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Politics and Government

  • Politics and Government - general studies

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: CIA Factbook, Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CIA
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Politics and Government (Burmese) ႏိုင္ငံေရးႏွင့္ အစိုးရ burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: Politics of Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Political conditions... 2 History - 2.1 Independence era; 2.2 AFPFL/Union Government; 2.3 Military socialist era; 2.4 SPDC era; 2.5 New constitution; 2.6 2010 Election; 2.7 2012 By Elections... 3 Executive branch - 3.1 Members of Government of Burma... 4 Legislative branch... 5 Judicial system - 5.1 Wareru dhammathat; 5.2 Dhammazedi pyatton... 6 Administrative divisions... 7 International organization participation... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 Further reading... 11 External links - 11.1 Burmese democracy and human rights online media
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


  • Burma/Myanmar's Executive (under construction)

    • President's Office

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: President's Office website
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 May 2012


    • Presidential Orders, Notifications, Decrees etc.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Announcements
      Description/subject: Back to October 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: Notifications
      Description/subject: Notifications back to March 2012. 18 notifications, as of 9 April 2013
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: Orders
      Description/subject: Back to March 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: President's Office
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Farm Land Rules
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: This translation of the Rules is in need of editing, which the OBL Librarian is undertaking. Pending the completion of the editing, we are putting this unedited version online, since the general meaning is clear.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation/President's Office
      Format/size: pdf (159K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


    • Ministries and other administrative bodies

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Cabinet of Burma
      Description/subject: The Cabinet of Burma is the executive body of the Burmese government led by the President.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Farm Land Rules
      Date of publication: 31 August 2012
      Description/subject: This translation of the Rules is in need of editing, which the OBL Librarian is undertaking. Pending the completion of the editing, we are putting this unedited version online, since the general meaning is clear.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation/President's Office
      Format/size: pdf (159K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


  • Elections (Burma)

    • International organisations concerned with elections

      • Inter-Parliamentary Union resolutions etc. on elections in Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire
        Description/subject: Pour trouver la resolution sur Myanmar d'une session specifique du Conseil, rechercher Myanmar AND 168ieme, Myanmar AND 168ieme etc. (a partir de la 157ieme)
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 189th session of the Governing Council, (Bern, October 2011): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 19 October 2011
        Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:.....Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 189th session (Bern, 19 October 2011): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People’s Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, all elected in the elections of May 1990, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/189/11(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 188th session (April 2011), Recalling that, on 21 March 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a resolution in which it called upon the Government to lift restrictions on freedom of assembly, association and movement and on freedom of expression, including for free and independent media, and to end the use of censorship, including the use of restrictive laws to prevent the reporting of views critical of the Government, and strongly urged the Government of Myanmar to release all prisoners of conscience, including the former parliamentarians - numbering 12 at the time - who had been sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which disregarded their right to a fair trial, Noting that former parliamentarian Mr. Kyaw San was released on 17 May 2011 upon having served his sentence, Recalling that since the new Parliament of Myanmar, elected on 7 November 2010, started its work, members of the opposition in Parliament have called on the Government to release all political prisoners, a call which the Minister of Home Affairs dismissed on 22 March 2011 as untimely; that, however, at the end of August 2011, members of Parliament again raised the matter of an amnesty, Considering that, on 11 October 2011, the Government indeed announced an amnesty for more than 6,000 prisoners and that, under the amnesty, Mr. Saw Hlaing, Mr. Kyaw Khin and Mr. Than Lwin were released on 12 October 2011 along with some 200 other political prisoners; that the release took place at a time when the President signed into law a new Labour Organization Act permitting the establishment of trade unions, which had no effect been banned since 1962, and a senior government official talked of the need to do away with censorship..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 188th session of the Governing Council, (Panama, April 2011): Myanmar
        Date of publication: February 2011
        Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:..... Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 188th session (Panama, 20 April 2011)... The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People's Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/188/13(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 187th session (October 2010), Recalling that 12 former members-elect continue to suffer imprisonment on account of having merely exercised their freedom of expression and were sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which blatantly disregarded their right to a fair trial; that their case has to be situated in a context in which it has expressed the following long-standing concerns: ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 187th session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2010): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 06 October 2010
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 187th session (Geneva, 6 October 2010)..."Reaffirms its belief that the exclusion of 12 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process, along with the persistent restrictions on human rights and political activity, casts serious doubt on the authorities' willingness to ensure that the outcome of this historic opportunity, the first elections in 20 years, can genuinely reflect the will of the people;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 186th session of the Governing Council (Bangkok, April 2010): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 01 April 2010
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 186th session (Bangkok, 1 April 2010)..."Calls on the authorities to do everything possible to ensure that the elections are inclusive, free and fair and to make the changes to the electoral laws that this requires; draws their attention in this respect to the Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections which the Inter‑Parliamentary Union adopted on 26 March 1994; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 185th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2009): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 October 2009
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 185th session (Geneva, 21 October 2009)..."Reaffirms that the Constitution fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired and that elections are doomed to be a sham in a climate of fear and repression of all freedom of expression and political activity and the exclusion of 13 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 184th session of the Governing Council (Addis Ababa, April 2009): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 April 2009
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 184th session (Addis Ababa, 10 April 2009)..."Reaffirms its belief that the Constitution, which provides the legal and institutional framework for the 2010 elections, fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; recalls in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start, and that the climate of fear, distrust and total lack of transparency in which the referendum on the draft Constitution was conducted stripped it of any credibility;..."
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 183rd session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2008): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 15 October 2008
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and at present in detention, and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 183rd session (Geneva, 15 October 2008)..."Reaffirms its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; considers that the widespread and grave irregularities which have been reported with respect to the referendum on the draft Constitution have only confirmed initial concerns that it would take place in a climate of fear, repression, distrust and total lack of transparency, thus turning the whole exercise into a deliberate attempt to erect a democratic façade for sustained military power; ..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 182nd session of the Governing Council (Cape Town, April 2008): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 April 2008
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007: and those who were assassinated...the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 182nd session (Cape Town, 18 April 2008)..."...Denounces the final draft of the Constitution for providing a legal basis to prolong the military authorities' hold on power; reaffirms in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 181st session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 October 2007
        Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and those who were assassinated... the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 181st session, Geneva October 2007
        Language: English (French also available)
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 180th session of the Governing Council (Bali, May 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 04 May 2007
        Description/subject: List of detained parliamentarians in Myanmar, plus the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 180th session (Nusa Dua, Bali, 4 May 2007): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union,... 1. Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive its people of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 2. Reaffirms that the National Convention, in its present form, has no other purpose than to prolong and legitimize military rule and that any document adopted by it will be illegitimate, contemptuous as it will be of the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (180th Session of the Governing Council)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians 116th session (Geneva, 15-18 January 2007): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 January 2007
        Description/subject: Decision adopted by the Committee at its 116th session (Geneva, 15 - 18 January 2007): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity; 2. Deplores the lack of any willingness on the part of the authorities to address these concerns, and urges them once again to release the 14 parliamentarians-elect still imprisoned forthwith and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections, in particular by giving serious consideration to the proposal made by the NLD; 3. Renews its call on the international community to help bring about respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, takes note of the latest developments at the Security Council and calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure full and continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar by the Security Council, also calls again on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China and India as neighbouring countries, to pursue and strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, and encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union - Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians
        Format/size: pdf (49K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: I Inter-Parliamentary Union, 179th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2006): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 179th session (Geneva, 18 October 2006): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people's will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 178th session of the Governing Council (Nairobi, May 2006): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 12 May 2006
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 178th session (Nairobi, 12 May 2006): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union:... Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive the people of Myanmar of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in open defiance of the democratic values to which they aspire; # Renews its call on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China, Thailand and India as neighbouring countries to continue and to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar; strongly encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work; # Also calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure the continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar in the Security Council; # Condemns the harsh prison sentence handed down on parliamentarian-elect Khun Tun Oo in an unfair trial and at the extended prison terms of Dr. Than Nyein and May Win Myint on the basis of legal provisions running counter to basic international human rights standards; # Urges the authorities to release them forthwith, together with the other 10 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and can claim to represent the people; # Expresses its support for the proposal made by the NLD in February 2006, and calls on the authorities to take it into serious consideration..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 177th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2005): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 19 October 2005
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 177th session (Geneva, 19th October 2005):"The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... # Deplores the fact that its persistent efforts to seek a direct dialogue with the authorities continue to be unavailing; stresses that the aim of the Committee's procedure, which is to find, in cooperation with the authorities, a satisfactory settlement of the cases, is bound to fail if no official response is forthcoming; # Is deeply concerned that parliamentarians-elect Kyaw San and Kyaw Min, and the latter's family, were recently sentenced to long prison terms after a trial falling far short of basic internationally recognized fair trial guarantees; # Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires a full removal of the ban on political activities and the release of all political prisoners, and the establishment of institutions representative of the people's will; # Once more urges therefore the authorities to release forthwith the 13 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, starting with those whose health is highly precarious, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people; # Calls upon the Member Parliaments of the IPU to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives pressing for the respect of democratic principles in Myanmar; particularly encourages them to draw upon the parliamentary initiatives listed in the compilation; # Strongly believes that continuous attention and action by the international community is crucial in bringing about positive change in Myanmar; strongly encourages Parliaments of countries on the United Nations Security Council to press their governments to ensure that the Council receives regular briefings on the situation of Myanmar from the United Nations Secretary General; would greatly appreciate receiving information about any action to this end..." plus List of parliamentarians still reportedly serving their sentence.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


        Title: INITIATIVES PARLEMENTAIRES EN FAVEUR DES PARLEMENTAIRES-ELUS ET DU RESPECT DES PRINCIPES DEMOCRATIQUES AU MYANMAR - Compilation de reponses a une enquete de l'Union interparlementaire
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
        Format/size: Word (194K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


        Title: PARLIAMENTARY INITIATIVES IN FAVOUR OF PARLIAMENTARIANS-ELECT AND RESPECT FOR DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN MYANMAR - A compilation of replies to a survey by the Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of publication: August 2005
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: Word (201K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 176th session of the Governing Council (Manila, April 2005): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 April 2005
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 176th session (Manila, 8 April 2005)..."... Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires the full removal of the ban on political activities and the establishment of institutions that are representative of the people’s will; reaffirms in this respect its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, can only be seen as a body designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any constitution adopted by that body would lack legitimacy; 5. Calls upon the authorities to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html (46K), Word (57K)
        Date of entry/update: 14 April 2005


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 175th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, September-October 2004): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 01 October 2004
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 175th session (Geneva, 1st October 2004)... Lists of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence; Parliamentarians who died in custody; arliamentarians who were assassinated...The resolution comments on the cases and makes a strong criticique of the National Convnetion process, which it considers in its present form, to be "designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 October 2004


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 174th session of the Governing Council, (Mexico City, April 2004): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 23 April 2004
        Description/subject: "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union ... Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government"..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html (26K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/IPUres-Mexico2004.htm
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2004


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 173rd session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2003): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 03 October 2003
        Description/subject: Lists of: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence, Parliamentarians who have reportedly been detained, under house arrest or have disappeared since 30 May 2003, Parliamentarians who died in custody and Parliamentarians who were assassinated. Plus text of the resolution on Myanmar adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 173rd session (Geneva, 3 October 2003). Notably, this resolution contains (in para 10) a telling comment on the SPDC's "road-map": "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... Expresses serious doubts about the recently presented "road map", step one of which suggests that the National Convention to be reconvened; reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people, as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, octobre 2003): Myanmar
        Date of publication: 03 October 2003
        Description/subject: Listes de: Parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; Parlementaires qui auraient été détenus, assignés à résidence ou auraient disparu depuis le 30 mai 2003; Parlementaires décédés en détention; et Parlementaires assassinés. En plus, le texte de la resolution du Conseil Interparliamentaire qui contient notamment (para 10) un commentaire pointue sur la "feuille de route" offerte par le SPDC: "Le Conseil directeur de l'Union interparlementaire...exprime de sérieux doutes quant à la "feuille de route" récemment présentée, qui prévoit en premier lieu une nouvelle convocation de la Convention nationale; réaffirme sa conviction que la Convention nationale ne tend qu'à prolonger et à légitimer le régime militaire contre la volonté du peuple telle qu'elle s'est exprimée lors des élections de 1990 et qu'elle est donc en contradiction flagrante avec le principe consacré par la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme, selon lequel " la volonté du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité des pouvoirs publics..."
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparliamentaire
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 171st session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, September 2002)
        Date of publication: 27 September 2002
        Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 171st session (Geneva, 27 September 2002)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, septembre 2002)
        Date of publication: 27 September 2002
        Description/subject: Listes de: parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; qui auraient été libérés après avoir purgé leur peine; décédés en détention; et qui ont été assassinés... Résolution adoptée à l'unanimité par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 171ème session (Genève, le 27 septembre 2002)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 170th session of the Governing Council, (Marrakech, March 2002)
        Date of publication: 23 March 2002
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 170th session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 and 23 March 2002)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparlementaire (Marrakech, mars 2002)
        Date of publication: 23 March 2002
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 170me session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 et 23 mars 2002)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Ouagadougou, September, 2001)
        Date of publication: 14 September 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 169th session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 and 14 September 2001.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union interparliamentaire (Ouagadougou, septembre 2001)
        Date of publication: 14 September 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 169me session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 et 14 septembre 2001
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Havana, April 2001)
        Date of publication: 07 April 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 168th session (Havana, April 2001).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union Interparlementaire (Havane, avril 2001)
        Date of publication: 07 April 2001
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 168me session (La Havane, avril 2001)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Jakarta, October 2000)
        Date of publication: 21 October 2000
        Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 167th session (Jakarta, 21 October 2000).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Union Interparlementaire (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
        Date of publication: 21 October 2000
        Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 167me session (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Multiparty elections - theory, practice, monitoring and assistance

