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Politics and Government

  • Politics and Government - general studies

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar’s new political geography
    Date of publication: 17 October 2012
    Description/subject: "Alongside a team of talented cartographers and GIS specialists from the Australian National University’s College of Asia and the Pacific I have recently been working on a large series of maps designed to help illustrate the changing political geography of Myanmar. We hope that in the years ahead these maps will become a useful resource for scholars, students, analysts, journalists and others hoping to come to grips with the 2010 general election, and also with the 2012 by-election. Of course, the planned 2015 general election is when such mapping products, and the databases that drive them, could prove most compelling. For the moment, and in an effort to begin introducing this project, I recently recorded a short video presentation. In that presentation I begin to talk about some of the key elements of Myanmar’s changing political geography. I have plans to continue this project and to record further episodes in what may become a substantial series of discussions dealing with these issues of political geography. If there are particualr topics you would like to see discussed through these maps then please don’t hesitate to leave a comment or get in contact at the usual place. As I am learning, almost anything is possible when it comes to the wizardry of cutting-edge cartographic work."
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2014


    Title: CIA Factbook, Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CIA
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Politics and Government (Burmese) ႏိုင္ငံေရးႏွင့္ အစိုးရ burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: Legislators in Myanmar’s First “Post- Junta” National Parliament (2010–2015): A Sociological Analysis
    Date of publication: September 2014
    Description/subject: Abstract: "In an attempt to better grasp the realities of Myanmar’s na- tional legislature, which was formed after the 2010 elections, this paper examines the personal profiles and social backgrounds of its elected and appointed members. I have sought to record data on the social composition of Myanmar’s first “post-junta” parliament and provide a dataset for further comparative research on the resurgence of legislative affairs in the country. The study draws on official publications containing the biographies of 658 national parliamentarians. Focusing on six socio-demographic variables, the findings suggest that the typical Burmese legislator still closely mirrors the conventional image of Myanmar’s characteristic postcolonial leader: a man, in his mid-fifties, ethnically Bamar, Buddhist, holding a Myanmar university degree, engaged in business activities or in the education sector (in the case of the 492 elected legislators) or in the security sector (for the 166 military appointees). However, I argue that the profile of Myanmar’s first post-junta legislature offers a quite unexpected level of diversity that may augur well for the emergence of a new civilian policymaking elite in Myanmar.... Manuscript received 14 August 2014; accepted 21 September 2014.... Keywords: Myanmar, parliament, legislature composition, parliamentary elites, sociological profile, Burmese legislator, Hluttaws
    Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 2/2014: 91–124
    Format/size: pdf (743K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2014


    Title: The elephant and Myanmar politics
    Date of publication: 29 April 2014
    Description/subject: "When news broke about the National League for Democracy (NLD) postponing its parliamentary debut on account of a dispute over the wording of the oath to be taken by new Members of Parliament (MP) one immediate reaction was to recall a well known Myanmar saying “Hsinpyaung Gyi Ah Mee Kya Hma Tit” or “The tusker got stuck at the tail”. After all the efforts by the government, led by reformist President U Thein Sein, and the NLD, led by Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (DASSK), to set aside differences and work together on common issues for the sake of Myanmar, the process to bring the NLD back into the mainstream political process now appears stalled over the choice of words whether to “uphold and abide by” (current version) or “respect” (NLD’s preference) the Constitution..."
    Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2014


    Title: Return to the fold
    Date of publication: 22 April 2014
    Description/subject: "The shadow of Myanmar’s past military rule won’t harm its new-found place as a respected member of ASEAN and the region. Whether Myanmar did a good job chairing the recent 24th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit, held in Nay Pyi Taw from 10-11 May depends very much on whom you ask. For Myanmar’s leaders the summit appears to have been an almost complete success. Myanmar hosted what appears to have been an efficient and smoothly ‘talk fest’, revealing false the naysayers’ fears about not enough hotels, not enough roads and not enough logistical know-how to run a large high profile international event. All the symbols of a successful ASEAN meeting were produced; glossy photos of smiling dignitaries, a series of carefully worded statements and of course the Nay Pyi Taw Declaration, “Realisation of the ASEAN Community by 2015”. In an association as concerned with process as ASEAN, these symbols are incredibly important, suggesting business as usual and on-going regional harmony. Compared to the fiasco of the 45th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting held in 2012 under Cambodian leadership, which failed to produce for the first time a joint communiqué, this is no mean achievement. Through this success, Myanmar has cemented its position as a legitimate, efficient and productive member of ASEAN, newly returned to the fold after the years of overt military rule had cast it as an outsider criticised by fellow members for its violent political repression. For ASEAN itself the Summit is harder to read. It was always unlikely that substantial progress on the South China Sea issue would have been forthcoming. But ASEAN seems to have made no forward motion at all. The Nay Pyi Taw Declaration limits itself, in point 7, to a restatement of existing agreements that so far have proven woefully inadequate to resolving the situation. Those critical of Myanmar will point to its on-going close ties to China and a failure of Myanmar to take clear ‘pro-ASEAN’ leadership. Those more forgiving note that escalating tensions between ASEAN members Vietnam and China obscure the fact that member states themselves have competing claims to the region and that an agreement to diplomatic resolution is at least not a step backwards. Perhaps Myanmar’s greatest challenge in 2014 is working towards the completion of ASEAN’s community project in 2015. The Nay Pyi Taw Declaration certainly says the right things, with repeated reference to ‘accelerating’ ‘intensifying’ and ‘strengthening’ existing plans. Whether or not these claims are realised with the completion of the political, economic and socio-cultural communities that ASEAN is building, remains to be seen. While there is scepticism that ASEAN will finish everything it has set out to achieve, it is doubtful whether this can be laid solely at Myanmar’s door given the Charter was signed in 2007. For at least some of the citizens of Myanmar though, the Summit offered little. Going into the Summit there had been interest in whether human rights issues, especially concerning on-going violence against Myanmar’s Rohingya minority would be brought into discussion. Myanmar managed to keep this off of the agenda completely, and the Nay Pyi Taw Declaration contains only bland commitments to human rights, with the usual ASEAN caveat that non-intervention remains the paramount right of member states. In contrast to Gareth Robinson, writing for New Mandala on 21 May, I do not think the domestic situation in Myanmar will impact on its engagement with Southeast Asia. Robinson writes that ‘the continuing shadow of the military over the governance of the country is also likely to encourage scepticism at the prospect of Burma assuming a greater role in regional cooperation’. I believe quite the opposite is true; that the ongoing domestic situation in Myanmar is now at a ‘low enough level’ to not raise itself on the regional radar. It was never the military regime itself that ASEAN was concerned with, but its repeated violation of even the most basic standards of good governance through widespread repression. The move towards a limited democracy that institutionalised the military’s position in Myanmar’s society was welcomed by ASEAN as early as the 2010 election – the same election being widely criticised outside of the region. ASEAN is concerned with the general domestic situation in Myanmar. Partial liberalisation, partial democracy and partial ceasefires are enough for ASEAN. Given the variety of ASEAN member states domestic situations, and at the moment the clearly anti-democratic movements in Thailand, there is little room for ASEAN to be concerned with much more. Robinson’s more general claim, that Myanmar is becoming a regional player, is far stronger. We can see it being played out now through events like the ASEAN Summit. As its economy opens to regional and global trade and investment, Myanmar’s position is only going to strengthen. The more interesting question, however, is what values a stronger, more regionally engaged, Myanmar will seek to promote as it engages more fully with the world and the region. Having staked a claim as a legitimate part of the regional conversation, Myanmar’s leaders will need to now think about what it is they actually want to say."
    Author/creator: Mathew Davies
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 July 2014


