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Economy

  • Economy: general, analytical, statistical

    • Economy: general, analytical, statistical (various sources)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "BurmaNet News" Trade/Business archive
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


      Title: "The Myanmar Times" (English) - Business section (items from February 2011)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 January 2013


      Title: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents
      Description/subject: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents... Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process - Challenges and Opportunities... Brussels, Tuesday 5th April 2005... Most of the papers and reports focus on the "Independent Report" written for the conference by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen. They range from macroeconomic critique to historical and procedural comment.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: European Commission
      Format/size: html, Word
      Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


      Title: Burmafund's Economy Page
      Description/subject: Many/most of the links to US and other reports on Burma's economy are out of date, but some may still be useful.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Fund
      Format/size: pdf (71K), html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Economy (burmese) ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ စီးပြားေရး- burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2013


      Title: Economy of Burma
      Description/subject: The Economy of Burma (Myanmar) is one of the least developed in the world, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement, and isolation. Burma’s GDP stands at $42.953 billion and grows at an average rate of 2.9% annually – the lowest rate of economic growth in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[2] Among others, the EU, United States and Canada have imposed economic sanctions on Burma. Historically, Burma was the main trade route between India and China since 100 BC. The Mon Kingdom of lower Burma served as important trading center in the Bay of Bengal. After Burma was conquered by British, it became the wealthiest country in Southeast Asia. It was also once the world's largest exporter of rice. It produced 75% of the world's teak and had a highly literate population. After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu embarked upon a policy of nationalization. The government also tried to implement a poorly thought out Eight-Year plan. By the 1950s, rice exports had fallen by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96%. The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalize all industries. The catastrophic program turned Burma into one of the world's most impoverished countries. In 2011, when new President Thein Sein's government came to power, Burma embarked on a major policy of reforms including anti-corruption, currency exchange rate, foreign investment laws and taxation. Foreign investments increased from US$300 million in 2009-10 to a US$20 billion in 2010-11 by about 667%.[6] Large inflow of capital results in stronger Burmese currency, kyat by about 25%. In response, the government relaxes import restrictions and abolishes export taxes. Despite current currency problems, Burmese economy is expected to grow by about 8.8% in 2011.[7] After the completion of 58-billion dollar Dawei deep seaport, Burma is expected be at the hub of trade connecting Southeast Asia and the South China Sea, via the Andaman Sea, to the Indian Ocean receiving goods from countries in the Middle East, Europe and Africa, and spurring growth in the ASEAN region..."...Contents: 1 History: 1.1 Pre-colonial era; 1.2 Colonial era (1885 - 1948); 1.3 Independence; 1.4 Military rule (1988 - 2011); 1.5 Economic liberalization (2011-present)... 2 Industries: 2.1 Garment production; 2.2 Illegal drug trade; 2.3 Oil and gas; 2.4 Gemstones; 2.5 Tourism... 3 External trade... 4 Macro-economic trend... 5 Humanitarian aid... 6 Other statistics... 7 Impact on population... 8 See also... 9 Footnotes... 10 External links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 August 2012


      Title: IDE/Jetro website
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar - more than 100 items, mainly on the economy
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Journal Articles & Occasional Papers on Myanmar's economy
      Description/subject: 22 articles from 2006 (titles, authors, abstracts and links to full texts) - 13 on Vietnam, 7 on Burma/Myanmar: Yangon's Development Challenges - José A. Gómez-Ibáñez and Nguyễn Xuân Thành, March 2012 ...The Exchange Rate in Myanmar: An Update to January 2012 - David Dapice, January 2012 ...Appraising the Post-Sanctions Prospects for Myanmar's Economy: Choosing the Right Path - David O. Dapice, Michael J. Montesano, Anthony J. Saich, Thomas J. Vallely, January 2012...Myanmar Agriculture in 2011: Old Problems and New Challenges - David O. Dapice, Malcolm McPherson, Michael J. Montesano, Thomas J. Vallely, and Ben Wilkinson, November 2011...The Myanmar Exchange Rate: A Barrier to National Strength - David O. Dapice, Malcolm McPherson, Michael J. Montesano, Thomas J. Vallely, and Ben Wilkinson, June 2011...Revitalizing Agriculture in Myanmar: Breaking Down Barriers, Building a Framework for Growth - David O. Dapice, Mike Montesano, Thomas J. Vallely, and Ben Wilkinson, July 2010...Assessment of the Myanmar Agricultural Economy - Vietnam Program, March 2009...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ash Center, for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard University
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2012


      Title: Network Myanmar's Business pages
      Description/subject: Useful material: 1. Business and Investment News... 2. Basic Documentation on Trade and Investment in Myanmar... 3. Trade and Investment Data and Statistics
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2011


      Title: Network Myanmar's Economy pages
      Description/subject: More than 100 useful articles and reports from various sources -- academic, Myanmar Union Government, intergovernmental agencies, media etc.
      Language: English, (at least 1 Burmese item)
      Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2011


      Title: Publications on "Shaping economic processes"
      Description/subject: Publications on "Shaping economic processes" Business and Human rights Position Paper on Business and Human Rights (2013) (pdf, 830 KB)... - Expectations of a German Action Plan This publication is also available in German (pdf, 850 KB)... Economic growth and development Economic growth and development (pdf, 150 KB) Changing course to ensure a better life for all Memo drafted by the MISEREOR focus group 'Economic growth and development' This publication is also available in Spanish (pdf, 140 KB)... Financial transactions Position paper "International taxes on financial transactions" (pdf, 144 KB) responding to global challenges - towards a fairer sharing of costs
      Language: English, German, Spanish
      Source/publisher: Misereor
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014


      Title: Results of a Google search for Myanmar 2014 on the IDE-Jetro site
      Description/subject: 277 results (June 2014). The results are not inchronological order.
      Language: English, Japanese
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


      Title: Stefan Collignon's Home Page
      Description/subject: Important economic analyses of Burma
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Fiscal cloud taxes Myanmar optimism
      Date of publication: 08 January 2014
      Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. Tax reform may not be sexy, but Myanmar's fledgling market economy is in desperate need of fiscal consolidation. A combination of well-intentioned reforms and some unsavory legacies of the old military regime have left public finances in a precarious position. If the current methods of public financing are not restructured quickly, a debt crisis is a real possibility. At present, Myanmar's public debt as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) is officially estimated at 45.7%, hardly an extraordinary figure by global standards. Even a developing country such as Myanmar, with its long history of instability and economic mismanagement, could maintain the good graces of global capital markets if public debt remained at this moderate level..."
      Author/creator: Josh Wood
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


      Title: Economic reform as flawed ideology
      Date of publication: 24 October 2013
      Description/subject: "Commentary on the scope and limits of Myanmar's recent reforms has already become trite. Those familiar with the endemic corruption and impropriety in the country's governmental and business practices have been quick to celebrate the relaxation of economic strictures, and the unexpected welcome Naypyidaw has given to new mechanisms of accountability. Hope for an end to the human-rights abuses and economic mismanagement, which has characterized the country's political economy for decades, is palpable. The reengagement of International Financial Institutions (IFIs - including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and ADB, the Asian Development Bank) in these reforms has lent weight to arguments that President Thein Sein's quasi-civilian government has turned a corner. Optimists put stock in the government's contention that with a robust framework for macro and micro economic and social reforms, Myanmar can become a modern, developed and democratic nation by 2030. However, both the ideological underpinnings of this reform process - led by IFIs and embraced wholesale by Naypyidaw - and the consequences for the majority of Myanmar's population have been little discussed..."
      Author/creator: David Baulk
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 May 2014


      Title: Myanmar’s Economic policy in Transition: Comparative Assessment & Empirical Analysis
      Date of publication: June 2013
      Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper comparatively examines the economic policies of Myanmar in transition with other Asian countries’ experiences and test the credibility of the policies with econometric methodology. Comparative studies with other emerging economies and transitional stages offer the opportunity to examine Myanmar’s transitional policies clearly and found out that Myanmar is at the cross road and not focusing on the old pattern of developments of other’s success stories. Myanmar is definitely not focusing on the productivity of agriculture for the surplus transfer to industrialization. It assesses the development pattern of Myanmar from the theoretical perspective. Growth models mainly address the importance of saving and capitals, human capital, openness to the trade, macroeconomic stability, political stability, technological change and most importantly the surpluses transfer from agriculture to industrialization as key drivers to economic growth. Based on the Cobb-Douglas production function, this paper tests the credibility whether the economic policy reform of Myanmar is contributing much to the growth and development. It employs the time series data set from IMF staff estimates, World Bank, ADB, MOFA, and the technique of cointegration test within an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Framework (ARDL ) proposed by Pesaran (1997) . The empirical results show that the economic policies of new Myanmar government are not focusing on the right direction to realize the potential gains and last but not least, the paper shades lights on the policy recommendations."
      Author/creator: Richard Takhun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: (Thesis) School of Economics and Finance Curtin University of Technology
      Format/size: pdf (760K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2014


      Title: Burma’s Ethnic Violence ‘Poses Threat to Foreign Investment’
      Date of publication: 11 April 2013
      Description/subject: "Continued religious and ethnic violence in Burma could deter much-needed investment by fostering a “wait and see” attitude among foreign companies and entrepreneurs, according to a study of the recent spate of anti-Muslim rioting and arson in the country. “Failure to prevent the spread of sectarian violence could dampen the influx of critical foreign investment,” the briefing on Burma by British business risk consultants Maplecroft said. The report identifies the booming tourism industry as the most vulnerable, with the negative impact quickly spreading to the retail and infrastructure sectors. “[Burma] has attracted significant interest from investors since the US and EU pared back sanctions in 2012. However, stakeholders remain cautious about making significant investments in the country, preferring to wait and see how the reform process moves forward,” said Maplecroft’s principal Asia analyst Arvind Ramakrishnan..."
      Author/creator: William Boot|
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2013


      Title: Export-Oriented Growth Strategy for Myanmar: Joining Production Networks in East Asia
      Date of publication: January 2013
      Description/subject: Concluding Remarks: "For many years, the West has pressured Myanmar in the direction of democracy and respect for human rights by ostracizing its military government through measures such as economic sanctions. Now, the thick fog of military rule that has so far enshrouded the country has become clear. As Western economic sanctions have been eased or lifted, Myanmar’s products will no doubt regain access to global markets, and there will be an influx of foreign investment to this country. The Myanmar economy will become more integrated into the global and regional economies, and have the chance to realize its latent potential. Myanmar’s exports will accordingly increase, and the export goods and destination shall be diversified. To do so, the first step for Myanmar is to show its ability to host export-oriented industry. The apparel industry seems to serve as a litmus test for this. After that, to be a part of production and distribution networks for E&E industry in East Asia will be a key for Myanmar to proceed to the next stage of industrialization. Myanmar should also tap into intra-regional markets, such as China, India and Thailand, in addition to traditional export markets such as US and EU. Utilizing the regional free trade agreements and further enhancement of the connectivity with these countries is also important for the export-oriented growth strategy for Myanmar"
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO and Satoru KUMAGAI
      Language: English and Burmese
      Source/publisher: IDE Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No.9
      Format/size: html, pdf (380K-English; 655K-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/09.pdf (English)
      http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/09_Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
      Date of entry/update: 09 October 2014


      Title: The fiscal year in review: 2012 - 2013
      Date of publication: 31 December 2012
      Description/subject: The government’s efforts to reform the long-dormant economy and tackle endemic poverty through 2011 and 2012 have failed to reach the intended targets, sources said last week.
      Author/creator: Aye Thidar Kyaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 January 2013


      Title: The Rocky Road to Recovery (interview with Lex Rieffel)
      Date of publication: 30 December 2012
      Description/subject: "Since joining the Brookings Institution in 2002, Rieffel, a former US Treasury Department staff economist, has made Myanmar’s economic transition a focus of his policy research work. He was in the country in October and November to assess foreign aid to Myanmar.....In terms of economic revival, what are Myanmar’s most pressing needs? An economy, even a rudimentary one like Myanmar’s, is a complex system. This means that to perform at a high level, a large number of elements need to be functioning properly at the same time. Right now, it is hard to identify a single element that is functioning properly. Substantial progress has been made since March 2011 in removing obstacles to proper functioning, like ending some monopolies and abandoning the official exchange rate, but much more needs to be done to have a properly functioning electrical system, telecommunications system, banking system, land tenure system, trade regime, foreign exchange regime, etc. Furthermore, in complex systems, it is necessary for the number of properly functioning elements to grow until a “tipping point” is reached before the benefits of improvements can be easily seen. What is needed to ensure that the whole country benefits from Myanmar’s sizable natural gas reserves?.."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2013


      Title: Myanmar’s Two Decades of Partial Transition to a Market Economy: A Negative Legacy for the New Government
      Date of publication: December 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Despite more than two decades of transition from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy, Myanmar’s economic transition is still only partly complete. The government’s initial strategy for dealing with the swelling deficits of the state economic enterprises (SEEs) was to put them under direct control in order to scrutinize their expenditures. This policy change postponed restructuring and exacerbated the soft budget constraint problem of the SEEs. While the installation of a new government in March 2011 has increased prospects for economic development, sustainable growth still requires full-scale structural reform of the SEEs and institutional infrastructure building. Myanmar can learn from the gradual approaches to economic transition in China and Vietnam, where partial reforms weakened further impetus for reforms."... Keywords: Myanmar, transition, state economic enterprises JEL classification: H61, O53, P21
      Author/creator: KUBO Koji
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Discussion paper No. 376
      Format/size: pdf (464K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/376.html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2013


      Title: Two-Polar Growth Strategy in Myanmar: Seeking “High” and “Balanced” Development
      Date of publication: November 2012
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Thein Sein government of Myanmar seeks higher and balanced economic growth. This is a challenge for the government since some economic literature identifies a trade-off between higher economic growth and better regional equality, especially for countries in the early stages of development. In this paper, we propose a two-polar growth strategy as one that includes both “high” and “balanced” growth. The first growth pole is Yangon, and the second is Mandalay. Nay Pyi Taw, the national capital, will develop as an administrative centre, not as an economic or commercial one. We also propose border development with enhanced connectivity with richer neighboring countries as a complementary strategy to the two growth poles. Effects of the two-polar growth strategy with border development are tested using a Geographical Simulation Model (GSM)... Keywords: Yangon, Mandalay, economic geography, agglomeration, regional inequality, border development, population, poverty alleviation, connectivity JEL classification: F23, L67
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO and Satoru KUMAGAI
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Discussion paper No. 371
      Format/size: pdf (3.5MB), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/371.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


      Title: Myanmar still a high-risk investment
      Date of publication: 03 October 2012
      Description/subject: "Internal debate over a pending new foreign investment law has exposed divisions between reformers and conservatives in Myanmar. How the power struggle shakes out will determine in large measure the direction and pace of the country's closely watched economic reform program. Big multinational corporations, including Coca-Cola, Ford Motor Company and General Electric, have expressed initial interest in Myanmar, a market American companies were until recently banned from entering due to US government imposed economic sanctions. Even with that ban lifted, companies have remained wary about committing funds without stronger legal protection of their investments. In line with his broad reform agenda, President Thein Sein announced plans for a more liberal investment regime in late 2011. Since then the law to regulate new foreign investment has undergone several rewrites and heated debate in parliament. The new law is designed to replace the extant and outdated 1988 investment law. A first draft of the law was sent to parliament in March but was rejected by conservative parliamentarians - some with known links to the business associates of former junta leaders - as overly advantageous to foreign interests. Although full details of the legislation have not yet been made public, earlier drafts reportedly included several restrictions on foreign capital, including bans on foreign investment in as many as 13 sectors..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2012


      Title: THE MYANMAR ECONOMY: TOUGH CHOICES
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The new Government of Myanmar has astonished the world since it took office at the end of March 2011 by the pace and scope of policy changes it has introduced in a country that has underperformed most other Asian countries for decades. Not a single analyst inside or outside Myanmar before President Thein Sein’s inaugural address predicted the changes that many now label “breathtaking.” The global policy community and the media have focused heavily on the political changes and challenges, giving less attention to the economic changes and challenges than they probably deserve. This paper focuses on 21 high-priority economic issues facing the Thein Sein administration in mid-2012.".....Overview... The Myanmar Economy at the End of the 2011/12 Fiscal Year... Macroeconomic Issues... The Primary Product Sectors... The Energy Sector... The Financial Sector... Infrastructure... State-Owned Enterprises... Private Sector Development... International Trade and Investment... Multilateral, Bilateral and International NGO Aid... Endnotes
      Author/creator: Lex Rieffel
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Brookings Institution
      Format/size: pdf (952K-OBL version; .4MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2012/9/myanmar%20economy%20rieffel/09%20myan...
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