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
        Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
        Description/subject: (International IDEA). Search for Burma, Aung San Suu Kyi etc.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Ensuring Free and Fair Elections in a Democratic Burma: Establishing an Electoral System and Election Processes
        Date of publication: April 2001
        Description/subject: "A country embarking on a transition to democracy has many issues to deal with. One of the most critical is the question of elections, the type of system chosen and the manner in which elections are conducted.1 Free and fair elections are necessary to establish a democratic, human rights-based society, and to ensure that the government and the state are legitimate.2 The right to vote is an instrument of power for both the voter and the state. When giving the people the right to vote, it is necessary to determine who is permitted to vote, and to regulate the exercise of the vote through a system which could include legislation and ways of verifying the identity of people. Such a system helps to prevent non-resident citizens from voting, and to exclude residents who do not qualify to vote. In some countries, for example, prisoners may not vote..."
        Author/creator: Jeremy Sarkin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
        Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • The 2012 By-Elections in Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
      Description/subject: Archive from 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS - A CHANCE FOR FUTURE RECONCILIATION? (English)
      Date of publication: 11 April 2012
      Description/subject: "...The NLD’s success in the by-election, while not providing it with the ability to dramatically influence the parliamentary process at the moment, suggests that the country may be on course towards genuine democratic transition and reconciliation. However, it is imperative that President Thein Sein, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and all ethnic actors work together to maintain this momentum and ensure that the county continues to move forward towards genuine change, an end to ethnic conflict, and equality for all peoples of the country."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 5 )
      Format/size: pdf (517K)
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


      Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
      Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


      Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (English)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
      Format/size: pdf (284K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


      Title: The Lady and the generals meet half-way
      Date of publication: 06 April 2012
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's highly anticipated by-elections, held on April 1 for some 45 parliamentary seats, has borne its first diplomatic fruit. The United States announced a relaxation of certain economic sanctions and movement on the resumption of full diplomatic relations with Naypyidaw in reward for the country's recent democratic progress. However, the opposition National League for Democracy's landslide victory of 43 out of the 45 seats may be somewhat overstated and questions remain about the sincerity of President Thein Sein's government's commitment to sustainable reform..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


      Title: Burma: between elections and democracy
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Description/subject: The by-election victory of Aung San Suu Kyi’s party in Burma (Myanmar) raises the question of whether the country is at last on an irreversible path towards democracy. A detailed analysis of the context suggests seven reasons for caution, says Joakim Kreutz.
      Author/creator: Joakim Kreutz
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: openDemocracy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Do Elections in Myanmar Signal Real Change?
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Author/creator: Aarti Ramachandran, Ariel Stulberg, Ethan Wagner, Ethan Wilkes, and Krisztian Simon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Policy Digest
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: The Lady of all landslides
      Date of publication: 05 April 2012
      Description/subject: Aung San Suu Kyi’s win is a humiliation for the army. Will it now turn nasty?
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Time"
      Format/size: pdf (60K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 April 2012


      Title: 1 April 2012 By-Election results
      Date of publication: 04 April 2012
      Description/subject: These results were published in "The New Light of Myanmar" of 3 and 4 April, 2012. According to Mizzima: "The final, official by-election results announced by the Burmese Union Election Commission on Tuesday gave the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) 6.4 per cent of the seats in Parliament. The NLD won a total of 43 seats in the April 1 by-election. The NLD contested for a total of 44 vacant seats. It won 37 seats in the Lower House, four seats in the Upper House and two seats in state or regional assemblies. Dr. Myat Nyarna Soe of National Democratic Force (NDF) won a seat in the Upper House in 2010, and he later joined the NLD, giving it a total of five Upper House seats, making the NLD representation in Parliament 44 seats. According to the Constitution, there should be 224 parliamentarians in the Upper house and 440 parliamentarians in Lower House. However, there are a total 224 MPs in Upper House and 432 MPs in Lower House. The total parliamentarians in Parliament will be 656. The EC announcement said Shan Nationalities Democratic Party candidate Sai San Min won the Shan State No. 3 constituency Upper House seat; and Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Tin Mya won the Sagaing Region constituency no. 7 Upper House seat, respectively."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" April 3, 4
      Format/size: pdf (382K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Current Political Situation and the International Boycott
      Date of publication: 04 April 2012
      Description/subject: 50 or so articles from international media, many on the by-elections...N.B. 7 or more pages.
      Author/creator: Edith Bronder (curator)
      Source/publisher: Scoop-it
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


      Title: Live By-Election Coverage
      Date of publication: 02 April 2012
      Description/subject: Video and text items from various sources
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: "Mizzima"
      Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2012


      Title: "Myanmar Times" By-Elections Special
      Date of publication: 01 April 2012
      Description/subject: Hluttaw reps ready for arrival of NLD; Can peace trump political divisions? USDP actions speak louder than words: U Htay Oo; By-election raises high interest of locals in Mandalay; Shan State vote hints at ethnic divide; Nay Pyi Taw by-elections: too close to call; Will invalid votes be a factor in election results?; Election predictions; MPs will follow our lead: NLD; In inner Yangon, a humanitarian worker turns to politics; In Mandalay, voter knowledge remains an issue for parties; Independent candidate U Khin Hlaing, Mayangone; Independent for Meiktila, Daw Myint Myint Aye; Shan party confident of Lashio win; Voices from Maha Aung Myay tsp; 88 Generation forms ‘Election Watch Group’; Nay Pyi Taw residents, candidates predict fair poll.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012


      Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS: STILL SHORT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
      Date of publication: 27 March 2012
      Description/subject: The trouble with the by-elections; Electoral framework not in line with int’l standards; Election laws limit political participation; Election Commission lacks independence and impartiality; Campaign restrictions still in place; Complaint process ineffective and inaccessible; Restrictions, irregularities, harassment, and vote-buying mar pre-election period; Restrictions on NLD activities; Widespread irregularities; Threats, harassment, and vote buying; More voters disenfranchised; Censorship still in place; Election observation falls short of international standards; By-elections who’s who
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (147K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Burma: Free and fair elections do not mean civil and political rights exist, evidenced by continued detention of political prisoners
      Date of publication: 27 March 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "For the first time in decades, Burma will be holding Parliamentary by-­‐elections that allows major opposition parties to contest the available seats. The move has been hailed by many in the international community as evidence of democratic progress and the elections are now being used as a benchmark for lifting sanctions if deemed “free and fair” by international monitors. However, whether the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner is not a genuine reflection of the level of civil and political liberties accorded to the people of Burma. There are hundreds of political prisoners still behind bars, and those who have been released face deprivation of fundamental freedoms and extensive monitoring by security forces. What matters most is not what happens on the day of the elections, but how the campaigns are conducted in the months preceding. There have been countless reports of ballot fraud, intimidation, and harassment of opposition groups that show the elections will be anything but free and fair. We call on the international community to not be fooled by the charade and maintain pressure on the U Thein Sein regime until all political prisoners are released and concrete measures are taken to ensure political and civil liberties are enjoyed by all in Burma."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (283)
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    • The 2010 General Elections in Burma
      See the 7-Step Roadmap at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2378&lo=d&sl=0 -- especially Step 5

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
      Description/subject: Archive from 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    • The 1990 General Elections in Burma
      See also Constitutional and Parliamentary processes (under Law and Constitution) at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1139&lo=d&sl=0

      • The 1990 elections - general articles and studies

        Individual Documents

        Title: A Day to Remember
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: The 1990 election—will my vote ever mean anything?... "My entire family woke up early that day. Our neighbors were already leaving their homes. Some eagerly shouted at us not to be late. My 63-year-old grandmother and my mother joined them and I rushed to follow. It was election day—May 27, 1990—the first time in 30 years the Burmese people had been called on to go to the polls..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


        Title: Was It A Parliamentary Election or Not?
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: Whatever the answer, the people rejected military rule... "Burma has more than its fair share of miserable anniversaries. One of the more baffling of them falls on May 27, the anniversary of arguably the most spectacular ignored general election in history. The ruling generals of the State Law and Order Restoration Council first confounded their many critics by holding a relatively free and fair ballot, and then completely dumbfounded them by carrying on as if it had never occurred..."
        Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      • The 1990 elections, the elected representatives and their parties

        Individual Documents

        Title: 1990 MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY GENERAL ELECTIONS
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: This is a 300-page collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. In addition to the 1.1MB pdf file, it can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Format/size: pdf ( 1.1MB), html (3.9MB - also broken into 4), Word (2.0MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.htm

        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.doc (Word version for downloading)

        Part 1 (Contents, general statistics, summaries of campaign speeches - html, 115K): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm

        Part 2 (election results by party and candidate - html 1.6MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-02.htm

        Part 3 (brief biographies of elected MPs by State and Division - html, 1.2MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-03.htm

        Part 4 (other related lists, including detained MPs, and documents - html, 568K) http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-04.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Book of Record on the 1990 General Elections
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: This is a collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. It can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


        Title: Brief Biographies of Exiled Members of Parliament of Burma
        Date of publication: 01 February 2003
        Description/subject: Organised by States and Divisions
        Author/creator: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
        Language: English
        Format/size: html (192K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GANDHI HALL DECLARATION
        Date of publication: 29 July 1990
        Description/subject: 8th Waxing Day of Wagaung BE 1352 29 July 1990 "1. We, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, after assembling here at the Mahatama Gandhi Hall in Kyauktada township, Rangoon, on the seventh and eighth waxing days of Wagaung BE 1352 , 28 and 29 July 1990 , and after consulting and discussing the matters concerning the well being of the nation , State affairs and convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw , unanimously adopt this Gandhi Hall Declaration..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
        Format/size: html (25K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 June 2003


        Title: The Manifesto of the National League for Democracy
        Date of publication: 06 November 1989
        Description/subject: "1. Throughout the Union of Burma in 1988 there was an extraordinary and unprecedented uprising of all people. They rose up to demand Democracy. Thus, a democratic state was established in order to be liberated from the bitter experience of the society. 2. Now, a chance to establish a democratic system began to emerge that would totally change society. Hence, all the people of Burma, with active spirit and strong determination, would have to elect the peoples' representatives. Those representatives would form a democratic government in accordance with the aspiration of the people and draw up the state constitution that will enable a successful reconstruction of the country. 3. The National League for Democracy firmly believes that, today, in Burma, the masses of people are earnestly aspiring for the formation of a Democratic government that will guarantee basic human rights. 4. The National League for Democracy clearly understands that all the people of Burma are very keen to establish a firmly united "Union" in the near future with equal rights for all ethnic nationalities who cherish democracy. 5. In order to bring about the aims and aspirations of the people successfully, the National League for Democracy, consisting of people wishing to represent farmers, workers, merchants and entrepreneurs, students, youths, women, technicians, academicians, artists and ethnic nationalities, shall let their members participate in this multi-party General Election and pledges to accept the decision of the people. 6. The National League for Democracy, while declaring its principles and policy below, shall accept the wishes of the people and establish a democratic state as desired by the people..."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
        Format/size: html (78K), Word (67K), pdf (32K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDElectionManifesto1989.doc
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDmanifestoBur.pdf (Burmese)
        Date of entry/update: 20 April 2004


        Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • State-Society relations

    • State-Society relations - Burma/Myanmar and the region

      Individual Documents

      Title: ‘Stilled to silence at 500 metres’: making sense of historical change in Southeast Asia
      Date of publication: November 2008
      Description/subject: "The dialectical relationship between the nation state and zones of relative autonomy isn’t unique to mainland Southeast Asia, but it is of particular salience there, demarcating the social cleavage that shapes much of the region’s history: that between hill peoples and valley peoples. It led to a process of state formation in valleys and peopling of hills, and left the latter largely absent from the historical record...‘Non-state spaces’ are where the state has difficulty establishing its authority: mountains, swamps, mangrove coasts, deserts, river deltas. Such places have often served as havens of refuge for peoples resisting or fleeing the state. Only the modern state possesses the resources to bring non-state spaces and people to heel; in Southeast Asia it represents the last great effort to integrate people, land and resources of the periphery and make them contributors to the gross national product. The state might dub it ‘development’, ‘economic progress’, ‘literacy’, ‘social integration’, but the real objective is to make the economic activity of peripheral societies taxable and assessable – to make it serve the state – by, for example, obliging nomads or swidden cultivators to settle in permanent villages, concentrating manpower and foodstuffs. Thus the padi-state was an ‘enclosure’ of previously stateless peoples: irrigated rice agriculture on permanent fields helped create the state’s strategic and military advantage. In fact, the permanent association of the state and sedentary agriculture is at the centre of this story (a story by no means confined to Southeast Asia, which this article targets). The vast ‘barbarian’ periphery became a vital resource: human captives formed a successful state’s working capital. Avoiding the state used to be a real option. Today it is quickly vanishing..."
      Author/creator: James C. Scott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 49)
      Format/size: pdf (225K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Beyond hills and plains: rethinking trade, state and society in the upper Mekong borderlands
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Borderlands are often described as ‘frontier zones’ characterised by ‘rebelliousness, lawlessness and/or an absence of laws’ (Kristof 1959: 281). Anecdotes resonate with popular images of a remote underworld (or perhaps ‘outerworld’) where state authority is weak and lawlessness prevails. In the upper Mekong borderlands of Thailand, Laos and Burma, the imagery of borderland illegality persists both as spectre and lure, but the substance of what happens there reveals a state and society in league.
      Author/creator: Andrew Walker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 42)
      Format/size: pdf (216K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Conflict and illegality as a way of life -- the paradox of Burma
      Date of publication: October 2006
      Description/subject: Located at a strategic Asian crossroads, Burma (Myanmar)1 is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse countries. Surrounded by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand, it is also one of the most strife-torn and lawless along its 3,650-mile border. Its post-colonial experience exemplifies how illicit economies, insurgent or military-based politics and cross-border human movement can flourish in the wake of failed attempts to create a modern nation-state...Since Burma’s independence from Great Britain in 1948, an array of state, quasi-state and insurgent groups have used armed violence to pursue their goals across all three political eras: parliamentary democracy (1948-62), General Ne Win’s ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’ (1962-88), and the military State Peace and Development Council (post-1988). In the 21st century, Burma’s socio-political landscape continues to reflect conditions of conflict. Particularly in the conflict zones, the line between ‘legality’ and ‘illegality’ is frequently blurred....
      Author/creator: Martin Smith
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 42)
      Format/size: pdf (731K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Regionalism in Myanmar’s Foreign Policy: Past, Present and Future
      Date of publication: September 2006
      Description/subject: "This paper examines regionalism in Myanmar foreign policy mostly in the context of ASEAN-Myanmar relations and it argues that Myanmar's decision to embrace regionalism was primarily motivated by her desire to enhance state security, which also meant regime security; the threat to which was more internal than external in nature. Her subscription to regionalism was facilitated by the end of the Cold War divide, particularly in Asia. Myanmar's regional cooperation was predicated upon notions that the regional organization should be free from great power manipulation and should not be an organization for collective defense. Member states also needed to subscribe to the principle of non-interference in each others’ affairs. Myanmar was particularly attracted to the grouping’s modus operandi known as the ASEAN way. The ASEAN way of informal and incremental approach to co-operation based on consultation and dialogue, which constitutes the ASEAN diplomatic norm, was by and large in line with the comfort level of the military regime in Myanmar. While, initially after joining, Myanmar was strongly against the deviation from the established principle of “constructive engagement”, it eventually managed to accept ASEAN’s “enhanced interaction” as a new modus operandi. It appears that, as far as the Myanmar government is concerned, issues that do not threaten national sovereignty and the nation-building process can be discussed among the member states in the spirit of ASEAN unity. Moreover, after several years of experience with cooperative security arrangements, Myanmar is now a signatory to the ASEAN Security Community; for the first time in its post-colonial history agreeing to be a member of the regional security architecture."...Keywords: Myanmar; Burma; Myanmar foreign policy; ASEAN; BIMSTEC; State Peace and Development Council; regionalism
      Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 73
      Format/size: pdf (213K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    • State-Society relations - Kingship