    Title: Politics of Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Political conditions... 2 History - 2.1 Independence era; 2.2 AFPFL/Union Government; 2.3 Military socialist era; 2.4 SPDC era; 2.5 New constitution; 2.6 2010 Election; 2.7 2012 By Elections... 3 Executive branch - 3.1 Members of Government of Burma... 4 Legislative branch... 5 Judicial system - 5.1 Wareru dhammathat; 5.2 Dhammazedi pyatton... 6 Administrative divisions... 7 International organization participation... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 Further reading... 11 External links - 11.1 Burmese democracy and human rights online media
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


  • Burma/Myanmar's Executive (under construction)

    • President's Office

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: President's Office website
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 May 2012


    • Presidential Orders, Notifications, Decrees etc.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Announcements (English)
      Description/subject: Back to October 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: Notifications
      Description/subject: Notifications back to March 2012. 18 notifications, as of 9 April 2013
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: Orders
      Description/subject: Back to March 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Farm Land Rules
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: This translation of the Rules is in need of editing, which the OBL Librarian is undertaking. Pending the completion of the editing, we are putting this unedited version online, since the general meaning is clear.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation/President's Office
      Format/size: pdf (159K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


      Title: Announcements (ေၾကညာခ်က္မ်ား)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2014


      Title: Notifications (အမိန္႔ေၾကာ္ျငာစာမ်ား)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2014


      Title: Orders (အမိန္႔မ်ား)
      Date of publication: 2011
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2014


    • Ministries and other administrative bodies

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Cabinet of Burma
      Description/subject: The Cabinet of Burma is the executive body of the Burmese government led by the President.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Farm Land Rules
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: This translation of the Rules is in need of editing, which the OBL Librarian is undertaking. Pending the completion of the editing, we are putting this unedited version online, since the general meaning is clear.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation/President's Office
      Format/size: pdf (159K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


  • Elections (Burma)