      Title: Kyat Appreciation Calls for Liberal Controls on Imports and Foreign Exchange
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: "Kyat appreciation is damaging traditional export industries National leaders of Myanmar, including President U Thein Sein and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, emphasize that economic development should go with poverty alleviation and equitable income distribution. For these objectives, growth of the export industries of rice, pulses and beans, and garments is indispensable as they provide income opportunities for a large number of poor households. The market exchange rate under the dual exchange rate system in Myanmar has exhibited extraordinary appreciation since late 2006. The value of the US dollar in terms of the Myanmar consumption bundle has diminished to one-third of its previous level in the five-year period of 2007 to 2011. This is the sharpest appreciation among Southeast Asian currencies. There is concern that the appreciating kyat is dampening the growth of the above-mentioned traditional export sectors..."
      Author/creator: KUBO Koji
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 4
      Format/size: pdf (33K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/04.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Myanmar Economy Viewed at Night
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: "Myanmar’s official statistics provide considerably outdated and narrowly covered data on the country’s economic and industrial situation. Data on geographical economic activities are particularly lacking. However, it is critically important for policy makers to know what the economic geography is like in Myanmar when they envisage sustainable and balanced economic development. An alternative way invented to estimate economic activities in developing countries is to use the strength and distribution of nighttime lights. It is now widely known that the strength of nighttime lights and economic activity are firmly correlated. Normally, the relationship between these two data is determined by some coefficients derived from regression analyses using ‘actual’ data and nighttime lights satellite imagery (Ghosh et al. 2010). Here, we use the nighttime lights to estimate the distribution of GDP at a district level (Figure 1), taking the national GDP as given..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 5
      Subscribe: KUMAGAI Satoru, KEOLA Souknilanh and KUDO Toshihiro
      Format/size: pdf (549K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/05.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Vietnam’s Experience with FDI Promotion: Implications for Myanmar (English and Burmese versions)
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: "...Being both developing countries in Southeast Asia, Vietnam and Myanmar have shared a number of similarities, including development potential. Myanmar has recently decided to implement fundamental political and economic reforms, following years under economic embargo and severe shortages. Shortages of development resources, including capital, technology and management know-how, may drive Myanmar to actively join the competition for FDI to the region. Foreign investors have quickly shown interest, with almost USD 24.4 billion of investment in the country from April 2010 - December 2011. However, the transition from a lower development level may still put Myanmar in dire need to learn from regional countries’ experiences, since they started the FDI-induced industrialization early. Vietnam’s experience with FDI attraction in the past decades could have important implications for Myanmar in developing its FDI policy. First, Myanmar needs to have a suitable ideology towards FDI promotion. FDI may constitute a good source of much-needed capital for economic development in Myanmar’s early stage. However, of greater importance are the technology transfer and other positive spillover impacts embodied in such flows of capital. Therefore, Myanmar should pay good attention to promoting such accompanied benefits, rather than the volume of foreign capital inflows alone..."
      Author/creator: Tri Thanh VO and Anh Duong NGUYEN
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 3..... BUSINESS, Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commers & Industry, Vol.14, No.9, September 2012. (Burmese version)
      Format/size: pdf (English-33K; Burmese-173K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/03_Burmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: What can the Myanmar garment industry learn from Vietnam’s experience? (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: "...Despite an improved international business climate surrounding Myanmar, its garment industry is still facing serious challenges inside the country, including a rapidly increasing wage rate, particularly when denominated in US dollars as a result of an acute appreciation of the local currency. Another challenge is the high production costs due to shortages of electricity and a poor transportation infrastructure. These bottlenecks have already played out negatively in hampering garment suppliers' overall export performance, particularly when compared with other major Asian garment exporters. In this context, the Vietnamese experience provides an interesting reference point. Myanmar and Vietnam are in a way similar, as both have opened up their economies and started exporting garments in the early 1990s. However, their performance since has been very different. In 2000, Vietnam's garment exports were just about double those of Myanmar. With a booming economy creating alternative job opportunities, labor shortages and wage increases in Vietnam's garment industry have been serious as well..."
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO and Kenta GOTO
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 2..... BUSINESS, Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commers & Industry, Vol.13, No.8, July 2012. (Burmese version)
      Format/size: pdf (English-40K; Burmese-2.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/02_Burmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Getting real about Myanmar’s development
      Date of publication: 05 June 2012
      Description/subject: "In December 2011, President Thein Sein urged his government to rebuild the beaten-up former capital of Yangon (Rangoon), a city of an estimated population of seven million, into a modern city like Singapore. When it comes to traffic congestion and squalid slums, Yangon has come to resemble Manila or Bangkok in recent years. In response the Minister of Industry, Soe Thein, promised flyovers at four busy intersections in the city in four months. Yangon would emulate Singapore’s infrastructure, from railway and road networks and mass transportation to sewage system and parking lots. He said that his government should apologise to the public if they cannot deliver the bridges in four months. Four months on, in April 2012, the city officials were seen taking part in the ground-breaking ceremony for the first flyover at Hledan junction. At the same time, the Ministry of Commerce has been trying to keep up with the Joneses in terms of vehicles per capita. There are 7 cars for every 1,000 Burmese citizens, compared to 270 for 1,000 Thais and 14 for 1,000 Vietnamese. It is not only that the number of cars in the country must be increased — they must look new or, at least like good second-hand cars. In September last year, the government introduced a scheme that required the owners of 20 to 40 years old vehicles to trade their cars in for newer models..."
      Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2014


      Title: Myanmar Economy in the Context of ASEAN Integration and Regional Change (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: "After decades of economic isolation and deprivation, Myanmar appears on the way to economic and political reforms. Initially, there is a nagging fear that Myanmar democratic process and economic reform could be reversed at some time in the near future. But gradually it becomes increasingly clear that the reform is here to stay with a caution that there would be some detours and setbacks along the way. Reform success would not be easy and how bumpy the road ahead will depend crucially on whether political reform can be entrenched through economic development that only economic reform can bring. Myanmar political and economic changes occur in the midst of ASEAN economic integration and regional change. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is scheduled to be completed in 2015 which is based on the four pillars of a single market and production base, a competitive region, a region of equitable development and a region connected to the global economy. Since the inception of the AEC blueprint in 2007, a great deal of integration measures have been agreed and implemented. Trade liberalization in services, investment and freer movement of capital have made significant progress while liberalization of trade in goods is practically completed. This liberalization and de-regulation have been accompanied by trade and investment facilitation, standardization of customs procedures towards ASEAN Single Window, standards and conformance and mutually recognized agreement (MRAs). As a member of ASEAN, Myanmar has agreed and initiated the required measures and domestic change as required by the AEC blueprint to achieve the AEC by 2015..."
      Author/creator: Hank LIM, Senior Research Fellow Singapore Institute of International Affairs (SIIA)
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 1.....BUSINESS, Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commers & Industry, Vol.12, No.7, July 2012 (Burmese version).
      Format/size: pdf (English-40K; Burmese-804K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/01_Burmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Trade Policies and Trade Mis-reporting in Myanmar
      Date of publication: February 2012
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: While the trade statistics of Myanmar show surpluses for 2007 through 2010, the corresponding statistics of trade partner countries indicate deficits. Such discrepancies in mirror trade statistics are analyzed in connection with the ‘export-first and import-second’ policy provisioning import permissions on permission applicants possessing a sufficient amount of the export-tax-deducted export earnings. Under this policy, the recorded imports and exports of the private sector have been maintaining equilibrium, whereas discrepancies in the mirror statistics have fluctuated. This suggests that traders adjusted mis-reporting in accordance with the supply and demand of the export earnings"... Keywords: Myanmar, Trade Policies, Mis-invoicing, Smuggling
      Author/creator: KUBO Koji
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 326
      Format/size: pdf (193K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/326.html
      http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/326.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


      Title: Myanmar at the Crossroads: Rapid Industrial Development or De-industrialization
      Date of publication: 01 January 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The purpose of this study is to identify potential agents of change in Myanmar society that can facilitate rapid industrialization and recommend ways the international community can support private sector development by aiding such groups. The historical enquiry in Part I suggests Myanmar‟s lack of success in industrialization is largely due to an inward looking political elite with a predisposition towards State-led development rooted in nationalism stemming from the colonial period. The hybrid economy, which is neither socialist, mixed economy nor market oriented, created by partial economic reform and reversals since 1988 has two implications for the current situation. First, the new president in his promotion of the economic reform agenda is not constrained by policy formulation capacity: economists have had many years to consider ways to re-establish transition to market oriented economy. Second, the very existence of a hybrid economy reveals the presence of powerful interests vested in the status quo. Implementation capacity is the main issue and two prospective scenarios are outlined: de-industrialization should the president fail in his mission and the initiation of rapid industrial development should he succeed. Part II takes cognizance of current dynamics in the world economy as well as noting the development paths of successful economies in the region. Myanmar‟s factor endowment is reviewed in the light of the „resource curse‟ and the economic reform agenda is outlined, with outward orientation and private sector-led development emphasized. Industrial development hinges on the Biz-15 (the country‟s best-connected businessmen with their large family-owned conglomerates) aligning their interests with SMEs: they stand to vastly increase their fortunes by building and operating the modern infrastructure essential for a competitive and dynamic SME-populated manufacturing exports sector, and also by facilitating “anchor” FDI from MNCs. Such fortunes, commensurate with those in the region, would be justified if the Biz-15 can raise the rate of progressive change acceptable to their political patrons so Myanmar‟s 60mn population can all prosper. In Part III, I recommend the international community support a major study by a supply chain manager working with Biz-15 members to explore strategies for the growth and integration of a nascent export processing sector in Myanmar into the China-centric Asian supply chains to rich country markets."
      Author/creator: Stuart Larkin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
      Format/size: pdf (711K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2012


      Title: Restructuring the State Budget System for Disinflation and Exchange Rate Unification in Myanmar
      Date of publication: January 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The installment of a new government has augmented the prospect for implementing disinflation and exchange rate unification in Myanmar. A close look at the state budget shows that the reform of the budget system for state economic enterprises (SEEs) is essential. Reforms need to hold the replacement of controlled prices including the official exchange rate with market prices in SEE operations, and the separation of the SEEs from the state budget. But separating the SEEs from the state budget will necessitate careful planning to cope with SEE bankruptcies which would imposes another fiscal burden on the government. Therefore, economic viability must be a criterion for the continuation oftheir operations."... Keywords: Myanmar, state economic enterprises, disinflation, exchange rate unification
      Author/creator: Koji KUBO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 320
      Format/size: pdf (258K) 29 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://ir.ide.go.jp/dspace/bitstream/2344/1109/1/ARRIDE_Discussion_No.320_kubo.pdf
      http://hdl.handle.net/2344/1109
      Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


      Title: BURMA’S ECONOMY: MISMANAGEMENT AS USUAL
      Date of publication: 04 November 2011
      Description/subject: "• Following the nominal transition to civilian rule, the regime maintains the State Peace and Development Council’s (SPDC’s) oppressive economic policies. • The military continues to control the bulk of the budget, with no improvement in transparency. One quarter of the 2011-2012 budget is designated for the military. Additionally, the “Special Fund” law grants the Commander in Chief of the military access to unlimited discretionary funds without having to be accountable. • The regime maintains a dual exchange rate system in order to siphon off funds into private accounts, starving the national budget of official revenue and inflating the fiscal deficit. • A process of privatization that began in late 2009 has facilitated the transfer of key economic assets in the hands of cronies while lining the pockets of regime officials. The privatization has resembled a “fire sale” to cronies that include those blacklisted by various governments. Meanwhile, economic competition remains severely constricted. • Despite the suspension of the Myitsone dam project, numerous large scale infrastructure projects continue to spur tensions in ethnic areas, cause massive displacement, and threaten the environment. The projects are not subject to public oversight and provide little benefit to local communities or the economy as a whole. • As a result of increased foreign investment through large scale infrastructure projects, the fall of the US dollar, and the dual exchange rate system, the kyat has inflated in value, hurting export-oriented sectors. • The regime continues to confiscate land and ignore the property rights of Burmese citizens in favor of foreign investors and cronies..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Altsean-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (92K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 November 2011


      Title: Business as Usual
      Date of publication: September 2010
      Description/subject: Real economic change in post-election Burma is about as likely as a herd of white elephants, say experts... "Burma’s current military rulers will continue to run the economy for their own benefit even after the country comes under a more civilian form of government following this year’s election in November. A child plays while his parents take a nap beside their roadside vegetable stall in Rangoon. That’s the conclusion of a number of economists and financial policy experts who have been monitoring Burma in the lead up to the election. They foresee little real change that would benefit ordinary people. Although the current financial year will show improvements, these will be “driven mainly by investment in projects in the energy and petroleum industries, particularly by Chinese firms,” concludes the latest assessment of Burma by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). “Excluding these sectors, however, the domestic economy will remain sluggish,” according to the EIU report. “The government’s revenue base remains small, and it will continue to spend heavily on large projects that benefit the military regime.” The EIU report, published in August, reaches similar conclusions to other economists and researchers who have been analyzing Burma in the months leading up to the election. A recent study by the United States Institute for Peace (USIP), a Washington-based think tank funded by the US Congress, said that natural gas exports to Thailand continue to be the main source of income for Burma’s economy, yet “the junta has devised ingenious mechanisms to siphon these funds but has spent relatively little on improving the quality of life for most Burmese.” “Using a system of multiple exchange rates, the junta deprives the government coffers of hundreds of millions of dollars each year,” said the USIP report. “Unsurprisingly, the resultant large fiscal deficits have been financed by printing money, which has led to persistently high inflation.” The most somber assessment of all, by Australian economist Sean Turnell, suggests that in spite of growing gas exports, the standard of living in Burma is actually declining..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2012


      Title: The Economy of Burma/Myanmar on the Eve of the 2010 Elections
      Date of publication: May 2010
      Description/subject: Summary: * The government of Burma is undergoing a critical transition: Before the end of 2010, the military regime that has ruled the country since a palace coup in 1998 will hold an election based on a constitution drafted in a nondemocratic process and approved by a referendum in 2008. The referendum fell far short of global standards of credibility and the election is likely to yield a government that neither the antimilitary movement nor the international community views as legitimate. However, the constitution and election also may offer opportunities for further international involvement that began in the wake of Cyclone Nargis in 2008. * Burma's lagging economic performance--socioeconomic indicators placed it among the world's most impoverished in 2000--is due to a simmering internal conflict based on ethnic and religious differences. Successive military regimes after the failure of Burma's parliamentary government in 1962 have managed to further alienate the population and monopolize the benefits of Burma's abundant natural resources. Growth-disabling economic policies and brutal suppression of dissent since 1988 have caused an exodus of political and economic refugees estimated to be in excess of 3 million. * However, Burma occupies a strategic space in the Southeast Asian region. It is a major supplier of natural gas to Thailand and could be a major agricultural exporter, as it was before World War II. Also, Burma is arguably the greatest obstacle to the 2015 integration objectives of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and its internal conlict contributes to tension between China and India. * There is a glimmer of hope that the next government will consider economic policies conducive to sustainable economic growth, thereby improving the environment for political reconciliation. If so, the challenge for the international community will be to find ways to support economic policy changes in this direction that do not trigger a backlash from the country's military rulers. Though difficult, it may be possible to accomplish this through a patient economic strategy that involves more nuanced use of sanctions and effective collaboration with other actors in the region, particularly ASEAN... About the Report: This report examines the economy of Burma at a crucial moment in Southeast Asia's most troubled country. A low-intensity conflict based on ethnic and religious differences has simmered since independence in 1948. The country's military rulers have been waging an existential struggle with a democratic movement led by Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi since they repudiated her party's election victory in 1990. Before the end of 2010, an election will be held that is more about transferring power to a new generation of military officers than making a transition to civilian rule. To focus attention on the economic dimension of peacebuilding in Burma, this report draws on the discussion at a day-long workshop sponsored by USIP's Center for Sustainable Economies. The workshop brought together experts on key aspects of Burma's economy and employees from congress and U.S. government departments and agencies directly concerned with U.S. relations with Burma. The workshop sessions focused on macroeconomic policy, the extractive sectors, agriculture, the private sector, trade and investment, and the narcotics economy. Professor Joseph Stiglitz led the concluding session on a more productive agrarian economy.
      Author/creator: Lex Rieffel
      Source/publisher: United States Institute of Peace
      Format/size: pdf (454K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


      Title: Can Economic Reform Open a Peaceful Path to Ending Burma’s Isolation? (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 10 March 2010
      Description/subject: Summary: "After decades of domestic conflict, military rule and authoritarian governance, Burma’s economy could provide a viable entry point for effective international assistance to promote peace. Doing so would require a detailed understanding of the country’s complex and evolving political economy. The lingering income and distributional effects of the 2008 Cyclone Nargis, anticipated changes associated with the new constitution and the 2010 elections and the Obama administration’s decision to devote more attention to Burma suggest that the time is ripe for the creative application of economic mechanisms to promote and sustain peace. Looming challenges could derail Burma’s prospects for economic and political stability. These challenges include irrational macroeconomic policies, failing to ensure all citizens enjoy benefits accrued from natural resources, endemic corruption, a flourishing illicit economy, a dysfunctional financial system and critical infrastructure bottlenecks. Failure to address these problems would frustrate peacebuilding efforts. A conflict sensitive economic strategy for Burma would focus on effective capacity-building, sustained policy reform, progressive steps to reduce corruption, fiscal empowerment of subnational authorities and prudent natural resource management. Success in these areas requires unwavering political will for sensibly sequenced policy improvements by domestic actors and finely targeted support from Burma’s international partners." .....လယ္ယာက႑အတြက္ ေႂကြးၿမီျပႆနာမ်ား ေျပေလ်ာ့ေစမွသာ ျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေပလိမ့္မည္။7 စီးပြားေရး အခြင့္အလမ္း မရွိျခင္းႏွင့္ ႏိုင္ငံေရးအရ ဖိႏွိပ္ထားျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ႀကီးမားၿပီး၊ ပညာတတ္ၾက သည့္ ႏိုင္ငံသားမ်ား အေျမာက္အမ်ား တိုင္းျပည္ျပင္ပသို႔ ထြက္လာေနၾကသည္။ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း(၂၀) အတြင္းတြင္ ျပည္ပသို႔ ထြက္လာသူ ခန္႔မွန္း (၃)သန္းမွ် ရွိႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံသို႔ ဓာတ္ေငြ႕တင္ပို႔ေရာင္းခ်မႈမွ ႏိုင္ငံျခားေငြ အေျမာက္အမ်ား ၀င္မလာမီ၊ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါး (ဘိန္းျဖဴႏွင့္ မီသာအမ္ဖီတမင္း) ေရာင္း၀ယ္မႈမွ ၁၉၉၀ ခုႏွစ္မ်ား ေႏွာင္းပိုင္းတြင္ ႏိုင္ငံျခား၀င္ေငြ အမ်ားဆံုး ရရွိခဲ့သည္ဟု ခန္႔မွန္းၾကသည္။ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ႏွစ္မ်ားတြင္ ဘိန္းထုတ္လုပ္မႈ သိသိသာသာ က်ဆင္းသြားခဲ့သည္။ သို႔ေသာ္လည္း ေမွာင္ခိုစီးပြားနယ္ပယ္တြင္းသို႔ ေငြမာမ်ား စီးဆင္း၀င္လာေနမႈက သိသိသာသာရွိေနေသးၿပီး၊ အင္အားေကာင္း အာဏာရွိေနသူမ်ားမွတဆင့္ အစိုးရမူ၀ါဒမ်ားအေပၚ လႊမ္းမိုးသက္ေရာက္ႏိုင္မႈ ရွိေနပါသည္။ အျခားေမွာင္ခိုစီးပြားနယ္ပယ္တစ္ခုမွာ ႀကီးထြားလာေနသည့္ တ႐ုတ္လူမ်ဳိးမ်ား၏ အခန္းက႑ ပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ တ႐ုတ္နယ္စပ္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ အခ်ဳိ႕အစိတ္အပိုင္းမ်ားတြင္ တ႐ုတ္ ရီမင္ဘီေငြကို လွည့္လည္သံုးစြဲေနၿပီး၊ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ ႏွစ္မ်ားအတြင္း ေျမာက္ဖက္ေဒသမ်ား ၊ ျပည္နယ္မ်ားတြင္ တ႐ုတ္လူမ်ဳိး တစ္သန္းေက်ာ္ တရားမ၀င္ ၀င္ေရာက္အေျခခ်ေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကပါသည္။ ဤျဖစ္ေပၚ တိုးတက္မႈမ်ားက ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၌ သံုးစြဲေနသည့္ ေငြေၾကးအမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိးေၾကာင့္ ေပၚေပါက္လာရသည့္ ျပႆနာမ်ားကို အားျဖည့္ေပးၿပီး၊ ႏိုင္ငံအဆင့္ မကၠ႐ိုစီးပြားတည္ၿငိမ္မႈတစ္ခုလံုးကိုပါ ထိခိုက္လာဖြယ္ အေၾကာင္း ရွိေနပါသည္။
      Author/creator: Lex Rieffel and Raymond Gilpin
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace
      Format/size: pdf (162K - English; 553K - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.usip.org/files/resources/PB%2014%20Burmese%20version.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