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
      Author/creator: Susanne Prager
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (601K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "Kingship in Pagan Wundauk U Tin's Myan-Ma-Mwn-Ok-Cjok-Pon-Sa-Dnn"
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: This paper analyzes the attitudes toward kingship expressed in the Myan-ma-Mn Ok-cjok-pon Sa-dnn'["The Royal Administration of Burma"], written by Pagan U Tin (1861-1933) and first published shortly after the author's death. Following a brief biographical account of Pagan U Tin, the discussion considers four perspectives on Burmese kingship appearing in the work: 1) the king as judge; 2) the king as guarantor of regularity; 3) the king as descendant of the Sun (and of Mahasammata, originator of civil society); and 4) the king as Buddha-to-be. The Burmese monarch was predominantly a symbolic figure who affirmed the kingdom's past and guaranteed its future. Although U Tin reports on the questionable morality of Kings Mindon and Thibaw, he nevertheless addresses both as "Excellent King" and admonishes his readers against offending the dignity of the throne.
      Author/creator: L.E. Bagshawe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
      Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • The City

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Road to Naypyitaw: Making Sense of the Myanmar Government's Decision to Move its Capital
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: "In November 2005, the Myanmar government announced its decision to relocate the national capital from Yangon to a place near Pyinmana; the place was later named Naypyitaw. This decision reveals several aspects of the Myanmar government's security thinking. Concern for information security, defence-in-depth against possible foreign invasion, desire to get rid of the colonial past, isolating civil servants from the general public, gaining a sense of control in state-building, and the influence of traditional world views and are some plausible explanations for the relocation..."...Keywords: Myanmar-politics, Myanmar-SPDC; Myanmar-security; Myanmar-cultural; Myanmar-history
      Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper WPS 79
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


  • General theory of constitutional government

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
    Description/subject: "The following is a list of the classic books and other works on constitutional government, which we either include in our collection, or plan to add."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Constitution Society
    Format/size: html, pdf , Word etc.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Political analysis of Burma and the region

    Individual Documents

    Title: Dark Clouds Over Burma
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: The political landscape holds no hope for any change soon... "A dark future hangs over Burma following the conviction and sentencing of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Putting her under house arrest again is a grave move by the ruling military regime, which can only bode ill for the country..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


    Title: Social Democratic Parties in Southeast Asia - Chances and Limits
    Date of publication: January 2009
    Description/subject: The people of Southeast Asia, both masses and elites alike, looked for many years foremost up to the United States of America (US) as a role model state. However, the war on terrorism waged by the current US administration linked with cuts in civil liberties and human rights violations, especially the illegal detention and torture of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay, has in the eyes of many Southeast Asians considerably discredited the US concept of liberal democracy. Furthermore, the US propagated classical economic liberalism has failed to deliver the most basic human necessities to the poor, and the current food and energy crisis as well as the latest bank crisis in the US prove that neo-liberalism is itself in trouble. The result of neo-liberalism, dominated by trade and financial liberalization, has been one of deepening inequality, also and especially in the emerging economies of Southeast Asia. Falling poverty in one community, or one country or region, is corresponding with deepening poverty elsewhere. The solution can therefore not be more liberalization, but rather more thought and more policy space for countries to pursue alternative options such as “Social Democracy”.
    Author/creator: Norbert von Hofmann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung
    Format/size: pdf (173K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


    Title: Burma's continuing fear of invasion
    Date of publication: 28 May 2008
    Description/subject: Even before 1988, when the armed forces crushed a massive pro-democracy uprising and took back direct political power, Burma’s military government feared an invasion of the country. In those days, the greatest danger was seen to emanate from China, but over the past 20 years the US and EU have been viewed as Burma’s greatest military threat. Even the UN is distrusted.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 March 2009


    Title: The "Balkanization’ of Burma?" - a review of "Political Authority in Burma’s Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence", by Mary P. Callahan, and "Assessing Burma’s Ceasefire Accords",
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: "Political Authority in Burma’s Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence", by Mary P. Callahan, Policy Studies 31, East-West Center, Washington, 2007, P 94; "Assessing Burma’s Ceasefire Accords", by Zaw Oo and Win Min, Policy Studies 39, East-West Center, Washington, 2007, P 91.... Two studies draw a landscape of a fragmented country.... "IT has become fashionable to call up the specter of “balkanization” in Burma. The term, which means the fragmentation of large regions into smaller, violently competitive or antagonistic entities, as occurred in the Balkan wars of the late 19th century and in the breakup of Yugoslavia less than 20 years ago, also invokes images of ethnic cleansing and chaos. Anyone with a grasp of history and geography knows that Burma has actually been fragmented for decades. A study of the map, a tally of the ethnic minorities of Burma and neighboring countries, and an understanding of the effects of 60 years of colonialism and of the following six decades of war—all confirm this conclusion. For those not much interested in human development and human rights, things in Burma are in some ways better now than they ever were. As these two academic monographs by notable Burma experts contend, the country now is arguably at its most stable, peaceful, geographically united and developed juncture since 1948. That doesn’t mean things are good, however.... Callahan argues that the process has produced three broad forms of government in border areas. The first of these, devolution, admits that non-state entities (such as warlords and resistance forces) control the area. The second, occupation, entails government forces establishing uncontested control over a patch of territory. The third, coexistence, involves the cooperation of state and non-state authorities (often uneasily) to control an area. This latter arrangement is hardly ideal, but it supports the contention of Zaw Oo and Win Min that a peace of sorts has been reached.
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


    Title: Supporting IDP resistance strategies
    Date of publication: 23 April 2008
    Description/subject: "...Whether in hiding or living under military control, displaced villagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burma have shown themselves to be innovative and courageous in responding to and resisting military abuse. They urgently need increased assistance but it is they who should determine the direction of any such intervention. This article, co-authored by two KHRG staff members, appears in issue number 30 of the journal Forced Migration Review (FMR), issued in April 2008 and is available on both the KHRG and FMR websites..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Articles & Papers (KHRG #2008-W1)
    Format/size: pdf (109 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w1.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


    Title: Problemstaat Myanmar: Zum schwierigen Umgang mit dem Militärregime
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Eine Analyse über den Charakter und die Geschichte des Militärregimes, die Rolle der intnernationalen Gemeinschaft, der EU, USA und China und die Wirkung von Sanktionen, insbesondere nach den Aufständen 2007. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines UN-Engagements; character and history of the military regime, international community, USA, EU, China; impact of sanctions, uprisings 2007, UN-Engagement
    Author/creator: Marco Buente
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


    Title: Burma Since the March 2002 Coup: Where Does It Fit into a Taxonomy of Failed States?
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Author/creator: Andrew Huxley
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Harvard Asia-Pacific Review
    Format/size: pdf (970K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/winter07_gov/huxley2.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


    Title: BIRMA, BURMA, MYANMAR? - ZUR KLÄRUNG DER STAATSBEZEICHNUNG
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: In der deutschen Presse, im Bundestag und deutschsprachigen EU-Dokumenten wird meist Birma verwendet. Es handelt sich dabei um die Eindeutschung einer Lautvariante von Burmah, wie der Name des Landes im 19. Jahrhundert geschrieben wurde. Dabei handelte es sich um eine lokale Adaption des Wortes Myanma(r) (eigentlich ohne „r“). Myanmarisierungs-Kampagne; Myanmafication;
    Author/creator: Heike Löschmann, René Hingst
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Heinrich Böll Stiftung
    Format/size: html (28K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 December 2007


    Title: A Capital Error
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: Pyinmana is booming—but at what cost?... "Once a rural backwater, Pyinmana is now a boom town, as Burma’s rulers shift their power center from Rangoon, some 320 km to the south. Visitors returning to Pyinmana after an absence of only a few years would scarcely recognize the city that has risen from a provincial town of 100,000 inhabitants, who once owed their livelihoods to logging and a sugarcane refinery. Now new businesses—particularly construction companies and real estate firms—are shooting up like forest mushrooms in the rainy season..."
    Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: Der Traum vom buddhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat
    Date of publication: 29 December 2005
    Description/subject: Die hier vorgestellte These besagt, dass es im buddhistischen Birma ein von Menschen aus allen Schichten der Bevölkerung geteiltes geschichtlich überliefertes System von Vorstellungen und Erwartungen gibt, das mit unserem Begriff "Wohlfahrtsstaat" belegt werden kann. keywords: burmese way to socialism, social system, constitution, political culture, welfare state
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 15-21
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


    Title: Retreat to the Jungle
    Date of publication: December 2005
    Description/subject: Pyinmana move shows how nervous the generals are getting... "A young Burma Army officer and his platoon were told, on being transferred to Rangoon from an ethnic region in upper Burma: “We are sending you to the front line.” It happened a few years ago, but what appeared at the time to be a joke still has serious validity today. This is really how some army leaders now see Rangoon. It is not that Rangoon is about to be attacked by insurgents or terrorists—the threat posed by urban dissidents is what is making the junta paranoid..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol.13, N. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 July 2008


    Title: Bomben, Gift und Beben
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: Über die Instrumentalisierung der Opfer nationaler Katastrophen. Nachrichten können auf unterschiedliche Weise ein Licht auf die Bedrohungen, unter denen die Menschen des Landes seit Jahrzehnten leiden werfen. Alle Katastrophen haben gemeinsam, dass in der Berichterstattung über die Unglücke das Schicksal der Opfer hinter der Auseinandersetzung um die Verantwortung für die Katastrophen und ihre Folgen zu verschwinden droht. keywords: bombing, tsunami, katastrophe, politics, victimisation, instrumentalisation
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 2005 Nr. 2 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2006


    Title: Dreams of a Rat Hole
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: Paranoid generals draw up plans to withdraw from Rangoon and go to ground... "Burmese kings in the distant past had fanciful ideas of relocating their capital. It is perhaps no wonder then that the current military rulers are having similar thoughts, though for less grandiose reasons. Now, according to military analysts in the capital, the generals have a blueprint to move their military headquarters, or war office as it’s called, from Rangoon to Pyinmana, in central Burma’s Mandalay division. But what for—does it make sense?..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Birmanie: l’armée referme le jeu politique
    Date of publication: March 2005
    Description/subject: "Résumé: Arrivée au pouvoir en 1962 puis renouvelée par un second coup d’Etat militaire en septembre 1988, la junte birmane n’a eu de cesse de conforter son contrôle sur l’ensemble des institutions et de la conduite des affaires du pays (renommé Myanmar en 1989). Pourtant, en août 2003, l’initiative du Premier ministre et chef des Services de renseignements militaires, le général Khin Nyunt, proposant une « feuille de route vers la démocratie », a laissé entrevoir la possibilité d’une « transition démocratique », graduelle et contrôlée par le régime militaire. Mais l’éviction de Khin Nyunt en octobre 2004 marque le retour de la ligne dure du régime et des derniers caciques nationalistes de l’armée, opposés à toute négociation avec l’opposition démocratique civile menée par Aung San Suu Kyi, en résidence surveillée depuis mai 2003. Grâce à un environnement stratégique favorable, le régime a toutes les chances de pérenniser son pouvoir en dictant ses propres règles du jeu « démocratique », recherchant la stabilité plutôt que la libéralisation du pays, au détriment de l’opposition et des minorités ethniques....Abstract The Burmese junta that came to power in 1962, and reaffirmed its domination by a second military coup d’état in September of 1988, has steadily increased its control over the nation’s institutions and over the running of the country (renamed Myanmar in 1989). In August of 2003, the decision taken by General Khin Nyunt, Prime Minister and head of military intelligence, to propose “a road map to democracy” suggested that a gradual “transition to democracy”, closely supervised by the military regime, was possible. But the ousting of Khin Nuyunt in October 2004 spelled the return of the regime’s hardliners and of the last of the army’s nationalist chiefs, adamantly opposed to any negotiations with the democratic civilian opposition led by Aung San Suu, held under house arrest since May 2003. Thus the regime, strengthened by a favorable strategic environment, has a good chance of remaining in power by setting its own rules for “democratic” procedures, its aim being to keep the country stable rather pursuing a process of liberalization. Such a policy will inevitably be detrimental to the interests of the opposition and the ethnic minorities..."
    Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Les Études du CERI N° 114 - mars 2005 (Centre d'études et de recherches internationales, Sciences Po)
    Format/size: pdf (188K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2007


    Title: Political Reforms Needed -
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "Burma’s ruling State Peace and Development Council, or SPDC, is keeping the effects of last month’s purge secret but the damage has been quite extensive and the generals are trying their best to tackle the problem. The crisis may be the most serious that the Defense Services have faced since the 1988 nationwide uprising..."
    Author/creator: Bo Hla Tint
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


    Title: Junta Knows Best
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: The pessimists have been vindicated... As recent developments have shown, the most essential quality in any self-respecting Burma-watcher has got to be pessimism. As far back as the 1970s, reputable journals would regularly print articles by supposed scholars of Burmese politics who claimed to have spotted portents of change flickering behind the Golden Curtain. Year after year, every optimistic prediction by an academic proved to be wrong..."
    Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 12, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


    Title: Burma Talk - Interview with Bertil Lintner
    Date of publication: December 2003
    Description/subject: Burma expert Bertil Lintner shares his views on the country’s political condition.
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe, Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 11, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