    • International organisations concerned with elections

      • Inter-Parliamentary Union resolutions etc. on elections in Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire
        Description/subject: Pour trouver la resolution sur Myanmar d'une session specifique du Conseil, rechercher Myanmar AND 168ieme, Myanmar AND 168ieme etc. (a partir de la 157ieme)
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 189th session of the Governing Council, (Bern, October 2011): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 19 October 2011
        Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:.....Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 189th session (Bern, 19 October 2011): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People’s Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, all elected in the elections of May 1990, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/189/11(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 188th session (April 2011), Recalling that, on 21 March 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a resolution in which it called upon the Government to lift restrictions on freedom of assembly, association and movement and on freedom of expression, including for free and independent media, and to end the use of censorship, including the use of restrictive laws to prevent the reporting of views critical of the Government, and strongly urged the Government of Myanmar to release all prisoners of conscience, including the former parliamentarians - numbering 12 at the time - who had been sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which disregarded their right to a fair trial, Noting that former parliamentarian Mr. Kyaw San was released on 17 May 2011 upon having served his sentence, Recalling that since the new Parliament of Myanmar, elected on 7 November 2010, started its work, members of the opposition in Parliament have called on the Government to release all political prisoners, a call which the Minister of Home Affairs dismissed on 22 March 2011 as untimely; that, however, at the end of August 2011, members of Parliament again raised the matter of an amnesty, Considering that, on 11 October 2011, the Government indeed announced an amnesty for more than 6,000 prisoners and that, under the amnesty, Mr. Saw Hlaing, Mr. Kyaw Khin and Mr. Than Lwin were released on 12 October 2011 along with some 200 other political prisoners; that the release took place at a time when the President signed into law a new Labour Organization Act permitting the establishment of trade unions, which had no effect been banned since 1962, and a senior government official talked of the need to do away with censorship..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 188th session of the Governing Council, (Panama, April 2011): Myanmar
        Date of publication: February 2011
        Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:..... Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 188th session (Panama, 20 April 2011)... The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People's Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/188/13(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 187th session (October 2010), Recalling that 12 former members-elect continue to suffer imprisonment on account of having merely exercised their freedom of expression and were sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which blatantly disregarded their right to a fair trial; that their case has to be situated in a context in which it has expressed the following long-standing concerns: ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 187th session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2010): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 06 October 2010
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 187th session (Geneva, 6 October 2010)..."Reaffirms its belief that the exclusion of 12 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process, along with the persistent restrictions on human rights and political activity, casts serious doubt on the authorities' willingness to ensure that the outcome of this historic opportunity, the first elections in 20 years, can genuinely reflect the will of the people;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 186th session of the Governing Council (Bangkok, April 2010): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 01 April 2010
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 186th session (Bangkok, 1 April 2010)..."Calls on the authorities to do everything possible to ensure that the elections are inclusive, free and fair and to make the changes to the electoral laws that this requires; draws their attention in this respect to the Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections which the Inter‑Parliamentary Union adopted on 26 March 1994; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 185th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2009): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 October 2009
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 185th session (Geneva, 21 October 2009)..."Reaffirms that the Constitution fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired and that elections are doomed to be a sham in a climate of fear and repression of all freedom of expression and political activity and the exclusion of 13 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 184th session of the Governing Council (Addis Ababa, April 2009): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 April 2009
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 184th session (Addis Ababa, 10 April 2009)..."Reaffirms its belief that the Constitution, which provides the legal and institutional framework for the 2010 elections, fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; recalls in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start, and that the climate of fear, distrust and total lack of transparency in which the referendum on the draft Constitution was conducted stripped it of any credibility;..."
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 183rd session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2008): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 15 October 2008
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and at present in detention, and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 183rd session (Geneva, 15 October 2008)..."Reaffirms its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; considers that the widespread and grave irregularities which have been reported with respect to the referendum on the draft Constitution have only confirmed initial concerns that it would take place in a climate of fear, repression, distrust and total lack of transparency, thus turning the whole exercise into a deliberate attempt to erect a democratic façade for sustained military power; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 182nd session of the Governing Council (Cape Town, April 2008): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 April 2008
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007: and those who were assassinated...the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 182nd session (Cape Town, 18 April 2008)..."...Denounces the final draft of the Constitution for providing a legal basis to prolong the military authorities' hold on power; reaffirms in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 181st session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 October 2007
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and those who were assassinated... the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 181st session, Geneva October 2007
        Language: English (French also available)
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 180th session of the Governing Council (Bali, May 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 04 May 2007
        Description/subject: List of detained parliamentarians in Myanmar, plus the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 180th session (Nusa Dua, Bali, 4 May 2007): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union,... 1. Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive its people of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 2. Reaffirms that the National Convention, in its present form, has no other purpose than to prolong and legitimize military rule and that any document adopted by it will be illegitimate, contemptuous as it will be of the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (180th Session of the Governing Council)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians 116th session (Geneva, 15-18 January 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 January 2007
        Description/subject: Decision adopted by the Committee at its 116th session (Geneva, 15 - 18 January 2007): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity; 2. Deplores the lack of any willingness on the part of the authorities to address these concerns, and urges them once again to release the 14 parliamentarians-elect still imprisoned forthwith and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections, in particular by giving serious consideration to the proposal made by the NLD; 3. Renews its call on the international community to help bring about respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, takes note of the latest developments at the Security Council and calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure full and continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar by the Security Council, also calls again on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China and India as neighbouring countries, to pursue and strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, and encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union - Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians
        Format/size: pdf (49K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: I Inter-Parliamentary Union, 179th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2006): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 179th session (Geneva, 18 October 2006): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people's will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 178th session of the Governing Council (Nairobi, May 2006): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 12 May 2006
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 178th session (Nairobi, 12 May 2006): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union:... Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive the people of Myanmar of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in open defiance of the democratic values to which they aspire; # Renews its call on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China, Thailand and India as neighbouring countries to continue and to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar; strongly encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work; # Also calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure the continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar in the Security Council; # Condemns the harsh prison sentence handed down on parliamentarian-elect Khun Tun Oo in an unfair trial and at the extended prison terms of Dr. Than Nyein and May Win Myint on the basis of legal provisions running counter to basic international human rights standards; # Urges the authorities to release them forthwith, together with the other 10 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and can claim to represent the people; # Expresses its support for the proposal made by the NLD in February 2006, and calls on the authorities to take it into serious consideration..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 177th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2005): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 19 October 2005
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 177th session (Geneva, 19th October 2005):"The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... # Deplores the fact that its persistent efforts to seek a direct dialogue with the authorities continue to be unavailing; stresses that the aim of the Committee's procedure, which is to find, in cooperation with the authorities, a satisfactory settlement of the cases, is bound to fail if no official response is forthcoming; # Is deeply concerned that parliamentarians-elect Kyaw San and Kyaw Min, and the latter's family, were recently sentenced to long prison terms after a trial falling far short of basic internationally recognized fair trial guarantees; # Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires a full removal of the ban on political activities and the release of all political prisoners, and the establishment of institutions representative of the people's will; # Once more urges therefore the authorities to release forthwith the 13 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, starting with those whose health is highly precarious, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people; # Calls upon the Member Parliaments of the IPU to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives pressing for the respect of democratic principles in Myanmar; particularly encourages them to draw upon the parliamentary initiatives listed in the compilation; # Strongly believes that continuous attention and action by the international community is crucial in bringing about positive change in Myanmar; strongly encourages Parliaments of countries on the United Nations Security Council to press their governments to ensure that the Council receives regular briefings on the situation of Myanmar from the United Nations Secretary General; would greatly appreciate receiving information about any action to this end..." plus List of parliamentarians still reportedly serving their sentence.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: INITIATIVES PARLEMENTAIRES EN FAVEUR DES PARLEMENTAIRES-ELUS ET DU RESPECT DES PRINCIPES DEMOCRATIQUES AU MYANMAR - Compilation de reponses a une enquete de l'Union interparlementaire
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
        Format/size: Word (194K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


        Title: PARLIAMENTARY INITIATIVES IN FAVOUR OF PARLIAMENTARIANS-ELECT AND RESPECT FOR DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN MYANMAR - A compilation of replies to a survey by the Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: Word (201K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 176th session of the Governing Council (Manila, April 2005): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 April 2005
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 176th session (Manila, 8 April 2005)..."... Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires the full removal of the ban on political activities and the establishment of institutions that are representative of the people’s will; reaffirms in this respect its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, can only be seen as a body designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any constitution adopted by that body would lack legitimacy; 5. Calls upon the authorities to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html (46K), Word (57K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 April 2005