      Title: Natural Gas Export Revenue, Fiscal Balance and Inflation in Myanmar
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Abstract: "While natural gas exports have brought a large amount of foreign currency revenue to the Government of Myanmar, their contribution to reducing monetization of the fiscal deficit and disinflation has been obscure. The immediate reason is that under the country's dual exchange rate system, the revenue is converted at the grossly overvalued official rate which undervalues it in terms of the local currency by 1/200. However, devaluation would only improve the fiscal balance and not reduce the excess money supply since the central bank cannot sterilize the impact of the foreign reserve increase. As a policy reform to utilize the revenue for disinflation, this study proposes deregulation of the strict controls on foreign exchange."... Keywords: Myanmar, Disinflation, Natural Resource Exports, Dual Exchange Rates
      Author/creator: Koji KUBO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO
      Format/size: pdf (495K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


      Title: Tollgates upon tollgates: En route with extortion along the Asian Highway (Field Reports)
      Date of publication: 05 October 2009
      Description/subject: "As the town of Myawaddy on the Thai-Burma border has grown through increased trade, so too have efforts by local military forces to extract revenue from the workers, traders and travellers who pass through it. With increasing exploitative and military pressures in the surrounding rural areas, many local villagers have also joined the ranks of those seeking economic refuge—or just opportunities to work or buy and sell goods—in town and across the border. Villagers in the area live under a motley patchwork of political and military authorities that operate over 20 checkpoints along the Asian Highway between Myawaddy and Rangoon. At each checkpoint transport trucks and passenger vehicles must pay tolls while travellers may be searched and forced to give 'donations' or 'tea money' to inspecting soldiers. Fixed tolls and ad hoc extortion are used to support the checkpoint itself and the military personnel controlling it. This report includes information collected in August and September 2009..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Field Report (KHRG #2009-F17)
      Format/size: pdf (354 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f17.html
      Date of entry/update: 28 October 2009


      Title: Junta’s Piggy Bank Full as Economy Sinks
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: Economists predict a gloomy economy for Burma in 2008, but that won’t stop the generals from selling off the country’s natural resources... "The Burmese military government’s incompetence and outside influences will further undermine Burma’s economy in 2008, experts forecast—but the generals should be able to keep their bank accounts topped up. High global oil prices, financial mismanagement and the continuing aftershock of last year’s military crackdown will all conspire to make life harder for Burma’s already hard-pressed population...
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Who’ll Clean Up the Mess?
      Date of publication: November 2007
      Description/subject: The inheritors of years of junta mismanagement will face a hard task rebuilding an economy wrecked by incompetence, corruption and greed... "The income from Burma’s great natural resource reserves is wasted on costly vanity projects while the population goes hungry and the economy sinks deeper into chaos. That’s the verdict of economists monitoring the impoverished Southeast Asian country, which erupted in mass street protests in the wake of devastating domestic fuel price rises. The military regime running Burma owes the World Bank and International Monetary Fund about US $3.5 billion, but has failed even to respond properly to a proposal by the two institutions to benefit from a debt relief scheme. “Myanmar could not be assessed [for the scheme] due to lack of available data,” says a World Bank-IMF report. “The authorities indicated that at present Myanmar will not be participating in the initiative and regret that they will not be able to provide the required data to undertake the assessment of their indebtedness.” In other words, Burma’s economic management is a shambles, said economist and Burma specialist Sean Turnell of Australia’s Macquarie University. “Burma’s economic miasma is the product of 45 years of inept economic mismanagement under the SPDC (State Peace and Development Council) and its predecessors,” said Turnell, in a special report of Burma Economic Watch he has compiled in the wake of the public protests and military crackdown of recent weeks..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
      Date of publication: 15 October 2007
      Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: DIE AKTUELLEN POLITISCHEN, WIRTSCHAFTLICHEN UND SOZIALEN RAHMENBEDINGUNGEN IN BURMA
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: Ãƒï¿½hnlich der Entwicklung der politischen Verhältnisse lassen sich auch in der wirtschaftlichen Ordnung bemerkenswerte Parallelen zwischen der vor- und der postkolonialen �ra in Burma beobachten. Am auffälligsten ist dabei die Tradition einer dirigistischen Wirtschaftspolitik. Soziale Verhältnisse; History of Economy; Social conditions
      Author/creator: René Hingst
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Heinrich-Boell-Stiftung
      Format/size: Html (28k)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/alt/de/05_world/5317.html
      http://www.boell.de/downloads/hingst_burma2003.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


      Title: Trade, Foreign Investment and Myanmar's Economic Development during the Transition to an Open Economy
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Throughout the 1990s and up to 2005, the adoption of an open-door policy substantially increased the volume of Myanmar's external trade. Imports grew more rapidly than exports in the 1990s owing to the release of pent-up consumer demand during the transition to a market economy. Accordingly, trade deficits expanded. Confronted by a shortage of foreign currency, the government after the late 1990s resorted to rigid controls over the private sector's trade activities. Despite this tightening of policy, Myanmar's external sector has improved since 2000 largely because of the emergence of new export commodities, namely garments and natural gas. Foreign direct investments in Myanmar significantly contributed to the exploration and development of new gas fields. As trade volume grew, Myanmar strengthened its trade relations with neighboring countries such as China, Thailand and India. Although the development of external trade and foreign investment inflows exerted a considerable impact on the Myanmar economy, the external sector has not yet begun to function as a vigorous engine for broad-based and sustainable development."... Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), international trade, cross-border trade, foreign direct investment, economic development, development cooperation PDF filepdf(274KB)
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo and Fumiharu Mieno
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 116)
      Format/size: pdf (274K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


      Title: Burma Economic Review 2005-2006
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta claimed a 12.2 % growth in the Burmese economy in 2006 but international sources say differently; they forecast a slim growth of 2 to 3 % rise. Production and exploration in the oil and gas sector is active, but the rest of economy remains weak. Agriculture suffers from poor productivity, with output below potential. Manufacturing is constrained by inadequate quantity and quality of inputs, due to problems of imports and power shortages. Weak Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth reflects poor prospects for consumption and investment. In October 2005, the SPDC increased eight folds the state-subsidized petrol prices. This prompted higher prices for basic commodities. Inflation returned to double digit rates. Monetary policy has not addressed the inflationary pressures. Interest rates remain unchanged since 2001, despite high inflation. But the SPDC increased the interest rates by two per cent points to 12 per cent on 16 April 2006. Real rates are likely to be negative. Prices for important commodities soared in the wake of junta’s decision to raise public-sector salaries in April 2006. Rice and fuel prices remain high. Official data do not reveal the full extent of inflation reaching 14.3 % in December 2005 and 11 % in early 2006. Based on the official data series, the Economist Intelligent Unit (EIU) estimates the annual inflation to average over 21 % in 2006.The true rate of inflation could be 50 %. Strong growth in both narrow money supply (M1) and quasi-money (comprising time, savings and foreign exchange deposits) contributed to a 26.8 % year-on-year expansion in broad money supply (M2) at the end of May 2006. The junta demands credit from the Central Bank, which it uses to fund its budget deficit. Total outstanding credit of the junta was 2.5 trillion kyat (nearly US$440 billion at the official exchange rate, or US$1.9 billion at the free-market exchange rate) by May 2006, an increase of 28 %. The state budget remained unbalanced with substantial deficits during much of the 1990s. Fiscal deficits are financed automatically by credit from the Central Bank, a source of domestic inflation and instability in the economy. The Junta's state expenditures are disproportionately allocated on items that deny sustainable development of the people or the nation. Defense, ceremonies and rituals, festivals, inspection tours, meetings and seminars, building physical infrastructure-roads, railways, bridges, dams, monuments, museums, shiny office complexes and fancy airports, represent wasteful consumption or constitute expensive capital outlays, undertaken without proper feasibility studies and environmental impact assessments, and unclear, uncertain and dubious returns on investment. Chronic state budget deficits contribute to rapid monetary growth and everspiraling inflation. In order to recover the budget deficit, the junta-increased taxes and collected money and forced people to labor for developmental projects such as construction of roads, dams, and bridges. The junta continues to control, command, and centralize Burma’s people and the economy. Exchange rate distortions favor a few at the expense of many. Fiscal deficit comes at the expense of social spending which has been reduced far below necessary levels. At the same time, financing the fiscal deficit through central bank credit is one underlying factor of persistent high inflation. The nation’s tax revenue remains buoyant, rising by 28.1 % year on year in nominal terms in the first 11 months of fiscal year 2005/06 (April-March). Total tax revenue reached 292 billion kyat during this period (around US$50 billion at the inflated official exchange rate, or US$225 million at free-market exchange rate). Although revenue is still rising, growth has slowed since 2004/05, when revenue expanded by 77 % year on year for the whole fiscal year. This in part reflects a correction after an increase in average import tariffs, imposed in mid-2004, brought a 424 % year-on-year surge in customs tax fell by 15.1 per cent year on year to 16.2 billion kyat. A clamp-down on corruption among customs officials in recent months may be part of an effort to boost revenue from customs tax. Other sources of tax revenue expanded in the first 11 months of 2005/06. Profit tax jumped by 49 per cent year on year, slightly ahead of commodities and services tax (which rose by 47 per cent) and income tax (11 per cent)1. 2 Total public-sector deficit reached 6 % of GDP for 2004/05. Heavy losses by the state-owned enterprises (SOE) typically accounted for over 60 % of the overall deficit. The SPDC’s fiscal position is also weighted down by high off-budget spending on the country's huge armed forces. The budget position is unlikely to have improved in 2005/06 and 2006/07 (the current fiscal year), owing to the junta's expansionary fiscal policy. The junta's decision to relocate many government offices to a huge new administrative complex at Naypyidaw, 320 km north of Rangoon, imposed heavy costs. In addition, in April 2006 the junta raised salaries for around 1 million civil servants and military officers by between 500 and 1,200 per cent. The black market is estimated to be as big if not bigger than the official economy. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial border trade. Burma's trade with Thailand, China, and India is rising. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved political situation are needed to promote foreign investment, exports, and tourism. No new foreign direct investment projects have been approved in recent months. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) approvals totaled a meager US$35.7 million for the first 11 months of 2005/06, down from US$158.3 million for the whole of 2004/05. It is possible that the data do not capture some small FDI flows, such as those by Thai and Chinese firms in small projects along the border with Burma. International tourist arrivals totaled 320,275 in 2005, up by 5 % year on year, according to data from the Central Statistical Organization (CSO). Although arrivals rose, the pace of growth slowed compared with 2004 (rose 11.6 per cent). The slowdown reflected a 5.6 % year on year drop in arrivals by air, to 145,959, around 46 % total arrivals. Total international reserves reached US$951 million at the end of June 2006, according to data from the IMF. Reserves increased sharply in the first quarter of the year, surpassing US$900 million for the first time, before rising further in the second quarter. The main reason for the improvement in the overall balance-of-payments position and international reserves has been the rise in exports, which have been driven by strong growth in exports of natural gas. The official kyat exchange rate remains artificially inflated. The exchange rate like the rest of the junta system does not reflect the reality of the monetary system. The free-market exchange rate of kyat to US$ was 1,350:US$1 in July-October 2006, having recovered from kyat 1,450:US$1 at the end of April, which also put pressure on prices. There has been a mild appreciation of the kyat since then. The ratio of the parallel rate to the official rate is nearly 200:1. The kyat came under pressure earlier this year owing to fears that a pay rise for civil servants would sharply push up prices. However, strong gas exports have boosted international reserves, thereby helping the kyat to stabilize. The little-used official exchange rate is fixed against the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) special drawing rights (SDR) unit. The official rate held steady at around kyat 5.9:US$1 by August 2006.
      Author/creator: Sein Htay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Fund (NCGUB)
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ncgub.net/mediagallery/download.php?mid=20070523134011574
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2007


      Title: Rangoon Bets on Business
      Date of publication: May 2006
      Description/subject: Burma's former capital is still the country's commercial hub... The sudden relocation of Burma's capital may have sent government officials and Burmese civil servants moving north to Pyinmana, but for those involved in business Rangoon is still the center of Burma's commercial universe. The new capital's largest port and its main airport. While Pyinmana remains cut off from the outside world, the former capital has direct international flights to such cities as Bangkok, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Taipei..."
      Author/creator: Clive Parker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


      Title: Energy Security in Asia: China, India, Oil and Peace
      Date of publication: April 2006
      Description/subject: Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs..."India and China are both characterized by a tremendous increase in energy consumption, of which an increasing share derives from imports. Very rapid economic growth always makes it difficult to arrive at a sound balance between demand and supply, and this tends to generate waste, bottlenecks and insecurity. Although both countries are trying hard to provide appropriate energy, increase their energy efficiency, and diversify their sources of supply, they are becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil, and the Persian Gulf is set to remain their predominant source of oil in the coming decades. Instability in the Middle East thus poses a serious challenge to the security of China and India, just as it does for Japan, the US and many European countries. The question of maintaining a stable supply of fossil fuels poses several security challenges. One is to boost one's own production, another to diversify one's sources of import, and a third to secure the transportation of oil and gas on vulnerable sea routes; or over land through pipelines that depend on long-term strategic relationships with the producing countries. In China and India a heightened awareness of the geopolitical implications of energy supply and demand has given energy issues an increasing prominence both in their domestic and foreign policies. However, it is difficult to say if this leads to more tension in their foreign relations or if instead it pushes them towards increased international cooperation. Plans are certainly being made for future possible ‘resource wars', but emphasis is presently being put on economic competition, and on seeking to maximise each country's position on the international energy market. Then again, such increasing resource competition may contribute to raising the stakes of conflict in areas where national jurisdiction has not been resolved (East China Sea, South China Sea), and also in some of the energy exporting countries. Burma is one such country, in which the energy security dynamics of India and China are played out, and this is detailed in an appendix to the report. The report is based on available literature, online energy data, and communication with Indian and Chinese researchers. We have used country reports and statistics provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA), statistics, forecasts and analyses by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), unpublished academic papers, books and articles by Indian and Chinese researchers, and reports by several European and American analysts. Based on our assessments of the energy security strategies and interests of the major players in the region, the report outlines three scenarios for the future of international relations in Asia. The first, called ' is the most positive and also, in our judgment, the most likely. The second scenario, ', presents a possible embargo against China, and is perhaps the least likely, at least in the near future. The third scenario, ' presents the nightmare scenario of a full scale ' with global impact and serious consequences for India and China. The situation in Iraq, and especially the ongoing developments with relation to Iran's nuclear programme, force us to say that this scenario is not just a fantasy fiction, but a real possibility, even in the short term. The final section of the report offers suggestions as to implications of the outlined scenarios for Norwegian foreign policy formulation. Four areas of cooperation that would improve energy security in China and India, as well as globally, are identified: 1) support for the promotion of energy efficiency, 2) assistance in the development of clean coal and gas technology for electricity production, 3) a campaign for engaging the world's great powers in a major research effort to develop transportation technologies that do not depend on oil, 4) assistance in the nomination and promotion of Indian and Chinese candidature for IEA membership..."
      Author/creator: Stein Tønnesson and Åshild KolÃ¥s
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)
      Format/size: pdf (185K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2007


      Title: Stunted and Distorted Industrialization in Myanmar
      Date of publication: October 2005
      Description/subject: Abstract: "More than 15 years have passed since Myanmar embarked on its transition from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one. The purpose of this paper is to provide a bird-eye’s view of industrial changes from the 1990s up to 2005. The industrial sector showed a preliminary development in the first half of the 1990s due to an “open door” policy and liberalization measures. However, a brief period of growth failed to effect any changes in the economic fundamentals. The industrial sector still suffers from poor power supplies, limited access to imported raw materials and machinery, exchange rate instability, limited credit, and frequent changes of government regulation. Public ownership is still high in key infrastructure sectors, and has failed to provide sufficient services to private industries. What the government must do first is to get the fundamentals right."... Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), transitional economy, industry
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Discussion Paper No. 38
      Format/size: pdf (547K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