    Title: Democratic Revolutions: Why Some Succeed, Why Others Fail
    Date of publication: 27 August 2003
    Description/subject: Abstract: Since the latter years of the Cold War, strong democratic revolutionary movements seeking the overthrow of authoritarian regimes have arisen in many countries. Such movements have succeeded in some countries, including the Philippines (1986), South Korea (1988), the countries of Eastern Europe (1989), Russia (1991), and Serbia (2000). On the other hand, strong democratic movements which rose up in some countries were crushed before they could take power in China (1989), Burma/Mayanmar (1990), and Algeria (1992). Strong movements seeking the ouster of incumbent authoritarian regimes and their replacement by democratic government rose up in each of these cases. What, then, accounts for the success of democratic revolution in some of these cases and its failure in others? This paper will examine this question first through an examination of some of the theoretical literature on revolution, and then through a comparison of three cases of successful democratic revolution (the Philippines, Russia, and Serbia) with three cases of failed democratic revolution (China, Burma/Myanmar, and Algeria). Certain theorists, including Crane Brinton and Timothy Wickham-Crowley, have argued that the key factor in deciding whether or not non-democratic revolution succeeds or fails is the role of the armed forces. If the armed forces protect the ancien regime, then the revolutionary opposition is unable to seize power. If, however, the armed forces do not protect the ancien regime, then the revolutionaries usually do come to power. It will be argued here that just as in attempts at non-democratic revolution, the role played by the military is also the key factor in determining the outcome of democratic revolution. When the military is willing to use force to protect the ancien regime, democratic revolutionaries cannot prevail. It is only the refusal of the armed forces to do this that allows democratic revolutionaries to succeed. What, though, determines whether the armed forces of an authoritarian regime will use force to suppress a democratic revolutionary movement or not? Through a comparison of the cases mentioned above, I will argue here that the decision by the armed forces not to protect an authoritarian regime is not the result of a democratic conversion on the part of the military as a whole, but instead results from an overwhelming desire to prevent conflict within the military. Thus, if even a small number of key commanders defect to the democratic opposition, this can neutralize the armed forces as a whole even though most military leaders may be wary of, or even hostile to, democratization. But if these key defections to the democratic opposition do not occur and the military remains unified, it is able to crush the democratic revolutionaries easily......Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003.
    Author/creator: Mark Katz
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: American Political Science Association
    Format/size: pdf (169K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Democratic_revolutions.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 24 January 2009


    Title: 'External' Aspects of Self-Determination Movements in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2003
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Based on secondary resources and long term anthropological field research, this paper explores some of the 'external' factors involved in the pro-democracy and ethnic struggles for self-determination currently being experienced in Burma. The analysis draws in cultural, economic and political aspects to demonstrate that a number of macro- and micro-level external or external-origin influences are at play, at a number of different 'inside', 'outside' and marginal sites. The paper argues in particular that 'cultural' factors such as computer-mediated communication and contacts with outsiders when living in exile, serve as means by which real, virtual and imaginary connections are drawn between these different sites and the actors who inhabit them. In the context of Burma, this paper thus presents a glimpse into this complexity of origin and substance of external influences, of interactions between the external and the internal, and of the multidirectional pathways along which they operate. After an introductory overview, it does so by first reviewing some pertinent macro-political and macro-economic external factors, including international views and strategic interests. The paper then focuses on micro-level social and cultural issues, examining aspects of new media as utilised by the Burmese exile community and international activists. External influences on exiled communities living in the margins on the Thai-Burma border (characterised by the paper as neither 'inside' nor 'outside' proper), including Christianity and foreign non-governmental organisations, are then explored. The paper concludes that inside views, reactions and experiences of outside influences are presently just as important in determining outcomes as are the outside influences themselves."
    Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Queen Elizabeth House
    Format/size: pdf (123K)
    Alternate URLs: http://ideas.repec.org/p/qeh/qehwps/qehwps94.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


    Title: Shaping Civil-Military Relations in Burma: Learning Lessons from ASEAN
    Date of publication: 06 August 2002
    Description/subject: Workshops in Thailand and Indonesia - Summary Report... "Highlights of Workshop Results: The workshops built critical capacity and linkages for TBF and TAN to work with key opinion makers and think tanks within the ASEAN region and to provide informed policy inputs that can shape ASEAN strategies in dealing with current political situations as well as future transitions in Burma. The following list of achievements at the workshop: A. Learning Lessons from Country Experiences in Civil-Military Relations: The workshops produced a number of practical ideas and interesting thoughts for the development of effective policies toward securing democratic control of the armed forces in Burma. The workshops have identified opportunities and challenges facing each country, many of which are relevant to the Burmese context... B. Promoting Awareness and Mutual Understanding of Burma and her Neighbors: The workshops have increased the understanding of transitional issues facing Burma, and greater knowledge sharing and cooperation between Burmese experts and academics with those from the neighboring countries. They have facilitated a productive interaction between Burmese and ASEAN experts in learning lessons of transition from one another, and applying them in their related work... C. Laying foundations for regional security dialogue: TBF aims to foster more initiatives on regional security dialogue that can help academics and security experts in collaborating between their respective national projects on a regional basis. These new partnerships will certainly create and enhance long-lasting and productive relationships between a future democratic Burma and its neighbors..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Fund, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS Indonesia), International IDEA
    Format/size: pdf (648K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaguide.net/res-en/BIG19_15_en/view
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


    Title: Burma - Twelve Years After 1988 - A Common Future?
    Date of publication: August 2002
    Description/subject: "In August PD Burma/Worldview Rights launched the report "Burma - Twelve Years After 1988 - A Common Future?" written by Camilla Buzzi, post-graduate student in political science at the University of Oslo, Norway. Is the democratisation of Burma still in progress? What are the obstacles to a transition towards democratic rule? The report provides an overview of the main players on the Burmese political stage and presents the key issues that have divided Burma over the past twelve years... Is the democratisation of Burma still in progress? What are the obstacles to a transition towards democratic rule? The report provides an overview of the main players on the Burmese political stage and presents the key issues that have divided Burma over the past twelve years. Table of contents: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY; INTRODUCTION: A country in transition? HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: The lead-up to 1988; I. The foundation of modern Burma; II. Burma at Independence: Two conflicts about fundamentals; III. Government response in an era of parliamentary democracy, 1948-1962; IV. The era of socialist rule, 1962-1988; THE PROTAGONISTS: Who are the key players today? I. The armed forces; II. The pro-democracy movement; III. The ethnic movement; GOALS AND PROCESSES: A common future? I. Differing concepts of democracy; II. Alternative transition processes III. The difficult issues; THE BACKDROP: What are the options? I. Economic and social deterioration; II. A divided international community; AN ATTEMPT TO CONCLUDE: What comes next? BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING; WEB SOURCES; ENDNOTES.
    Author/creator: Camilla Buzzi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PD Burma/Worldview Rights
    Format/size: html (467K), Word (352K) 70 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/CB-Word.doc
    Date of entry/update: 07 July 2003


    Title: Spitting Images
    Date of publication: June 2002
    Description/subject: "While the junta and the opposition have long been at odds, the two sides frequently display a striking resemblance. The stark contrasts between the Burmese junta and many of its opponents are taken as a given, but upon closer inspection their resemblance is striking. Although many in the opposition will not admit it openly, the two sides are, to a large extent, mirror images of each other, distinguishable only by their aspirations�the regime opposes democracy while the opposition embraces it..."
    Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 5, June 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma in five Years
    Date of publication: April 2002
    Description/subject: Prognoses by: Aung Ko, Khun Marko Ban, Saw Ba Thin Sein, Zaw Oo, Aung Moe Zaw, Kyaw Zan Tha, Dr Sein Win, Aung Naing Oo, Lian H Sakhong, Seng Suk, Bo Kyi, Mi Sue Pwint, Sui Khar, Dr Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe, Moe Thee Zun, Than Khe, Dr Cynthia Maung, Dr Myat Htoo Razak, Dr Thaung Htun, Harn Yawnghwe, Dr Myint Cho, Dr Thein Lwin, Hte Bu Peh, Nai Han Thar, Tin Htar Swe, James Lum Dau, Dr Naing Aung, Tin Moe, Khaing Myo Khaing, Nang Hseng Noung, Tin Tut.
    Author/creator: Dr Cynthia Maung, Dr Myat Htoo Razak, Dr Thaung Htun, Than Khe, Aung Moe Zaw, Kyaw Zan Tha, Dr Sein Win,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Looted Land, Proud People: The Case for Canadian Action in Burma
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: A useful and balanced overview. FACTS ABOUT BURMA... BURMA: A CHRONOLOGY... CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND TO 1988: Rise of Nationalism; Ne Win and Isolationism; Growth of Heroin Industry... CHAPTER 2: THE MEN BEHIND THE MASSACRES: The Ordeal of Aung San Suu Kyi... CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN COSTS OF MILITARY RULE: Refugees; Political Prisoners; Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Forced Relocation; Forced Labour; Students and Education; Political Prisoners; Freedom of the Press; The Militarization of Society; Women Living under a Military Dictatorship; Political Prisoners... CHAPTER 4: THE CRIMINAL ECOMONY: Sectors Complicit with Forced Labour; Opium, Heroin and a Drug Economy... CHAPTER 5: FORCED LABOUR AND THE ILO: ILO Commission of Inquiry, 1998 Report; Follow-up to the 1998 Report; CHAPTER 6: GEOPOLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES: Neighbouring Countries; Malaysia,Singapore and ASEA; Canada and Other International Influences; The United Nations; Other National Governments; How Does Canada Measure Up?; Civil Society... CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS: Canada’s Role; Development Assistance; Trade and Investment... FURTHER READING... WEB CONNECTIONS.
    Author/creator: Clyde Sanger
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Friends of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (1.35MB) 52 pages
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


    Title: The Disorder in Order: the Army-State in Burma since 1962
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: Book Announcement, Table of Contents and ordering information. "The Disorder in Order examines Burma’s history of “regime entropy” following the March 1962 coup d’etat that ended the country’s brief experiment with parliamentary government. Implementing socialist economic policies in central Burma and a hard line against ethnic minority and communist insurgents in the Border Areas, Ne Win’s Army-State presided over the country’s fall from prosperity to Least Developed Nation status by 1987. The following year, a new martial law regime, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), brutally suppressed a nationwide movement for democracy that drew on the country’s colonial-era traditions of revolutionary nationalism. Although SLORC promoted an open economy, including foreign private investment, the second Army-State operates on the same assumptions as its predecessor: that government is synonymous with pacification, unquestioned central control and cultural homogenization. The author argues that while the post-1988 junta, renamed the State Peace and Development Council in 1997, claims a unique mission in defending national unity and social order, its policies generate political disunity and socio-economic disorder. Tragically, genuine order, the key to Burma’s development, remains out of reach as the 21st century dawns..." Bangkok: White Lotus, 2002). 403 pp. US$25.00.
    Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: White Lotus
    Format/size: html (10K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: The Military Regime's View of the World
    Date of publication: 07 December 2001
    Description/subject: On the basis of an examination of Burma's foreign relations and the world views and actions of the Burmese generals, this important report makes the case for gradual engagement and against an international policy of confrontation. Whether or not one agrees with all or any of the conclusions and recommendations, the analysis is one which must inform any international approach to Burma. "Since coming to power in 1988, the most recent military rulers of Burma/Myanmar have effectively resisted external demands to turn over power to a democratic government. Most of the outside pressure has failed to take into account how this government sees and responds to the world beyond its borders. This paper examines the military's perspective on foreign relations and explains why many current international strategies have failed to push it towards democracy or economic reforms. The modern state of Myanmar was forged under colonialism and born in the aftermath of World War II. Since independence in 1947, continuous domestic conflict and the failure of successive governments to forge a stable and prosperous nation have sustained fears of foreign intervention and reinforced a mindset that foreigners are to blame for the country's many problems. During four decades of military rule, Myanmar's leaders have grown increasingly inward-looking and alienated. They are driven by an obsession with national sovereignty to seek almost total autonomy from international influences. The hallmark of a foreign policy driven by insecurity has been self-reliance. Since 1962, military leaders have insisted that Myanmar, as much as possible, do things its own way and rely on its own resources. They perceive their country and its problems to be not only unique, but also essentially unfathomable to outsiders. They also exhibit a clear lack of understanding of international affairs and the motivations, and values of other nations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: PDF (445K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Dialog in vermintem Gelaende
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: Analytische Aspekte zu den im Oktober 2000 begonnenen Gesprächen zwischen der Militärjunta und der Opposition in Burma und den Reaktionen darauf von Hans-Bernd Zoellner, einem der führenden Burma-Wissenschaftler in Deutschland (Downlaod als pdf-Datei). Hans-Bernd Zoellner's analysis of the current talks between Aung San Suu Kyi and the SPDC. (it is in pdf-format for download). (history, NLD, SPDC, politics, also: international community reactions and human rights movement mentioned in the article).
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Südostasien, Jg. 17, Nr. 2 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: PDF (114K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma/Myanmar: How Strong is the Military Regime?
    Date of publication: 21 December 2000
    Description/subject: This report, the first in a proposed series, is a preliminary assessment of the strengths and vulnerabilities of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), the military regime ruling Burma/Myanmar. Its purpose is to provide essential background - not at this stage policy prescriptions - for policy makers addressing the prospects for non-violent democratic transition in the country and ways to achieve that transition.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: pdf (305K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: An Overview of Burma's Ethnic Politics
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "... The fact that many pro-democracy leaders in Burma now recognize the importance of ethnic issues and have developed working relationships with ethnic leaders offers hope that ethnic political demands will ultimately be resolved at the negotiating table. However, such a resolution is unlikely to be implemented by the military regime, which rejects decentralization and power-sharing. The ongoing civil war, population relocations, and religious persecution, compounded by appeals to narrow nationalism on all sides, have caused much damage. Without visionary leadership, a commitment to dialogue, and the emergence of a culture of tolerance, lasting peace will continue to elude Burma..."
    Author/creator: Christina Fink
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


    Title: Approaching Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Policy Dilemmas
    Date of publication: 03 August 1999
    Description/subject: A slightly edited transcript of a talk by Professor Steinberg at Monash University on Tuesday 3 August 1999. "...So what is the contemporary reality in Burma today? In my view the military is determined to retain power in that society. It may civilianise but it will not have a civilian government it does not control. That, I believe, is its plan. The circumstances might change; but that is my view of the military's intent. Second, the military is stronger now that it has been before. It is stronger and it has expanded its role and its numbers. Its armaments have increased-some US$1.4billion worth of new arms since 1988. It has effectively neutralised a large part of the minority opposition. There have been about 16 cease-fires which are fragile, but now the military is not losing troops except on Karen front. The Communist Party has disintegrated. So the military is in a strong position. Third, the National League for Democracy is in a weaker position than it has been in the past. The military is out to destroy the National League, to isolate Aung San Suu Kyi from the League and to make sure they never come to power..."
    Author/creator: David Steinberg
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Monash University
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


