. Well over two thirds felt migrant workers should be locked up at night to prevent them escaping. This view was particularly prevalent among by livestock farmers... 4.5 Support mechanisms Social networks play a significant role in terms of support for migrant workers in the agricultural sector, and family and friends provide this. More than two thirds turn to their relatives when facing problems or when they are in need of healthcare. This reflects the fact that most child migrant workers reside with their relatives or parents. None of the workers referred to NGO staff for support. The only chance workers had to make contact with people was with government officials from the MOL during the registration period. Monks or religious leaders and employers were relatively important to the workers. The fact that child workers rely on their social network because they are more likely to live with family and friends on site could perhaps help safeguard them from exploitation in this sector... 4.6 Child labour Under Thai law, children under the age of 15 are not permitted to work. Although a few were interviewed, the agriculture sector in Nakhon Pathom province employs a greater number of children aged 15 and up. Employers seem to regard children as being more obedient. Children under the age of 15 were all unregistered and underpaid when compared with workers in other age groups. The violation of the law and exploitation of child labour requires particular attention.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 354K; Thai - 369K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-agriculture-...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      • Child workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: FEELING SMALL IN ANOTHER PERSON’S COUNTRY - The situation of Burmese migrant children in Mae Sot Thailand
        Date of publication: February 2009
        Description/subject: "...There are an estimated 200,000 Burmese children living in Thailand, many of whom are working, with 20% of the migrant workforce thought to consist of children aged 15 to 17 years of age. It was seen to be a standard practice for parents to send children out to work, especially once they have reached the age of 13 years and seen to be physically capable of bringing in extra income for the family. Children may voluntarily leave or be taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factory or fields, as domestics or as service workers in shops and restaurants. Researchers have found that children working in Mae Sot factories and the agricultural area are subject to the worst forms of child labour, working long hours and being exposed to hazardous chemicals and conditions that are in direct violation of Thai labour law. The difficulty of obtaining registration and the work permit makes for a tenuous existence. Consequently, young people can be coerced or forced into bad employment situations... As parent’s lives are consumed by the need to work and make money, children can be denied the love, care and guidance essential to their healthy growth and development and may be separated from or even abandoned by parents. Some parents abuse and exploit their children by telling them not to come back home if they cannot earn a fixed amount per day. Consequently these children go out on the streets looking for daily work to survive; this can include begging, collecting recyclable rubbish and carrying heavy loads. This pressure is seen to change the moral character of children with some turning to stealing. Children who are unemployed, neglected, abandoned, or orphaned can end up permanently on the streets. Being out of school and on the streets increases the risk of being trafficked and recruitment by gangs, who physically threaten and may even kill children who try to escape... Statelessness is a real risk for children who are unable to receive identity registration in Burma and for those born in Thailand of migrants, especially unregistered parents. Despite the ratification of conventions, such as the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), and the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that stipulate birth registration of all children born in Thailand, in reality only registered migrants who hold a work permit can register their child’s birth. A change in the Civil Registration Act, effective from the 23rd August 2008, will allow all children born on Thai soil, regardless of their status, to register their births and obtain a birth certificate; however it remains to be seen how this will be implemented. In the meantime the Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma) (CPPCR), a Burmese CBO established in 2002, provides a registration service for children from Burma that in some cases, has been recognized by some Thai schools and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma)
        Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2009