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 175th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, September-October 2004): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 01 October 2004
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 175th session (Geneva, 1st October 2004)... Lists of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence; Parliamentarians who died in custody; arliamentarians who were assassinated...The resolution comments on the cases and makes a strong criticique of the National Convnetion process, which it considers in its present form, to be "designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 October 2004


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 174th session of the Governing Council, (Mexico City, April 2004): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 23 April 2004
        Description/subject: "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union ... Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government"..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html (26K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/IPUres-Mexico2004.htm
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2004


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 173rd session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2003): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 03 October 2003
        Description/subject: Lists of: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence, Parliamentarians who have reportedly been detained, under house arrest or have disappeared since 30 May 2003, Parliamentarians who died in custody and Parliamentarians who were assassinated. Plus text of the resolution on Myanmar adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 173rd session (Geneva, 3 October 2003). Notably, this resolution contains (in para 10) a telling comment on the SPDC's "road-map": "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... Expresses serious doubts about the recently presented "road map", step one of which suggests that the National Convention to be reconvened; reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people, as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, octobre 2003): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 03 October 2003
        Description/subject: Listes de: Parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; Parlementaires qui auraient été détenus, assignés à résidence ou auraient disparu depuis le 30 mai 2003; Parlementaires décédés en détention; et Parlementaires assassinés. En plus, le texte de la resolution du Conseil Interparliamentaire qui contient notamment (para 10) un commentaire pointue sur la "feuille de route" offerte par le SPDC: "Le Conseil directeur de l'Union interparlementaire...exprime de sérieux doutes quant à la "feuille de route" récemment présentée, qui prévoit en premier lieu une nouvelle convocation de la Convention nationale; réaffirme sa conviction que la Convention nationale ne tend qu'à prolonger et à légitimer le régime militaire contre la volonté du peuple telle qu'elle s'est exprimée lors des élections de 1990 et qu'elle est donc en contradiction flagrante avec le principe consacré par la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme, selon lequel " la volonté du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité des pouvoirs publics..."
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparliamentaire
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 171st session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, September 2002)
        Date of publication: 27 September 2002
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 171st session (Geneva, 27 September 2002)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, septembre 2002)
        Date of publication: 27 September 2002
        Description/subject: Listes de: parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; qui auraient été libérés après avoir purgé leur peine; décédés en détention; et qui ont été assassinés... Résolution adoptée à l'unanimité par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 171ème session (Genève, le 27 septembre 2002)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 170th session of the Governing Council, (Marrakech, March 2002)
        Date of publication: 23 March 2002
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 170th session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 and 23 March 2002)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Marrakech, mars 2002)
        Date of publication: 23 March 2002
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 170me session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 et 23 mars 2002)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Ouagadougou, September, 2001)
        Date of publication: 14 September 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 169th session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 and 14 September 2001.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparliamentaire (Ouagadougou, septembre 2001)
        Date of publication: 14 September 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 169me session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 et 14 septembre 2001
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Havana, April 2001)
        Date of publication: 07 April 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 168th session (Havana, April 2001).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union Interparlementaire (Havane, avril 2001)
        Date of publication: 07 April 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 168me session (La Havane, avril 2001)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Jakarta, October 2000)
        Date of publication: 21 October 2000
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 167th session (Jakarta, 21 October 2000).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union Interparlementaire (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
        Date of publication: 21 October 2000
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 167me session (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Multiparty elections - theory, practice, monitoring and assistance

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Suu Kyi shifts pre-election tack in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 12 June 2014
        Description/subject: "After two years of delicate accommodation, Myanmars military backed government and the main pro-democracy opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) are on a collusion course ahead of general elections scheduled for next year. An NLD-led campaign launched last month to amend the 2008 constitution is openly challenging the militarys political power and testing political stability ahead of the pivotal polls. The national drive for charter change aims broadly to accelerate the countrys still tentative transition from decades of authoritarian military rule towards democracy. In particular, the campaign is geared towards diminishing the role of military appointees to parliament who currently control 25% of its seats. The campaign however is not geared towards changing article 59(f), which bars NLD leader and pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi from assuming the presidency because she was married to a foreign national."
        Author/creator: Larry Jagan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 13 June 2014


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
        Description/subject: (International IDEA). Search for Burma, Aung San Suu Kyi etc.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Myanmar could learn from Germany
        Date of publication: 04 October 2013
        Description/subject: "A more proportional, mixed-member electoral system could enhance representation and stability, protecting the young democracy’s inchoate parliamentary transition. Myanmar’s electoral commission must consider reforming the electoral systems to accomplish three goals: (a) maximizing ethnic representation and proportionality; (b) guaranteeing political stability and peace; and (c) ensuring a political majority of party leaders in parliament can still have the appropriate authority to enact legislation and advance policy actions. The ideal electoral system for Myanmar’s 2015 general elections would be akin to Germany’s: a Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP) one, with one house electing members of Parliament (MPs) by means of plurality elections in regional districts and the other by proportional representation (PR) using a party list. Under the current SMD plurality vote, the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), which swept the 1990 elections and still commands widespread popularity, stands poised to win a landslide victory at the polls in the upcoming 2015 General Elections. In the wake of 1990’s elections, the military junta annulled the ballot results and refused to hand over power, imprisoning and torturing many of their political leaders, and sentencing party leader Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Burma’s independence movement, General Aung San, to 15 of 21 years under house arrest. Given the likelihood of the incumbent USDP’s loss to the NLD in 2015, the USDP, working with other political parties and the Union Electoral Commission (UEC), should vote to amend the current electoral system and adopt a Mixed Member Proportional System. MMP, on the other hand, promises greater proportionality while still favoring a clear majority. Many of the current MPs, particularly in the two largest parties, the USDP and the NLD, may resist electoral reform, fearing they will lose their slice of the parliamentary pie, but, ironically, it is the largest party, the USDP, which has the most to fear were Myanmar to keep the current elections system. MMP could in fact be the USDP’s best hope of avoiding an all-out loss to the opposition on election day. A mixed member election system may be Myanmar’s best chance for its conflict prone democracy to survive over the long run...."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