    Title: "Kingship in Pagan Wundauk U Tin's Myan-Ma-Mwn-Ok-Cjok-Pon-Sa-Dnn"
    Date of publication: 1998
    Description/subject: This paper analyzes the attitudes toward kingship expressed in the Myan-ma-Mn Ok-cjok-pon Sa-dnn'["The Royal Administration of Burma"], written by Pagan U Tin (1861-1933) and first published shortly after the author's death. Following a brief biographical account of Pagan U Tin, the discussion considers four perspectives on Burmese kingship appearing in the work: 1) the king as judge; 2) the king as guarantor of regularity; 3) the king as descendant of the Sun (and of Mahasammata, originator of civil society); and 4) the king as Buddha-to-be. The Burmese monarch was predominantly a symbolic figure who affirmed the kingdom's past and guaranteed its future. Although U Tin reports on the questionable morality of Kings Mindon and Thibaw, he nevertheless addresses both as "Excellent King" and admonishes his readers against offending the dignity of the throne.
    Author/creator: L.E. Bagshawe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
    Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    Title: The Politics of Authoritarianism: The State and Political Soldiers in Burma, Indonesia and Thailand
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This thesis investigates the impact of military rule on the state and society by looking at three cases from the same geographical region -- Burma, Indonesia, and Thailand -- that have experienced military intervention and military rule. The thesis is framed by a number of questions: Why does the military sometimes decide to stay on to run the state after it intervenes? What happens to the military, its leaders, and most importantly, the state and society when the military reorganizes the state into a military-authoritarian order? What are the political outcomes of military rule in terms of state autonomy? How can the political variations -- the extent of military penetration into the state order -- between military regimes be explained? This thesis has found that there are three vital factors influencing the military's decision, having intervened, to stay on to rule the country. The most important factor is the emergence of an extraordinary military strongman-ruler. The second, and related, factor is military unity -- forged and maintained by the strongman-ruler and bound by the myth that the soldiers are the guardians and saviors of the state. The military supports the ruler and is in turn rewarded by him, and becomes a privileged class. Together they dominate and control other state and societal forces. In fact, while military-authoritarian states are highly autonomous from society, it is clear that the state is not well insulated from abuse by its own elites. The third factor is the extent to which the strongman-ruler is constrained by having to share power with an unimpeachable force (a person, ideal, or myth). This thesis has found that military rulers in Thailand have been constrained because of the person and the role of the monarch. This thesis has also found significant variations in military-authoritarian states. They range from a nearly pure praetorian example to a tentative quasi-democratic set up -- resulting from historical circumstances combined with the vision, political will and astuteness of the strongman-ruler, his concern with his legacy, and the presence or not of an important constraining force. The military has played a dominant role in politics in Burma and Indonesia since the 1960s; in Thailand, it has been in and out of power since the 1930s. It has become apparent from this research that, although the global democratization trend is hopeful, it is not so easy to get a politicized military to go back to the barracks to stay." A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of Political Science), the University of British Columbia.
    Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: University of British Columbia (PhD Thesis)
    Format/size: pdf (1.3MB), html (2MB), Word-full text (928K) or by individual chapter (html)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Politics_of_Authoritarianism.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 August 2004


    Title: The Rajadhammasangaha
    Date of publication: 1979
    Description/subject: "The Rajadhammasangaha" was presented to King Thibaw in December 1878. The first printing was c.1915. This translation by L.E.Bagshawe is from the version edited with a biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and published by the Sape U Publishing House in 1979... "On the seventh waxing day of Nadaw...the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi finished the writing of his book Rajadhammasangaha and presented it to King Thibaw. The author describes it pleasantly as “a book of the proper behaviour for Kings and other high officers of government”. The Pagan Wundauk U Tin, however, says “it is a book of admonishment addressed to King Thibaw.” And in this he speaks the direct truth. In this book the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi documents the proposals for changes in the system of government that were planned from the time of King Mindon. His intention in writing the book, he says, is, “In bygone times of the Buddha-to-be there were good and excellent Kings who guarded the well-being of all living creatures; like them may our own King, Lord of the Saddanta Elephant and Lawful King, under the Law guard the well-being of all living creatures like that of his own beloved children.” This expressed intention has a further meaning. Under an autocracy we cannot really say that the monarch rules with the single-minded wish to rule all living creatures on the same terms as his own children. If he is brought to the point where he must consult the "living creatures", we may be able to say that he regards them on equal terms with his own children. If there is no law requiring consultation, his guardianship becomes dubious..."
    Author/creator: By the Yaw Mingyi U Hpo Hlaing (the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi). Edited with biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and translated from the Burmese by L.E. Bagshawe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: pdf (1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Rajadhammasangaha-print.pdf (configured for print)
    Date of entry/update: 05 September 2004


  • Burma's opposition movement
    This sub-section is under construction. See other sub-sections in Politics and Government and elsewhere in OBL

    • Burma's opposition movement - general studies

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma's opposition movement: A house divided
      Date of publication: 28 November 2008
      Description/subject: Burma’s opposition movement has always been strong, but never united. After 20 years of struggle, with no sign that the military government is weakening, the fissures in the movement seem to be more pronounced and the divisions more obvious. This could have far-reaching consequences.
      Author/creator: Andrew Selth
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2010


    • Burma's ethnic opposition

      • Burma's ethnic opposition -- inside Burma

        Individual Documents

        Title: Human Rights in Karen Areas of Burma
        Date of publication: 08 April 1996
        Description/subject: Briefing Notes by Kevin Heppner, Karen Human Rights Group April 8, 1996 "...Right now the opposition Karen National Union (KNU) is trying to conduct ceasefire negotiations with the SLORC (State Law & Order Restoration Council) military junta ruling Burma. Though the SLORC claims to be making every effort to bring peace to the country, they are still refusing to even discuss any political or human rights issues, and as a result the talks are making no progress. Many observers feel that the SLORC is not yet interested in a ceasefire, but wants to launch major attacks against the KNU first in order to weaken the KNU so it can be forced to accept what amount to surrender terms. Regardless of the negotiations, SLORC continues to worsen the human rights situation for villagers throughout Karen areas. In some areas, such as Taungoo and Nyaunglebin, systematic abuse of the civilian population is being used partly with the intention of driving the KNU towards a ceasefire deal on very bad terms. However, in most areas the abuses are increasing as a direct result of SLORC moving in and exerting stronger control in areas where KNU forces have been weakened or eliminated. Even in areas close to central Burma which SLORC has always strongly controlled, the human rights situation is worsening because more Army Battalions are being sent in to strengthen control over the civilian population, and because SLORC’s use of forced labour is increasing nationwide. The sections below give summaries of the human rights situation prevailing in some example Karen regions, starting from the northern tip of Karen State and moving southward several hundred kilometres to Tenasserim Division..."
        Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


    • Burma's political opposition

      • Burma's political opposition -- inside Burma

        Individual Documents

        Title: Oposition Movements in Burma: The Question of Relevancy
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Description/subject: "Since Burma’s independence from British rule in 1948, the Burmese polity has been fraught with contentious politics ranging from armed insurgencies to non-violent movements against the state. The history of Burma’s opposition movements, originating from the colonial period, can be understood as five different forms of struggle—legal political means, armed insurrections, underground (clandestine) activities, above-ground engagements (through civil society groups and the domestic media), and international advocacy (through lobbying, grassroots campaigns, and the foreign media including Burmese language broadcasts). This paper will examine how opposition movements since 1988 have played out until now and how they will remain relevant after the 2010 elections. Generally, relevancy is defined as a means to increase the likelihood of accomplishing the professed goal,1 treating the goal more in terms of consequence (the actual outcome as opposed to the morality of intention). Public support or legitimacy plays a key role in determining relevancy. However, in the context of opposition movements in Burma, we must consider their moral ground. This paper will probe the question of relevancy for Burmese opposition movements from two perspectives— legitimacy and outcome."
        Author/creator: Min Zin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
        Format/size: pdf (173K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


  • Cities and City planning

    Individual Documents

    Title: Rangoon’s Road Worriers
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: The mean streets of Burma’s crumbling former capital make residents’ daily commute a constant source of trepidation... "“I take my life into my own hands every time I get behind the wheel,” said Tin Sein, a bus driver whose regular route takes him from South Dagon Township on the eastern outskirts of Rangoon to Lanmadaw Street in the downtown core of Burma’s largest city. “But this is how I make my living, so all I can do is pray to Buddha that I make it through another day.” Even as a 25-year veteran of Rangoon’s decrepit public transit system, Tin Sein still dreads the nasty surprises that the city’s roads routinely throw at him. Besides the potholes that lurk everywhere, he also has to contend with vehicles perpetually teetering on the brink of their next breakdown. It is not uncommon, he said, to see a wheel fly off a car or for brakes to suddenly fail when they’re needed most..."
    Author/creator: Hsat Linn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: The Chinese Road to Mandalay
    Date of publication: April 2009
    Description/subject: Burma's second city looks back on 150 years of rich history... "HISTORY has greatly altered the face of Mandalay - and in this anniversary year, 150 years after its founding, Burma's second city is again undergoing radical change. Ruled for many early years by Britain, Mandalay is now falling under the influence of a new wave of outsiders - "the Chinese. The city has had a Chinese community since the days when it was ruled by King Mindon (1853-78). Migration from China really began, however, with the arrival of remnants of the Kuomintang army fleeing advancing Communist forces at the end of China's civil war in 1949..."
    Author/creator: Min Lwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


    Title: Capital Blues
    Date of publication: November 2008
    Description/subject: Naypyidaw, now three years old, was designed and built to serve as the seat of Burma’s military government. For the ordinary Burmese who have to live and work there, it’s a city without a heart
    Author/creator: Min Khet Maung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2008


    Title: Dragging Burma Back to the Past
    Date of publication: November 2008
    Description/subject: "WHEN Snr-Gen Than Shwe relocated the seat of Burma’s military government to a site some 320 km (200 miles) north of the former capital, Rangoon, he did so without any fanfare. Acting solely on his prerogatives as the undisputed ruler of the country, he offered no explanations to the Burmese people or the rest of the world. The move was announced only after it had become a fait accompli. The creation of Naypyidaw (which translates as the “Abode of Kings”) was an exercise in pure power—an act that appeared to serve no other purpose than to establish Than Shwe as a quasi-monarch in the tradition of past kings who have arbitrarily shifted the country’s administrative center to suit their whims..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


    Title: Die Junta verbunkert sich im Dschungel
    Date of publication: 01 December 2006
    Description/subject: Die ranghohen Militärs haben sich unterdessen weitab von Rangoon im Dschungel verbunkert: Handstreichartig liessen die Generäle im November 2005 den Regierungssitz von Rangoon nach dem rund 400 Kilometer nördlich gelegenen Pyinmana zügeln. Ganze Lkw-Konvois beladen mit Stühlen, Schreibtischen, Aktenschränken und Tausenden von konsternierten Beamten fuhren landeinwärts in den Dschungel. Astrologen des Oberkommandierenden Than Shwe hatten anscheinend das Datum für den Umzug bestimmt. Dahinter steckt laut Burma-Experten die Angst vor Volksaufständen in Rangoon, aber auch die Befürchtung vor einer Aggression der USA, die Burma als Schurkenstaat bezeichnet hat. Unterschriftenaktion, Protestaktion, willkürliche Verhaftungen, Zwangsarbeit Junta hides in the Jungle; Protests; Petition; Arbitrary Arrests; Forced Labor
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Format/size: Html (18k)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


    Title: Beyond Rangoon
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: "As Burma’s military rulers settle into their new administrative capital near Pyinmana, the fate of Rangoon remains an open question The symbolism was sure to spark rumors—towering concrete statues of three of Burma’s ancient conquerors overlooking the new military parade ground in Naypyidaw, the country’s newly-minted administrative capital. The name itself, which translates as “royal city,” suggests for some in Rangoon that the relocation is much more than the product of fear or astrology...s the regime begins a new chapter of its history in Naypyidaw, among concrete kings and theme-park recreations of the country’s principal monuments, many in Rangoon fear that the city’s broad avenues and historic buildings will fall prey to foreign invaders of another sort—developers from China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Reports have circulated for years that the military government has been quietly attempting to auction off some of Rangoon’s oldest buildings...A source involved in the project has confirmed to The Irrawaddy that the Burmese government has brokered a deal with the Chinese company Shanghai Jingqiao to develop plans for a special economic zone adjacent to Rangoon’s Thilawa Port in Thanlyin Township. Such a move would further entrench Chinese investors who have already made enormous inroads into Mandalay and elsewhere..."
    Author/creator: Edward Blair
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: Rangoon Bets on Business
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: Burma's former capital is still the country's commercial hub... The sudden relocation of Burma's capital may have sent government officials and Burmese civil servants moving north to Pyinmana, but for those involved in business Rangoon is still the center of Burma's commercial universe. The new capital's largest port and its main airport. While Pyinmana remains cut off from the outside world, the former capital has direct international flights to such cities as Bangkok, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Taipei..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: No Escape from the 31 Planes of Existence
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: Naypyidaw—the “Abode of Kings”—is Than Shwe’s monument to his own rule... "I am not an astrologer, but I will venture one prediction about the year ahead: that the regime in Burma will hold its election as planned and formally introduce what it calls a “discipline-flourishing democracy.” So far, however, the junta leaders remain tight-lipped about the how and when of the election. At this stage, the best anyone can offer is an educated guess. But come what may, the election will happen—be sure of it. Why am I so certain of this, when others have suggested that the junta will probably try to find some pretext to put the vote off indefinitely? Because the clearest evidence of the junta’s intentions can be found in Naypyidaw, where construction of new parliamentary buildings is proceeding apace. This news is not entirely reassuring, however. According to a recent Reuters report, much work remains to be done on the new legislature, “from unfinished roads to painting many of the parliamentary complex’s 31 buildings, with pagoda-style roofs sheathed in scaffolding.” But others who have been to the junta’s capital say that they are amazed at how much progress has been made since last March, when only the main building of the Hluttaw, or Parliament, had been completed. In recent months, the regime has ordered army engineers and construction workers to work even faster to meet their deadline—whenever that might be. While some people are preoccupied with the question of when the buildings will be finished, I am more intrigued by the number being built—31. In Buddhism, this number has a special significance. According to Buddhist cosmology, 31 is the number of planes of existence into which we can be reborn. Humans belong to the fifth plane, above other beings such as animals and hungry ghosts, but below the devas—the god-like beings who exist in the realms of form and formlessness. The important thing to remember about the 31 planes of existence is that they are all subject to suffering. By following the Buddha’s teachings, however, one can escape the rounds of rebirth and attain a state that is completely beyond suffering, known as Nirvana..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