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked : The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand (Volume 1)
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: "...Thailand has emerged as the number one destination in cross-border trafficking of children and women. Many children and young women from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR migrate to Thailand in search of better life. Often their journey leads them to a life of exploitation. A significant percent of these young migrants work in four employment sectors; agriculture, fishing boats and fish processing, manufacturing and domestic work. While they become an integral part of the economy, they remain invisible and face exploitation. Exploitation is widespread and ranges from non-payment or underpayment of wages, a requirement to work excessive hours sometimes involving the use of hazardous equipment - to even more serious violations of forced labour and trafficking..."
        Author/creator: Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing, Aree Jampaklay, Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Aree Prohmmo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children, ILO
        Format/size: pdf (English - 2.5MB, 5.23 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.humantrafficking.org/uploads/publications/underpaid-eng-volume1.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (1) - The Agriculture Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation Although forced labour is negligible in Nakhon Pathom's agriculture sector, migrant workers faced several forms of labour exploitation, particularly a lack of freedom of movement, and regular days off. Also, many were not in possession of their identification documents, while they do not receive paid leave... 4.2 Legal status and registration Although the registration of workers provides some legal protection and minimizes the exploitation of migrant workers, over a third of workers in agriculture are not registered. Approximately two thirds of registered workers who had their registration costs paid by the employers were in effect bonded labour and were required to pay back the costs via deductions from their wages. Nonetheless, the majority of workers expressed positive attitudes towards registration, particularly with regard to job security, safety and health insurance. A lack of time to register and lack of information regarding the registration process were the main reasons why some migrants did not register... 4.3 Working conditions The challenges facing migrants in terms of working conditions included very low pay, restricted freedom of movement, long working hours without overtime pay and not having possession of their original ID documents. The average daily payment of 100- 150 baht per day for agricultural workers is below the minimum wage. Low wages is one reason why migrant workers switch farms in search of higher wages. A high turnover of workers is of great concern amongst employers. Yet perhaps if they were willing to pay rates equal to or above the minimum wage, the migrant workers would not be in such a hurry to leave. Nearly all migrant workers live on the site of their workplace. Workers are isolated from the local community and seldom integrate with the community. None of the employers speak the language of their migrant workers and at the same time the majority of workers have little knowledge of Thai. However, given the nature of farm work, there seems little that can be done in this regard, except perhaps consider more mobile services, which could visit migrant workers living on farms... 4.4 Employers' attitudes Some negative attitudes towards migrant workers exist among employers. Well over two thirds felt migrant workers should be locked up at night to prevent them escaping. This view was particularly prevalent among by livestock farmers... 4.5 Support mechanisms Social networks play a significant role in terms of support for migrant workers in the agricultural sector, and family and friends provide this. More than two thirds turn to their relatives when facing problems or when they are in need of healthcare. This reflects the fact that most child migrant workers reside with their relatives or parents. None of the workers referred to NGO staff for support. The only chance workers had to make contact with people was with government officials from the MOL during the registration period. Monks or religious leaders and employers were relatively important to the workers. The fact that child workers rely on their social network because they are more likely to live with family and friends on site could perhaps help safeguard them from exploitation in this sector... 4.6 Child labour Under Thai law, children under the age of 15 are not permitted to work. Although a few were interviewed, the agriculture sector in Nakhon Pathom province employs a greater number of children aged 15 and up. Employers seem to regard children as being more obedient. Children under the age of 15 were all unregistered and underpaid when compared with workers in other age groups. The violation of the law and exploitation of child labour requires particular attention.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 354K; Thai - 369K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-agriculture-...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (2) - The Domestic Work Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation The findings illustrate a clear pattern of severe labour exploitation of migrant domestic workers, and in various cases evidence of forced labour. Domestic workers surveyed in Chiang Mai and Mae Sot reported being locked in the house unable to readily communicate or contact the outside world. This combined with widespread verbal and physical abuse, extremely long working hours, a lack of adequate rest days and non-payment, under-payment or delayed payment of wages shows how easily substandard working conditions can turn into working situations tantamount to forced labour. Some domestic workers were forced to work with other workers in other businesses, and some didn't have any choice in the type of jobs they performed. Some domestic workers worked for free for extended periods of time as a result of their debt bondage to employers or recruiters. As "live-in" workers, employers often expected domestic workers to be available to work at all times. Migrant workers can't freely change employers since they lack control over their documentation as examined previously in greater depth. Domestic workers, like other workers, have the right to hold onto their original ID card. However, only half of the registered domestic workers manage to keep hold of their original card. Socio-cultural values and attitudes of employers often play a role in justifying control over domestic workers' freedom of movement. Employers don't recognise that they have no right to keep hold of their workers' documents. Employers may be well-meaning and do this in the name of "protecting" domestic workers from dangers outside the household, but such "protection" violates the workers' basic rights to freedom of movement... 4.2 Legal status and registration Possession of legal working documents can partly protect domestic workers from harassment and reduce the risk of arrest or detention while they are in Thailand. However, it has been found that even registered migrant workers continue to live in fear of deportation. The majority of both employers and domestic workers have positive attitudes toward Thai policy on registration. Despite this fact, it was pointed out that the registration process is too complicated, is not clearly explained to those who need to understand it and that the timeframe for registration is too short. The registration policy, in turn, encourages employers to take more control over, and diminish the rights of their workers. Not only do many employers keep their worker's original ID card, but some also refuse to allow their domestic workers to register. Many domestic workers can't afford the registration costs, which can be equal to several months of their salary, or end up being in debt to their employers who pay for them. This becomes a reason for employers holding their worker's original work permit. There is no mention of whether or not the workers receive their original ID back once the debt to an employer is repaid in full. Non-registered domestic workers are more likely to face a greater degree of oppression in terms of constraints on leaving their employment, and with regard to payment and days off permitted than registered migrant workers... 4.3 Working conditions The risk of labour exploitation is high in light of the fact that the majority of domestic workers don't know about their working conditions until they arrive at the home of their employer. Employers determine working and payment conditions. A third of domestic workers have to do both household chores and work relating to the employer's business. According to the Thai LPA (1998), this means they should no longer be referred to as "domestic workers", and they should be protected under Thai labour law. Almost all (98%) the domestic workers surveyed worked more than a standard eight-hour day. About two thirds work more than 14 hours a day. It is worth noting that they have to be available for work at any time, whether it is inconvenient or not, based on the needs of the employer. In general, the amount earned by a manual worker varies depending on the number of hours worked, but this is not the case among migrant domestic workers. Migrant domestic workers earn less than workers in other sectors. About 40% receive a monthly salary of less than 1,000 baht, while only 11% receive more than 3,000 baht per month. This is well below the Thai national standard minimum wage, with most Thais earning at least 4,500 baht a month depending on their workplace. Nobody involved refers to overtime payments. The situation is even worse when considering that only a small proportion (7-17%) of domestic workers receive regular weekly, monthly or annual leave. Younger and unregistered domestic workers, on average, work longer hours, receive lower pay and receive less or no regular day off. Employers perpetuate a number of myths to justify the long working hours, lack of regular days off and low wages of domestic workers. Firstly, it is widely thought that domestic workers are able to relax while employers are not at home. The current study debunks this myth since many domestic workers were overworked, working in more than one workplace, with many different tasks to do and rarely any time alone in the house. The second myth is that domestic workers are able to take rest days whenever they want. Most domestic workers were unable to take leave and didn't receive the minimum number of annual days off, to do so would risk them losing their job or having their pay reduced... 4.4 Child domestic labour In-depth interviews were held with two extremely young domestic workers, aged 9 and 10. In the survey of domestic workers, 20% were aged under 18. Employers suggested they like to hire children as domestic workers because they are easy to control, more obedient and diligent. Recruiters cited similar reasons for recruiting children. Domestic work is sometimes seen as work that is considered more "appropriate" for children, however, child domestic workers worked longer hours under worse conditions for lower wages, in a "worst form" of child labour under ILO Convention 182. Employers indicated in the in-depth interviews that they treat migrant domestic workers, particularly child domestic workers, as family members. Child domestic workers also pointed out that they are often seen as part of the family. While this may sound warm and friendly, in fact it can increase the children's vulnerability to abuse. Child domestic workers may be treated worse since they can't complain or resist because they feel they are facing a "family" obligation. Moreover, it becomes more difficult for outsiders to intervene in "family" matters... 4.5 Support mechanisms Since domestic workers are isolated in their employers' residences they lack the usual mechanisms of family and friends as support mechanisms for work-related problems. Recruiters, who are sometimes relatives or friends of the migrant, offer a key support structure for domestic workers as they live in Thailand, have the ability to visit the domestic workers regularly and speak the same languages. Recruiters at least offer domestic workers some contact with the outside world and may be a starting point for possible future interventions. As live-in migrant domestic workers, contact with the outside world is limited. However, mobile phones now help many workers feel less isolated so they can talk to other people, even if they can't meet with them. The migrant domestic workers express their willingness to meet and share their experiences with others. And some of them are interested in studying or continuing their studies in order to create a better future for themselves.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 314K; Thai - 312K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-domestic-tha...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (3) - The Fishing Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation The findings clearly show that being forced to work is not uncommon in the fishing sector. About a fifth of migrants have either previously experienced being forced to work or are currently being forced to work. Migrants working on fishing boats, female workers in fish processing and children tend to experience forced labour more than male workers in fish processing and adult workers in general. The findings show that employment aboard fishing vessels often means working in extremely poor conditions, far worse than those in the fish processing sector. It is no surprise that migrant workers who are being forced to work are more likely to end up working aboard fishing boats. Being undocumented makes migrants even more vulnerable to forced labour. Physical and verbal abuse by employers is common in the fishing sector, and alarmingly this seems to be more commonly faced by child workers (aged under 15). While migrants work under poor conditions, almost half of them feel they can't leave their job because of certain constraints, mostly relating to fear of arrest by the police. Migrants under 15 years of age pointed to such constraints to a greater degree than adult migrants. Somewhat surprisingly, registered migrants feel there are more constraints preventing them from leaving their current employment than unregistered migrants. About two fifths of registered migrants fear arrest by the authorities if they leave their job. This implies that being registered does not help all migrants feel any safer. The fact that up to two thirds of registered migrants do not have control over their documents explains in part why registered migrants are still worried about getting arrested. Keeping hold of the originals of migrants' documents not only reflects a means through which employers can prevent workers from switching jobs, but it also highlights employers' ignorance of the right migrants have to hold onto their own documents. Some employers who keep migrants' documents openly said they did not want migrants to act, "as if they were Thai nationals who could independently go anywhere, or leave their jobs if they are not happy with them". This clearly shows that many employers feel migrants should not be treated the same as Thai nationals. It is consistent with the results from the survey, which show that only half of the employers surveyed agree that migrants should have the same rights as Thai workers... 4.2 Legal status and registration A migrant worker's legal status does not fully guarantee his or her safety from exploitation at the destination, however, it does, to a large extent, reduce the possible scope of exploitation. Being undocumented, for example, appears to increase the chance that a migrant worker would be exploited at work. Studies reveal that compared to registered migrants, unregistered (undocumented) migrant workers tend to receive lower wages, work for longer hours, start work earlier and have less rest time than their documented counterparts. A far higher proportion of migrants employed on fishing boats are unregistered than those employed in fish processing. They live and work in vulnerable conditions party because of their undocumented status. Although both employers and migrants in general have positive attitudes regarding registration, there are a number of difficulties. Migrants cross the border into Thailand all the time, however, the registration period is fixed. Therefore, hiring undocumented migrants is still common since employers need to hire workers and migrants are readily available to work, no matter what their legal status happens to be. Although arranging for registration is the employers' responsibility, some employers seem to be ignoring this important step. As for migrants, it is not clear whether migrants are fully aware that this step is the responsibility of their employers. Nevertheless, knowing their rights and the employer's responsibility does not guarantee that migrants' rights will be fulfilled as the migrant workers are unlikely to act without strong support from the Thai government... 4.3 Working conditions Most migrants work in very poor conditions. They work for 12 hours on average, start working early, even before 4 am on days when there is a heavy workload, and almost half only get half an hour or less break time per day. While almost 80% have regular days off per month, less than a tenth are paid for these days off. Given the nature of the work in the fishing sector, it is understandable that some migrants may need to start working very early, however, working such long hours should be deemed unacceptable, as should night work for children. About a fifth of migrants work over 15 hours a day, which is intolerable for a normal person. As well as long working hours, evidently the minimum wage is not commonly applied when hiring migrant workers. In addition, if migrant labourers work for more than eight hours a day, this does not guarantee they receive wages at a rate above the minimum. More than half the migrant workers who work for more than eight hours a day still receive less than the minimum wage. Migrant workers employed on fishing boats receive particularly low rates of pay. Most jobs for migrant workers in the fishing sector are insecure due to variable work schedules and pay methods, such as profit-based systems or piece rates. Most migrant workers are treated the same as casual workers with no benefits. Migrants employed on fishing boats clearly work in inferior conditions, in nearly all aspects, when compared with migrants employed in fish processing. Jobs on fishing boats are less attractive than in fish processing factories because the nature of work is tough, dangerous and it is lonely being far away from family. Fishing boat employers explained that they often had to take desperate steps to try and recruit workers, despite offering incentives, such as payments in advance. Despite such incentives, it still seems as though jobs aboard fishing vessels are the "last resort" for migrant workers. In light of this, migrants working aboard fishing vessels may be those who have nowhere else to go, or those who have fewer job opportunities, such as unregistered migrants or child workers. This could easily force these workers into more vulnerable situations than other migrant workers... 4.4 Child labour Most of the children in this survey seem to be working under the "worst forms" of child labour. Work on fishing boats by its very nature may be considered a worst form and therefore should not be performed by children under the age of 17 years in accordance with ILO Convention 182. In fish processing, where children work for long hours or start before 6am, this might also be considered a worst form of child labour. Otherwise, under regulated conditions, children aged 15 and over may work in fish processing factories. Addressing the worst forms of child labour in the fishing sector needs an immediate response. Migrants under the age of 15 made up 15% of the fishing sample despite the fact that this contravenes Thai labour law (and the ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Age which Thailand has ratified). Although very few employers openly admit they prefer to employ children, employers implicitly expressed a preference to hire children because they are fast workers, obedient and cheaper than adult migrants. While employers see the benefits of hiring younger migrants, they do not fully see the responsibilities. Some employers do not view child workers as "real" workers, but more as children simply helping out their parents. However, the migrant survey clearly shows children are not simply acting in support roles. In fishing, children are working even longer hours than adult workers whilst receiving less support and lower pay... 4.5 Support mechanisms At destination, family and relatives are central support figures for most migrants, this is especially the case for child workers and migrants employed in fish processing. Migrants employed on board fishing boats depend more on their workmates and friends and less on family members and relatives. This is due to the unique physical environment of working on fishing boats and spending long periods at sea. Attaining a better education may help reduce the risk for migrants of being trafficked. However, migrant children have few prospects to attend school while working in Thailand given their long daily working hours. Very few migrants currently attend school and less than a fifth of migrants reported that their employers permit child workers to attend school. In Thailand, part of a solution to address the isolation facing migrants has been for NGOs to tap into and strengthen migrants' sense of community.40 However, very few migrants working in the fishing sector currently participate in any type of group in their community. Encouraging migrants to be part of a community organization might be worth further exploration because most migrants express an interest in joining a group or club, particularly with regard to the subject of health issues.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 524K; Thai - 554K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-fishing-thai...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (4) - The Manufacturing Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation While there are few outright cases of forced labour, 10% of migrant workers in manufacturing feel the fact their employer holds their documents is a constraint preventing them from leaving their job, while 9% feel the threat of the employer reporting them to the authorities also acts as a constraint preventing them from leaving their job... 4.2 Working conditions The most common form of abuse of migrant workers employed in manufacturing is working extremely long hours. A total of 7% of migrant workers have faced physical abuse from their employers. The average migrant worker employed in manufacturing is paid only about half of what they are entitled to when considering the standard minimum wages under the LPA and according to the time they actually work. Migrant workers often feel unable to bargain with their employers effectively or even know whom to contact to inform them about their rights at work because they do not speak Thai. Employers' associations and officials should address the issue of language barriers faced by migrants. Many employers do not take responsibility for workers who are badly injured on the job on the basis that the worker does not have a contract of employment. A major concern and challenge for the labour movement concerning migrant workers is the fact that they are not permitted to form unions, and in effect it is difficult for them to join Thai unions or to see the value in joining Thai unions which currently do not protect migrant workers' rights... 4.3 Legal status/Registration Employers highlighted a number of problems with the registration process, including the fact that officers responsible for the registration process are ill-prepared and the number of available officers is insufficient. The registration period of one year is viewed as not being long enough. Dissemination of information about the registration process by the Ministry of Labour is not sufficient. Employers waste a lot of their time and their workers' time going through the registration process. Many migrant workers continue to fear harassment or be actually harassed by the police even though they have a valid work permit. Employers faced corrupt police officers and in some cases paid up to 10,000 baht per undocumented migrant they hire to police officers in order to avoid prosecution... 4.4 Support mechanisms Many migrant workers are less likely than Thais to access state-healthcare services due to their isolation, language barriers and a lack of information.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 289K; Thai - 301K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-manufacturin...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challence - Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
        Date of publication: 2006
        Description/subject: "Migrant children in Mae Sot are faced with excessive working hours, lack of time off, and unhealthy proximity to dangerous machines and chemicals. They also endure the practice of debt bondage and the systematic seizure of their identification documents. Indeed many of these children in Mae Sot can most accurately be described as enduring the "worst forms of child labour, prohibited by the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 182 - a Convention that the Royal Thai Government ratified in February, 2001. These child workers reported that they were virtually forced to remain at the factory due to restrictions placed on their movements by factory owners, and by threats of arrest and harassment by police and other officials if they were stopped outside the factory gates. Put succinctly, Mae Sot has perfected a system where children are literally working day and night, week after week, for wages that are far below the legal minimum wage, to the point of absolute exhaustion..."
        Author/creator: Philip S. Robertson Jr., Editor
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (4.45MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnigh...
        Date of entry/update: 04 April 2007