        Title: Ensuring Free and Fair Elections in a Democratic Burma: Establishing an Electoral System and Election Processes
        Date of publication: April 2001
        Description/subject: "A country embarking on a transition to democracy has many issues to deal with. One of the most critical is the question of elections, the type of system chosen and the manner in which elections are conducted.1 Free and fair elections are necessary to establish a democratic, human rights-based society, and to ensure that the government and the state are legitimate.2 The right to vote is an instrument of power for both the voter and the state. When giving the people the right to vote, it is necessary to determine who is permitted to vote, and to regulate the exercise of the vote through a system which could include legislation and ways of verifying the identity of people. Such a system helps to prevent non-resident citizens from voting, and to exclude residents who do not qualify to vote. In some countries, for example, prisoners may not vote..."
        Author/creator: Jeremy Sarkin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
        Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • The 2012 By-Elections in Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
      Description/subject: Archive from 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS - A CHANCE FOR FUTURE RECONCILIATION? (English)
      Date of publication: 11 April 2012
      Description/subject: "...The NLD’s success in the by-election, while not providing it with the ability to dramatically influence the parliamentary process at the moment, suggests that the country may be on course towards genuine democratic transition and reconciliation. However, it is imperative that President Thein Sein, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and all ethnic actors work together to maintain this momentum and ensure that the county continues to move forward towards genuine change, an end to ethnic conflict, and equality for all peoples of the country."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 5 )
      Format/size: pdf (517K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


      Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
      Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


      Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (English)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
      Format/size: pdf (284K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


      Title: The Lady and the generals meet half-way
      Date of publication: 06 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's highly anticipated by-elections, held on April 1 for some 45 parliamentary seats, has borne its first diplomatic fruit. The United States announced a relaxation of certain economic sanctions and movement on the resumption of full diplomatic relations with Naypyidaw in reward for the country's recent democratic progress. However, the opposition National League for Democracy's landslide victory of 43 out of the 45 seats may be somewhat overstated and questions remain about the sincerity of President Thein Sein's government's commitment to sustainable reform..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


      Title: Burma: between elections and democracy
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Description/subject: The by-election victory of Aung San Suu Kyi’s party in Burma (Myanmar) raises the question of whether the country is at last on an irreversible path towards democracy. A detailed analysis of the context suggests seven reasons for caution, says Joakim Kreutz.
      Author/creator: Joakim Kreutz
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: openDemocracy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Do Elections in Myanmar Signal Real Change?
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Author/creator: Aarti Ramachandran, Ariel Stulberg, Ethan Wagner, Ethan Wilkes, and Krisztian Simon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Policy Digest
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: The Lady of all landslides
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Description/subject: Aung San Suu Kyi’s win is a humiliation for the army. Will it now turn nasty?
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Time"
      Format/size: pdf (60K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 April 2012


      Title: 1 April 2012 By-Election results
      Date of publication: 04 April 2012
      Description/subject: These results were published in "The New Light of Myanmar" of 3 and 4 April, 2012. According to Mizzima: "The final, official by-election results announced by the Burmese Union Election Commission on Tuesday gave the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) 6.4 per cent of the seats in Parliament. The NLD won a total of 43 seats in the April 1 by-election. The NLD contested for a total of 44 vacant seats. It won 37 seats in the Lower House, four seats in the Upper House and two seats in state or regional assemblies. Dr. Myat Nyarna Soe of National Democratic Force (NDF) won a seat in the Upper House in 2010, and he later joined the NLD, giving it a total of five Upper House seats, making the NLD representation in Parliament 44 seats. According to the Constitution, there should be 224 parliamentarians in the Upper house and 440 parliamentarians in Lower House. However, there are a total 224 MPs in Upper House and 432 MPs in Lower House. The total parliamentarians in Parliament will be 656. The EC announcement said Shan Nationalities Democratic Party candidate Sai San Min won the Shan State No. 3 constituency Upper House seat; and Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Tin Mya won the Sagaing Region constituency no. 7 Upper House seat, respectively."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" April 3, 4
      Format/size: pdf (382K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Current Political Situation and the International Boycott
      Date of publication: 04 April 2012
      Description/subject: 50 or so articles from international media, many on the by-elections...N.B. 7 or more pages.
      Author/creator: Edith Bronder (curator)
      Source/publisher: Scoop-it
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Live By-Election Coverage
      Date of publication: 02 April 2012
      Description/subject: Video and text items from various sources
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: "Mizzima"
      Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2012


      Title: "Myanmar Times" By-Elections Special
      Date of publication: 01 April 2012
      Description/subject: Hluttaw reps ready for arrival of NLD; Can peace trump political divisions? USDP actions speak louder than words: U Htay Oo; By-election raises high interest of locals in Mandalay; Shan State vote hints at ethnic divide; Nay Pyi Taw by-elections: too close to call; Will invalid votes be a factor in election results?; Election predictions; MPs will follow our lead: NLD; In inner Yangon, a humanitarian worker turns to politics; In Mandalay, voter knowledge remains an issue for parties; Independent candidate U Khin Hlaing, Mayangone; Independent for Meiktila, Daw Myint Myint Aye; Shan party confident of Lashio win; Voices from Maha Aung Myay tsp; 88 Generation forms ‘Election Watch Group’; Nay Pyi Taw residents, candidates predict fair poll.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012


      Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS: STILL SHORT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
      Date of publication: 27 March 2012
      Description/subject: The trouble with the by-elections; Electoral framework not in line with int’l standards; Election laws limit political participation; Election Commission lacks independence and impartiality; Campaign restrictions still in place; Complaint process ineffective and inaccessible; Restrictions, irregularities, harassment, and vote-buying mar pre-election period; Restrictions on NLD activities; Widespread irregularities; Threats, harassment, and vote buying; More voters disenfranchised; Censorship still in place; Election observation falls short of international standards; By-elections who’s who
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (147K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Burma: Free and fair elections do not mean civil and political rights exist, evidenced by continued detention of political prisoners
      Date of publication: 27 March 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "For the first time in decades, Burma will be holding Parliamentary by-­‐elections that allows major opposition parties to contest the available seats. The move has been hailed by many in the international community as evidence of democratic progress and the elections are now being used as a benchmark for lifting sanctions if deemed “free and fair” by international monitors. However, whether the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner is not a genuine reflection of the level of civil and political liberties accorded to the people of Burma. There are hundreds of political prisoners still behind bars, and those who have been released face deprivation of fundamental freedoms and extensive monitoring by security forces. What matters most is not what happens on the day of the elections, but how the campaigns are conducted in the months preceding. There have been countless reports of ballot fraud, intimidation, and harassment of opposition groups that show the elections will be anything but free and fair. We call on the international community to not be fooled by the charade and maintain pressure on the U Thein Sein regime until all political prisoners are released and concrete measures are taken to ensure political and civil liberties are enjoyed by all in Burma."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (283)
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    • The 2010 General Elections in Burma
      See the 7-Step Roadmap at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2378&lo=d&sl=0 -- especially Step 5

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
      Description/subject: Archive from 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    • The 1990 General Elections in Burma
      See also Constitutional and Parliamentary processes (under Law and Constitution) at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1139&lo=d&sl=0

      • The 1990 elections - general articles and studies

        Individual Documents

        Title: A Day to Remember
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: The 1990 election—will my vote ever mean anything?... "My entire family woke up early that day. Our neighbors were already leaving their homes. Some eagerly shouted at us not to be late. My 63-year-old grandmother and my mother joined them and I rushed to follow. It was election day—May 27, 1990—the first time in 30 years the Burmese people had been called on to go to the polls..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


        Title: Was It A Parliamentary Election or Not?
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: Whatever the answer, the people rejected military rule... "Burma has more than its fair share of miserable anniversaries. One of the more baffling of them falls on May 27, the anniversary of arguably the most spectacular ignored general election in history. The ruling generals of the State Law and Order Restoration Council first confounded their many critics by holding a relatively free and fair ballot, and then completely dumbfounded them by carrying on as if it had never occurred..."
        Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      • The 1990 elections, the elected representatives and their parties

        Individual Documents

        Title: 1990 MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY GENERAL ELECTIONS
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: This is a 300-page collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. In addition to the 1.1MB pdf file, it can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Format/size: pdf ( 1.1MB), html (3.9MB - also broken into 4), Word (2.0MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.htm

        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.doc (Word version for downloading)

        Part 1 (Contents, general statistics, summaries of campaign speeches - html, 115K): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm

        Part 2 (election results by party and candidate - html 1.6MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-02.htm

        Part 3 (brief biographies of elected MPs by State and Division - html, 1.2MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-03.htm

        Part 4 (other related lists, including detained MPs, and documents - html, 568K) http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-04.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Book of Record on the 1990 General Elections
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: This is a collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. It can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


        Title: Brief Biographies of Exiled Members of Parliament of Burma
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: Organised by States and Divisions
        Author/creator: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Language: English
        Format/size: html (192K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GANDHI HALL DECLARATION
        Date of publication: 29 July 1990
        Description/subject: 8th Waxing Day of Wagaung BE 1352 29 July 1990 "1. We, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, after assembling here at the Mahatama Gandhi Hall in Kyauktada township, Rangoon, on the seventh and eighth waxing days of Wagaung BE 1352 , 28 and 29 July 1990 , and after consulting and discussing the matters concerning the well being of the nation , State affairs and convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw , unanimously adopt this Gandhi Hall Declaration..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
        Format/size: html (25K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 June 2003


        Title: The Manifesto of the National League for Democracy
        Date of publication: 06 November 1989
        Description/subject: "1. Throughout the Union of Burma in 1988 there was an extraordinary and unprecedented uprising of all people. They rose up to demand Democracy. Thus, a democratic state was established in order to be liberated from the bitter experience of the society. 2. Now, a chance to establish a democratic system began to emerge that would totally change society. Hence, all the people of Burma, with active spirit and strong determination, would have to elect the peoples' representatives. Those representatives would form a democratic government in accordance with the aspiration of the people and draw up the state constitution that will enable a successful reconstruction of the country. 3. The National League for Democracy firmly believes that, today, in Burma, the masses of people are earnestly aspiring for the formation of a Democratic government that will guarantee basic human rights. 4. The National League for Democracy clearly understands that all the people of Burma are very keen to establish a firmly united "Union" in the near future with equal rights for all ethnic nationalities who cherish democracy. 5. In order to bring about the aims and aspirations of the people successfully, the National League for Democracy, consisting of people wishing to represent farmers, workers, merchants and entrepreneurs, students, youths, women, technicians, academicians, artists and ethnic nationalities, shall let their members participate in this multi-party General Election and pledges to accept the decision of the people. 6. The National League for Democracy, while declaring its principles and policy below, shall accept the wishes of the people and establish a democratic state as desired by the people..."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
        Format/size: html (78K), Word (67K), pdf (32K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDElectionManifesto1989.doc
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDmanifestoBur.pdf (Burmese)
        Date of entry/update: 20 April 2004


        Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • State-Society relations

    • State-Society relations - Burma/Myanmar and the region

      Individual Documents

      Title: ‘Stilled to silence at 500 metres’: making sense of historical change in Southeast Asia
      Date of publication: November 2008
      Description/subject: "The dialectical relationship between the nation state and zones of relative autonomy isn’t unique to mainland Southeast Asia, but it is of particular salience there, demarcating the social cleavage that shapes much of the region’s history: that between hill peoples and valley peoples. It led to a process of state formation in valleys and peopling of hills, and left the latter largely absent from the historical record...‘Non-state spaces’ are where the state has difficulty establishing its authority: mountains, swamps, mangrove coasts, deserts, river deltas. Such places have often served as havens of refuge for peoples resisting or fleeing the state. Only the modern state possesses the resources to bring non-state spaces and people to heel; in Southeast Asia it represents the last great effort to integrate people, land and resources of the periphery and make them contributors to the gross national product. The state might dub it ‘development’, ‘economic progress’, ‘literacy’, ‘social integration’, but the real objective is to make the economic activity of peripheral societies taxable and assessable – to make it serve the state – by, for example, obliging nomads or swidden cultivators to settle in permanent villages, concentrating manpower and foodstuffs. Thus the padi-state was an ‘enclosure’ of previously stateless peoples: irrigated rice agriculture on permanent fields helped create the state’s strategic and military advantage. In fact, the permanent association of the state and sedentary agriculture is at the centre of this story (a story by no means confined to Southeast Asia, which this article targets). The vast ‘barbarian’ periphery became a vital resource: human captives formed a successful state’s working capital. Avoiding the state used to be a real option. Today it is quickly vanishing..."
      Author/creator: James C. Scott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 49)
      Format/size: pdf (225K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Beyond hills and plains: rethinking trade, state and society in the upper Mekong borderlands
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Borderlands are often described as ‘frontier zones’ characterised by ‘rebelliousness, lawlessness and/or an absence of laws’ (Kristof 1959: 281). Anecdotes resonate with popular images of a remote underworld (or perhaps ‘outerworld’) where state authority is weak and lawlessness prevails. In the upper Mekong borderlands of Thailand, Laos and Burma, the imagery of borderland illegality persists both as spectre and lure, but the substance of what happens there reveals a state and society in league.
      Author/creator: Andrew Walker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 42)
      Format/size: pdf (216K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Conflict and illegality as a way of life -- the paradox of Burma
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Located at a strategic Asian crossroads, Burma (Myanmar)1 is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse countries. Surrounded by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand, it is also one of the most strife-torn and lawless along its 3,650-mile border. Its post-colonial experience exemplifies how illicit economies, insurgent or military-based politics and cross-border human movement can flourish in the wake of failed attempts to create a modern nation-state...Since Burma’s independence from Great Britain in 1948, an array of state, quasi-state and insurgent groups have used armed violence to pursue their goals across all three political eras: parliamentary democracy (1948-62), General Ne Win’s ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’ (1962-88), and the military State Peace and Development Council (post-1988). In the 21st century, Burma’s socio-political landscape continues to reflect conditions of conflict. Particularly in the conflict zones, the line between ‘legality’ and ‘illegality’ is frequently blurred....
      Author/creator: Martin Smith
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 42)
      Format/size: pdf (731K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Regionalism in Myanmar’s Foreign Policy: Past, Present and Future
      Date of publication: September 2006
      Description/subject: "This paper examines regionalism in Myanmar foreign policy mostly in the context of ASEAN-Myanmar relations and it argues that Myanmar's decision to embrace regionalism was primarily motivated by her desire to enhance state security, which also meant regime security; the threat to which was more internal than external in nature. Her subscription to regionalism was facilitated by the end of the Cold War divide, particularly in Asia. Myanmar's regional cooperation was predicated upon notions that the regional organization should be free from great power manipulation and should not be an organization for collective defense. Member states also needed to subscribe to the principle of non-interference in each others’ affairs. Myanmar was particularly attracted to the grouping’s modus operandi known as the ASEAN way. The ASEAN way of informal and incremental approach to co-operation based on consultation and dialogue, which constitutes the ASEAN diplomatic norm, was by and large in line with the comfort level of the military regime in Myanmar. While, initially after joining, Myanmar was strongly against the deviation from the established principle of “constructive engagement”, it eventually managed to accept ASEAN’s “enhanced interaction” as a new modus operandi. It appears that, as far as the Myanmar government is concerned, issues that do not threaten national sovereignty and the nation-building process can be discussed among the member states in the spirit of ASEAN unity. Moreover, after several years of experience with cooperative security arrangements, Myanmar is now a signatory to the ASEAN Security Community; for the first time in its post-colonial history agreeing to be a member of the regional security architecture."...Keywords: Myanmar; Burma; Myanmar foreign policy; ASEAN; BIMSTEC; State Peace and Development Council; regionalism
      Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 73
      Format/size: pdf (213K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    • State-Society relations - Kingship

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
      Author/creator: Susanne Prager
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (601K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "Kingship in Pagan Wundauk U Tin's Myan-Ma-Mwn-Ok-Cjok-Pon-Sa-Dnn"
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: This paper analyzes the attitudes toward kingship expressed in the Myan-ma-Mn Ok-cjok-pon Sa-dnn'["The Royal Administration of Burma"], written by Pagan U Tin (1861-1933) and first published shortly after the author's death. Following a brief biographical account of Pagan U Tin, the discussion considers four perspectives on Burmese kingship appearing in the work: 1) the king as judge; 2) the king as guarantor of regularity; 3) the king as descendant of the Sun (and of Mahasammata, originator of civil society); and 4) the king as Buddha-to-be. The Burmese monarch was predominantly a symbolic figure who affirmed the kingdom's past and guaranteed its future. Although U Tin reports on the questionable morality of Kings Mindon and Thibaw, he nevertheless addresses both as "Excellent King" and admonishes his readers against offending the dignity of the throne.
      Author/creator: L.E. Bagshawe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
      Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • The City

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Road to Naypyitaw: Making Sense of the Myanmar Government's Decision to Move its Capital
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: "In November 2005, the Myanmar government announced its decision to relocate the national capital from Yangon to a place near Pyinmana; the place was later named Naypyitaw. This decision reveals several aspects of the Myanmar government's security thinking. Concern for information security, defence-in-depth against possible foreign invasion, desire to get rid of the colonial past, isolating civil servants from the general public, gaining a sense of control in state-building, and the influence of traditional world views and are some plausible explanations for the relocation..."...Keywords: Myanmar-politics, Myanmar-SPDC; Myanmar-security; Myanmar-cultural; Myanmar-history
      Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper WPS 79
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