  • Federalism, ethnic conflict and the politics of national reconciliation

    • The Peace Processes

      Individual Documents

      Title: Midwifing a Burmese peace
      Date of publication: 08 March 2012
      Description/subject: "The government of President Thein Sein has had considerable success in wooing Western countries with a flurry of reforms. A transition to peaceful democracy, however, will be simply impossible without overcoming decades of mistrust and acrimony between the state and armed ethnic groups. Third-party mediation, whether through the U.N. or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), is the way forward.Representatives of the government recently signed agreements with the United Wa State Army, the National Democratic Alliance Army, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army, the Restoration Council of Shan State, the Chin National Front, the Karen National Union, the Shan State Progress Party and the New Mon State Party. Despite these agreements, and promises by the regime to follow up with development projects and parliamentary discussion, some groups refuse to negotiate and violence continues. Kachin state is currently experiencing its worst fighting in decades in some areas, with continuing reports of gross human rights abuses by the military against ethnic minorities..."
      Author/creator: Eva Kusuma Sundari
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Wall Street Journal" via Burmanet News
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2012


    • Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma) website
      Description/subject: "The Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC) was originally established as the “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) in August 2001. It was entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation between all ethnic nationalities in preparation for a ‘Tripartite Dialogue” and a transition to democracy. The National Democratic Front (NDF) and the United Nationalities League for Democracy – Liberated Area (UNLD-LA) who co-founded the ENSCC, resolved that the ENSCC would: * Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring about a peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC, the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the ethnic nationalities, as dialogue partners; * Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stakeholders in Burma and with the international community, international bodies and agencies, the United Nations, and humanitarian organizations, to resolve the grave humanitarian crisis in Burma, which most seriously effect the ethnic nationality populations; * Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance with the spirit of Panglong, based on the principle of Equality, Self-determination, Democracy, and Justice..." ... publicatoins, statments, fonts, draft constitutione, activities etc.
      Language: English, Burmese,
      Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 August 2006


      Individual Documents

      Title: Discrimination, Conflict and Corruption: The Ethnic States of Burma
      Date of publication: 02 November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Since achieving independence in January 1948, successive Burmese governments, elected and military dictatorships, have sought to address the complex issues involving the country’s many ethnic groups. They have sought to do this primarily through confronting a perceived separatist agenda pursued by the many ethnic groups who have taken up arms against the various governments. However, ethnic groups have called for a genuine federal union based upon the principles of equality for all of the country’s citizens. It is this that is the motivating factor behind the continuation of armed struggle, as central Burmese administrations have refused to concede to the political grievances of the ethnic groups. Now that a new, ostensibly civilian, government has taken over the administration of the country, the time has come for new efforts to fully understand the current problems affecting the ethnic groups and to re-evaluate those previous strategies that have continued to perpetuate armed conflict. While armed conflict has become a dominant factor among the problems affecting ethnic peoples, it is not the only one. Wide-scale discrimination against ethnic groups, prevalent corruption, and human rights abuses have continued throughout the decades of civil war. The Governments of Burma, especially from 1962 until 2010, have pursued only a military solution to what is primarily a political problem, and have consequently given ethnic groups no other option but to engage in armed struggle. Ethnic citizens, therefore, have been regarded as possible insurgents without just cause. They have been discriminated against up to the present day. While the ceasefire agreements of the late eighties and early nineties have characterised some of the achievements that could be found by co-operating with the Military Government’s framework, they still failed to alleviate poverty and inequality for most of the ethnic populations. Many of those groups who had not totally supported the military government’s line found the original concessions that they had been granted gradually eroded. The fact that the previous Military Government’s response to the ceasefire groups call for equal recognition led to the coerced creation of Border Guard Forces (BGF), in which ethnic armed forces accepted Burma Army authority, demonstrated that the military still did not understand what was needed for the ethnic groups to realise their aspirations and did not trust them to be equal members of the union. While the new government has made a number of concessions to reform laws and instil democratic values, it must recognise the equality of all peoples of the country. The failure of the BGF programme, the resumption of war in 2011 in Kachin State and the widening of conflict in Shan and Karen States clearly show that the ethnic issue needs to be addressed not by military force but by political compromise. It is this solution that must recognise and redress the inequality that many of the ethnic minority populati on feel."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Strategic Studies Department, Ethnic Nationalities Council - Union of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (592K - OBL version; 698K - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.encburma.net/images/files/publications/Discrimination-Conflict-and-Corruption-Report-1.pdf">http://www.encburma.net/images/files/publications/Discrimination-Conflict-and-Corruption-Report-1.p...
      http://www.encburma.net
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2011


    • Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC)
      (now merged into the Ethnic Nationalities Council)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Road map for rebuilding the Pyi-Daung-Su Myanmar Naing-Ngan-Daw Union of Burma
      Date of publication: 02 September 2003
      Description/subject: "... in spirit of Panglong, we are committed to national reconciliation and to the rebuilding of the Union as equal partners in the process. We believe that in order to establish a stable, peaceful and prosperous nation, the process of rebuilding the Union must be based on a democratic process which includes the following basic principles: 1. A peaceful resolution of crisis in the Union 2. The resolution of political problems through political dialogue 3. Respect for the will of the people, 4. The recognition and protection of the rights of all citizens of the Union, 5. The recognition and protection of the identity,language, religion, and culture rights all of nationalities, 6. The recognition and protection of the rights of the constituent states of the Union through a federal arrangement. Therefore, in the interest of the nation, we recommend a two-stage process to generate confidence in the transition to democracy:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee Union of Burma (ENSCC)
      Format/size: html (13K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 September 2003


      Title: ENSCC: Statement on the Release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
      Date of publication: 09 May 2002
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (10k)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC : The Constitutional Crisis
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "After the end of the Second World War, the leaders of the various ethnic nationalities met in 1946 in Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after the proposed withdrawal of British protection. General Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in Ministerial Burma participated in the 2nd Panglong Conference in February 1947. He proposed that the separate ethnic homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a Union of Burma to hasten the process of achieving independence from Britain..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: htmlo (14K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC Mission Statement
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: 1. Background History, Mandate and Mission; 2. Dialogue Strategy; 2.1. Tripartite Dialogue; 2.2. Ethnic Nationalities Conference; 2.3. International Lobby Trips; 2.4.Panglong Initiative: More Concrete Plan (on Humanitarian Aid, Cease Fire, and Political Dialogue); 3.1. Tactics & Strategy : Federalism vs. Independence; 3.2. The Mode of Representation: States- or Ethnic-based?; 4. Statement on the Release of Daw Aung Suu Kyi(Date: 9 May 2002); 5. The ENSCC Committee Members; Appendix: SCC Position on Humanitarian Aid: Decision made at the SCC meeting held in January 2001.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee
      Format/size: html (77K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC Policy paper: The New Panglong Initiative - Re-building the Union of Burma
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "Preamble: Over five decades ago, while our leaders were meeting in Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after the proposed withdrawal of British protection, General Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in Ministerial Burma arrived. He instead proposed that our separate homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a new Union of Burma to hasten the process of achieving independence from Britain. On 11 February 1947, he said: The dream of a unified and free Burma has always haunted me We who are gathered here tonight are engaged in the pursuit of the same dream. We have in Burma many indigenous peoples: the Karen, the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Burmans and others In other countries too there are many indigenous peoples, many races. Thus races do not have rigid boundaries. Religion is no barrier either, for it is a matter of individual conscience If we want the nation to prosper, we must pool our resources, manpower, wealth, skills and work together. If we are divided, the Karen, the Shan, the Kachin, the Chin, the Burman, the Mon and the Arakanese, each pulling in a different direction, the Union will be torn, and we will come to grief. Let us unite and work together. Our forefathers agreed and the Panglong Agreement came into being, providing a legal framework within which the different ethnic peoples would cooperate as equals. The Aung San-Attlee Agreement, which paved the way for Burmas independence, had called for the unification of the Frontier Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free consent of those areas. The Panglong Agreement, therefore, became the basis for the 1947 Union Constitution and the Republic of the Union of Burma gained independence in 1948. We, the representatives of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan peoples, therefore, in the spirit of Panglong, are putting forward our vision of how our peoples can once again work together voluntarily as equals with the Burmans to rebuild the Republic of the Union of Burma, which has been devastated by five decades of war..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (36K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC: Humanitarian Aid
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "In order to rebuild the Union of Burma, any Transitional Authority will face tremendous challenges. It cannot convene a new Panglong Conference or Constitutional Convention, without also dealing with the huge problems facing the nation both economic and social..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (13K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC: Tripartite Dialogue
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "A 'Tripartite Dialogue' is usually understood to mean a dialogue amongst three parties: the military government (SPDC), the democracy forces (NLD) and the ethnic nationalities. The notion of 'Tripartite Dialogue', therefore, highlights the indispensable participation of the ethnic nationalities in political transition and national reconciliation processes..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (14K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC: Vision for the Future
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "The ENSCC firmly believe that the crisis in the Union of Burma today is rooted in a political problem, specifically a constitutional one the non-adherence to the spirit of Panglong. The ENSCC believes that differences can be overcome through political means, i.e. through political dialogue, negotiations and compromise. The ENSCC, therefore, welcomes the current Talks between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (13K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Co-operation Committee [history and composition]
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: 'The "Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Co-operation Committee" (ENSCC) was formed in August 2001 to co-ordinate the work of the following non-Burman political groupings: National Democratic Front (NDF), United Nationalities League for Democracy - Liberated Area (UNLD-LA), Non-ceasefire groups like the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Ceasefire groups...'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (39K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Law Khii Lah Statement (August 2001)
      Date of publication: 30 August 2001
      Description/subject: Law Khii Lah Statement - Translation ETHNIC NATIONALITIES SEMINAR 2001 (30 August 2001) "Ethnic nationalities leaders from major organizations met at Law Khii Lah, Kawthoolei, in August 2001, and discussed the need for unity and closer cooperation. The leaders agreed on the need to strengthen the unity of the ethnic nationalities and a working committee, the Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC), was established. The Committee was entrusted with the task of fostering unity and cooperation between all ethnic nationalities and to promote a peaceful political settlement in Burma through a Tripartite Dialogue..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (26K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ENSCC: Rationale for the New Panglong Initiative
      Date of publication: August 2001
      Description/subject: WHY REBUILD THE UNION OF BURMA?... Introduction: "Secret Talks between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and the generals of the State peace and Development Council (SPDC) began in October 2000, and is still on-going. To date, no substantive matters have been discussed. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has in the past said that she will not make decisions without broader consultations and that she supports United Nations General Assembly resolutions calling for a Tripartite Dialogue involving the military, the democracy forces and the non-Burman ethnic peoples.1 The international community very much wants the Secret Talks to succeed and develop further into a political dialogue, which will bring about change in Burma. The UN Special Envoy has visited Burma four times since mid-2000 and is about to make another visit in August 2001. Most countries agree that a Tripartite Dialogue is needed. However, there is the possibility that the Secret Talks could break down. The fact that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi did not attend the 19 July Martyrs Day Ceremony signals that all is not well despite the SPDCs assurances to the contrary..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ENSCC
      Format/size: html (42K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Federal and State constitutions
      For the past few years, groups from Burma's seven States have been drafting State Constitutions. These are all in draft form and will be updated in this library when new versions become available. What is important in comparing these texts with the principles produced by the SPDC's "National" Convention is that these drafts are rights-based, including the right to popular participation, and federal in conception. On the other hand, the SPDC "Fundamental Principles and Detailed Basic Principles" which may be considered a pre-draft constitution, are authoritarian and unitary.

      • Federal and State constitutions (texts)

        Individual Documents

        Title: Shan State Constitution (2nd Draft)
        Date of publication: 20 September 2008
        Description/subject: Contents: Foreword for the second draft (A- C)... Preamble... Chapter One Chief Characteristics ... Chapter Two Bill of Rights, Guarantees and Duties ... Chapter Three Member sub-states of Shan State ... Chapter Four Shan State Congress ... Chapter Five Shan State Legislation ... Chapter Six Shan State President ... Chapter Seven Shan State Government ... Chapter Eight Shan State Judiciary ... Chapter Nine Citizenship ... Chapter Ten State Defense and Security Forces ... Chapter Eleven State of Emergency ... Chapter Twelve General Provisions ... Chapter Thirteen Transitional Provisions ... Chapter Fourteen Amendment of the Constitution ... Appendix (1) Shan State Flag (Article 76)... Appendix (2) Shan State Anthem (Article 179) - 3 -... Appendix (3) Structure of Shan State.
        Language: Burmese, English
        Source/publisher: Shan State Constitution Drafting Commission (SSCDC)
        Format/size: pdf (681K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 May 2009


        Title: The Fifth Draft of Chinland Constitution
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: PART ONE:(1)Preamble..(2)Part One:The territory of Chinland..(3)Part Two:Presiding Ideals..(4) Part Three:Individual Rights..(5) Part Four:Individual Duties..(6) Part Five:Language..(7) Part Six:Chin Ethnicity and Culture..(8) Part Seven:Citizenship..(9) Part Eight:Suffrage.. (10) Part Nine:The Legislature (11)Part Ten:The Executive..(12)Part Eleven:The Judiciary..(13)Part Twelve:Administration..(14)Part Thirteen:The Civil Service Commission..(15)Part Fourteen:Impeachment..(16)Part Fifteen:Local Government..(17)Part Sixteen:Finance, Revenue, and Taxation..(18)Part Seventeen:Public Education..(19)Part Eighteen:Public Health..(20)Part Nineteen:Public Welfare..(21)Part Twenty:Culture and Media..(22)Party Twenty-One:State Armed Forces..(23)Part Twenty-Two:State of Emergency..(24)Part Twenty-Three:General Provision..(25)Part Twenty-Four:Inter-State and State-Federal Relations..(26)Part Twenty-Five:Amendment of Constitution..(27)Part Twenty-Six:Ratification..... PART TWO:Suppression of Chin National Movement for Federalism..... PART THREE:(i)The Chin Forum Managing Board (CFMB)... (ii) Chin Forum Chronology of Events
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Chin Forum
        Format/size: pdf (1.11 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


        Title: Karenni State: Second Draft Constitution
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: 1. The Emergence of Karenni State Constitution; 2. Introduction; 3. Preamble; 4. The Attributes of the Karenni State; 5. The Basic rights; 6. The Structure of the Karenni State; 7. The Chambers of the State Parliament; 8. The Karenni State Legislation Process; 9. The State Government; 10. The Judiciary; 11. Financial Ordinances; 12. Citizenship; 13. Maintaining Customs its Chieftains; 14. Institution of the Commissions; 15. Amending of the Constitution; 16. National Emergency Law; 17. National Defense; 18. Police Force; 19. National Economy. N. B. the text is undated. We have guessed at a date in 2007.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Karenni State Constitution Drafting Committee
        Format/size: pdf (522K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2007