        Title: Migrant Children in Difficult Circumstances in Thailand
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: * Summary of report; * Chapter 1: Migrant Children in Thailand - a Result of Globalisation... * Chapter 2: Migrant Child Labor in Thailand... * Chapter 3: Migrant Children in Prostitution in Thailand... * Chapter 4: Migrant Street Children in Thailand: * Indicators of Migrant Children in Thailand; * Links to organisations working with Migrant Children in Thailand.
        Author/creator: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Siwaporn Auasalung, Supang Chantavanich
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Asian Research Center For Migration (ARCM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
        Format/size: pdf (147.99 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://books168.com/migrant-children-in-mae-sot-pdf.html
        Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


      • Construction workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: New Work, but Old Complaints
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Description/subject: Many Burmese migrant workers have landed new jobs in reconstruction work in southwest Thailand, having survived the tsunami. But old moans of low pay and rights abuses remain... "Myint Win relaxes under a coconut palm on a beach in southwest Thailand, enjoying the sea breeze. But he’s not on holiday. Like hundreds of other Burmese in the area, he’s a migrant worker in the army of construction workers beavering to rebuild resorts in areas flattened by the December 26, 2004, tsunami, claiming more than 5,000 lives. Myint Win is just taking a lunch break. The 49-year-old construction worker is on Ban Thantawan beach in Phang Nga province’s Khao Lak area. Beaches in the province were among the worst hit when the tsunami struck. The grim sound of sirens and the sight of bodies littering coastal areas have now been replaced by the hum of reconstruction and new hotels and resorts rising from the debris. Burmese workers like Myint Win, a tractor driver back home, who were also out of work in the tsunami’s immediate aftermath, have found new jobs in the rebuilding frenzy to put southern resorts back on the tourist map. But they still complain of low pay and some human rights abuses because their migrant status leaves them vulnerable. “By and large, we have all been cheated,” one complains..."
        Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      • Domestic workers

        • Domestic Workers - standards and guides

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Convention on domestic workers
          Description/subject: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia... Convention on Domestic Workers Convention concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers... Signed 16 June 2011.. Location:Geneva... Effective: not in force Condition: 2 ratifications... The Convention on Domestic Workers, formally the Convention concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers is a convention setting labour standards for domestic workers. It is the 189th ILO convention and was adopted during the 100th session of the International Labour Office.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Wikipedia
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Individual Documents

          Title: Text of Domestic Workers Convention, 2011. (ILO Convention 189)
          Date of publication: 16 June 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Title: Decent work for domestic workers
          Date of publication: January 2010
          Description/subject: "...Domestic work...is undervalued and poorly regulated, and many domestic workers remain overworked, underpaid and unprotected. Accounts of maltreatment and abuse, especially of live-in and migrant domestic workers, are regularly denounced in the media. In many countries, domestic work is very largely performed by child labourers.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Labour Conference, 99th Session, 2010
          Format/size: pdf (3.42 MB)
          Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand (Burmese)
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: Burmese
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCM_041809/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand (English)
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: English (also available in Burmese, S'Gaw Karen, Pwo Karen, Laotian, Shan, Thai)
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (529K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCM_041809/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 2010


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand (Pwo Karen)
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: Pwo Karen
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCM_041809/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand (S'gaw Karen)
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: S'gaw Karen
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCM_041809/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand (Shan)
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: Shan
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


          Title: Domestic Work - Decent Work -- a 'Smart Guide' for Domestic Workers in Thailand... งานบ้าน – งานที่มีคุณค่า คู่มือสำหรับแรงงานทำงานบ้านใน
          Date of publication: 2010
          Description/subject: This ILO guidebook promotes the rights and responsibilities of domestic workers. Published in a variety of languages, it is aimed primarily at the domestic worker and explains the benefits and risks ssociated with domestic work while offering the worker advice on how to interact with her/his employer to achieve a mutually satisfactory working environment and system of remuneration and benefits for the worker.
          Language: Thai
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (562K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCM_041809/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2011


        • Domestic Workers from Burma

          Individual Documents

          Title: Domestic workers in Thailand: their situation, challenges and the way forward
          Date of publication: January 2010
          Description/subject: "...over the past 10 years there has been an increasing number of migrant workers who have been recruited to do domestic work in the Thai households. Despite the demand for and contribution of domestic workers in the larger economy and general social good, domestic work is neither well recognized in the Thai society nor well protected by the Thai labour law. Domestic work is regarded as a form of informal sector work which has limited labour protection and social security coverage. The majority of migrant domestic workers are not only more vulnerable to labour and other form of exploitation than Thai domestic workers, but they also have little access to most of the labour protection under the Thai labour law. This report reviews and analyzes the situation of both Thai and non-Thai domestic workers in Thailand, in particular those working in private households, by drawing on existing reliable information. It hopes to bring out key issues and recommendations which can contribute to the advocacy efforts of ILO and its partners in Thailand in their campaign on decent work for domestic workers..."
          Author/creator: Vachararutai (Jan) Boontinand
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (374K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_120274.pdf
          http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/lang--en/docName--WCMS_120274/index.htm
          Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


          Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked : The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand (Volume 1)
          Date of publication: 13 December 2006
          Description/subject: "...Thailand has emerged as the number one destination in cross-border trafficking of children and women. Many children and young women from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR migrate to Thailand in search of better life. Often their journey leads them to a life of exploitation. A significant percent of these young migrants work in four employment sectors; agriculture, fishing boats and fish processing, manufacturing and domestic work. While they become an integral part of the economy, they remain invisible and face exploitation. Exploitation is widespread and ranges from non-payment or underpayment of wages, a requirement to work excessive hours sometimes involving the use of hazardous equipment - to even more serious violations of forced labour and trafficking..."
          Author/creator: Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing, Aree Jampaklay, Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Aree Prohmmo
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children, ILO
          Format/size: pdf (English - 2.5MB, 5.23 MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.humantrafficking.org/uploads/publications/underpaid-eng-volume1.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 12 April 2008


          Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (2) - The Domestic Work Sector
          Date of publication: 13 December 2006
          Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation The findings illustrate a clear pattern of severe labour exploitation of migrant domestic workers, and in various cases evidence of forced labour. Domestic workers surveyed in Chiang Mai and Mae Sot reported being locked in the house unable to readily communicate or contact the outside world. This combined with widespread verbal and physical abuse, extremely long working hours, a lack of adequate rest days and non-payment, under-payment or delayed payment of wages shows how easily substandard working conditions can turn into working situations tantamount to forced labour. Some domestic workers were forced to work with other workers in other businesses, and some didn't have any choice in the type of jobs they performed. Some domestic workers worked for free for extended periods of time as a result of their debt bondage to employers or recruiters. As "live-in" workers, employers often expected domestic workers to be available to work at all times. Migrant workers can't freely change employers since they lack control over their documentation as examined previously in greater depth. Domestic workers, like other workers, have the right to hold onto their original ID card. However, only half of the registered domestic workers manage to keep hold of their original card. Socio-cultural values and attitudes of employers often play a role in justifying control over domestic workers' freedom of movement. Employers don't recognise that they have no right to keep hold of their workers' documents. Employers may be well-meaning and do this in the name of "protecting" domestic workers from dangers outside the household, but such "protection" violates the workers' basic rights to freedom of movement... 4.2 Legal status and registration Possession of legal working documents can partly protect domestic workers from harassment and reduce the risk of arrest or detention while they are in Thailand. However, it has been found that even registered migrant workers continue to live in fear of deportation. The majority of both employers and domestic workers have positive attitudes toward Thai policy on registration. Despite this fact, it was pointed out that the registration process is too complicated, is not clearly explained to those who need to understand it and that the timeframe for registration is too short. The registration policy, in turn, encourages employers to take more control over, and diminish the rights of their workers. Not only do many employers keep their worker's original ID card, but some also refuse to allow their domestic workers to register. Many domestic workers can't afford the registration costs, which can be equal to several months of their salary, or end up being in debt to their employers who pay for them. This becomes a reason for employers holding their worker's original work permit. There is no mention of whether or not the workers receive their original ID back once the debt to an employer is repaid in full. Non-registered domestic workers are more likely to face a greater degree of oppression in terms of constraints on leaving their employment, and with regard to payment and days off permitted than registered migrant workers... 4.3 Working conditions The risk of labour exploitation is high in light of the fact that the majority of domestic workers don't know about their working conditions until they arrive at the home of their employer. Employers determine working and payment conditions. A third of domestic workers have to do both household chores and work relating to the employer's business. According to the Thai LPA (1998), this means they should no longer be referred to as "domestic workers", and they should be protected under Thai labour law. Almost all (98%) the domestic workers surveyed worked more than a standard eight-hour day. About two thirds work more than 14 hours a day. It is worth noting that they have to be available for work at any time, whether it is inconvenient or not, based on the needs of the employer. In general, the amount earned by a manual worker varies depending on the number of hours worked, but this is not the case among migrant domestic workers. Migrant domestic workers earn less than workers in other sectors. About 40% receive a monthly salary of less than 1,000 baht, while only 11% receive more than 3,000 baht per month. This is well below the Thai national standard minimum wage, with most Thais earning at least 4,500 baht a month depending on their workplace. Nobody involved refers to overtime payments. The situation is even worse when considering that only a small proportion (7-17%) of domestic workers receive regular weekly, monthly or annual leave. Younger and unregistered domestic workers, on average, work longer hours, receive lower pay and receive less or no regular day off. Employers perpetuate a number of myths to justify the long working hours, lack of regular days off and low wages of domestic workers. Firstly, it is widely thought that domestic workers are able to relax while employers are not at home. The current study debunks this myth since many domestic workers were overworked, working in more than one workplace, with many different tasks to do and rarely any time alone in the house. The second myth is that domestic workers are able to take rest days whenever they want. Most domestic workers were unable to take leave and didn't receive the minimum number of annual days off, to do so would risk them losing their job or having their pay reduced... 4.4 Child domestic labour In-depth interviews were held with two extremely young domestic workers, aged 9 and 10. In the survey of domestic workers, 20% were aged under 18. Employers suggested they like to hire children as domestic workers because they are easy to control, more obedient and diligent. Recruiters cited similar reasons for recruiting children. Domestic work is sometimes seen as work that is considered more "appropriate" for children, however, child domestic workers worked longer hours under worse conditions for lower wages, in a "worst form" of child labour under ILO Convention 182. Employers indicated in the in-depth interviews that they treat migrant domestic workers, particularly child domestic workers, as family members. Child domestic workers also pointed out that they are often seen as part of the family. While this may sound warm and friendly, in fact it can increase the children's vulnerability to abuse. Child domestic workers may be treated worse since they can't complain or resist because they feel they are facing a "family" obligation. Moreover, it becomes more difficult for outsiders to intervene in "family" matters... 4.5 Support mechanisms Since domestic workers are isolated in their employers' residences they lack the usual mechanisms of family and friends as support mechanisms for work-related problems. Recruiters, who are sometimes relatives or friends of the migrant, offer a key support structure for domestic workers as they live in Thailand, have the ability to visit the domestic workers regularly and speak the same languages. Recruiters at least offer domestic workers some contact with the outside world and may be a starting point for possible future interventions. As live-in migrant domestic workers, contact with the outside world is limited. However, mobile phones now help many workers feel less isolated so they can talk to other people, even if they can't meet with them. The migrant domestic workers express their willingness to meet and share their experiences with others. And some of them are interested in studying or continuing their studies in order to create a better future for themselves.
          Language: English, Thai
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (English - 314K; Thai - 312K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-domestic-tha...
          Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


          Title: The Mekong Challence - Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
          Date of publication: 2006
          Description/subject: "Migrant children in Mae Sot are faced with excessive working hours, lack of time off, and unhealthy proximity to dangerous machines and chemicals. They also endure the practice of debt bondage and the systematic seizure of their identification documents. Indeed many of these children in Mae Sot can most accurately be described as enduring the "worst forms of child labour, prohibited by the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 182 - a Convention that the Royal Thai Government ratified in February, 2001. These child workers reported that they were virtually forced to remain at the factory due to restrictions placed on their movements by factory owners, and by threats of arrest and harassment by police and other officials if they were stopped outside the factory gates. Put succinctly, Mae Sot has perfected a system where children are literally working day and night, week after week, for wages that are far below the legal minimum wage, to the point of absolute exhaustion..."
          Author/creator: Philip S. Robertson Jr., Editor
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
          Format/size: pdf (4.45MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnigh...
          Date of entry/update: 04 April 2007


          Title: Migrant Domestic Workers: From Burma to Thailand (short version)
          Date of publication: 23 July 2005
          Description/subject: Abstract: Millions of people from Burma have migrated into neighboring countries over the past decade. Most have left their country in search of security and safety as a direct result of internal conflict and militarization, severe economic hardship and minority persecution. This exodus represents one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. Fearing persecution, the vast majority of those migrating from Burma find themselves desperate to survive, obtaining work in underground and, often, illegal labor markets. The majority of those fleeing Burma migrate to neighboring Thailand, where an estimated two million people from Burma work in “3-D jobs” (dangerous, dirty and difficult). Although there is a growing awareness of their isolation and vulnerability to labor exploitation and violence, there is little data available documenting their realities. This results in the alienation of domestic workers and perpetuates the disregard for their labor and basic rights. This paper presents the findings of research proposed and implemented by members of the Shan Women’s Action Network and the Karen Women’s Organization regarding girls and women who have migrated from Burma into domestic work in Thailand. This paper focuses on the roots causes of migration from Burma to Thailand, the harsh conditions in which foreign domestic workers are employed and their inability to defend their most basic rights while they are in Thailand, and lastly on their future aspirations. Foreign domestic workers interviewed in this study described that the major cause of migration were related to political and economic situations in Burma. The push-pull theory explains this migration stream. In Thailand, the migrant domestic workers being expected to work on demand, without agreed upon responsibilities or a written contract delineating working hours, days off, accommodations, salaries, sick leave, care or pay. However, they had their dreams and hopes of securing a better future for their families and themselves. In the recommendations, roles of both Burma and Thai governments, NGOs and CBOs in helping establish appropriate interventions to reduce the abuse, exploitation and trafficking of migrant domestic workers are stated. The importance of recognizing domestic work as labor as well as the need to provide protection for the domestic workers under national labor laws is emphasised in this study..."
          Author/creator: Sureeporn Punpuing, Therese Caouette, Awatsaya Panam, Khaing Mar Kyaw Zaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Office of Population Research at Princeton University
          Format/size: pdf (226K)
          Date of entry/update: 04 May 2005