  • General theory of constitutional government

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
    Description/subject: "The following is a list of the classic books and other works on constitutional government, which we either include in our collection, or plan to add."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Constitution Society
    Format/size: html, pdf , Word etc.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Political analysis of Burma and the region

    Individual Documents

    Title: Hatred as politics in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 July 2014
    Description/subject: "This month's tragic anti-Muslim violence in Mandalay has again revealed that dark forces are alive and well in Myanmar. The violence left two dead and many injured, causing damage to property and generating a climate of fear in the country's cultural and historic capital. In the aftermath of the violence, the government has moved to crack down on hate speech but has also warned the media against making statements that could destabilize national security, saying that "action will be taken against those who threaten state stability." Tellingly, however, no action has been taken against those responsible for triggering the Mandalay violence by spreading false rumors on social media, while journalists reporting on the riots have already been threatened with violence. In addition, some observers have noted that the violence has also had a secondary effect- it has successfully distracted public interest from a signature campaign calling for amendment to the 2008 Constitution. Such patterns are finally leading more and more analysts to ask critical questions about the nature of recent anti-Muslim violence in Myanmar and the real motivations behind it. Outside of Myanmar, reporting has been less critical, with some major media wires referring to the violence as 'sectarian'. Such inaccurate diagnosis is not new, as international diplomatic and public opinion circles have tended to portray Myanmar's anti-Muslim violence as an unfortunate social consequence of transition from authoritarianism to democracy. In this view, it is the uncertainty of transition and the new freedom of expression that have given rise to fear of the Muslim minority and ultra-nationalist Buddhist extremism. This definition, however, is misleading and has resulted in significant confusion both about the form of violence in question as well as its root cause. Indeed, from the point of view of many Myanmar Muslims, it appears to be a case of applying a perfectly sensible theory to the wrong context. Such misconceptions not only ignore the reality of decades-long persecution of Muslims in the country, but they also absolve authorities of their historical responsibility for manufacturing, endorsing and permitting such violence, both directly and indirectly..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Win
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2014


    Title: Dark Clouds Over Burma
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: The political landscape holds no hope for any change soon... "A dark future hangs over Burma following the conviction and sentencing of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Putting her under house arrest again is a grave move by the ruling military regime, which can only bode ill for the country..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


    Title: Social Democratic Parties in Southeast Asia - Chances and Limits
    Date of publication: January 2009
    Description/subject: The people of Southeast Asia, both masses and elites alike, looked for many years foremost up to the United States of America (US) as a role model state. However, the war on terrorism waged by the current US administration linked with cuts in civil liberties and human rights violations, especially the illegal detention and torture of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay, has in the eyes of many Southeast Asians considerably discredited the US concept of liberal democracy. Furthermore, the US propagated classical economic liberalism has failed to deliver the most basic human necessities to the poor, and the current food and energy crisis as well as the latest bank crisis in the US prove that neo-liberalism is itself in trouble. The result of neo-liberalism, dominated by trade and financial liberalization, has been one of deepening inequality, also and especially in the emerging economies of Southeast Asia. Falling poverty in one community, or one country or region, is corresponding with deepening poverty elsewhere. The solution can therefore not be more liberalization, but rather more thought and more policy space for countries to pursue alternative options such as “Social Democracy”.
    Author/creator: Norbert von Hofmann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung
    Format/size: pdf (173K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Burma's continuing fear of invasion
    Date of publication: 28 May 2008
    Description/subject: Even before 1988, when the armed forces crushed a massive pro-democracy uprising and took back direct political power, Burma’s military government feared an invasion of the country. In those days, the greatest danger was seen to emanate from China, but over the past 20 years the US and EU have been viewed as Burma’s greatest military threat. Even the UN is distrusted.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 March 2009


    Title: The "Balkanization’ of Burma?" - a review of "Political Authority in Burma’s Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence", by Mary P. Callahan, and "Assessing Burma’s Ceasefire Accords",
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: "Political Authority in Burma’s Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence", by Mary P. Callahan, Policy Studies 31, East-West Center, Washington, 2007, P 94; "Assessing Burma’s Ceasefire Accords", by Zaw Oo and Win Min, Policy Studies 39, East-West Center, Washington, 2007, P 91.... Two studies draw a landscape of a fragmented country.... "IT has become fashionable to call up the specter of “balkanization” in Burma. The term, which means the fragmentation of large regions into smaller, violently competitive or antagonistic entities, as occurred in the Balkan wars of the late 19th century and in the breakup of Yugoslavia less than 20 years ago, also invokes images of ethnic cleansing and chaos. Anyone with a grasp of history and geography knows that Burma has actually been fragmented for decades. A study of the map, a tally of the ethnic minorities of Burma and neighboring countries, and an understanding of the effects of 60 years of colonialism and of the following six decades of war—all confirm this conclusion. For those not much interested in human development and human rights, things in Burma are in some ways better now than they ever were. As these two academic monographs by notable Burma experts contend, the country now is arguably at its most stable, peaceful, geographically united and developed juncture since 1948. That doesn’t mean things are good, however.... Callahan argues that the process has produced three broad forms of government in border areas. The first of these, devolution, admits that non-state entities (such as warlords and resistance forces) control the area. The second, occupation, entails government forces establishing uncontested control over a patch of territory. The third, coexistence, involves the cooperation of state and non-state authorities (often uneasily) to control an area. This latter arrangement is hardly ideal, but it supports the contention of Zaw Oo and Win Min that a peace of sorts has been reached.
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


    Title: Supporting IDP resistance strategies
    Date of publication: 23 April 2008
    Description/subject: "...Whether in hiding or living under military control, displaced villagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burma have shown themselves to be innovative and courageous in responding to and resisting military abuse. They urgently need increased assistance but it is they who should determine the direction of any such intervention. This article, co-authored by two KHRG staff members, appears in issue number 30 of the journal Forced Migration Review (FMR), issued in April 2008 and is available on both the KHRG and FMR websites..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Articles & Papers (KHRG #2008-W1)
    Format/size: pdf (109 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w1.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009