        Title: Draft Constitution of Future Rahmonya Mon State
        Date of publication: December 2006
        Description/subject: THE FORMATION OF RAHMONYA MON STATE; THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE; THE STATE PARLIAMENT AND THE FEDERAL PARLIAMENT; ELECTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE HOUSE OF RAHMONYA MON STATE PARLIAMENT; RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAHMONYA MON STATE AND FEDERAL UNION; RAHMONYA MON STATE GOVERNMENT; LEGISATION (MAKING LAWS); THE JUDICIALSYSTEM OF RAHMONYA MON STATE; PUBLIC SERVANTS; NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT; EDUCATION; WORKERS; HEALTH; FINANCE AND TREASURY; TAXATION AND REVENUES; THE ECONOMY; DEFENCE AND SECURITY; SOCIAL SECURITY; FARMERS (INCLUDING GARDENERS, CULTIVATORS ETC.); ETHNIC GROUPS OR RACES OF RAHMONYA MON STATE; PUBLIC RELATIONS; AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION;
        Language: Burmese and English
        Format/size: pdf (361K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2007


        Title: The Second Proposed Draft of Future Constitution of Kawthoolei (Karen State)
        Date of publication: 08 August 2006
        Description/subject: Table of Contents: Bill of Rights; General Provisions; Legislature; Executive; Judiciary; Suffrage and Elections; Local Government; Finance and Taxation; Education; Amendments; Miscellaneous.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Karen State Constitution Drafting Committee (SCDC)
        Format/size: pdf (222K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2007


        Title: Shan State Constitution, First Draft
        Date of publication: 24 May 2006
        Description/subject: CONTENT Forward; Preamble; Founding Provision; Supremacy of Constitution... CHAPTER [1] Characteristics; Name: Shan State; Supremacy of Constitution; Citizenship; National Flag; National Anthem; National Capital; Nation Seals; A multi-ethnic Nation/State... CHAPTER [2] Bill of Rights; Human dignity; Freedom and Security; Religion and belief; Freedom of expression and information; Freedom of Assembly; Freedom of Association; Freedom of movement and residence; Freedom of trade; Labor Rights; Land and property ownership rights; Right to environmental protection; The right to informed choice; The right to be served by the Public Institutions; Rights Abuse Prevention Measure; Human Rights Promotion Measure; The rights to recall and impeachment; Duty and Responsibility of Citizens and Civil Society Organizations; Duty of Media and its Responsibility; Rights of differently able people; Rights of people to initiate legislation... CHAPTER [3] Legislature... CHAPTER [4] Legislative Powers; National Congress; Legislative Powers of National Congress; Formation of House of Nationalities; Exclusive legislative power; Ordinary Bills; Formation of House of People’s Representatives; Legislative Power of House of People’s Representatives; State Constitution (Constituent State); Special Provision; Formation of the State Legislature; Legislative Power [Const State]; House of National Ethnics; Formation of State House of People’s Representatives; Legislative powers provided for the State House of People’s ; Representatives; Legislative powers provided for the Sub-States and ; Autonomous Regions; Local Government; Municipal of Township Administration; Village Tract Administration; Village Administration... CHAPTER [5] National Executive. Federal Union Executive; Constituent State’s Executive... CHAPTER [6] Judicial Power [Judiciary]... CHAPTER [7] General Provisions; Note: Spread out to other chapters/provisions... CHAPTER [8] The amendment of the constitution.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Shan State Constitution Drafting Commission
        Format/size: pdf (244K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2007


        Title: Kachin State Constitution (Draft)
        Date of publication: 2006
        Description/subject: Contents: Chapter (1) Kachin State; Chapter (2) Fundamental Rights and Freedoms; Chapter (3) Kachin State Legislative Assembly; Chapter (4) Kachin State Government; Chapter (5) Suffrage and Elections; Chapter (6) Judiciary; Chapter (7) Inter-Governmental Relations; Chapter (8) Emergencies; Chapter (9) General Provisions; Chapter (10) Transitional Provisions; Chapter (11) Amendment of the Constitution.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Kachin State Constitution Drafting Committee
        Format/size: pdf (513K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 October 2007


        Title: THE FOURTH INITIAL DRAFT OF CONSTITUTION OF CHINLAND
        Date of publication: May 2004
        Description/subject: ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြခံမူကြမ်း(၄): "အပိုင်း(၁)ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏နောက်ခံသမိုင်းများ" (၁)ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏နိုင်ငံရေးနှင့်လူမှုရေး နောက်ခံသမိုင်းအကျဉ်း (၂)နိုင်ငံရေးနောက်ခံသမိုင်း (၃)ချင်းလူမျိုးတို့၏လွတ်လပ်သောနိုင်ငံတည်ထောင်ပိုင်ခွင့် (၄)ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ ဖွဲ့စည်းမှု အဖွဲ့ဝင်အဖြစ်ချင်းလူမျိုးများပါဝင်ခြင်း (၅)အင်္ဂလိပ်အုပ်ချုပ်မှုမတိုင်ခင်လွတ်လပ်သော ချင်းလဲန်းနှင့် ယနေ့ချင်းလဲန်း (၆)ချင်းလူမှုရေးနှင့်ယဉ်ကျေးမှုနောက်ခံသမိုင်း "အပိုင်း(၂)ဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုပြန်လည်တည်ဆောက်ရန် ချင်းအမျိုးသားများ၏တောင်းဆိုချက်များ" (၁)ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံအားဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုအဖြစ် ပြန်လည် ဖွဲ့စည်းခြင်း (၂)ဖက်ဒရယ်ပြည်ထောင်စုပြန်လည်ဖွဲ့စည်းနိုင်ရေး အခြေခံသဘောတရားများ (၃)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေနှင့်အစိုးရဖွဲ့စည်းပုံများ "အပိုင်း(၃)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းအုပ်ချုပ်ပုံမူကြမ်း" (၁)ချင်းလဲန်းဖွဲ့စည်းအုပ်ချုပ်ပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေနိဒါန်း (၂)ချင်းလဲန်းပိုင်နက်နယ်မြေ (၃)ချင်းပြည်သူတို့၏ဆန္ဒ (၄)တသီးပုဂ္ဂလအခွင့် အရေးများ (၅)တသီးပုဂ္ဂလတာဝန်များ (၆)ချင်းနိုင်ငံသားဖြစ်မှုနှင့် အမျိုးသားရေး (၇)ရွေးကောက်တင်မြောက်ခြင်း (၈)ဥပဒေပြုရေး (၉)အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး (၁၀)တရားစီရင်ရေး (၁၁)အုပ်ချုပ်ရေး (စီမံခန့်ခွဲရေး) (၁၂)ပြည်သူ့ဝန်ထမ်းကော်မရှင် (၁၃)ရာထူးမှဖယ်ရှားခြင်း (၁၄)ဒေသန္တရအစိုးရ (၁၅)ဘဏ္ဍာရေး၊အကောက်ခွန်နှင့် ဘဏ္ဍာတော် (၁၆)ပြည်သူ့ပညာရေး (၁၇)ပြည်သူ့ကျန်းမာရေး (၁၈)ပြည်သူ့လူမှုဖူလုံရေး (၁၉)ယဉ်ကျေးမှုနှင့် လူထု ဆက်သွယ်ရေး (၂၀)ချင်းလဲန်းလက်နက်ကိုင်အဖွဲ့ (၂၁)အထွေထွေဥပဒေများ (၂၂)ပြည်နယ်များနှင့် ပြည်နယ်ဖက်ဒရယ်ဆက်ဆံမှု (၂၃)ပြင်ဆင်ဖြည့်စွက်ခြင်း၊အချက်ပို (၁)
        Language: မြန်မာဘာသာ/အင်္ဂလိပ်ဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: The Chin Forum
        Format/size: pdf (434 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.chinforum.org/cfconstitutions/4th_cc_eng_bur.pdf (Burmese&English)
        http://www.chinforum.org/cfconstitutions/4th_chin_con.pdf (English)
        Date of entry/update: 15 September 2010


        Title: Arakan State Constitution (The First Proposed Draft)
        Date of publication: 2004
        Description/subject: Preamble: The Constitution of Arakan State is instituted for the preservation of a united and durable Arakan Nation; and for every citizen to be fulfilled in justice, life, liberty, prosperity, respect, dignity, kindness, tradition, and faith... Part One: Bill of Rights; Part 2: Formation of the State;Part 3: Provision of citizenship; Part 4: Provision of Voting Rights and Creation of Constituency: Part 5: Administrative power; procedure for the transfer of power; Part 6: Legislative Power; Part 7: Judicial; Part 8: State Government Administration.
        Language: Burmese, English
        Source/publisher: Arakan State Constitution Drafting Committee (Arakan National Council)
        Format/size: pdf (662K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 October 2007


    • Federalism, ethnic conflict and the politics of national reconciliation - general studies and sources

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma Lawyers' Council website
      Description/subject: Contains a number of Burma law-related documents including the BLC journal of "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" (English) and "Journal of Constitutional Affairs" (Burmese) as well as texts in English and/or Burmese of laws/decrees, constitutions and associated documents. The BLC site is down at the moment (permanently?) but the BLC archive is acessible to 2011 in Archive.org via the primary link here.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Burma Lawyers' Council (BLC)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222123/http://www.blc-burma.org/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Council for Democracy in Burma
      Description/subject: "The next generation of leadership for a truly democratic Burma."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Council for Democracy in Burma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


      Title: The Forum of Federations,
      Description/subject: "The Forum of Federations, “an international network on federalism”, seeks to strengthen democratic governance by promoting dialogue on and understanding of the values, practices, principles, and possibilities of federalism..." Includes a link to the International Conference on Federalism, St Gallen, Switzerland, August 2002.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: From Kings, Colonies and Nations: Lessons from Ethiopia in Building Multination Federalism in Burma
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Political Studies, the University of Auckland, 2009....Abstract: "This study evaluates whether the adoption of an ethnic-based federal system in Burma, as proposed by core opposition groups, could lead to a sustainable peace after the end of the military dictatorship. This is approached through a comparison with Ethiopia. Ethiopia was chosen because it is the only recent example of an attempt to establish a fully ethnic-based federal system after a civil war. A critical examination of Ethiopian and Burmese histories highlights key problems arising from competing narratives of state and nation, which question the basis of the two countries. An inability to address this crisis of state identity and history is a key factor in sustaining separatist conflict in Ethiopia, despite the remaking of the state into a multination federation that provides constitutional guarantees for ethnic self-determination. A similar problem seems likely arise in Burma during and after a democratic transition if questions of history and state identity are not addressed. Another key lesson from the Ethiopian experience is the possibility of territorial federalism contributing to a further ethnicisation of conflicts over land and resources, a problem that might be alleviated through non-territorial autonomy. Multination federalism may offer an alternative solution to the problem of protection for minority groups in countries like Burma and Ethiopia that have already experienced the trauma of failed nation-building projects. But lessons from the failings of Ethiopian federalism suggest the need for further measures to prevent violent disintegration in Burma if this direction is pursued there."
      Author/creator: David Fisher Gilbert
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Auckland
      Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


      Title: ETHNICITY, CONFLICT, AND HISTORY IN BURMA T- he Myths of Panglong
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The effects of the 1947 Panglong Agreement on Burma’s ethnic minority groups can still be seen today in calls for a return to the spirit of Panglong, but there are conficting versions of this event and its legacy. In order to grasp the prospects for ethnic unity in Burma, it is necessary to deconstruct the various “myths” of Panglong..." Keywords: Burma, Myanmar, Panglong, ethnic, confict
      Author/creator: Matthew J. Walton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Survey: Vol. XLVIII, No. 6, November /December 2008
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2013


      Title: Federalism and Ethnic Issues in Burma: Selected Political Writings, 1988-2008.
      Date of publication: 2008
      Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Chiang Mai: Wadina Press
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB) - 389 pages
      Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010


      Title: How not to Grant Autonomy
      Date of publication: June 2006
      Description/subject: A remote republic within Russia provides a lesson to Burma on how not to federate along ethnic lines... "Of the many oddities that Russia inherited from the erstwhile Soviet Union, this must be the most peculiar: the Jewish Autonomous Region of Birobidzhan. Located in a remote corner of the Russian Far East, it’s as far from the Land of Canaan as one could possibly get, but there it is, wedged between the Chinese border and the mountains of Khabarovsky Territory. And strange as it may seem, there may be a distant parallel with Burma’s ethnic minority situation..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


      Title: Divide or Rule
      Date of publication: April 2005
      Description/subject: "As the recent arrest of key Shan figures casts a cloud over the National Convention’s attempts at national integration, ethnic minority in-fighting continues to play into Rangoon’s hands Shan leaders gathered in Taunggyi on February 7 (Shan State Day) to discuss the formation of a united Burma, a “genuine federal union” in which all ethnic groups would enjoy equal rights. Also attending the meeting were prominent Burmese and Shan politicians, together with members of various quasi-political bodies including ceasefire groups. SNLD members at the National Convention in 1993 Long suspicious of Shan breakaway movements and anxious not to distract from the constitution-drafting National Convention’s reconvening on February 17, the military government moved in and over the next few days arrested several key figures. Among those taken into custody were 82-year-old leading Shan politician Shwe Ohn, Sao Hso Ten, president of Shan State Peace Council, and Hkun Htun Oo and Sai Nyunt Lwin, chairman and secretary respectively of the Shan National League for Democracy, the second largest vote getter in the 1990 election..."
      Author/creator: Nandar Chann
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: Ein Schritt in die richtige Richtung? Das Nationale Versöhnungsprogramm.
      Date of publication: March 2005
      Description/subject: Die Initiative ethnischer Oppositionspolitiker von 1999 zielt auf die verstärkte Zusammenarbeit von bewaffneten und politischen Minderheitenorganisationen in Burma ab. Die Autorin fragt, ob sie die Chance hat, dem Ver-söhnungsprozess eine neue Qualität zu geben. National Reconciliation Programme, co-operation between ceasefire, non-ceasefire groups and political parties
      Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: südostasien Jg. 2005, Nr. 1, Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2005