      Title: Rich Periphery, Poor Center: Myanmar's Rural Economy
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper looks at the case of Myanmar in order to investigate the behavior and welfare of rural households in an economy under transition from a planned to a market system. Myanmar's case is particularly interesting because of the country's unique attempt to preserve a policy of intervention in land transactions and marketing institutions. A sample household survey that we conducted in 2001, covering more than 500 households in eight villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, revealed two paradoxes. First, income levels are higher in villages far from the center than in villages located in regions under the tight control of the central authorities. Second, farmers and villages that emphasize a paddy-based, irrigated cropping system have lower farming incomes than those that do not. The reason for these paradoxes are the distortions created by agricultural policies that restrict land use and the marketing of agricultural produce. Because of these distortions, the transition to a market economy in Myanmar since the late 1980s is only a partial one. The partial transition, which initially led to an increase in output and income from agriculture, revealed its limit in the survey period."...There are 2 versions of this paper. The one placed as the main URL, which also has a later publication date, seems to be longer, though it is about 30K smaller.
      Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto, Kyosuke Kurita, Takashi Kurosaki and Koichi Fujita
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE ( Institute of Developing Economies) Discussion Paper No. 23
      Format/size: pdf (213K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.econ.yale.edu/conference/neudc03/papers/1d-kurosaki.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


      Title: A Comparative Perspective (Book Review)
      Date of publication: November 2003
      Description/subject: "An Indonesian scholar compares the development experiences of Thailand, Burma and Indonesia. Priyambudi Sulistiyanto’s Thailand, Indonesia and Burma in Comparative Perspective reflects on the 1990s debate on "Asian values." His study of the three economies looks at whether authoritarian governments—sheltering policy-making from social pressures—promote rapid economic development or whether development is best achieved through democratization and a robust civil society. The author shows that the old debate was over-simplified, especially when defined as a choice between the Western "neo-classical" market model and the social-economic dirigisme of East Asian states..."
      Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2004


      Title: Behind Burma’s Economy - An Interview with Zaw Oo
      Date of publication: November 2003
      Description/subject: "Zaw Oo is one of the directors of the Washington-based think-tank, The Burma Fund. In a written reply to The Irrawaddy, he discussed sanctions and some of the factors behind Burma’s economic uncertainties... Question: For years, experts have warned that Burma’s economy is teetering on collapse and many now expect that tougher sanctions enacted by the US will deliver the final blow. Others say the informal economy and border trade will keep Burma afloat. What is your assessment? Answer: In Burma, we have a sizeable informal economy that parallels the official economy. Sanctions hit the official side of the economy and hit the government hard. Sanctions have a negligible impact on the informal economy, where most Burmese make a living. Therefore, sanctions have damaged some of the government’s main income sources but spared the wider population. Because of the large informal sector, we won’t see the economy collapse in the near term..."
      Author/creator: Zaw Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2004


      Title: Current Economic Conditions in Myanmar and Options for Sustainable Growth
      Date of publication: May 2003
      Description/subject: Abstract: In this paper, an extensive report on the economy of Myanmar prepared in 1998 is supplemented by more recent reports as of fall 2002 (included as appendices). The economy of Myanmar is one of the poorest in South East Asia. Despite relatively rapidly growth during the 1990’s, per capita income by 1998 was little higher than in the middle 1980s. Inflation rates are high, the currency value has fallen sharply, and Myanmar has one of the world’s lowest rates relative to income of government revenue and non-military spending. Agriculture in Myanmar has an unusually high share (59%) of GDP. Despite a high reported growth rate, yields for most food crops have remained stagnant or dropped. Poor price incentives and credit systems constrain agricultural production. As of 1998, farm wages are barely enough to provide food, with nothing left over for clothing, school fees, supplies, or medicine. Environmental problems including deteriorating water supply and diminishing common property resources further impact the poor. Industry suffers from limited credit, fluctuating power supplies, inflation and exchange rate instability. A possible bright spot is offshore gas potential. However, much of the expected revenue from offshore gas development may already have been pledged as collateral for expenditure prior to 1998, and thus will go primarily to service debt. Recent evidence summarized in a paper by Debbie Aung Din Taylor (Appendix 3) indicates that most people in rural areas are much worse off today than a decade ago. Decline in agricultural production is aggravated by severe degradation of the natural resource base. River catchment areas are denuded of forest cover, leading to more frequent and severe flooding. Fish stocks and water supplies are diminishing. These trends are pervasive and reaching a critical level. Assistance is urgently needed to provide the rural poor. Sustained international attention is needed to reverse the current rapid decline of economy and environment.
      Author/creator: David Dapice
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University
      Format/size: pdf (83,7K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2004


      Title: Chronic Slum: Burma’s Fiscal Disaster
      Date of publication: April 2003
      Description/subject: "Burma’s tottering economy is suffering from a tax system crippled by corruption and desperately in need of reform... Many of Burma’s citizens do not pay tax. In fact, Burma has one of the world’s lowest ratios of tax to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The ratio has declined since the mid-1990s, as reports from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) indicate. Government revenues or taxation were at 7.8 percent of GDP in 1997-98 but dropped to a low of 2.3 percent in 2000-01. The ADB attributes the decline to a relatively slow increase in tax receipts. But government officials at the Finance and Revenue Ministry have quietly admitted to The Irrawaddy that the drop is mainly the result of overestimating the GDP, part of the regime’s propaganda drive to gloss over the nation’s economic woes. Failing state economic enterprises and growing public sector imports, notably defense imports, have left the junta with a large fiscal deficit. So now the question is: How can it attract new revenue or new taxes to fill the growing holes in the budget?..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Price rises bite into impoverished Myanmar
      Date of publication: 26 January 2003
      Description/subject: YANGON, Jan 26 (AFP) - "Condemned by western governments for its poor human rights record, shunned by foreign investors and international financial institutions, military-ruled Myanmar and its impoverished people are suffering from spiralling inflation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AFP
      Format/size: html (12K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Economic Anomalies
      Date of publication: 08 January 2003
      Description/subject: January 08, 2003—"During Burma’s time as a Socialist state, citizens were prevented by foreign exchange proceed laws to possess any foreign currency. Minor adjustments were made to this situation after 1988 when the military junta allowed a number of businessmen to open foreign currency accounts at two state-owned banks: the Myanma Foreign Trade Bank (MFTB) and the Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank (MICB)..."
      Author/creator: Danu Maung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Commentary Archive
      Format/size: html (12K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Befreiung des Handels aus den Fängen des Militärs
      Date of publication: January 2003
      Description/subject: Burma: Fairer Handel, ›Deglobalisierung‹ und andere Alternativen? Eine Diskussion von Walden Bellos Konzept der De-Globalisierung und Lokalisierung angewandt auf Burma. Warum sind die Ideen der globalisierungskritischen Bewegung derzeit auf Burma nicht anwendbar? key words: anti-globalisation, fair trade, military / state economy, neo-liberalism,
      Author/creator: Alfred Oehlers, Deutsch von Gudrun Witte
      Language: Deutsch, German, English
      Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 19, Nr. 1 - Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf (51K - English)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Globalisation_Oehlers.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004


      Title: BURMA COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY2002
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at Burma's (Myanmar's) commercial environment, using economic, political and market analysis. The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. Country commercial guides are prepared annually at U.S. embassies through the combined efforts of several U.S. Government agencies..." 1. Executive Summary... 2 Economic Trends and Outlook -Government Role in the Economy -Major Trends and Outlook -Major Sectors -Balance of Payments -Infrastructure... 3 Political Environment � -Brief Synopsis of Political System -Nature of Bilateral Relationship with the United States -Major Political Issues -Business Policy -Scope of Sanctions... 4 Marketing US Products and Services � -List of Newspapers and Trade Journals -Advertising Agencies and Services -IPR Protection -Need for a Local Attorney... 5 Leading Sectors for US Exports and Investment... 6 Trade Regulations, Customs and Standards -Barriers to Trade and Investment -Trade Regulations... 7 Investment Climate/US Investment Sanctions -US Investment Subject to Sanctions -Status of Investment -Executive Order -Sanctions Regulations... 8 Trade and Project Financing -Description of Banking System -Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trade -Availability of Financing -List of Banks... 9 Business Travel -Travel Advisory -Visas, International Connections -Customs, Foreign Exchange Controls... 10 Economic and Trade Statistics: Appendix A: Country Data; Appendix B: Domestic Economy; Appendix C: External Accounts - Trade and Payments; Appendix D: Investment Statistics; 11 US and Country Contacts... Bibliography.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Commercial Service
      Format/size: html, pdf (276K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2003


      Title: Economic and Social Chaos of the State
      Date of publication: 26 December 2002
      Description/subject: " Burma has come to resemble the former Soviet regime, and we are presently witnessing the same economic and social chaos. The Burmese junta continues to build up its military, despite agreeing to peace with 17 ethnic armed groups. Needless infrastructure projects have been launched one after another, while people in the streets are saying: "Who needs these roads and dams? You can’t eat them or buy food for us."... It seems from the regime’s perspective that the nation’s economic and social problems can be solved by pampering white elephants in their elaborately decorated stables at Min Dharma Hill..."
      Author/creator: Danu Maung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Commentary Archive
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Sowing disorder: Support for the Burmese junta backfires on China
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: "In the early 1990s China’s sale of arms to Burma played a crucial role in keeping the Burmese military in power. But this support for the generals in Rangoon is now backfiring, as many of the negative consequences spill over the border into China, writes Andrew Bosson. While China has generally taken a passive stance towards international efforts to pressure Burma to improve its rights record, it would be in Beijing’s best interests to push Rangoon towards economic and political reform, he argues. The relationship between Burma and China has been harmful to both countries, especially following the Chinese arms deals which preserved the junta in power and locked Burmese political and economic life into a stasis from which it has yet to emerge. The generals seem to have very little idea of how a modern economy functions and are essentially running the country as they would an army. Military expenditures continue to take up about 60 percent of the national budget. Thus it comes as no surprise that the economy is in an advanced state of failure. China also has been damaged economically: Burma’s lack of access to economic development assistance and its collapsed economy leave a gaping hole in the regional development projects the impoverished provinces of southwest China so badly need. China also suffers from the massive spread of HIV/AIDS, drug addiction and crime that have accompanied the massive quantities of heroin being trafficked from Burma into Yunnan Province. The growth of the drug economy in Burma may be traced directly to the lack of the necessary economic and political remedies, which is an indirect result of China’s intervention..."
      Author/creator: Andrew Bosson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: China Rights Forum Journal 2002-03
      Format/size: pdf (140K)
      Alternate URLs: http://iso.hrichina.org/public/contents/article?revision%5fid=3346&item%5fid=3345
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: A Complete State Failure?
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "Crisis" has become a popular byword in any description of Burma. The country�s economic calamities have now led to social instability and havoc. Basic commodity prices have doubled since late August. Ongoing closures of border crossings with Thailand has compounded the shortage of goods and forced consumer prices to spiral out of reach for many people in Burma. Even in Rangoon, individuals have to line up for cooking oil until late at night. Some sleep in queues while waiting to buy small rations..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10. No. 7, September 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma's Economic Blues
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: Although reports from the military government paint a rosy picture of Burma as a prosperous modernizing nation, numerous signs indicate that the country�s economy is in dire straits. ... When reading Burma�s state-run newspapers, however, it is sometimes hard to remember that Burma is one of the most impoverished nations on the globe. Leafing through the pages of the regime�s principal mouthpiece, the New Light of Myanmar, the reader is swamped with articles detailing the implementation of countless development projects�including new hospitals, dams and schools�that the ruling generals in Rangoon say lend credence to their mission of building a new and prosperous nation..."
      Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: THE ECONOMY & WOMEN'S LABOUR (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
      Date of publication: January 2002
      Description/subject: OVERVIEW; THE ECONOMY; DECISION-MAKING & THE FAMILY INCOME; CULTURAL STEREOTYPES REGARDING WORK; RURAL WOMEN; FORCED LABOUR; EDUCATION & WORK OPPORTUNITIES; WOMEN IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE; THE CIVIL SERVICE; THE INFORMAL SECTOR; THE PRIVATE SECTOR; LACK OF INFORMAL & PRIVATE SECTOR REGULATION; THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS;
      Author/creator: Brenda Belak
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Images Asia
      Format/size: PDF (979K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar - Daten 2001/2002 - Wirtschaftsdaten
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: Auszug aus dem Wirtschaftshandbuch Asien-Pazifik des Ostasiatischen Vereins e.V. (OAV) Wähle "Myanmar" auf der Seite "Länderinfo". Choose country "Myanmar" on the site "Länderinfo". possibly 2002
      Language: Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Ostasiatischer Verein e.V.
      Alternate URLs: Kontakt zu Foren für informellen Austausch mit Unternehmern für Mitglieder http://www.oav.de/index.php3?t=5&r=2
      Adresse OAV Repräsentanzbüro in Rangoon http://www.oav.de/index.php3?t=2&r=6#myanmar
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma's economic crisis deepens
      Date of publication: 19 November 2001
      Description/subject: The price of vegetables has doubled. Burma has not escaped the economic fall-out from the attacks on the United States and Washington's war on terrorism. The fall in consumer confidence in America will also affect Burma's exports to the US, while the general downturn in international travel will have an adverse impact on Burma's tourist industry. The latest symptom of financial crisis has been a run on the country's large kyat notes. "No one wants to hold thousand or five hundred kyat notes for fear that the government is planning to withdraw them from circulation," said a Burmese businessman...
      Author/creator: Larry Jagan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: BBC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma’s Great Depression
      Date of publication: September 2001
      Description/subject: "Burma is in the grips of a national depression, and unless something is done to treat it soon, a full recovery could become nearly impossible. Everybody suffers from depression at some time in life. Intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure and rejection can afflict us all, even though we each handle our own difficult experiences differently. Even entire nations can experience depression. In 1929, the United States plunged into the Great Depression, which lasted a decade. This event was more than just a profound economic slump: It left a lasting mark on America’s national psyche. It also demonstrated that even enormous power offers little protection against the mood of the times. No country is invulnerable to the vicissitudes of life; but if a country is fundamentally strong, it can emerge even stronger from the experience of depression. In the case of Burma, however, the onslaught of depression has been relentless. The country’s people have suffered under the effects of misrule for decades, and still cannot see any light at the end of the tunnel. Especially since the mid-1970’s, the lot of the average Burmese has worsened almost day by day, so that now they are at their lowest point ever..."
      Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: The Dilemma of Stalled Reforms
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's economic reforms are constrained by the domestic political situation... This paper explores Myanmar's political and economic background in the context of stalled reforms. It finds that Myanmar's economic development is constrained by the domestic political situation, which has in turn been linked to sanctions on trade, investment and aid imposed by Western Europe and the United States. The paper states that further reforms are still required, as the previous round of reforms failed to redress problems such as: * High inflation * Persistent fiscal deficit * Widening trade deficit * Chronic foreign exchange shortage * A drastic fall in foreign investment * Inefficient state economic enterprises (SEEs) * Low value-added production... The paper notes: * The current military government is endeavouring to institute a new political order, while at the same time attempting a smooth transition from a closed to an open market economy. * The fundamental premise is that these broad political and economic reforms should not compromise the three principal main national causes including national sovereignty... The paper concludes: * Conflict between the NLD and the government and the resulting political impasse is the main obstacle for further reforms. * The realization of Myanmars reforms will depend on whether the government and the opposition can be reconciled..."
      Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for South-East Asian Studies (ISEAS) via Eldis
      Format/size: pdf (80K) 40 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Dilemmas-TMMT.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Models Wanted
      Date of publication: June 2000
      Description/subject: Burma's ruling generals and educators of the country's future economic elite appear to have different ideas about the most appropriate model for Burma's economic development.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma & Globalization
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: Aung Thu Nyein explores the possible positive and negative impact that the process of globalization may have on Burma. While globalization has the power to weaken the regime, its may also work against efforts to rebuild Burma in the future. He points out that this aspect of globalization is under scrutinized by the opposition.
      Author/creator: Aung Thu Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8, No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Who to Believe?
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: Burma's economy could hardly be in better shape, argue the generals who run the country. But a growing chorus of international economists, foreign and local businessmen, and ordinary Burmese begs to differ.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: What Went Wrong?
      Date of publication: January 2000
      Description/subject: Dr. Myo Nyunt, an economist who has worked with the United Nations, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, examines the fate of regimes that fail to recognize and respond to the forces of globalization.
      Author/creator: Dr Myo Nyunt
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Why Do Poor Countries Choose Low Human Rights? Some Lessons from Burma
      Date of publication: 17 November 1999
      Description/subject: Revised Inaugural Lecture at the Faculty of Economics Freie Universität Berlin. JEL-Keywords: Social Norms, Law, Rights, Money, Credit, Economic growth, Development, Poverty, Burma, Thailand. JEL-Classification: K10, K19, O11, O12, O16, Z13. Theoretical explanations about human rights or democracy and economic development have long been dominated by the so-called Lipset-hypothesis, in which levels of democracy and human rights area function of prosperity. However, cross-country evidence seems to indicate that multiple equilibria are more probable than a simple linear relationship. This paper explains the occurrence of low human rights equilibria as the result of a collective choice, where individuals take into account the prevailing consensus in society. This consensus is based on specific cognitive models and the related conceptions of justice. Modern societies are structured by debtor-creditor relationships in a monetary economy, while traditional societies are dominated by a safety-first principle rooted in the subsistence economy. Modern society requires a system of rights, including human rights, to ensure protection of the individual against interference by the collective. By contrast, the subsistence ethics of traditional societies privilege a holistic approach in which the collective guarantees the survival of the individual. In this context, the validity of human rights is less apparent. A collective choice of low human rights can be seen as an adverse selection by risk-averse agents, or as an insurance premium against individual precarity. These conclusions were derived from an analysis ofBurma's society and economy. In general, the transition to a sustainable democratic regime with better respect for human rights would require a profound restructuring of the economy with a properly functioning monetary economy.
      Author/creator: Stefan Collignon
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma, Country Commercial Guide, FY 1999
      Date of publication: September 1998
      Description/subject: Report prepared by the U.S. Embassy, Rangoon, released September 1998.Chapter I -- Executive Summary Chapter II -- Economic Trends and Outlook; Chapter III -- Political Environment; Chapter IV -- Marketing U.S. Products and Services; Chapter V -- Leading Sectors for U.S. Exports; Chapter VI -- Trade Regulations and Standards; Chapter VII -- Investment Climate; Chapter VIII -- Trade and Project Financing; Chapter IX -- Business Travel; Chapter X -- U.S. and Country Contacts; Chapter XI -- Bibliography.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US State Dept.
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: FOREIGN ECONOMIC TRENDS REPORT: BURMA, 1997
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: "This report is a public document, prepared in June 1997 and released in September 1997 by American Embassy Rangoon. All statistics in this report are unofficial Embassy estimates, not official U.S. Government statistics. That is, they are compiled and reviewed only by Embassy officials, not by U.S. Government officials in Washington, even though they largely originate from the Government of Burma, from the governments of Burma's trading partners, or from such international financial institutions as the IMF and World Bank, as indicated by source notations in the appended statistical tables, and by the section on sources and data. Similar reports are prepared and distributed to the public annually, separately or as part of an annual Country Commercial Guide, by most American embassies throughout the world, in compliance with standing instructions from, and following a standard format specified by, the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. This report is intended chiefly for economists and financiers; except for its first section, "Major trends and outlook," it is highly technical and sometimes redundant, intended to serve largely as a reference work...I. Economic trends and outlook:- -- Major trends and outlook: -- Major trends; -- 1996/97 economic performance; -- Economic outlook... -- Principal growth sectors: --Tourism; -- Defense; -- Agriculture: -- Paddy (unmilled rice) cultivation; -- State procurement of paddy; ; -- Rice exports; -- Beans and pulses... -- Remaining structural issues in the agricultural sector; -- Living conditions in the agricultural sector; -- The government's role in the economy: -- Historical background; -- The extent and limits of economic liberalization since 1988; -- Fiscal developments; --Non-financial expenditures; -- Non-financial receipts; -- Fiscal balances; -- External financing; -- Domestic financing; -- Errors and omissions; -- Monetary developments; -- The exchange rate regime; -- Exchange rate movements; -- Recorded money supply growth; -- Recorded money supply composition; -- Recorded domestic credit and domestic reserves; -- Recorded net foreign assets (foreign reserves); -- Aggregate price inflation; -- Balance of payments; -- Merchandise trade data and balances; -- Recorded merchandise exports; -- Recorded merchandise imports; ; -- Non-factor services trade; -- The overall trade balance; -- Unrequited private transfers (workers' remittances); -- Foreign direct investment; -- Other recorded cash financial inflows: grants, loans and other; -- External debt, debt service, arrears and debt relief; -- Aggregate external accounts: the flow of funds; -- Errors and omissions: unrecorded external flows; -- Narcotics exports and other foreign exchange rents and their real exchange rate effects; -- Infrastructure situation; -- Human infrastructure: education and health; -- Physical infrastructure; -- Use of uncompensated labor in infrastructure projects; -- Major infrastructural projects; II. Political environment; -- Nature of the bilateral relationship with the United States; -- American concerns: human rights violations, narcotics exports; -- U.S. Government activities and policies; -- Private investment, trade and travel; -- U.S. direct investment in Burma; -- U.S. exports to Burma ; -- U.S. imports from Burma; -- Travel and migration; -- Major political issues affecting the business climate ; -- Brief synopsis of the political system, schedule for elections, and orientation of major political parties; Note on sources, data and method; -- Recent improvements in publicly available economic data; -- Remaining flaws in the publicly available economic data; -- The statistical basis and methodology of this report; List of commonly used abbreviations... Appendix: Statistical Tables; --Table A: Socio-economic profile; -- Tables B.l.a - B.3.c: National income accounts (GDP and GNP); -- Table C: Aggregate price indicators; --Tables D l.a-D.6: Balance of payments accounts; -- Tables E.l.a - E.2: Monetary accounts; -- Tables F.I - F.2.b: Flow of funds accounts; -- Tables G.1.a-G.6: Public sector finance accounts.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon
      Format/size: pdf (979K) 152 pages
      Date of entry/update: 30 May 2005