          Title: Migrant Domestic Workers: From Burma to Thailand (full version)
          Date of publication: July 2004
          Description/subject: An important and well-researched report. “Millions of people from Burma1 have migrated into neighboring countries over the past decade. Most have left their country in search of security and safety as a direct result of internal conflict and militarization, severe economic hardship and minority persecution. This exodus represents one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. The minority people of Burma make up the majority of those dislocated as a result of Burma's State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC's) renewed commitment to eliminate ethnic militias and any support for them in minority areas through forced labor and portering, as well as forced relocation and arbitrary taxation, all of which leave the country's population, particularly the minorities, extremely vulnerable. Fearing persecution, the vast majority of those migrating from Burma find themselves desperate to survive, obtaining work in underground and, often, illegal labor markets. The majority of those fleeing Burma migrate to neighboring Thailand, where an estimated two million people from Burma work in "3-D jobs" (dangerous, dirty and difficult), for pay well below minimum wage. While clearly in need of assistance and protection, migrants from Burma have a particularly difficult time exercising their rights in Thailand due to the Thai government's policy of denying the majority of them refugee status. Living in perpetual fear of deportation, migrants from Burma face abhorrent labor practices as a result of their illegal status, as well as the lack of standardized working conditions and protection mechanisms. It is estimated that well over one hundred thousand females from Burma are employed as domestic workers in Thailand, though little information is available on the realities faced by these women and girls. Although there is a growing awareness of their isolation and vulnerability to labor exploitation and violence, there is little data available documenting their realities. This results in the alienation of domestic workers and perpetuates the disregard for their labor and basic rights. Consequently, neither migrants nor domestic workers (including Thai citizens) have any official means of reporting or seeking redress to the grievances or abuses they encounter in their jobs....”
          Author/creator: Awatsaya Panam, Khaing Mar Kyaw Zaw, Therese Caouette, Sureeporn Punpuing
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (250 pages)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Domestic_workers-ocr.pdf (3.23MB)
          http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Domestic_workers-textonly.pdf (1.2MB)
          Date of entry/update: 20 November 2005


      • Factory workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Flexible Labor in the Thai-Burma Border Economy
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: Capital Expansion and Migrant Workers... "...The research looks at the plight of Burmese migrant workers on the border between Thailand and Burma, in particular the town of Mae Sot. Mae Sot has become notorious for the amount, and severity of the human rights abuses. The research demonstrates that the changes to manufacturing, labour, and capital investment has led to a systematic erosion of labor rights. As argued in the thesis, labour rights are consistently sacrificed in order to attract and maintain investment, raising questions as to who are the primary beneficiaries of capitalist development. As Thailand and neighboring countries take further steps to increase border industrialization and development, labor standards are being pushed down both directly for the migrant workers employed in border industries, and often for domestic workers who are being forced to accept lower standards. The research examines the international economic context to the rise of Mae Sot as a manufacturing centre. It also looks at the groups involved in protecting workers rights, specifically the role of trade unions, and suggests that social and political organizing workers must be reignited in order to ensure their protection..."
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Office of Human Rights Studies and Social Development, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University (Human Rights in Asia Series)
        Format/size: pdf (520K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 April 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (4) - The Manufacturing Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation While there are few outright cases of forced labour, 10% of migrant workers in manufacturing feel the fact their employer holds their documents is a constraint preventing them from leaving their job, while 9% feel the threat of the employer reporting them to the authorities also acts as a constraint preventing them from leaving their job... 4.2 Working conditions The most common form of abuse of migrant workers employed in manufacturing is working extremely long hours. A total of 7% of migrant workers have faced physical abuse from their employers. The average migrant worker employed in manufacturing is paid only about half of what they are entitled to when considering the standard minimum wages under the LPA and according to the time they actually work. Migrant workers often feel unable to bargain with their employers effectively or even know whom to contact to inform them about their rights at work because they do not speak Thai. Employers' associations and officials should address the issue of language barriers faced by migrants. Many employers do not take responsibility for workers who are badly injured on the job on the basis that the worker does not have a contract of employment. A major concern and challenge for the labour movement concerning migrant workers is the fact that they are not permitted to form unions, and in effect it is difficult for them to join Thai unions or to see the value in joining Thai unions which currently do not protect migrant workers' rights... 4.3 Legal status/Registration Employers highlighted a number of problems with the registration process, including the fact that officers responsible for the registration process are ill-prepared and the number of available officers is insufficient. The registration period of one year is viewed as not being long enough. Dissemination of information about the registration process by the Ministry of Labour is not sufficient. Employers waste a lot of their time and their workers' time going through the registration process. Many migrant workers continue to fear harassment or be actually harassed by the police even though they have a valid work permit. Employers faced corrupt police officers and in some cases paid up to 10,000 baht per undocumented migrant they hire to police officers in order to avoid prosecution... 4.4 Support mechanisms Many migrant workers are less likely than Thais to access state-healthcare services due to their isolation, language barriers and a lack of information.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 289K; Thai - 301K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-manufacturin...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: EXPLOITATION IN GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAINS: BURMESE MIGRANT WORKERS IN MAE SOT, THAILAND
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: CONCLUSIONS As outlined, the situation in Mae Sot makes it difficult for organisations to operate effectively in support of Burmese workers. In mid-2004 there were no Thailand-based organisations working specifically on labour issues in Tak. As we have shown, migrant workers are in a vulnerable situation and greater organisational and protection efforts are needed. This organisational and political weakness is in stark contrast to that of employers who enjoy the support of the state. This imbalance makes it difficult for workers to organise to protect or promote their rights. The handful of Burmese organisations attempting to assist workers is limited because of their problematic legal status in Thailand and the intimidation prevents them from operating without fear of reprisals. Structural factors promote the exploitation and human rights violations of Burmese migrant labourers. Burmese leave Burma due to political oppression and socio-economic hardship, and subsequently have a high threshold for the difficulties they endure in Thailand. Thai authorities and employers, regardless of nationality, are eager to exploit this vulnerability in their effort to maximise profits. A lack of corporate social responsibility and adherence to corporate codes of conduct means workers at the bottom of the supply chain, in places such as Mae Sot, produce textiles and garments and other products for developed country markets in a state of constant exploitation and oppression. It is obvious that Burmese migrant workers in Thailand face a myriad of human rights issues in Thailand and Burma. Denying the freedom to organise effectively undermines any attempts by migrant workers to improve their situation. The policy of the Thai government towards Burmese refugees and migrants is changing. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s government has forged closer economic and political ties with the Burmese junta and this has involved an increasingly hard-line stance towards Burmese migrants and refugees. Some million and a half Burmese migrant workers in Thailand are now stuck between one the most brutal military dictatorships in the world, and a Thai government intent on maintaining good relations. While the Thai government trumpets “constructive engagement,” there is no doubt that the government’s attitude is driven by business interests. It is worth noting that the traditional gap between migrant support organisations and workers, and Thai labour organisations has been reduced over the last year or so. This, in combination with greater advocacy for migrant rights – by Thailand’s Human Rights Commission, international and global trade unions, academics in Thailand and the region, governments and human and labour rights organisations both in the region and internationally – is creating space and the potential for greater transparency and respect for labour rights and adherence to labour laws and standards. It may enhance the ability of migrant workers to organise and improve work conditions, but the struggle will still be a long and difficult one.
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold, Kevin Hewison
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 35 No. 3, 2005, pp. 319-340.
        Format/size: pdf (145K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 October 2005


        Title: The Price of Exploitation
        Date of publication: October 2004
        Description/subject: "Thai factory owners face huge claims after judge rules for Burmese migrants. About 200 Thai factories employing migrant Burmese workers are braced to meet compensation claims amounting to many millions of dollars following the success of a legal action brought by 18 employees in Thailand’s Tak Province. The Burmese migrants were awarded a total of 1,170,000 baht (US $29,250) in compensation for unpaid back wages owed by their employer, the Nut Knitting Ltd Partnership in Mae Sot, on the Thai-Burmese border. The Tak Labor Court decision was hailed as a “landmark” by Moe Swe, director of the Mae Sot-based Yaung Chi Oo Workers Association, which backs Burmese migrant workers in their fight with Thai employers for proper wages and working conditions..."
        Author/creator: Colin Baynes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


        Title: The Situation of Burmese Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
        Date of publication: September 2004
        Description/subject: CONCLUSION: As briefly outlined, the situation in Mae Sot makes it difficult for Burmese worker support organisations to operate effectively. As late as mid-2004 there were no Thailand-based labour organisations or trade unions working specifically on labour or trade union rights in Tak with an office and staff located there on a full time basis. The workers themselves are in an extremely vulnerable situation and greater organisational and protection efforts are needed. This organisational and political weakness is in stark contrast to that of the authorities, police and employers. This imbalance makes it difficult for workers to organise to protect and promote their rights. The handful of Burmese organisations attempting to assist workers is limited because of their problematic legal status in Thailand and the intense pressure preventing them from operating without fear of reprisal. Structural factors promote the gross exploitation and human rights violations of Burmese migrant labourers in Mae Sot. Burmese leave Burma due to political oppression and socio-economic hardship, and subsequently have a high threshold for difficulties they endure in Thailand. Thai authorities and employers, regardless of nationality, are eager to exploit this vulnerability for windfall profits. A lack of corporate social responsibility and adherence to corporate codes of conduct means workers at the bottom of the supply chain, in places such as Mae Sot, produce textiles and garments and other products for Northern markets in a state of acute vulnerability. It’s obvious that migrant workers in Thailand, particularly the Burmese, bear a lot of pressure from nearly every direction, both in Burma and Thailand. A myriad of human rights are abused in both systematic and random ways. Denying the right to freedom of association and right to organise effectively pulls out any attempts by migrant workers to improve their situation at the roots. The policy of the Thai government towards Burmese refugees and migrants is in the process of changing, for better or worse remains to be seen. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s forging of closer economic and political ties with the Burmese government has resulted in an increasingly hard-line stance by Thailand towards Burmese migrant workers and refugees, many of the latter have become migrant workers. Some million and a half Burmese migrant workers in Thailand are now stuck between one the most brutal military dictatorship in the world, and a Thai government intent on good relations with them, with an eye on increased revenue for businessmen operating in Thailand, and for Thai business operating in Burma. It is worth noting that the traditional gap between migrant support organisations and workers, and Thai unions and labour organisations has been reduced over the last year or so. This, in combination with greater advocacy for migrant rights – by Thailand’s Human Rights Commission, international and global trade unions, academics in Thailand and the region, governments and human and labour rights organisations both in the region and internationally – is creating space and the potential for greater transparency and respect for labour rights and adherence to labour laws and standards. It also enhances the ability of migrant workers to organise and improve work conditions."
        Author/creator: Dennis Arnold
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Southeast Asia Research Centre (SEARC) of the City University of Hong
        Format/size: pdf (294K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 October 2005