      Title: Burmese Politics and the Broken Unity
      Date of publication: May 2002
      Description/subject: "Recognizing Burma's diversity is the first step to achieving real unity. "I have always wanted to see unity," declared Burma's opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi in a recent interview with The Irrawaddy shortly after her release from house arrest. She was addressing the notion of unity among opposition groups within and outside the country, which in her eyes, are in disarray. Certainly, the current fragmentation among opposition groups does not bode well for democracy in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma's Ethnic Problem is Constitutional
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "...Has Burma really been on the brink of fragmentation since independence? Are the ethnic nationalities and the politics of ethnicity the root cause of the problem? Was General Ne Win correct when he claimed in 1962 that he had to seize state power to prevent Burma from disintegration? The current State Peace and Development Council also claims that there are 135 languages and 8 major races in Burma requiring a strong centralized military to keep the country together. Is this true? ..."
      Author/creator: Harn Yawnghwe and B. K. Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found in "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 at
      http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism and Self-Determination: Some Reflections
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "Federalism has, for many decades now, been seen an answer to the challenges posed by multi-ethnic societies the world over. In some cases, the idea has worked, while in others it manifestly has not. Where it has failed, the reasons have often lain as much with human deficiencies as with systemic shortcomings..."
      Author/creator: Venkat Iyer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found in "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 at
      http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism as a Solution to the Ethnic Problem in Burma
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "From January 4, 1948, the day the Union of Burma came into existence as an independent nation, the people and their leaders have been divided over how to achieve national unity and structure their state. Until 1988, it was federal in name and theory, but unitary in practice. After five decades of political discussion, peaceful movements for secession or autonomy and warfare, the majority Burmans and most of the ethnic minorities remain disunited. From time to time efforts have been made by the Government of Burma and the minorities, either alone or in groups, to end revolt and disunity, but none have succeeded. Today, the basic problem is the same as the one the nation's founding fathers faced fifty years ago: how to construct a political system wherein diverse peoples feel free and equal, able to govern themselves in their own areas, protect and preserve their languages, cultures and traditions, while at the same time give their political loyalty to the nationstate..."
      Author/creator: Josef Silverstein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found in "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 at
      http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism With A New Twist: Burma's Only Option
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "The author of the article "The Panglong Spirit Lives On" (Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe in The Irrawaddy, July 2001) argued that the guiding principle of the Panglong Accord is "unity in diversity". He raised the question as to whether there is a formula for ending Burma's decades of ethnic strife, and answered it himself with "Yes, and it is none other than the political vision that brought modern Burma into existence half a century ago". This is begging the question: what is this political vision, which is abstract in terms of people's understanding? The meaning of terminology such as "unity in diversity" is academically attractive, but in the understanding of the activists it helps little. However, Yawnghwe retrieved much of the ground lost in the struggle evolving a viable concept for the establishment of a stable Burma by stating that the major goal is the establishment of a democratic, federal Union of Burma, to be composed of self-determining states living together in equality and peace. It is argued that core issues must be addressed, and the debate has to be brought to a fruitful end..."
      Author/creator: B. K. Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found in "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 at
      http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism, Burma and How The International Community Can Help
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "International Community can help via systematic study and consideration of the world's federations, in pursuit of an understanding of what federalism can achieve when presented with a range of entrenched political and/ or ethnic problems. The international community thus provides and becomes the backdrop, and the actor/ participants can research, inform, educate, and consider whether and in what ways federalism can provide some solutions to the crisis of governance in which they flounder. Burma has never progressed past the polarised and prevailing view of federalism, yet for so long an aspiration of many of Burma's leaders, notably the National Democratic Front (NDF) since its formation in 1976, and still today. 1 The United Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD) an umbrella political organisation of non-Burman nationalities that formed in 1989 likewise embraces federalism as a path to political, therefore constitutional settlement, that will bring peace and prosperity. 2 Until the political actors in and of Burma have this debate, its ability to resolve its political differences by political means to effect a constitutional settlement will elude them. National reconciliation will remain a catch cry..."
      Author/creator: Janelle Saffin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism: Putting Burma Back Together Again
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "This paper deals with the absence or the non-existence of a functional relation between the state in Burma and broader society which is also made up of non-Burman 1 ethnic segments that inhabit the historical-territorial units comprising the Union of Burma. 2 Introduction: Putting the Country Back Together Again The paper looks into the problems related to the task, as yet to be accomplished, of "putting the country back together again", in contrast to the claim of the military and its state is "keeping the country together". It is here argued that although the military has, in a manner of speaking, "kept the country together", it has also distorted the relation between the state in Burma and broader society by monopolizing power and excluding societal elements and forces from the sphere of the state and from the political arena. The military's centralist, unitary impulse, informed by it ethnocentric (Burmanization) national unity formula, has contributed to a dysfunctional state-society relation, that has in turn brought about the present crisis of decay and general breakdown, making Burma a failed state..."
      Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 15 July 2010


      Title: In Search of a Constitution for Burma
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: "Constitution can be a strong foundation for every country to be established as a just, free, peaceful and developed society. Burma is in the process of producing a new constitution. By amalgamating lessons from previous historical experiences and current practical situation of the country, it is hoped that a proper constitution for future Burma might be produced. Major concern is that without finding ways and means to resolve the underlying issues of a country, production of constitution superficially is meaningless and constitution might not be effective from positive aspect in our future society. In this account, the constitution making process or the way, how a constitution will be produced, is of paramount importance. In attempting to produce a constitution, onesided or unproper guidance to the people should be avoided. In a genuine constitution making process, the people, regardless of race, social origin, gender and etc, should be allowed to uncover their sufferings frankly, propose possible solutions positively, and express their will to restructure the society freely thereby leading the process to be more and more participatory. Any kind of discrimination should not be exercised within a genuine constitution making process whether be it federal or state constitution making processes..."
      Author/creator: Aung Htoo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Interview With Sao Seng Suk
      Date of publication: April 2002
      Description/subject: Federalism in Burma: (Sao Seng Suk is the Chairman of the Shan State Constitution Drafting Committee. Following is a literal transcript of the interview he had with U Aung Htoo and B. K. Sen). "Do you consider the constitution to be the core issue in a peaceful political settlement in Burma?" Sao Seng Suk: "Yes, I certainly do. Because all problems arose since Pyidaungzu was established in 1947 from the then constitution. If all accept democratic constitution, historical problems can be settled peacefully and the country rebuilt according to constitution, as there will be many kinds of freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of activities, etc." "What type of Constitution will be viable?" Sao Seng Suk: "Federal type constitution, federal is suitable for us..."
      Author/creator: U Aung Htoo, B. K. Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: PDF
      Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found in "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 11 at
      http://www.blc-burma.org/activity_pub_liob.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma and National Reconciliation: Ethnic Conflict and State-Society Dysfunction
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: It is maintained that Burma’s ‘ethnic conflict’ is not per se ethnic, nor that of the kind faced by indigenous peoples of, for example, North America, but a conflict rooted in politics. Following the collapse of Burma’s General Ne Win’s military-socialist regime in 1988, the issue of ethnic conflict has attracted the attention from both observers and protagonists. This attention became heightened following the unraveling of the socialist bloc and the emergence of ethnic wars in those hitherto (presumed) stable socialist nation-states.
      Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal_Issues_on%20Burma_Journal_10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 August 2004


      Title: Secession and Self-Determination in the Context of Burma's Transition
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "The word 'secession' has originated from the concept of 'self-determination'. Apart from its historical context, 'self-determination' can also be seen in its plain meaning. The Oxford Dictionary defines 'self-determination as, 'The right of a nation or people to decide what form of government it will have or whether it will be independent of another country or not'. The second part of this definition is easy to understand. A nation or people has the right to be independent of another country when under subjugation of that country. But sometimes it is difficult to determine whether a nation striving for selfdetermination is actually a nation..."
      Author/creator: B.K. Sen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal_Issues_on%20Burma_Journal_10.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism and Burma
      Date of publication: August 2001
      Description/subject: "Despite the fact that Burma has a highly centralized unitary government system, the issue of federalism has been a major source of debate for decades. Ever since the formation of the independence movement, the various ethnic groups in Burma have wanted to transform the country into a federal union based on equality. The Panglong Agreement1 provided the basic foundation for this, but post-independence Burma did not become a federal union in spite of the urgent need for this. The non-Burman 2 ethnic groups in Burma have not given up their demands for federalism. Most of them are still engaged in insurgency movements against the central government,3 which has been dominated by Burmans since 1948. The ethnic insurgency movements emerged as a result of the government’s failure to deal with the demand for federalism peacefully. The non-Burman movement for federalism and political equality (the ‘Federal Movement’) has consistently tried to resolve the issue peacefully. The non-Burman ethnic groups even participated in the 1990 elections, with federalism as their main motive. In the elections, the UNLD (United Nationalities’ League for Democracy, the alliance of ethnic parties in Burma) occupied the second largest number of seats after the NLD (National League for Democracy). However, federalism does not mean anything to the non-Burman groups unless the right to self-determination, including the right to secession, is part of it..."
      Author/creator: Khin Maung Win
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 9 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in "Legal issues of Burma Journal" No. 9 at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%209.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Issues of self-determination in Burma
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: "This paper seeks to provide an introduction to the concept of self-determination, and to suggest the importance of this concept in Burma. A comprehensive analysis of either topic is beyond the scope of this paper, which is aimed at readers without great familiarity with either area. Suggestions for further reading may be found in the references. The paper begins by discussing the concept of self-determination, and its varied meanings. A brief history of the development of the concept follows, in which the meaning of self-determination beyond decolonisation is touched upon. The situation of minorities within a state is then considered. The second section of the paper is a discussion of the particular case of Burma..."
      Author/creator: Louise Southalan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 5 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism and the Protection of Minority Rights: Some lessons for a new democratic Burma
      Date of publication: October 1999
      Description/subject: "...federalism offers the best hope of creating a more stable and harmonious polity, especially in societies such as Burma that are deeply divided along ethnic lines. The architects of a new democratic Burma would do well to embrace this concept - with all its promise and all its challenges - but they need to work very hard to ensure that any future Burmese federation lives up to the high expectations of the Burmese peoples. Not only will the balance between unity and diversity have to be struck with a great deal of pragmatism, but every effort will have to be made to secure the widest possible consensus on the terms of the new federal settlement. More importantly still, no one should be left in any doubt as to the continuing price that every man, woman and child across the land would have to pay - in terms of patience, vigilance, tolerance and co-operation - to make federalism a success..."
      Author/creator: Dr. Venkat Iyer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 4 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Federalism: The best option for national reconciliation and peace in Burma
      Date of publication: October 1999
      Description/subject: "...Federalism has made democracy more viable by providing a way for ethnic, religious, racial and linguistic communities to benefit from political and economic union while retaining considerable autonomy, self-government and communal identity.1 Our history has proven that a unitary or quasi-federal system is inefficient in bringing about peace and prosperity. Genuine federalism is the best option to bring about national reconciliation and pave the way for rebuilding Burma as a modern nation..."
      Author/creator: Dr. Thaung Htun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 4 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Pyidaungzu, Federalism and Burman Elites: A Brief Analysis
      Date of publication: May 1999
      Description/subject: Drafting a constitution in Burma. "Federalism is not quite understood in Burma. In fact, it would not be wrong to say it is grossly misunderstood by -- among many others -- the Burman population segment, or at least by its armed elites (or elites in uniform). To armed Burman elites, Federalism is synonomous with the destruction or the disintegration of the Union. The Burman-dominated military led by General Ne Win introduced and entrenched this idea when they usurped power in 1962..."
      Author/creator: Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 3 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 August 2004


      Title: Shan Federal Proposal, 1961
      Date of publication: 25 February 1962
      Description/subject: Document containing proposals For the REVISION of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BURMA submitted by THE SHAN STATE, translated by Sao Singha. This document was ratified by the Convention, attended by delegates from the entire Shan State, which was held in Taunggyi on Saturday, 25th of February, 1961.
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 December 2010


      Title: HISTORISCHE ENTWICKLUNG DER ETHNISCHEN KONFLIKTE IN MYANMAR / BURMA
      Description/subject: Vor der Ankunft der britischen Kolonialmacht waren die burmanischen Königreiche zwar die dominierende politische Kraft, ihre Herrschaft über die Minderheiten blieb aber beschränkt. Zu keinem Zeitpunkt in der vorkolonialen Geschichte bemühten sich die Monarchen darum, die Minderheiten unter Zwang zu assimilieren. Politisch relevant wurde die ethnische Zugehörigkeit erst unter der britischen Kolonialherrschaft, als das Land in das direkt verwaltete Burma proper (Burma an sich) und in die indirekt verwalteten frontier areas (Grenzgebiete), das vornehmliche Siedlungsgebiet der Minderheiten, geteilt wurde. Karen (KNU); Panglong-Abkommen; Waffenstillstandsabkommen; History of ethnic conflicts in Burma; Karen (KNU); Panglong-Agreement; Ceasefire Agreements;
      Author/creator: Heike Löschmann
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
      Format/size: html (25k)
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


  • Myanmar Union Government (MUG)/State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)

    • Composition of the Myanmar Union Government (MUG)/State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Politik, Ministerien von Myanmar
      Date of publication: 15 August 2006
      Description/subject: Minister und ausgewählte Persönlichkeiten in Burma; ministers and selected personalities in Burma
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Asien auf einen Blick/ CIA
      Format/size: Html (26k)
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


      Title: Cabinet of Burma
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Befehlsgewalt im Außenamt
      Date of publication: 23 September 2004
      Description/subject: Myanmar: Besetzung von Schlüsselministerien mit Militärs beendet Hoffnung auf Demokratisierung key words: cabinet reshuffle, ministry of foreign affairs, democratization
      Author/creator: Thomas Berger
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: AG Friedensforschung an der Uni Kassel
      Format/size: html (6,9k)
      Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


      Title: Members of State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
      Date of publication: 01 November 2003
      Description/subject: Including the list of Members of State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) "SLORC was founded in September 18, 1988, when the military assumed power following a massive crackdown on the nationwide uprising for democracy. In 1997, the military government renamed it the State Peace and Development Council..."
      Author/creator: By The Irrawaddy (Updated In August 2006)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Foreign Ministry, Burmese Embassies and Ambassadors

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rangoon
      Description/subject: Some sections empty, some texts of statements. Contents: About Myanmar (nothing there, 8/02); Foreign policy (nothing there, 8/02); Departments; Myanmar Missions ; Foreign Embassies; Declarations, etc.; News & Views.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Foreign Affairs
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar Mission Geneva
      Description/subject: Quite a lot of stuff. No images, therefore faster loading than myanmar.com. Holds the archives of "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SPDC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: SPDC STATEMENTS AND SPEECHES
      Description/subject: Useful archive. Click on: State's Dignitaries; Foreign Affairs; Others; Permanent Representative (no statements by U Mya Than, former Ambassador in Geneva, are accessible). If the date is missing and you need it, copy the title into a google search and you will usually get to the original in a dated "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Mission Geneva website
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 June 2006