      Title: La destruction de l'économie birmane par les militaires
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: "...La plupart des signes d'alerte précoce d'une déstabilisation radicale sont présents en Birmanie. Ils comprennent le déclin de l'économie, des dépenses disproportionnées pour la défense, une armée surdimensionnée et peu disciplinée, des violations généralisées des droits de l'Homme, l'accroissement de la polarisation des revenus, la dégradation de l'environnement et la guerre civile. La décision des dirigeants de l'armée en 1988 de rechercher des solutions militaires aux problèmes politiques, d'abandonner la tentative de gouverner en équilibrant les forces intérieures du pays et de chercher à la place des soutiens militaires et financiers de l'extérieur pour imposer leur ordre au peuple birman, a mal tourné. Les rentrées financières attendues ne se sont pas matérialisées. Après avoir liquidé les actifs disponibles de façon immédiate et après avoir échoué dans ses projets économiques tels que les exportations de riz et l'Année du Tourisme, le Slorc est à nouveau proche de l'insolvabilité. Si le Slorc ne peut pas écarter l'option militaire prise en 1988 et s'engager dans d'authentiques négociations tripartites avec l'opposition politique et avec les organisations des groupes d'ethnie non-birmane et demander ensemble une assistance internationale, une nouvelle détérioration économique et une déstabilisation aggravée semblent probables. Un scénario pourrait être une désintégration générale du pays en une mosaïque de seigneurs de la guerre et de troupes ethniques rebelles, en étendant le système déjà pratiqué dans les territoires frontaliers. Les implications de ce scénario doivent être prises au sérieux par le Tatmadaw, qui prétend maintenir l'unité nationale, mais aussi par les voisins de la Birmanie et par la communauté internationale."
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: French, Francais
      Source/publisher: Relations Internationales & Stratégiques No. 27, Automne 1997.
      Format/size: pdf (119K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2003


      Title: Once the Ricebowl of Asia
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: "The Burmese military's linked objectives, expanded military control of the country and large-scale international investment to pay for it, are mutually incompatible. Following their suppression of the 1988 Democracy Movement, the generals decided to increase the size of the armed forces from 186,000 to 500,000 in order to have a permanent military presence in most parts of the country. This involved up to US$2 billion of arms imports, mainly from China, a large recruitment drive and a reordering of the military command structure. Lacking the necessary funds to pay for military expansion following the failure of the previous regime's economic autarchy (and/or seeking a credible source of income to launder the revenues from Burma's illegal exports, mainly heroin), the junta opened the country to international investment, but the increased militarisation of the state and the military's continued stranglehold on the main sectors of the economy impeded the economic liberalisation and institutional reform needed by investors. In the civil war, the enhanced capacity of the re-armed and enlarged Burma Army allowed it to move from a strategy of seasonal combat to one of occupation. However, lack of discipline and the low level of soldiers' pay have led to the army living off the land, destroying the local economy, carrying out massive violations of human rights, further alienating the local population and creating refugee flows to neighbouring countries. The combination of a sinking economy, a large, badly-paid army and a tradition of warlordism could lead to a break-up of the country into a number of fiefdoms run by regional commanders and ethnic chiefs. Such a scenario should be taken seriously by the Tatmadaw, the neighbours and the international community..." Published in French as "La destruction de l'economie birmane par les militaires" though it was originally written in English with the title "Once the Ricebowl of Asia".
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Relations Internationales & Strategiques No. 27, Automne 1997.
      Format/size: html (52K)
      Alternate URLs: Download: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ricebowl98.rtf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma is Now Facing Its Worst Economic Crisis
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: In the early 1990s Burma seemed on the verge of an economic boom, but gross economic mismanagement and a vastly overvalued currency have brought the country's economy to its knees.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos.
      Date of publication: 20 June 1997
      Description/subject: This 1997 report was published by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The 70-page section on Burma is divided into 3 chapters: "Perpetuating the Military State" which among other things contains a few pages on the legal system which provide good background for the economics section; "Arrested Economic Development" and "Politicised business". The latter looks at trade, in particular between Australia and Burma. The analysis is useful but, given the 4-5 years since it was written, somewhat outdated.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Format/size: PDF (2943K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: Foreign Exchange Certificates: Who Really Benefits?
      Date of publication: June 1997
      Description/subject: "Visitors to Burma notice that everyone, even trishaw peddlers, want to be paid in U.S. dollars -or coupons called FECs, or Foreign Exchange Certificates. After all, the local currency known as kyat is hyper-inflated and loses value almost daily. As one Burmese told the author, the successful mohinga [soup with noodles] seller down the street "buys gold every evening because she's afraid of the money." The FECs are an attempt by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to overcome that lack of confidence in the currency - and provide a linchpin for a supposedly "open-market economy" as a medium of exchange and a store of value..."
      Author/creator: Kyi May Kaung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. IV, No. 2, March/June 1997
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Interview With Professor Khin Maung Kyi
      Date of publication: June 1997
      Description/subject: In January 1996, a group of Burmese economists began a series of discussions on Burma's economy. Their report, "Economic Development of Burma: A Vision and a Strategy," was recently presented to a select body of peers at the Center for International Private Enterprise in Washington, D.C. Professor Khin Maung Kyi, one of the leading members of this research group, speaks to Burma Debate about his views on the report.
      Author/creator: Khin Maung Kyi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos (Executive Summary)
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: A useful overview of the longer PDF document of the same name.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Fept of Foreign Arffairs and Trade
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: WTO Ministerial Conference Singapore 1996
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: Statement by H.E. Lieutenant-General Tun Kyi, Myanmar Minister for Commerce
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: WTO
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


      Title: Myanmar-- Policies for Sustaining Economic Reform
      Date of publication: 16 October 1995
      Description/subject: Important report, which criticises the SLORC's economic and social policies, including paddy procurement policies."A significant program of economic reforms has been instituted in Myanmar since the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) assumed power in late-1988. This shift in economic policies followed almost a quarter century of economic decline during which the prevalent development paradigm was termed " the Burmese way of socialism " . Under that model, economic development was to be achieved through rapid industrialization and self sufficiency, and led by the State Enterprise (SE) sector. Economic performance under that policy regime was poor. During 1962-77, real GDP growth barely kept up with population expansion and, as a result, living standards stagnated. Investment levels remained low, agricultural output grew slowly, and the economy grew more inward looking. The initial attempts at economic reform in the mid-1970s succeeded at first but could not be sustained due to macroeconomic and structural factors, which were reflected in widening budget and current account deficits, rising inflation, and stagnant agricultural output and exports. Faced with these serious external and internal imbalances in the early-1980s the Government's stabilization attempts relied on tightening import controls, cutting public investment, and demonetization but were ineffective in reversing the economic decline. Following the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the SLORC assumed power and announced that many key aspects of the earlier model would be abandoned in its economic reform program. With over seven years having elapsed since those reforms were initiated, it is an opportune time to take stock. Specifically, this report examines the impacts of the policy changes, with a view to identifying the areas in which progress has been made, as well as the gaps that still remain in the program. This analysis would then underpin the report's recommendations concernng areas in which additional reforms are required and how these measures should be phased. Keywords: Economic growth; Economic reform; Economic stabilization; Government role; Policy making
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Bank
      Format/size: Text (456K)or PDF (8416K) Page.
      Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/10/16/000009265_3961019103423/Re...
      http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000009265_3961019103423
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Country Commercial Guide, Burma (Myanmar) June 1995
      Date of publication: June 1995
      Description/subject: This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at Burma's commercial environment through economic, political and market analyses. The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. Country Commercial Guides are prepared annualy at U.S. Embassies through the combined efforts of several U.S. governement agencies.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Prepared by U.S. Embassy Rangoon, Burma Yangon, Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


    • Analyses and programmes by international financial institutions etc.

      • All international financial institutions (IFIs) and their watchers

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: FINDING STATISTICAL DATA ON DEVELOPMENT
        Description/subject: Search results on the Eldis site for "statistics"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Eldis
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://search.babylon.com/home?q=statistic+site%3AEldis.org&babsrc=home&s=web
        http://www.eldis.org
        Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


        Title: IFI-Burma - discussion group
        Description/subject: Updates on development schemes in Burma, with particular focus on bilateral and multilateral assistance; concerns and strategies.
        Language: English
        Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: IFI-Burma Project
        Description/subject: "The Burma Project conducts research and analysis on issues of development assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Burma, with a particular focus on multilateral development banks (MDBs). The Burma Project also provides current information on these issues to members of civil society who work to protect human rights and the environment in Burma, so that they may be equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and a working network to assist them in ensuring that operations of MDBs in Burma are conducted in a socially and environmentally accountable manner, and truly benefits citizens..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
        Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Format/size: html, Word, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
        Date of publication: 03 September 2013
        Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
        Author/creator: Kevin Woods
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
        Format/size: pdf (593K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


        Title: Opportunities and Pitfalls: Preparing for Burma's Economic Transition
        Date of publication: November 2006
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Each of Burma’s citizens has a stake in the country’s development and should have a say in how it develops its economic potential, including its human and natural resources. In the future, it is likely that Burma’s people will act to exploit their economic potential in conjunction with international economic institutions. To do so most effectively, they will have to deal carefully with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, and other international financial institutions (IFIs). They will also have to develop national institutions, strategies, and mechanisms to manage wisely Burma’s trade relations as well as the revenues generated by exploitation of the country’s natural resources... Burma and the IFIs: IFIs are profit-making organizations. IFIs do not wait for the establishment of democracy, the rule of law, and other good governance practices before they begin operating in a country. IFIs engage in a country when the IFIs decide that they will likely profit from such an engagement and when the country’s government and the international community are ready to accept such an engagement. Instead of helping countries implement national-development and poverty-reduction strategies devised with the participation of their citizens, IFIs often dominate the formation of such strategies to such a degree that the people of these countries lose control of the process. The IFIs see economic growth as the key tool for promoting development and reducing poverty, and they apply a narrow, blanket set of reforms to achieve it. This focus on economic growth and the blanket application of reforms, however, have failed to work in many countries and have had disastrous effects in some. In order to avoid losing control of development and poverty-reduction strategies and to make IFI assistance most effective for its people, Burma must have: a clear set of development objectives; a strategic, comprehensive social and economic policy framework; and good-governance principles and practices. Whether they live in Burma or abroad, Burmese people who favor a democratic government, a free-market economy, rule of law, and the development of sound political and economic institutions must begin as soon as possible to organize themselves; to gather information on Burma’s economy, its economic potential, and the needs of its people; and to devise their own comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework as well as good governance principles and practices. The Burmese people should be wary of efforts by the IFIs to re-engage in Burma before the establishment of democracy, rule of law, and other elements of an open society in their country. Burma will have to clear arrears of about $170 million before the IFIs re-engage. Burma’s people should be aware that the IFIs’ lending practices put pressure on countries to borrow and that many countries, often by borrowing for large infrastructure projects that do little to promote growth, incur unsustainable levels of debt that pose serious problems.... Burma and Trade: As a consequence of Burma’s lack of a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework, the country’s commodity-centered trade with China and other nearby countries is providing the Burmese only short-term gains that benefit mostly foreign interests and people associated with Burma’s military regime. Volatility in commodity markets makes dependence upon commodities an unstable basis for sound, long-term economic development. To capture long-term gains from trade, broaden the distribution of these gains, and stimulate development, Burma needs a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework. This framework should take into account trade flows, exchange rates, Instead of helping countries implement national-development and poverty-reduction strategies devised with the participation of their citizens, IFIs often dominate the formation of such strategies to such a degree that the people of these countries lose control of the process. The IFIs see economic growth as the key tool for promoting development and reducing poverty, and they apply a narrow, blanket set of reforms to achieve it. This focus on economic growth and the blanket application of reforms, however, have failed to work in many countries and have had disastrous effects in some. In order to avoid losing control of development and poverty-reduction strategies and to make IFI assistance most effective for its people, Burma must have: a clear set of development objectives; a strategic, comprehensive social and economic policy framework; and good-governance principles and practices. Whether they live in Burma or abroad, Burmese people who favor a democratic government, a free-market economy, rule of law, and the development of sound political and economic institutions must begin as soon as possible to organize themselves; to gather information on Burma’s economy, its economic potential, and the needs of its people; and to devise their own comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework as well as good governance principles and practices. The Burmese people should be wary of efforts by the IFIs to re-engage in Burma before the establishment of democracy, rule of law, and other elements of an open society in their country. Burma will have to clear arrears of about $170 million before the IFIs re-engage. Burma’s people should be aware that the IFIs’ lending practices put pressure on countries to borrow and that many countries, often by borrowing for large infrastructure projects that do little to promote growth, incur unsustainable levels of debt that pose serious problems... Burma and Trade: As a consequence of Burma’s lack of a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework, the country’s commodity-centered trade with China and other nearby countries is providing the Burmese only short-term gains that benefit mostly foreign interests and people associated with Burma’s military regime. Volatility in commodity markets makes dependence upon commodities an unstable basis for sound, long-term economic development. To capture long-term gains from trade, broaden the distribution of these gains, and stimulate development, Burma needs a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework. This framework should take into account trade flows, exchange rates,foreign investment, and domestic issues like infrastructure and education improvements, human resources development, and industrial development... Burma and the Resource Curse: Natural-resource-rich countries like Burma are more likely than resource-poor countries to experience flat economic growth, endure greater poverty, incur unwieldy debt, develop authoritarian and repressive governments, and suffer armed conflict. Receiving significant revenues in payment for natural resources can free a country’s government from the need to collect taxes from its citizens; this severs a vital bond between the citizentaxpayer and the government and dampens the government’s incentives to implement sound economic, social, and fiscal policies in a transparent and accountable manner. In many countries, revenues from extraction of natural resources actually trigger a decline in living standards and exacerbate social problems. Revenues generated by exploitation of Burma’s natural resources are helping to sustain the country’s military dictatorship, contributing to human rights abuses and conflict, and failing to alleviate the poverty and poor governance most Burmese suffer. Natural resource extraction in Burma has produced long-term damage to the environment; contributed to a decline in agricultural productivity; aggravated corruption of the government and civil society; exacerbated the illegal drug trade, the exploitation of sex workers, and the spread of HIV/AIDS; and funded warring factions. Burma might consider community-based resource management, rather than a state-controlled system, in the exploitation of its natural resources for the benefit of all its citizens.
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Open Society Institute (OSI)
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB English; 616K - Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/bpsai/articles_publications/publications/opportunitiespitfalls_200...
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/opportunities_20061115.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 22 February 2007


        Title: Multilateral Development Bank Investment in Burma (Myanmar) (July – October 2004) -- Burma Country Update #1
        Date of publication: 09 November 2004
        Description/subject: The Burma Country Update provides information about recent developments, civil society concerns, and policy updates related to the World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
        Format/size: html (26K)
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


      • Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (Burma/Myanmar)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: ADB Myanmar page
        Date of publication: 15 September 2003
        Description/subject: Many links from this page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


        Title: ADB projects in Myanmar
        Description/subject: Project records contain Project Data Sheets (summary information on projects or programs), project and evaluation documents, business opportunities and other information. See the Project FAQs.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


        Title: International Rivers Network Mekong Page
        Description/subject: Watches ADB projects in the Mekong region
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


        Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) 46271-001:
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


        Title: NGO Forum on ADB
        Description/subject: Not much specifically on Burma/Myanmar.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential - Country Diagnostic Study
        Date of publication: August 2014
        Description/subject: "...In his inaugural address, President U Thein Sein rightfully identified a raft of challenges. One of these is an urgent need for investment in physical and social infrastructure. Another is the need for strong, growthoriented development, led initially by agriculture and natural resources, and followed by manufacturing for domestic and export markets. The President also emphasized the importance of transparency, accountability, good governance and the rule of law; resolute action against corruption; and addressing the widening income gap between rich and poor. To overcome the obstacles, the government will need to accelerate reforms. Doing so requires a clear, multipronged development that produces quality jobs and reduces poverty. Myanmar has a historic opportunity to develop integrated, comprehensive long-term policies. Getting them right, by learning from the successes and failures of its neighbors—and adapting those lessons to the country’s specific contexts— carries enormous advantages. This report examines how Myanmar can unlock its full potential. It stresses that charting a successful course will involve considerable care in sequencing policies and programs in the right sectors at the right time. It also details the policy challenges ahead—among them, how to strengthen market institutions, enhance governance and institutional capacity, improve infrastructure, develop human capital, and promote regional integration....A successfully integrated development policy framework will need to consider comprehensive development and reform planning and phasing. It is in this context that the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Economics and Research Department presents this report, Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential , which is based on an in- depth country study undertaken in 2013. The report examines the most important and immediate issues that need to be tackled to unlock the potential. These include weak infrastructure, creating modern market and government institutions, human development, stronger regional integration, a clear focus on inclusive growth, and environmental protection..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (330K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


        Title: New Energy Architecture: Myanmar
        Date of publication: June 2013
        Description/subject: "...This report is structured as follows. First, the New Energy Architecture methodology is outlined. In Step 1, the performance of the country’s current energy architecture is assessed. Step 2 describes the setting of the objectives of the New Energy Architecture. Step 3 outlines insights to support the development of a New Energy Architecture, and highlights potential risks in achieving this. Step 4 then discusses the need for leadership and multistakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of a New Energy Architecture in Myanmar..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Accenture
        Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 5.3MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/new-energy-architecture-mya.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2013 -Asia’s Energy Challenge (Myanmar section)
        Date of publication: 09 April 2013
        Description/subject: "Policy reforms stimulated economic growth last year and are expected to drive further development during the forecast period. Inflation is projected to remain moderate. Improved economic prospects have sparked a surge of interest from foreign investors. Achieving the country’s potential depends on maintaining momentum on the government’s reform agenda..."...N.B. there is a lot of material on Myanmar, e.g. in the statistics, not included in the Myanmar pages
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (541K-Myanmar section; 7.9MB-full report)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/ado-2013.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 10 April 2013


        Title: Myanmar’s Trade and its Potential
        Date of publication: January 2013
        Description/subject: Abstract: "The paper tabulates Myanmar’s merchandise trade as reported by its partner countries, thereby circumventing the data constraints stemming from Myanmar’s patchy trade records. It then estimates Myanmar’s export potential, based on the bilateral export patterns observed for six other countries in Southeast Asia. Against that benchmark and controlling for outliers, Myanmar is found to be trading at about 15% its potential. The bulk of this gap is explained by very low trade with the industrialized countries. Through reintegration with the world economy accompanied by deep economic re forms domestically, Myanmar would be expected to be closing this gap rather swiftly."... Keywords: Myanmar, gravity model, export potential
        Author/creator: Benno Ferrarini
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB Economics Working Paper SeriesNo. 325
        Format/size: pdf (1MB-original; 836K-OBL version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Myanmar%27s%20Trade%20and%20its%20Potential%20-%20ewp-325-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


        Title: ADB, Norway to Help Myanmar Manage Tourist Boom
        Date of publication: 11 October 2012
        Description/subject: MANILA, PHILIPPINES – The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Norway will help Myanmar cope with an exploding tourism sector with a $225,000 grant designed to generate a sustainable tourism master plan. “Myanmar is undergoing a period of dramatic change, and the skyrocketing number of tourists visiting the country is already putting existing tourism infrastructure under enormous strain,” said Putu Kamayana, Head of ADB’s Extended Mission in Myanmar. “To ensure benefits of the burgeoning tourism industry are sustainable and extend to more of Myanmar’s people, the country needs a comprehensive plan that respects culture and the environment.”
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment
        Date of publication: October 2012
        Description/subject: Description: In order to have a better understanding of Myanmar’s energy sector, an ADB mission visited Myanmar from 20 through 30 September 2011. The information and findings gathered during the mission served in drafting an initial assessment of the sector. Subsequently, the assessment has been updated to reflect the findings of follow-up ADB missions and consultations with the government... The Report: Clearly, strengthening Myanmar’s energy sector is critical to reducing poverty and enhancing the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. Electrification is an urgent requirement, without which whole areas of the country will be severely hampered in their efforts to advance economically. Social progress also depends on electrification, without which health, education, and other essential services inevitably suffer. There are many dimensions to the sector and they must be addressed comprehensively and systematically so as to ensure efficient and effective use of resources. While electrification, especially of rural areas, is of primary concern, issues of sustainability and protection of the environment must be considered simultaneously... Conclusions: Drawing from this initial assessment of the energy sector, but with the caveat that a comprehensive assessment is needed, Myanmar’s development partners—in consultation with the government—could begin considering support for the sector by focusing on several apparent priorities including:
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (4.16MB) html (Summary)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/myanmar-energy-sector-initial-assessment
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (SUMMARY)
        Date of publication: September 2012
        Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: 1. "This sector assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of fiscal sustainability, macroeconomic stability and public finance. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as macroeconomic institutions and monetary policy, tax policy and administration, and public financial management. This assessment draws on the sector assessment for Macroeconomic Assessment and ongoing ADB diagnostic work"... II. SECTOR ASSESSMENT: CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES - A. Context: Economic growth; Macroeconomic instability; Fiscal policy...B. Strategic Issues - Fiscal Policy; Lifting priority spending through further tax revenue effort - (i) Sources of revenues are limited; (ii) The tax structure is complicated; (iii) Tax administration is weak; 9. Medium-term sustainable priority spending requires improving efficiency in public expenditure management; Public Debt Sustainability; A key medium term policy reform to support fiscal sustainability will be public debt management; Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (49K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economy.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


        Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC REFORM (SUMMARY)
        Date of publication: September 2012
        Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: "This economic reform assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of achieving inclusive growth. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as business climate reforms, trade policy liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, and financial sector development. It also touches on the need to implement structural policy reforms on a sector-by-sector basis."...II. CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES: Context; Economic growth performance has been mixed; Structural transformation of the economy has been relatively slow; Long term economic growth has been relatively low; Macroeconomic effects of the resource sector on the non-resource sector; Limited trade integration with global markets; Low investment rate; Underdeveloped financial sector...B. Strategic issues: While the Government has initiated steps towards a more market economy for private sector to grow and develop, much more needs to be done to improve the environment for private sector development. At the macroeconomic level the challenge will be to manage the potentially adverse effects of the resource boom on the competitiveness of the non-resource sector. At the microeconomic level the challenge will be to advance reforms to reduce transaction costs of doing business and creating a level playing field between firms, or a competitive neutral policy environment. This will need to be done through addressing the complex business licensing system, trade liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, promoting competition in domestic markets, and SME access to business development services and technology, credit, and skilled labor, and strengthening the institutional framework for SME policy making; Managing the impact of the resource boom on the growth and development of the non-resource sector; Business climate reforms; Institutionalizing regulatory review processes; Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development; Restrictive trade policy and inefficient trade facilitation; Competition policy; State economic enterprises (SEE) reform; Financial sector development...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...IV. ADB’S SECTOR EXPERIENCE AND ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (60K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economic_reform.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


        Title: Myanmar: Interim Country Partnership Strategy 2012-2014 (Draft Documents for Consultation)
        Date of publication: September 2012
        Description/subject: Description: "In response to ongoing major reform moves by the Government of Myanmar, ADB is now preparing a re-engagement strategy (interim country partnership strategy), which will guide our approach towards full resumption of operations. The interim strategy provides the framework for rapid reengagement, while affording the space required for further analytical work, capacity building, policy dialogue, and broad-based consultations with all development stakeholders, leading to a fully-fledged country partnership strategy. The interim strategy, as summarized in the consultation draft, is informed by ADB's initial economic and sector assessments on Myanmar, as well as consultations with the country's government, development partners, civil society, and the business community during the period June to August 2012. The proposed interim strategy envisions a highly consultative process to form the basis of the ensuing full country partnership strategy. The documents provided on this page are drafts for consultation purposes. Comments on the draft are most welcome. Email contact...." Linked Document(s): Sector Assessment (Summary): Agriculture and Natural Resources... Sector Assessment (Summary): Energy... Sector Assessment (Summary): Transport... Sector Assessment (Summary): Urban Development and Water Sector... Economic Analysis (Summary)... Poverty Analysis (Summary)... Gender Analysis (Summary)... Environment Assessment (Summary)... Regional Cooperation and Integration (Summary)... Economic Reform (Summary)... Initial Assessment (Summary): Post-Primary Education.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html. pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


        Title: ADB's "Myanmar in Transition" Report Offers Fresh, In-Depth Analysis on Myanmar's Growth Potential (video)
        Date of publication: 20 August 2012
        Description/subject: Asian Development Bank's Vice President for East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Stephen P. Groff, explains how Myanmar could become a 'middle-income' country and why the Bank is optimistic about Myanmar's future.
        Author/creator: Stephen P. Groff
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 minutes)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2012/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


        Title: Myanmar in Transition: Opportunities and Challenges
        Date of publication: 20 August 2012
        Description/subject: "Myanmar, which is emerging from decades of isolation, is poised to accelerate its economic growth on the back of its abundant labor force, rich natural resources, and geographical location. But the country faces many development challenges to achieve strong and inclusive growth. To take advantage of its rich potential and endowments, Myanmar can also use its strategic location between the People’s Republic of China and India, and act as a conduit between South and Southeast Asia. In order to sustain its growth momentum in the long run, Myanmar should aim for a growth trajectory that is inclusive, equitable, and environmentally sustainable. This special report assesses the country’s strengths and weaknesses and highlights the challenges and risks. The key lies in prioritizing the actions to surmount the challenges and introducing the requisite reforms."...Executive summary: "...The course of Myanmar’s future growth can be guided by three complementary development strategies: regional integration, inclusiveness, and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, given the myriad challenges the country faces and the limited resources at its disposal, the interventions can be prioritized and reforms sequenced for the maximum benefits.     Key development agendas include the following:  • Provide macroeconomic stability. A stable macro environment provides a foundation for investment and long-term growth. Key elements of sound macroeconomic policy include low and stable inflation; a sustainable fiscal position; and a flexible, market-based exchange rate.... • Mobilize resources for investment. Increased domestic and foreign savings are critical to meeting the enormous requirements of the private and public sectors. In addition, higher government revenues (e.g., taxation] and more efficient financial intermediation will also help to provide sustainable financing for development.... • Improve infrastructure and human capital. The removal of structural impediments in the key areas of education, health, and infrastructure can provide a basis for human capital development and improve connectivity.... • Diversify into industry and services, while improving agriculture. Broadening the economic base beyond primary industries can raise productivity and value addition. Yet agriculture, fisheries, and resource industries are not to be neglected as they contain considerable potential for expansion.... • Reduce the state’s role in production. A further reduction in the government's ownership and control of productive activities can help spur competition and increase investment by creating a level playing field.... • Strengthen government institutions. Economic transformation can be supported by effective government institutions, although building institutions and their capacity may take time. Attention might focus on nurturing administrative and regulatory systems; managing resources; and, most importantly, enhancing the capabilities of government personnel throughout the system.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
        http://www.adb.org/countries/myanmar/videos/189162 (video)
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


        Title: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 + Myanmar statistics
        Date of publication: August 2012
        Description/subject: The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 (Key Indicators), the 43rd edition of this series, includes the latest available economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This publication aims to present the latest key statistics on development issues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. Part I of this issue of the Key Indicators is a special chapter—Green Urbanization in Asia. Parts II and III comprise of brief, non-technical analyses and statistical tables on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and seven other themes. This year, the second edition of the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a special supplement to Key Indicators is also included. The statistical tables in this issue of the Key Indicators may also be downloaded in MS Excel format from this website or in user-specified format at SDBS Online.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf, Xcel
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/ki/2012/pdf/MYA.pdf (Myanmar statistics)
        Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2012 - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: 11 April 2012
        Description/subject: "Economic growth picked up in FY2011, based largely on foreign investment in energy and exports of commodities and natural gas. That trend is forecast to continue, assisted by policy reforms and higher gas exports in 2013. Inflation is expected to quicken, after receding in 2011. The government has taken steps to revitalize the economy, but the agenda of required reforms is long..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (109K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2012-confronting-rising-inequality-asia
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


        Title: Myanmar's Economic Outlook Improving but Broad Reforms Still Needed
        Date of publication: 11 April 2012
        Description/subject: ADB administration and governance; Economics...MANILA, PHILIPPINES – "Myanmar is poised for a period of rising economic growth, but the country needs to embark on a comprehensive program of reforms to realize its potential and reduce widespread poverty, according to a forecast of the country’s growth, contained in a new report from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


        Title: Asian Development Bank & Myanmar FACT SHEET
        Date of publication: 31 December 2011
        Description/subject: "Myanmar joined the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 1973, but it has not received direct assistance in more than 20 years. ADB’s last loan and technical assistance projects for Myanmar were approved in 1986 and 1987, respectively. ADB continues to monitor economic developments in Myanmar, and will formulate an operational strategy when appropriate. Myanmar is a participating member of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program (GMS Program), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops along with other GMS and ASEAN member countries. ADB has maintained close coordination with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the United Nations Development Programme, with an emphasis on assessing the government’s economic reform program and recommended policy actions. ADB liaises with Myanmar’s major bilateral donors regarding the status of their assistance programs. ADB cooperates with civil society organizations to strengthen the effectiveness, quality, and sustainability of the services it provides. To this end, ADB regularly shares its experiences and expertise with international nongovernment organizations that are undertaking development activities in Myanmar..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (175K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2011 - Myanmar section
        Date of publication: April 2011
        Description/subject: "Economic growth edged up over the past 2 years, accompanied by relatively modest inflation. The economy is expected to grow moderately over the forecast period, supported by foreign investment in construction and higher levels of credit to agriculture. The government that took office in March 2011 faces an extensive agenda of reforms if the country is to reach its potential..."
        Author/creator: Alfredo Perdiguero
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (323K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2011-south-south-economic-links
        Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


        Title: The ADB in Burma: Behind the Scenes
        Date of publication: April 2011
        Description/subject: CONCLUSION: Burma still lacks sound economic policy, and the state is unwilling to reconcile with ethnic armed groups. Foreign direct investment in Burma is concentrated in energy and extractive sectors and often results in militarization, displacement and human rights abuses in ethnic areas. The facilitation and mobilization of private investment is having and will continue to have a major impact on the environment and communities, particularly in ethnic areas where the majority of natural resources remain. Current foreign investment is not reducing poverty but reinforcing the current power structures, and the vast majority of citizens in Burma are excluded from the benefits of development. Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’ and adhere to their own environmental and social safeguard policies, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy... RECOMMENDATIONS: Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’, and adhere to apply their own environmental and social safeguard policies, when they do engage, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy. If the ADB is involved in any future national development planning for Burma, they must make sure it is based on proper needs assessments and a participatory consultation process which ensures that it furthers the interest of the people.
        Author/creator: S. Bourne
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
        Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-OBL version; 1.52MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.forum-adb.org/docs/ADB-and-Burma.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 June 2012


        Title: Critical Approaches to Risk Under Authoritarian Regimes: The Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Subregion
        Date of publication: 2011
        Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Multilateral development banks and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in particular, have not provided direct assistance to Myanmar (Burma) since the mid-­1980s, largely as a concession to global disapprobation of its ruling military regime. Through its Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) project, however, the ADB still provides indirect assistance to Myanmar and direct assistance to the authoritarian single party states of Laos and Vietnam. The aim of the GMS East-­West Economic Corridor (EWEC) is to facilitate trade and investment across the GMS but the Myanmar leg of the road corridor, from Mawlamyine (Moulmein) to the Thai border at Myawaddy, traverses Karen State, which has been fraught with civil conflict since 1948. The ruling military regime along with its allies, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), nominally controls this route but in mid-­2010 there were serious defections from the DKBA to the opposition Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) over the military regime’s Border Guard Force (BGF) leading to increased tension in the area. The regime then closed the border at Myawaddy, ostensibly over a dispute with Thailand but more likely due to domestic political concerns, resulting in a large build-­up of goods on both sides of the border. The risks of greater civil conflict in this region are exacerbated by the revenue raising opportunities that various competing groups can derive from increased border trade while the risks of forced labour are ubiquitous for major development projects in Myanmar. The ADB acknowledges that the early stages of the EWEC will be funded by public sources but it clearly sees its role as guarantor of long-­term stability for the project to minimise the risks faced by private investment. The very nature of the project itself, however, which ignores domestic political issues, is likely to result in heightened risks of insecurity for the oppressed ethnic minorities who inhabit the region."
        Author/creator: Dr Adam Simpson
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.
        Format/size: pdf (2.74MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/NATBMA_WP1103.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 July 2011