      • Fishery workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Masters of the Sea
        Date of publication: September 2010
        Description/subject: Thailand is one of the world’s major fish-exporting countries, but it is Burmese fishermen who keep the industry alive... "Aung Than is no ordinary fisherman. At 33, he is already a veteran of the seas. His years of hard work and commitment to his job have earned him the position of “yay shuu,” or master, of the Thai-owned vessel on which he and his fellow Burmese crew members make their living in the Andaman Sea. As the most experienced and highly qualified member of his ship’s crew, he earns 10,000 baht (US $310) a month—about three times the basic salary of a Burmese fisherman working in Thailand, and 10 times what he would make in his native Burma. Thailand’s fishing industry is kept afloat by a massive influx of migrant labor from neighboring Burma. Both on the ships and in the fish-processing plants, Burmese make up the majority of workers, doing jobs shunned by Thais. Fishermen are in especially high demand, working long hours for low wages, often risking life and limb to keep consumers around the world supplied with seafood..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Thein Kha
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


        Title: ‘Sickening’ Film on Plight of Burmese Migrant Fishermen
        Date of publication: November 2008
        Description/subject: A documentary film showing how Burmese seamen aboard Thai fishing boats are abused, beaten and even murdered is now available for viewing on the Internet... "The 10-minute film, titled “Abandoned, not Forgotten,” was released on the official Web site of the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITWF), whose General Secretary, David Cockcroft, described it as “a sometimes sickening but very necessary addition to the evidence that many Burmese citizens forced to flee their country are being appallingly treated.”..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Transportworkers' Federation via "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.itfglobal.org/fisheries/film.cfm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=deCo_ZBSk-U
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2008


        Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand: Vol. 2 (3) - The Fishing Sector
        Date of publication: 13 December 2006
        Description/subject: Conclusions: 4.1 Indications of labour exploitation The findings clearly show that being forced to work is not uncommon in the fishing sector. About a fifth of migrants have either previously experienced being forced to work or are currently being forced to work. Migrants working on fishing boats, female workers in fish processing and children tend to experience forced labour more than male workers in fish processing and adult workers in general. The findings show that employment aboard fishing vessels often means working in extremely poor conditions, far worse than those in the fish processing sector. It is no surprise that migrant workers who are being forced to work are more likely to end up working aboard fishing boats. Being undocumented makes migrants even more vulnerable to forced labour. Physical and verbal abuse by employers is common in the fishing sector, and alarmingly this seems to be more commonly faced by child workers (aged under 15). While migrants work under poor conditions, almost half of them feel they can't leave their job because of certain constraints, mostly relating to fear of arrest by the police. Migrants under 15 years of age pointed to such constraints to a greater degree than adult migrants. Somewhat surprisingly, registered migrants feel there are more constraints preventing them from leaving their current employment than unregistered migrants. About two fifths of registered migrants fear arrest by the authorities if they leave their job. This implies that being registered does not help all migrants feel any safer. The fact that up to two thirds of registered migrants do not have control over their documents explains in part why registered migrants are still worried about getting arrested. Keeping hold of the originals of migrants' documents not only reflects a means through which employers can prevent workers from switching jobs, but it also highlights employers' ignorance of the right migrants have to hold onto their own documents. Some employers who keep migrants' documents openly said they did not want migrants to act, "as if they were Thai nationals who could independently go anywhere, or leave their jobs if they are not happy with them". This clearly shows that many employers feel migrants should not be treated the same as Thai nationals. It is consistent with the results from the survey, which show that only half of the employers surveyed agree that migrants should have the same rights as Thai workers... 4.2 Legal status and registration A migrant worker's legal status does not fully guarantee his or her safety from exploitation at the destination, however, it does, to a large extent, reduce the possible scope of exploitation. Being undocumented, for example, appears to increase the chance that a migrant worker would be exploited at work. Studies reveal that compared to registered migrants, unregistered (undocumented) migrant workers tend to receive lower wages, work for longer hours, start work earlier and have less rest time than their documented counterparts. A far higher proportion of migrants employed on fishing boats are unregistered than those employed in fish processing. They live and work in vulnerable conditions party because of their undocumented status. Although both employers and migrants in general have positive attitudes regarding registration, there are a number of difficulties. Migrants cross the border into Thailand all the time, however, the registration period is fixed. Therefore, hiring undocumented migrants is still common since employers need to hire workers and migrants are readily available to work, no matter what their legal status happens to be. Although arranging for registration is the employers' responsibility, some employers seem to be ignoring this important step. As for migrants, it is not clear whether migrants are fully aware that this step is the responsibility of their employers. Nevertheless, knowing their rights and the employer's responsibility does not guarantee that migrants' rights will be fulfilled as the migrant workers are unlikely to act without strong support from the Thai government... 4.3 Working conditions Most migrants work in very poor conditions. They work for 12 hours on average, start working early, even before 4 am on days when there is a heavy workload, and almost half only get half an hour or less break time per day. While almost 80% have regular days off per month, less than a tenth are paid for these days off. Given the nature of the work in the fishing sector, it is understandable that some migrants may need to start working very early, however, working such long hours should be deemed unacceptable, as should night work for children. About a fifth of migrants work over 15 hours a day, which is intolerable for a normal person. As well as long working hours, evidently the minimum wage is not commonly applied when hiring migrant workers. In addition, if migrant labourers work for more than eight hours a day, this does not guarantee they receive wages at a rate above the minimum. More than half the migrant workers who work for more than eight hours a day still receive less than the minimum wage. Migrant workers employed on fishing boats receive particularly low rates of pay. Most jobs for migrant workers in the fishing sector are insecure due to variable work schedules and pay methods, such as profit-based systems or piece rates. Most migrant workers are treated the same as casual workers with no benefits. Migrants employed on fishing boats clearly work in inferior conditions, in nearly all aspects, when compared with migrants employed in fish processing. Jobs on fishing boats are less attractive than in fish processing factories because the nature of work is tough, dangerous and it is lonely being far away from family. Fishing boat employers explained that they often had to take desperate steps to try and recruit workers, despite offering incentives, such as payments in advance. Despite such incentives, it still seems as though jobs aboard fishing vessels are the "last resort" for migrant workers. In light of this, migrants working aboard fishing vessels may be those who have nowhere else to go, or those who have fewer job opportunities, such as unregistered migrants or child workers. This could easily force these workers into more vulnerable situations than other migrant workers... 4.4 Child labour Most of the children in this survey seem to be working under the "worst forms" of child labour. Work on fishing boats by its very nature may be considered a worst form and therefore should not be performed by children under the age of 17 years in accordance with ILO Convention 182. In fish processing, where children work for long hours or start before 6am, this might also be considered a worst form of child labour. Otherwise, under regulated conditions, children aged 15 and over may work in fish processing factories. Addressing the worst forms of child labour in the fishing sector needs an immediate response. Migrants under the age of 15 made up 15% of the fishing sample despite the fact that this contravenes Thai labour law (and the ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Age which Thailand has ratified). Although very few employers openly admit they prefer to employ children, employers implicitly expressed a preference to hire children because they are fast workers, obedient and cheaper than adult migrants. While employers see the benefits of hiring younger migrants, they do not fully see the responsibilities. Some employers do not view child workers as "real" workers, but more as children simply helping out their parents. However, the migrant survey clearly shows children are not simply acting in support roles. In fishing, children are working even longer hours than adult workers whilst receiving less support and lower pay... 4.5 Support mechanisms At destination, family and relatives are central support figures for most migrants, this is especially the case for child workers and migrants employed in fish processing. Migrants employed on board fishing boats depend more on their workmates and friends and less on family members and relatives. This is due to the unique physical environment of working on fishing boats and spending long periods at sea. Attaining a better education may help reduce the risk for migrants of being trafficked. However, migrant children have few prospects to attend school while working in Thailand given their long daily working hours. Very few migrants currently attend school and less than a fifth of migrants reported that their employers permit child workers to attend school. In Thailand, part of a solution to address the isolation facing migrants has been for NGOs to tap into and strengthen migrants' sense of community.40 However, very few migrants working in the fishing sector currently participate in any type of group in their community. Encouraging migrants to be part of a community organization might be worth further exploration because most migrants express an interest in joining a group or club, particularly with regard to the subject of health issues.
        Language: English, Thai
        Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
        Format/size: pdf (English - 524K; Thai - 554K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/vol2-fishing-thai...
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: Trawling Troubles
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Life on a Thai fishing boat isn’t all plain sailing for Burmese crews... "When 29-year old Win San signed on as a boatswain on a Thai fishing trawler he looked forward to a profitable voyage in the Andaman Sea off the coast of his native Burma. Instead, he ended up in an Indonesian jail, accused of illegally fishing in that country’s waters. Saphan Plah wharf (upgrading) where Burmese enter into Ranong. Win San was held for one month, then deported to Thailand. It could have been worse—the skipper of the boat, his assistant and chief engineer, all Thais, were sentenced to two years in prison. Win San’s experience is typical of the hazards faced by Burmese migrants who work in the fishing industry based in the southern Thai port Ranong, just across the Pachan River from Burma’s Victoria Point (Kawthaung)..."
        Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      • Migrant workers from Burma by origin

        • Migrant workers from Shan State

          Individual Documents

          Title: The Grass is Greener
          Date of publication: September 2009
          Description/subject: Despite the difficulties and challenges facing Shan migrants seeking work in Thailand, their numbers are increasing... "I feel my life in Thailand is more secure than in Burma. It is easier to make a living here,” said Sam Htun, a 56-year-old Shan construction worker, who said he left Burma because of oppression, dangerous working conditions and dismal economic circumstances..."
          Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


      • Other categories of migrant workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: The Road To Riches?
        Date of publication: July 2004
        Description/subject: "Burma’s young Chinese look abroad for a brighter future. Forty years ago, the grandfather of Si Si, a young Chinese woman living in Rangoon, migrated to Burma from China’s Guangdong Province, in search of a better future and perhaps prosperity. Chinese New Year in Rangoon. Today, 24-year old Si Si is planning to take up the same search, but outside Burma. She sees her immediate professional future in a developed country such as Singapore..."
        Author/creator: Htet Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 12, No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


        Title: Come to Singapore And Leave Your Views Behind
        Date of publication: August 2002
        Description/subject: "...The only type of foreigner more unwelcome in Singapore than an illegal migrant is an exiled dissident. Singapore’s intolerance of political dissent is a fact of life that is not lost on anyone who lives here. .."
        Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Policies towards Burmese migrant workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Hard Labor
        Date of publication: May 2008
        Description/subject: Many Burmese invest hope and money to get work permits for Malaysia, only to find themselves exploited... "“I regret coming to Malaysia,” murmured Ko Shwe. “I feel afraid here. The only thing I want now is to go home.” A farmer from Sittwe in western Burma, Ko Shwe left his home last year after the protests against rising fuel prices sparked a national uprising. Faced with economic misery in Burma, Ko Shwe joined the thousands of Burmese—especially those from rural areas—migrating to foreign countries to earn a living. Just seven days after starting work at a factory in Kuala Lumpur, he lost his right hand while working with an electric lathe. Construction workers at a site in Kuala Lumpur. Typically, migrant workers face exploitation by employers and deportation by authorities. (Photo: AFP) Hiding his injury self-consciously, Ko Shwe spoke about his plan to return to Burma after he receives some compensation from his employer. However, as his work permit has not yet been approved, he is not confident of getting anything—not even reimbursement for his hospital bill. The ongoing economic decline in Burma has led to an outflow of laborers to neighboring countries. While Thailand has the most open market for illegal foreign labor, countries such as Malaysia provide an opportunity for workers with passports who can apply for legal employment..."
        Author/creator: Violet Cho
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


        Title: Burmese Migrant Workers in Thailand: Policy and Protection
        Date of publication: December 2001
        Description/subject: "It is estimated that the overall number of Burmese migrants in Thailand is somewhere in between 800,000 and one million. Cross-border migration into Thailand has steadily increased in recent years. Since the 1960s, hundreds of thousands of Thais have gone to work abroad. Refugees from Burma, Laos and Cambodia have since filled this labour shortage in Thailand. However, many of them are undocumented, illegal workers and thus constitute the most vulnerable section of the work force. As illegal non-citizens, they are least protected by a national legal system. The Thai Cabinet recently announced a new policy on migrant workers..."
        Author/creator: Darunee Paisanpanichkul
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
        Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal_Issues_on%20Burma_Journal_10.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Labor Pains
        Date of publication: September 2001
        Description/subject: "The Thai government's latest resolution to control the growing migrant worker population lacks resolve. The Thai government is promising a "total solution" to the country's migrant worker population. But if history is any guide, the new resolution looks just like the latest rendition of previously flawed policies. For years Burmese migrants have fueled border industries with cheap labor, but with a recession looming the Thai government is once again trying to tackle a problem that has caused previous administrations to stumble. Thai Labor Minister Dej Bunlong has said this latest registration scheme would benefit employers and workers both. Bunlong said employers would no longer have to pay kickbacks to keep their workers from being arrested and the workers would in turn benefit from both their legal standing and from the health care coverage they would be entitled to under the new resolution. This is the first time the government has offered to issue an unlimited number of work permits. Any worker who is at least eighteen years old and who is living in Thailand before September 24th is eligible for a permit if they apply before the October 13th deadline..."
        Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7, August-September 2001
        Format/size: pdf (89K) ; html
        Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20020628190739/www.irrawaddy.org/database/2001/vol9.7/labor.html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Seafarers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Shoring up Burma’s Seamen
        Date of publication: January 2003
        Description/subject: "From inside Burma, a job at sea might seem like a good career move, but many Burmese seamen are finding the voyage anything but smooth sailing. When the Seafarers Union of Burma (SUB) and the Port Authority of Thailand Workers Union conducted a check of ships harbored in Bangkok last October, they found 18 Burmese crewmembers on board a Taiwanese vessel named the Timber Star with salaries well below International Labor Organization (ILO) standards. "The ILO minimal standard wage is US $581 a month for a seaman," says Aung Thura, SUB’s assistant general secretary. "On the Timber Star the basic salary is $240, but from that, agents take an extra $100 to $150 for themselves," he adds. According to Aung Thura, three men on board the Timber Star took home only $50 a month. "When we found out that the crew members weren’t getting ILO standard salaries, we asked the ship’s owner to pay them in full. But the ship had already left the port," he explains. The SUB is now calling on members from other affiliates of the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) to join in an international strike against the owner of the Timber Star..."
        Author/creator: Ko Thet
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Sex workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: The Sex-for-sale Trap - Why Burmese migrant women risk all to work in Thailand’s brothels.
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: "Thirty-year-old Ma Lay (not her real name) seems an unlikely commercial sex worker. Soberly dressed and well spoken, she talks with serious concern about her efforts to educate other women in the sex trade about the risks of contracting AIDS. She is well qualified to lead an awareness campaign in the southern Thai town of Ranong, on the Burmese border. She has sold sex there for several years, sending money home to her family in Burma. She knows the scene well. And she is HIV-positive..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


        Title: Trafficking on the Thai-Burma Border
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Description/subject: Informal Burmese networks supply teenaged girls to customers of Thailand’s commercial sex industry.
        Author/creator: Colin Baynes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


        Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
        Date of publication: 14 July 2004
        Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
        Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
        Format/size: pdf (853K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


        Title: One Way Ticket
        Date of publication: January 2004
        Description/subject: Whether seeking a spouse or a job, there is no turning back for many Burmese women who journey to China By /Ruili, China... "Nandar faces a tough time in Ruili, a Chinese town close to Burma. She has no money and lives in a small, messy room in an apartment building that doubles as a brothel. But her face shows no fear. She looks like many of the Burmese girls who hang out in Ruili at night, their faces painted a ghostly white, sporting tight skirts or jeans, and soliciting men along a busy, shadowy street corner in the town center. But Nandar is not among them—yet..."
        Author/creator: Naw Seng
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2004


        Title: Wooing Women Workers
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "Crackdowns on Burmese migrants in Thailand push many women into the flesh trade... When 22-year-old Sandar Kyaw first arrived in Thailand from Burma two months ago, she worked 12-hour days, sewing clothing in one of the many garment factories around the border town of Mae Sot. Now she sits in a hot, dimly lit room in a brothel, watching TV with her co-workers, and waiting for a man to pay 500 baht (US $12.50) for one hour of sex with her. With six younger siblings and her parents struggling to make ends meet in Rangoon, making money is her main priority. "I want to save 10,000 baht and go home," she says. Since factory wages for illegal Burmese migrants average roughly 2,000 baht per month, saving such a sum on her sewing wages would have taken months. When her friend suggested they leave the factory for the more lucrative brothel, Sandar Kyaw agreed. Since she retains half her hourly fee, just one customer a day can net her three times her factory wage..."
        Author/creator: Kevin R. Manning
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=3128
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