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2009 (Myanmar)
        Date of publication: 17 April 2009
        Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports continued to support modest rates of growth in FY2007. Inflation remained at around 30%, largely the result of money creation to finance fiscal deficits. Recovery and reconstruction after Cyclone Nargis, which inflicted severe human loss and economic damage in May 2008, will take at least 3 years. Economic growth will be diminished this year by weaker performance of Myanmar’s major trading partners..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (711K - Myanmar section; 26.5MB-full report)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/ado2009.pdf (full report, 26.5MB)
        http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/default.asp (TOC of full report)
        http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/appendix.pdf (statistical appendix for full report)
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2008 -- Myanmar
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: "Modest rates of growth in recent years have been based on high prices for natural gas exports, heavy public expenditures, and an improving agricultural performance. However, macroeconomic stability is vulnerable to fiscal deficits that are financed through money creation, in turn prompting double-digit inflation. The Government has taken tentative steps toward a more market-oriented system in agriculture and finance, and should build on these reforms."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (122K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2008/
        Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2007 -- Myanmar
        Date of publication: March 2007
        Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports and a good harvest led to a modest pickup in economic activity. But macroeconomic stability remains elusive with monetized fiscal deficits feeding high inflation. The cushion provided by the gas exports makes now an opportune time to embark on structural reforms, including exchange rate unification, fiscal consolidation, and agricultural liberalization, and to redirect public spending to development of social and physical infrastructure..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bangk (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2007


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2006 -- Myanmar
        Date of publication: 2006
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2006/ (Outlook page)
        Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


        Title: Regional technical assistance projects that include Burma (approved July 2004 – April 2005)
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: "As the table below indicates, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) continues to provide grants for regional technical assistance (TA) projects in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) that include Burma. The grants for the projects below amount to US$5.74 million. For all of the projects in the table below, the amount of the grant extended by the ADB was US$1 million or smaller. This allows the projects to be approved by the ADB President, not by the Board of Directors."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: IFI-Burma
        Format/size: html, (42K), Word (47K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ADB_grants_for_GMS_projects_including_Burma.doc
        Date of entry/update: 13 April 2005


        Title: Key indicators of developing Asian and Pacific countries: Myanmar
        Date of publication: November 2004
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


        Title: POSITION PAPER ON THE INCLUSION OF BURMA IN ADB’S GMS PROJECTS
        Date of publication: 26 July 2004
        Description/subject: "The NCUB’s position is that the ADB should exclude Burma from all GMS projects until Burma is ruled by a government that is committed to the principles of transparency, accountability, public participation in decision-making processes, and independent monitoring. Briefly, NCUB’s position is based on the following grounds:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB)
        Format/size: html (65K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 October 2004


        Title: The Multilateral Banks and Burma
        Date of publication: April 2004
        Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank has quietly started providing modest assistance to Rangoon. Is more to follow?... On April 8, 2004 Mitch McConnell, a prominent American senator from Kentucky with an interest in the Burma debate, expressed concerns over multilateral assistance to Burma and threatened to cut US funding to institutions that might provide such assistance. At a hearing of the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, he stated: “Unfortunately, I am hearing that international financial institutions—particularly the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank—are keen on re-engaging Burma. They do so at their own risks, and should begin finding other funding sources for the upcoming fiscal year because none will be forthcoming from this Subcommittee.” Senator McConnell’s statement reflects the unease shared by many in the Burma democracy movement about multilateral assistance going to Rangoon, which has a poor track record regarding transparency and public participation in development projects and has been accused of a range of human rights abuses. So what exactly are the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, or ADB, doing with respect to Burma? As yet the numbers are small, but imply an effort to renew assistance..."
        Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


        Title: Marketing the Mekong: the Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation Program
        Date of publication: 12 December 2003
        Description/subject: Shortcomings of economic cooperation in the Greater Mekong...The Greater Mekong Subregion: A Regional Fantasy... The document critically examines the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) Programme, which was initiated by the Asian Development Bank in 1992 to boost economic development in the resource rich region. It outlines the main features of the programme and highlights the shortcomings and problem of the GMS: * the centrality of natural resource exploitation (water, land, forests, energy, minerals, fisheries) results in the large-scale expropriation of resources crucial to daily sustenance * the distribution of benefits is uneven since participating countries have differing levels of development and capacity (i.e. what does the Lao PDR gain from the East-West Corridor?) * internal disparities within participating countries are widened because of pockets of high capital and infrastructure investment in specific parts of countries, which can result in tensions and conflicts between national and local government, and between the government and the people * the vision of development promoted through the GMS serves regional investment, and not national or local development priorities: projects are formulated based on their potential for profits for investors rather than on their potential to respond to social, economic, ecological or institutional needs among local and national communities * GMS projects have already resulted in negative impacts on local communities through road and hydropower projects, impacts include displacement of families, loss of livelihood sources, loss of lands, among others * in the GMS framework, the rights of investors are protected, but the rights of local people and communities are not * local-national communities outside of governments and private sector have not been involved in drawing up GMS plans * the financing of GMS projects have tremendous debt implications for participating countries: new forms of project financing are creating new forms of debt and financial liabilities * governments play conflicting roles as owners, investors and regulators in public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects * GMS projects facilitate the transfer of local-national wealth to private actors external to the Mekong region.
        Author/creator: Shalmali Guttal
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Focus on the Global South
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


        Title: Verbrannte Erde und Überflutungen: Staudammprojekte am Salween in Burma
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Aktivitäten der ADB in Burma, Staudammprojekte am Salween, Umweltkatastrophen, ölkologische Folgen der Staudammprojekte. activities of the ADB concerning Burma; environmental, ecological and sicial consequences of dam-projects
        Author/creator: Daniel Apolinarski
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Burma Initiative Asienhaus
        Format/size: pdf (99K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


        Title: Status of Burma at the MDBs (Multilateral Development Banks)
        Date of publication: 15 July 2003
        Description/subject: Burma in the Asian Development Bank; Burma in the World Bank Group; Non-accrual status; Burma in the International Monetary Fund; U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma - provisions on MDB assistance; Resources, Links etc... Background: "Most foreign aid to Burma, both bilateral and multilateral, ceased in the wake of the violent crackdown on the popular democracy movement in 1988. The United States and the European Union impose economic sanctions, which prohibit most bilateral aid from the U.S. and Europe, as well as support for multilateral development assistance to Burma (see box "U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma"). Burma also has not been involved in any new lending programs from the multilateral development banks since 1988-89...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Project,, Bank Information Center
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 15 July 2003


        Title: ADB Annual Report 2002: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 24 June 2003
        Description/subject: "Official data indicate that GDP in Myanmar grew by 11.1% in fiscal year (FY)2001 (ending 31 March 2002) in part because of rapid growth in agriculture, livestock and fisheries, and the processing and manufacturing sectors. Inflation accelerated to 56.8% by the end of 2002. The fiscal deficit narrowed from 8.4% in FY2000 to 6.6% of GDP in FY2001. The deficit was financed largely through central bank credit. The kyat depreciated in FY2001 by about 70% relative to its value at the start of the year. The overall balance-of-payments position was in surplus by kyat 1,733.2 million; the current account was at a deficit by kyat 844.8 million in FY2001. Capital inflows in FY2001 were low, and international reserves covered about 2.3 months of imports. ADB operations..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 24 June 2003


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2003: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: Asian Development Outlook 2003 : II. Economic Trends and Prospects in Developing Asia : Southeast Asia Myanmar... Growth in FY2001 was recorded at 11.1%. However, there are reasons to be concerned about prospects. Macroeconomic imbalances persist, and there are growing signs of problems at a structural level. The country faces a complex development agenda. In the short run, priority should be given to reducing fiscal deficits and realigning expenditure priorities. Agricultural liberalization offers potentially large benefits....Outlook for 2003-2004: The Government has targeted 6% GDP growth over the latest 5-year planning period. However, the immediate prospects for fast economic expansion are uncertain. Widespread flooding in 2002 is likely to have had an adverse impact on agricultural activity, which still accounts for over 40% of GDP. Also, yields of important agricultural crops have fallen recently against a backdrop of shortages of imported fertilizers and other inputs. Political and economic sanctions limit prospects for exports and FDI, and any significant easing of foreign exchange constraints is unlikely in the near future. Over the medium term, the prospects for growth will, of course, depend crucially on policy choices. If macroeconomic imbalances and structural distortions persist, growth will undoubtedly suffer. If, however, a credible and sustained effort at reform were to begin, the prospects for sustainable economic expansion and poverty reduction would be good."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002 Update
        Date of publication: 18 September 2002
        Description/subject: "The 2002-2003 economic outlook for developing Asia and the Pacific has not changed significantly since the Asian Development Outlook 2002 was published in April 2002. However, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia had a stronger than expected performance in the first half of 2002, while South Asia and the Pacific had weaker than expected performance..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
        Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/Update/southeast_asia.pdf (SE Asia section, pdf (500K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002
        Date of publication: 09 April 2002
        Description/subject: Economic Trends and prospects in developing Asia. Contains a 2 page section on Burma/Myanmar. "This 14th edition of the Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of 41 economies in Asia and the Pacific, based on the Asian Development Banks in-depth knowledge of the region. For the first time, the Outlook includes a section on Afghanistan. It also provides a broad diagnosis of macroeconomic conditions and growth prospects as they relate to progress in poverty reduction in the economies of the region..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: PDF (629K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/mya.asp (Myanmar section, html)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Asian Development Bank Economic Update: Myanmar. November 2001
        Date of publication: November 2001
        Description/subject: "...in a context of slowing growth and stiffening sanctions on trade and investment flows, reform efforts began to stall in the second half of the 1990s and some reversals took place. Despite a spurt in economic growth in 1999/2000 , which was largely a consequence of a bumper agricultural crop, Myanmars prospects for growth over the medium term are constrained by growing macroeconomic imbalances and impediments to structural adjustment. However, prospects could be improved if Myanmar were to recommence reforms and undertake needed adjustments. Ultimately, poverty reduction and broader improvements in the quality of life will rest on policy and institutional frameworks that serve to promote durable and equitable growth. Official development assistance could have an important role in serving these objectives and meeting Myanmars still considerable development needs. However, should international financial institutions be in a position to resume assistance to Myanmar, its impact would be greatly enhanced by advanced measures to improve the policy environment..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: PDF (32K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries 2001, Volume 32: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: "In 38 country tables and 40 regional tables, it presents long time series data on economic, financial, environmental and social development, providing a comprehensive statistical portrait of ADB's 40 developing member countries (DMCs). This 32nd edition differs from previous editions. It includes an analysis of major economic and social trends and attempt to capture the diversity of our DMCs highlight the different development paths followed.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: The Excel version is more legible that the PDF but needs more paper and sticky tape
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/mya.pdf
        http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/default.asp
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Asian Development Bank, Country Assistance Plan 2001-2003: Myanmar
        Date of publication: December 2000
        Description/subject: Economic Performance Assessment; Assessment of Social Performance. Country operations: "The Asian Development Bank (ADB) undertook the preparation of an operational strategy study for Myanmar in 1987, but discussions with the Government were not completed. As of December 1998, cumulative lending to Myanmar consists of 28 loan projects for a total of $530.9 million and 38 technical assistance projects for a total of $10.7 million. No loan has been provided to Myanmar since 1986 and no technical assistance since 1987. All 32 loans approved prior to 1986 were closed by end-1998. However, Myanmar is involved in the Program of Economic Cooperation in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS Program). In that capacity, Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops supported by ADB's regional technical assistance. To keep ADB's institutional knowledge up-to-date with regard to socio-economic developments, ADB has continued to review developments in economic policies and programs to the extent possible, based on the data available. In this regard, the 1995 Economic Report on Myanmar will be updated in 2000. Donor Activities, Aid Coordination and Cofinancing: Since 1988-89, Myanmar has not received any new lending programs from the multilateral institutions. However, it has received loans from the Peoples Republic of China, Thailand, India, Singapore, and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In addition, Myanmar has received Debt Relief Grant from Japan, especially since 1988. Japan is also extending grants to the agriculture, forestry, and health sectors, grass root projects, and the Yangon International Airport Project. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) continues to conduct its Article IV consultations annually with the last one having been held in June 1999. Although ADB's operations have not yet resumed, ADB has maintained contact with other donors to exchange information on respective activities in Myanmar.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: PDF (253K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (general, thematic)
        The Asian Development Bank is returning to Burma/Myanmar and is preparing projects. This sub-section of OBL contains some links and documents to the Bank's policies and procedures, including enhanced transparancy, which may be useful to those concerned.

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Bank Information Center
        Description/subject: The Bank Information Center BIC is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks MDBs. BIC advocates for greater transparency, accountability and citizen participation at the MDBs.
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Civil Society Participation
        Description/subject: "ADB cooperates with civil society on three levels: on the policy level, on the country strategy level, and on the level of projects. Over two-thirds of ADB’s sovereign loans, grants, and related project preparatory technical assistance (PPTA) include elements of civil society participation. Generally ADB does not fund NGOs directly, but instead lends money to its client governments. Civil society organizations wishing to work with ADB should familiarize themselves with the country partnership strategy of the country where they are working and identify if there are contributions that the organization can make to ADB’s work. Participation on the policy level Civil society, among other key internal and external stakeholders, is actively consulted in the development and review of institution-wide ADB policies and strategies. ADB’s review and consultation process aims to identify and consider the views of CSOs and advocacy groups and to ensure that they have reasonable opportunity to be involved in formulating policy and strategy papers. Public Communication Policy (PCP) ADB seeks civil society views to improve information disclosure. One of the most significant changes to ADB operations under the PCP is providing information to facilitate greater engagement of affected people in the early stages of project planning and preparation. For example, documents are disclosed in draft form in advance of consultations..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Country Safeguard Systems
        Description/subject: Summary and links..."ADB helps developing member countries (DMCs) strengthen their safeguard systems and develop their capacity to address environmental and social issues in development projects. Country safeguard systems refer to the laws, regulations, rules, and procedures on the policy areas of environment, involuntary resettlement, and indigenous peoples safeguards, and their implementing institutions. Since the approval of the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) in 2009, ADB has been providing technical assistance to help strengthen the legal and institutional framework for effectively implementing safeguards..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Disclosure (ADB)
        Description/subject: "Transparency and accountability are essential to achieve ADB's vision of an Asia and the Pacific region free of poverty. They are the cornerstones of development effectiveness. ADB's new Public Communications Policy (PCP) 2011 strengthens the previous policy by expanding the scope and type of information ADB makes publicly available. It also allows for earlier disclosure of most Board documents, and offers a more effective framework for proactively disclosing information and responding to information requests on a timely basis. The revised policy is specially designed to keep developing member countries, development partners, civil society, people affected by ADB projects, academics, media, the private sector, and other key stakeholders increasingly abreast of ADB activities and to provide added platforms for seeking their views. This will create the kind of two-way information exchange crucial to building mutual understanding and trust that forms the foundation of solid partnerships and development effectiveness..." See video
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/site/disclosure/videos/17505
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


        Title: NGO Forum on ADB
        Description/subject: Not much specifically on Burma/Myanmar.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Public Consultation Process
        Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is committed to a participatory and transparent consultation process for the review of its accountability mechanism (AM) policy. ADB carried out intensive and extensive consultations from mid-2010 to late 2011.The consultation process involved a wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, nongovernment organizations, project-affected people, project beneficiaries, the private sector, development partners,and the public at large. The goal of the consultations was to give all interested stakeholders the opportunity to help improve the effectiveness of the AM and thereby improve ADB's development outcomes..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


        Title: Safeguards Overview
        Description/subject: "Environmental and social safeguards are a cornerstone of ADB's support to inclusive economic growth and environmental sustainable growth. ADB's safeguard policy aims to help developing member countries (DMCs) address environmental and social risks in development projects and minimize and mitigate, if not avoid, adverse project impacts on people and the environment. Approved by ADB’s Board of Directors in July 2009, the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) builds upon the three previous safeguard policies on the environment, involuntary resettlement, and indigenous peoples, and brings them into a consolidated policy framework that enhances effectiveness and relevance. The SPS applies to all ADB-supported projects reviewed by ADB’s management after 20 January 2010. ADB works with borrowers to put policy principles and requirements into practice through project review and supervision, and capacity development support. The SPS also provides a platform for participation by affected people and other stakeholders in project design and implementation."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Translation Framework
        Description/subject: "English is the working language of ADB. Nonetheless, ADB recognizes the need to communicate more widely and effectively by expanding the extent of information made available in languages other than English used in ADB's developing member countries. In March 2007, Management approved a translation framework. In accordance with ADB's commitment to increase shared information under the Public Communications Policy (PCP), the framework complements ADB's communications efforts with external stakeholders in line with its operational needs. Since the implementation of the framework, ADB has translated a wide variety of awareness-raising documents into the following developing member country languages: Armenian, Azeri, Bahasa Indonesia, Bangla, Chinese, Dari, Fijian, Filipino, French, Georgian, Hindi, Hindustani, Kazakh, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Lao, Marshallese, Mongolian, Nepali, Portuguese, Russian, Sinhala, Tajik,Tamil,Tetum, Thai, Tok Pisin,Tongan, Urdu, Uzbek , and Vietnamese..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: html (348K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Revised Public Communications Policy Expands and Speeds Up Access to Information (video)
        Date of publication: 02 April 2012
        Description/subject: To increase ADB's transparency and accountability, the Board has approved the revised Public Communications Policy, which will take effect on 2 April 2012. As a result of extensive stakeholder consultations, the PCP's key changes put ADB at the forefront of best practices on transparency.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