        Title: MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
        Date of publication: January 2002
        Description/subject: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
        Author/creator: Brenda Belak
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Images Asia
        Format/size: PDF (567K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: "MIGRATING WITH HOPE": Burmese Women Working in Thailand and The Sex Industry
        Date of publication: July 1997
        Description/subject: "...This report, "Migrating With Hope: Burmese Women Working In Thailand and The Sex Industry" attempts to present and highlight the needs, interests, and realities of undocumented migrant women from Burma working as sex-workers in Thailand. We look at the lives of women in Burma, the migration processes, processes of entry into the sex-industry, and factors which govern women's wellbeing or suffering during the time of migration in Thailand. The authors hope that the documentation presented will provide useful information to prospective migrants from Burma. We also hope that it can be used to instigate programmes to protect the rights of and to provide the necessary services for undocumented migrant workers, and by doing this, prevent more Burmese women from being exploited. This report is written in the knowledge that women can become empowered to make informed choices about their lives. It is also hoped that this report will provide the general public with information not only about Burmese migrant women, but also about the situation of undocumented migrant workers who flee from Burma, a country ruled by a military regime..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Images Asia
        Format/size: pdf (284K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 May 2005


        Title: A MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY:
        Date of publication: August 1993
        Description/subject: A substantial and important report. ""Lin Lin" was thirteen years old when she was recruited by an agent for work in Thailand. Her father took $480 from the agent with the understanding that his daughter would pay the loan back out of her earnings. The agent took "Lin Lin" to Bangkok, and three days later she was taken to the Ran Dee Prom brothel. "Lin Lin" did not know what was going on until a man came into her room and started touching her breasts and body and then forced her to have sex. For the next two years, "Lin Lin" worked in various parts of Thailand in four different brothels, all but one owned by the same family. The owners told her she would have to keep prostituting herself until she paid off her father's debt. Her clients, who often included police, paid the owner $4 each time. If she refused a client's demands, she was slapped and threatened by the owner. She worked every day except for the two days off each month she was allowed for her menstrual period. Once she had to borrow money to pay for medicine to treat a painful vaginal infection. This amount was added to her debt. On January 18, 1993 the Crime Suppression Division of the Thai police raided the brothel in which "Lin Lin" worked, and she was taken to a shelter run by a local non-governmental organization. She was fifteen years old, had spent over two years of her young life in compulsory prostitution, and tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. "Lin Lin" is just one of thousands of Burmese women and girls who have been trafficked and sold into what amounts to female sexual slavery in Thailand. In the last two years, Thai NGOs estimate that at a minimum, some twenty thousand Burmese women and girls are suffering Lee's fate, or worse, and that ten thousand new recruits come in every year. They are moved from one brothel to another as the demand for new faces dictates, and often end up being sent back to Burma after a year or two to recruit their own successors..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asia Watch and the Women's Rights Project (Human Rights Watch)
        Format/size: html (394K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Women migrant workers

        Individual Documents

        Title: Here, We Are Walking on a Clothesline: Statelessness and Human (In)Security Among Burmese Women Political Exiles Living in Thailand
        Date of publication: 2012
        Description/subject: Abstract: "An estimated twelve million people worldwide are stateless, or living without the legal bond of citizenship or nationality with any state, and consequently face barriers to employment, property ownership, education, health care, customary legal rights, and national and international protection. More than one-quarter of the world’s stateless people live in Thailand. This feminist ethnography explores the impact of statelessness on the everyday lives of Burmese women political exiles living in Thailand through the paradigm of human security and its six indicators: food, economic, personal, political, health, and community security. The research reveals that exclusion from national and international legal protections creates pervasive and profound political and personal insecurity due to violence and harassment from state and non-state actors. Strong networks, however, between exiled activists and their organizations provide community security, through which stateless women may access various levels of food, economic, and health security. Using the human security paradigm as a metric, this research identifies acute barriers to Burmese stateless women exiles’ experiences and expectations of well-being, therefore illustrating the potential of human security as a measurement by which conflict resolution scholars and practitioners may describe and evaluate their work in the context of positive peace."
        Author/creator: Elizabeth Hooker
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Portland University (MS thesis)
        Format/size: pdf (588K)
        Alternate URLs: http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds?utm_source=pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu%2Fopen_acc...
        Date of entry/update: 28 October 2013


        Title: Problem Pregnancies
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Low paid jobs for Burmese migrants are plentiful—but no babies, please... MAE SOT, Thailand — "A pregnant woman sits on her hospital bed, loudly pleading for an abortion. In the same ward, another woman gazes with devotion at her own newly born child. A third woman attracts my attention because of her dark eyes, wide and innocent, in a pale face, damp with sweat. Ma Khaing is her name. She says she also wanted to abort her baby, by taking the traditional purgative kay thi pan. The herbal concoction only made her ill. The unborn baby was unharmed, although 23-year-old Ma Khaing was clearly not pleased to hear the news from medical staff at Dr Cynthia Maung’s Mae Tao clinic in the Thai-Burmese border town of Mae Sot. She looked downcast as a medic told her the baby would survive. Ma Khaing earns 160 baht (US $5) a day working on a sugar cane plantation near Mae Sot. Pregnancy and the prospect of an infant to care for pose a real threat to her livelihood—and I’m not surprised when she says: “I don’t want the baby. I want to work and save money.” Ma Khaing’s story is typical, according to Mae Tao staffer Naw Pine Mu. She has seen many abortion cases in her five years at the clinic. “All are migrant women, working in the factories or in the sugar cane fields,” Naw Pine Mu says. Pregnancy and motherhood cost them their jobs and push them back into poverty..."
        Author/creator: Aye Chan Myate
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


        Title: Caught Between Two Hells
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: The Report Highlights the Situation of Women Migrant Workers in Thailand and China...Executive Summary: Ten BWU researchers eondueted 149 in-depth interviews with migrant women and girl workers in Chiang Mai, Mae Sot, Ranong (Thailand) and Rulli (China) between November 2006-March 2007. Women working in diverse areas of work, ethnicity and age were asked to participate in the research so that the report could represent a wide range of experiences... The research highlights the atrocious day-to-day working conditions and human rights abuses encountered by migrant women and girls working in irregular situations and provides insight into the occupational hazards and harms migrants from Burma face in Thailand and China. The interviews were designed to provide women workers with a much-needed opportunity to speak their mind and assert their own "voice" regarding their work, a power that was often denied in their host countries... The research has showed that: . Migrant women and girl workers from Burma have very limited work opportunities in their host countries due to their irregular status and are often relegated to working in so-called 3Ds jobs (dirty, dangerous and demeaning) with little or no labor rights. . Migrant women and girl workers are doubly marginalized and highly vulnerable to abuses of their human rights due to both their lack of legal status and their gender. Security concerns for migrant women and girl workers are grave as they regularly experience threats of sexual harassment and violence while working in host countries... The BWU strongly urges the SPDC and governments of the host countries to consider migrant workers' needs and basic human rights. BWU insists that international human rights law be upheld and states work to protect migrants working in irregular settings, by protecting their human and labour rights, and by providing channels for redress when they are abused.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union
        Format/size: pdf (2.74MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/Caught_between_two_hells.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 January 2008


  • Migration to Burma

    • Migration from China to Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: Relatives from the North
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Waves of Chinese immigrants are changing the way of life—and the face—of Mandalay... I was riding in a taxi on the Mandalay-Sagaing highway, returning home on a familiar road still pockmarked with gaping holes and throwing up swirls of dust. Many people walked along the road, others pedaled bicycles and trishaws while others rode motorcycles or buses, everyone trying to escape the baking, midday sun. Having been away for three years, I felt that nothing had changed in Mandalay, which I still thought of as a city of bicycles. However, I soon realized that this once culturally conservative city is now a hub for energetic Chinese businessmen and their commercial goods. People told me the Chinese were friendlier now and that more Burmese were studying Chinese. Chinese businesspeople apparently control, or have strong interests in, building materials, clothing, household items, plastics, electronics, motorcycles, spare parts and gold. They also operate many restaurants and new hotels and guesthouses..."
      Author/creator: Aye Lae
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    • Migration from South Asia to Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: "Birds of Passage"; Migration of South Indian Labour Communities to South-East Asia; 19-20th Centuries, A.D.
      Date of publication: 2001
      Description/subject: "The main objective of this paper is to examine, in a long-term historical and comparative perspective, the course, nature and effects of migration of Telugu-Tamil speaking communities, "Madrasis"/"Coranghees" from South India to Southeast Asian countries, with special reference to Burma and Malaysia. It deals with the process of historical formation of immigrant labour communities and classes in the unorganized and unregulated sectors of employment in the Southeast Asian countries. It also explores the process of constitution of an immigrant community and it's interaction with and contribution to the host society. An attempt is made in this study to develop a comprehensive perspective on migration and settlement patterns and a migration paradigm that encompasses both free/voluntary and indentured/forced non-western intracontinental migration in the 19-20th centuries. It also addresses issues related to the types of migration, systems and methods of labour recruitment and control, motivations, perceptions and aspirations of the migrants, also the forces and factors that shaped the process of migration as well as the social origins/caste-community background of the migrants." International Inst. for Asian Studies, International Inst. for Social History, Amsterdam.
      Author/creator: Adapa Satyanarayana
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International I nstitute for Social History: IIAS/IISG (CLARA Working Paper, No. 11)
      Format/size: pdf (142K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003