        Title: Understanding the Asian Development Bank's Safeguard Policy
        Date of publication: 2010
        Description/subject: What protections does the Bank's new Safeguard Policy provide for communities and the environment?...Policy navigation tool... Executive summary... 1. Introduction... 2. Overview of the new Policy: 2.1 General Policy requirements; 2.2 Environment safeguard requirements; 2.3 Involuntary resettlement safeguard requirements; 2.4 Indigenous Peoples safeguard requirements; 2.5 Special requirements for different finance modalities; 2.6 Country safeguard systems; 2.7 Prohibited investments; 2.8 Operations Manual... 3. Summary assessment of the new Policy: 3.1 Overview; 3.2 Environment; 3.3 Involuntary resettlement; 3.4 Indigenous Peoples; 3.5 Financing modalities; 3.6 Operations Manual... 4. Implications for civil society organisations: 4.1 Resistance to arbitrary interpretation; 4.2 Particular attention to different types of investment/financing modality; 4.3 Particular attention to application of country safeguard systems; 4.4 Monitoring of safeguards implementation in the ADB's response to the financial crisis; 4.5 Documenting poor policy implementation; 4.6 Utilisation of Accountability Mechanism... 5. Conclusion... Endnotes... Appendix 1: Overview of policy review process
        Author/creator: Jessica Rosien
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Oxfam Australia
        Format/size: pdf (1.75MB)
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Safeguard Policy Statement
        Date of publication: June 2009
        Description/subject: "The Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) builds upon the three previous safeguard policies on the environment, involuntary resettlement and indigenous peoples, and brings them into one single policy that enhances consistency and coherence, and more comprehensively addresses environmental and social impacts and risks. The SPS aims to promote sustainability of project outcomes by protecting the environment and people from projects' potential adverse impacts by avoiding adverse impacts of projects on the environment and affected people, where possible; minimizing, mitigating, and/or compensating for adverse project impacts on the environment and affected people when avoidance is not possible; and helping borrowers/clients to strengthen their safeguard systems and develop the capacity to manage environmental and social risks"
        Language: English (available also in 10 other lnguages - not Burmese)
        Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        Format/size: pdf (319K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/safeguard-policy-statement?ref=site/safeguards/main (Description and contents)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Safeguard-Policy-Statement-June2009.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


        Title: Conflict-sensitive approaches to development practice
        Date of publication: 25 October 2001
        Description/subject: Abstract: "This report, originally commissioned as a background paper by IDRC for a consultative meeting addressing conflict prevention and development practice, aims to provide a critical overview of the approaches to development being defined by donors, academic institutions, as well as NGOs and agencies charged with the delivery of effective aid and development programmes in conflict-prone and conflict-affected areas. Governmental and non-governmental actors alike increasingly recognise the need for conflict-sensitive approaches to development and humanitarian assistance and are consequently attempting to develop the theoretical underpinnings as well as the structural prerequisites for integrating conflict-sensitive perspectives into development assistance. The paper seeks to highlight the range of different approaches and to identify both their strengths and limitations. It concludes by proposing some of the important policy issues which need to be addressed if conflictsensitive development approaches are to have broader relevance and impact."
        Author/creator: Cynthia Gaigals, Manuela Leonhardt
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Internqtional Alert, Saferworld, International Development Research Centre
        Format/size: pdf (415K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


      • International Monetary Fund

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: IMF Myanmar Page
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: IMF: May monitor Myanmar's economic progress under fund program
        Date of publication: 21 November 2012
        Description/subject: Washington - "The International Monetary Fund is near a deal with the Myanmar government for a program to monitor the country's economic plans as it struggles to reverse its place as one of the poorest countries in Asia. After decades of military rule and one of the worst human rights records in the world, the country of 48 million people is striving to remake itself as a democratic and open-market economy. To award and encourage the government in capital Naypyidaw, the country's largest international creditors are negotiating debt relief while Myanmar lawmakers build new political and economic institutions. The IMF said Wednesday that it had reached an understanding that could form the basis of a possible staff-monitored program during January-December 2013. There would be no financial assistance involved in the program..."
        Author/creator: Ian Talley
        Language: Engish
        Source/publisher: "The Wall Street Journal"
        Format/size: pdf (54K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


        Title: Statement at the Conclusion of an IMF Staff Mission to Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 November 2012
        Description/subject: "...“The government has made rapid strides over the last two years. The exchange rate regime has been changed from a peg to a managed float. The financial sector is being gradually modernized, starting with partial deposit rate liberalization and the relaxing of some restrictions on private banks. This year’s fiscal budget was debated in Parliament for the first time, yielding increased spending in critical areas such as health, education, and infrastructure. Laws to support the development goals of the government have been passed, including on land reforms, microfinance, and foreign investment. Discussions on clearing Myanmar’s external arrears are also progressing. “These reforms are already bearing fruit. Growth is expected to accelerate to around 6¼ percent in FY2012/13, bolstered by foreign investment in natural resources and exports of commodities. Inflation has declined rapidly and should remain moderate at around 6 percent next year. Meanwhile, the exchange rate has been stable in recent months, with international reserves increasing to US$4 billion. “Nevertheless, the government recognizes there is still a long way to go. Myanmar remains one of the poorest countries in Asia, with economic development stymied by many distortions..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Press Release No. 12/453
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


        Title: Statement by the Hon. WIN SHEIN , Governor of the Fund and the Bank for MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 12 October 2012
        Description/subject: "...Let me briefly reflect upon the recent macroeconomic situation of Myanmar and outline the Government’s programs and policies for economic reform going forward. Nowadays, Myanmar has embarked on democratic path in building a new nation through peaceful transition, while Myanmar has been endeavoring for the development of the country. The government, after assuming office in March 2011, has been implementing the reform measures in all aspects. As the first step of its reform strategy, the government prioritized political reform and national reconciliation process, which resulted prominent achievements, winning the stronger trust of the international community. In this process, we have maintained political stability, which is essential for macroeconomic and financial stability, and for sustained economic growth..."
        Author/creator: Hon. WIN SHEIN
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Governor’s Statement No. 22
        Format/size: pdf (81K-OBL version; 499K-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/am/2012/speeches/pr22e.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


        Title: MYANMAR: STAFF REPORT FOR THE 2011 ARTICLE IV CONSULTATION
        Date of publication: 02 March 2012
        Description/subject: KEY ISSUES: Context: Political reconciliation is gaining traction. The main opposition party, National League for Democracy will contest the April by-elections; many political prisoners have been freed; and several ceasefire agreements with ethnic minorities have been signed. The economic reform momentum is strong. Growth and inflation are expected to accelerate modestly... Focus of the consultation: Consistent with past advice, the authorities are moving forward with reforms of the exchange rate system. Discussions centered on improving macroeconomic management to underpin these reforms, and on policies to foster broad-based economic growth... Key policy issues and recommendations: Priorities are establishing the market infrastructure for the planned move to a managed float, and monetary and foreign exchange policy capacity to complement plans to unify the exchange rates. Financial sector modernization remains essential to support the reform process and improve financial intermediation. Fiscal policy priorities include ending deficit monetization, reprioritizing spending, and increasing nonresource revenues for development spending within a medium-term fiscal framework. Structural reforms should aim to increase agricultural productivity, and foster private sector development... Exchange rate arrangement: Myanmar continues to avail itself of transitional arrangements under Article XIV, although it has eliminated all Article XIV restrictions. Myanmar maintains exchange restrictions and multiple currency practices subject to Fund approval under Article VIII. The exchange rate regime is classified as other managed arrangement.
        Language: EnglIsh
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        Format/size: pdf (545K-OBL version; 1MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12104.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


        Title: Statement at the Conclusion of the 2011 Article IV Mission to Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 January 2012
        Description/subject: "An International Monetary Fund (IMF) mission led by Ms. Meral Karasulu visited Nay Pyi Taw and Yangon during January 9–25, 2012 for the 2011 Article IV Consultation. The team met with the authorities and other key counterparts to discuss recent economic developments and the outlook for Myanmar. At the conclusion of the mission, Ms. Karasulu issued the following statement today in Nay Pyi Taw: ...“The new government is facing a historic opportunity to jump-start the development process and lift living standards. Myanmar has a high growth potential and could become the next economic frontier in Asia, if it can turn its rich natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to some of the most dynamic economies in the world, into its advantage. “Delivering on these expectations with inclusive and sustainable growth should start with establishing macroeconomic stability. This process has already begun with plans underway to unify the exchange rate and lift exchange restrictions on current international payments and transfers. As this essential process continues, channeling the reform momentum to improving monetary and fiscal management and to structural reforms would allow taking full advantage of the positive effects of exchange rate unification..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: IMF via "The New Light of Myanmar"
        Format/size: pdf (52K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/IMF_statement-NLM2012-01-25.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


        Title: Myanmar: IMF Credit Outstanding as of July 31, 2010
        Date of publication: 31 July 2010
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/np/fin/tad/exportal.aspx?memberKey1=688&date1key=2010-07-31&cat...
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


        Title: Efficiency Costs of Myanmar’s Multiple Exchange Rate Regime
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: Myanmar’s multiple exchange rate system creates various economic distortions. This paper describes the exchange rate practices in Myanmar, develops a model of foreign exchange markets, and presents the efficiency costs imposed by quasi-fiscal operation under the current exchange rate regime. The results of our model-based analyses indicate that the equilibrium exchange rate under the unified market could be at around K 400–500 per U.S. dollar, and using the equilibrium exchange rate (instead of the official exchange rate) as the accounting rate increases trade openness to more than 20 percent from less than 1 percent measured by official statistics. The total efficiency loss caused by the current multiple exchange rate regime is estimated at about 14–17 percent of GDP in 2006/07... JEL Classification Numbers: F31, H29... Keywords: Multiple Exchange Rate, Exchange Rate Unification, Efficiency Analysis
        Author/creator: Masahiro Hori and Yu Ching Wong
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: IMF Working Paper WP/08/199
        Format/size: pdf (295K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 January 2009


        Title: Myanmar—Staff Report for the 2007 Article IV Consultation— Informational Annex
        Date of publication: 05 November 2007
        Description/subject: The attached informational annex is being issued as a supplement to the staff report for the 2007 Article IV consultation with Myanmar (SM/07/347, 11/5/07) which is tentatively scheduled for discussion on Wednesday, November 28, 2007. At the time of circulation of this paper to the Board, the Secretary’s Department has not received a communication from the authorities of Myanmar indicating whether or not they consent to the Fund’s publication of this paper; such communication may be received after the authorities have had an opportunity to read the paper.
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
        Format/size: pdf (47K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


        Title: Myanmar—Staff Report for the 2007 Article IV Consultation—Debt Sustainability Analysis
        Date of publication: 05 November 2007
        Description/subject: The attached debt sustainability analysis is being issued as a supplement to the staff report for the 2007 Article IV consultation with Myanmar (SM/07/347, 11/5/07), which is tentatively scheduled for discussion on Wednesday, November 28, 2007. At the time of circulation of this paper to the Board, the Secretary’s Department has not received a communication from the authorities of Myanmar indicating whether or not they consent to the Fund’s publication of this paper; such communication may be received after the authorities have had an opportunity to read the paper.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
        Format/size: pdf (66K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


        Title: International Monetary Fund - World Economic Outlook Database October 2007 -- Myanmar
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
        Format/size: pdf (26K), Excel (21K )
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/weoreptc(1).xls
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


        Title: Bullet points from IMF Article IV mission briefing, Sept 4 2007
        Date of publication: 04 September 2007
        Description/subject: "...In general the cooperation from the technical counterpoints was very good, even better than last year. • Continuing concerns about Govt capacity. Counterparts are suffering from lack of opportunity to interact with outside world, seen both in technical skills & morale. IMF will try to increase engagement at the technical level. • Macroeconomic picture is hard to judge given questions about Govt numbers. The economy is definitely growing, but only about 5%, not the 13% range as claimed..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
        Format/size: pdf (31K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


        Title: Myanmar: Statistical Appendix
        Date of publication: 27 January 2001
        Description/subject: Full text
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        Format/size: PDF (789K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Myanmar: Recent Economic Developments
        Date of publication: 10 December 1999
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        Format/size: PDF (3.20 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.cfm?sk=3335.0
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


      • The World Bank and Its Watchers

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: World Bank Reports and Documents on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 26 December 2013
        Description/subject: Results of browsing Documents > Myanmar (10 documents, Dec 2001. 130 documents, September 2012), 218 (December 2013)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Bank Information Center
        Description/subject: The Bank Information Center BIC is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks MDBs. BIC advocates for greater transparency, accountability and citizen participation at the MDBs.
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: World Bank Myanmar page
        Description/subject: "The World Bank has begun the process of re-engaging with the Government to support reforms that will benefit all of the people of Myanmar, including the poor and vulnerable. Comparable country data for Myanmar can't be provided at this time..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 10 January 2010


        Title: World Bank Research on Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


        Title: World Bank Search for Myanmar
        Description/subject: Results of a search for Myanmar on the World Bank site
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bangk
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.worldbank.org
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: MYANMAR: CAPITALIZING ON RICE EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES
        Date of publication: 28 February 2014
        Description/subject: Conclusions: "Myanmar has new global and regional rice market opportunities. Should they be captured, higher rice exports could eventually stimulate agricultural growth, which in turn could reduce poverty and boost shared prosperity. Better export opportunities and more stable prices, to which a more efficient export system could contribute, would trigger an increase of rice sector productivity and eventually overall agricultural productivity, given the large share of rice in Myanmar’s planted area, production, trade, and consumption. Higher agricultural productivity would also help the landless, who often work as seasonal farm workers. With more and better quality paddy, the milling industry would accelerate its modernization, creating non-farm jobs and stimulating economic growth. Net buyers of rice in rural and urban areas would benefit from a larger variety and improved quality of rice, potentially at lower prices. 109. Yet several big challenges lie ahead. Strong competition from other exporters and constantly rising demands for the safety and quality of rice on world markets puts pressure on Myanmar’s rice sector. While field yields are only half of those realized by other exporters, significantly expanding the current exportable surplus will take time and can only be realized if rice farming profitability is considerably increased. With reduced carryover stocks, rice exports in 2013/14 are currently trailing the same period in 2012/13, illustrating the importance of addressing structural weaknesses along the value chain if Myanmar is to become a reliable rice exporter. A significant increase in exports also necessitates that Myanmar diversify both its overseas markets and the quality of its rice exports. 110. Taken as a whole, the policy recommendations will go a long way towards improving the prospects for more profitable rice farming. Policymakers need to understand that the rice milling sector and exporters also need a conducive policy environment without an anti-export bias to ensure that their performance is upgraded to become internationally competitive. While public spending programs take time to materialize, policies can have an immediate effect. A small change of policy or even its clear communication and implementation can have a lasting positive impact without any cost to stretched national or local budgets. With this in mind, policies should be considered the most effective vehicle for attracting private investment in the rice value chain in the short run and should be utilized strategically. 111. With more consistent enabling economic policies, alignment of public investment with the strategic objective of export promotion is the key to the long-term prospects for rice exports. The focus should change from producing and selling more low-quality rice to producing and selling increased quantities of different qualities of rice and doing so more efficiently. This strategy would allow Myanmar’s rice value chain participants to earn higher incomes, capture the growing market of higher value rice, and diversify risks in different markets..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: pdf (938K-reduced version; 1.6MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://lift-fund.org/Publications/Myanmar_Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs18/WB-Myanmar-Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities-en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 02 July 2014


        Title: Project Information Document (Appraisal Stage) - MM: Telecommunications Sector Reform - P145534 (English)
        Date of publication: 06 December 2013
        Author/creator: Norbhu,Tenzin Dolma;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html, pdf (28K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/SDN/2013/12/09/090224b0821127d6...
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


        Title: Myanmar Economic Monitor
        Date of publication: October 2013
        Description/subject: Overview  The economy grew at 6.5 percent in 2012/13. The main drivers of growth were increased gas production, services, construction, foreign direct investment, and strong commodity exports. Inflation has been on the rise in recent months, reaching 7.3 percent in August 2013...  The budget deficit declined to 3.7 percent of GDP in 2012/13, from 4.6 percent in 2011/12. The 2013/14 budget provides for increased spending on social sectors, although the defense budget remains high...  The nominal exchange rate has been depreciating since the turn of the year, reaching K975 to one US dollar in July 2013 with some reversal of this trend between August and September. The current account deficit increased to 4.4 percent of GDP in 2012/13, up from 2.4 percent in 2011/12, due to import liberalization and lifting of some exchange restrictions...  Gross international reserves reached US$4.6 billion at the end of 2012/13, equivalent to 3.7 months of imports, up from US$4.0 billion in 2011/12...  The outlook is positive, with the economy projected to grow at 6.8 percent in 2013/14 and rising further to 6.9 percent in the medium-term. This will be on account of a continued increase in gas production, increased trade, and stronger performance in agriculture...  Risks to the outlook include the challenge of maintaining the reform momentum. Externally, a slowdown in Chinese domestic investment and a decline in global commodity prices would hurt commodity exporting countries such as Myanmar...  The Policy Watch section presents a number of planned or recently implemented policy reforms which reflect the country’s continuing drive to improve the business environment...  A Special Feature Article presents a summary of findings from a recent assessment of Myanmar’s Public Financial Management (PFM).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: pdf (838K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


        Title: Burma groups detect flaws in World Bank's re-engagement move
        Date of publication: 07 September 2012
        Description/subject: "After pressure from civil society in Burma, the World Bank released a draft summary of its Interim Strategy Note (ISN) last month, an outline of its re-engagement plans with Burma over the next 18 months. The move comes after local and international NGOs claimed that the Bank had not adequately engaged in consultation with civil society. The draft ISN is meant to inform the consultation process, and the final ISN is due to be released by the Bank in the end of October..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bank Information Center (IF-Eye Issue #54):
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


        Title: Burma: World Bank Grant Could ‘Exacerbate’ Problems In Border Regions
        Date of publication: 10 August 2012
        Description/subject: "Civil society groups have urged the World Bank to exercise caution before pressing ahead with their plans to pump $85 million into community projects in Burma’s conflict-torn border regions or risk “exacerbating” local problems. Campaigners have criticised the Bank for claiming that locals will be able to “decide whether to invest in schools, roads, water or other projects” without disclosing details of their consultation plans, transparency provisions and whether they have conducted a conflict-assessment. “Burma’s ethnic conflicts are complex and the ongoing ceasefire negotiations are fragile, so if the World Bank is looking into providing assistance they need to publish this information,” said Khin Ohmar from Burma Partnership. “That kind of money can easily exacerbate problems or even create more different types of conflicts within the communities..."
        Author/creator: Hanna Hindstrom
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


        Title: World Bank Prepares Interim Strategy Note for Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 August 2012
        Description/subject: "...In describing the country context in which the Bank’s re-engagement with Myanmar is taking place, the ISN reviews the significant and far-reaching changes that have taken place in Myanmar over the past 18 months, including the political and civil reforms (the release of political prisoners, the progress in ceasefire negotiations with non-state armed groups, the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the re-entry of her National League for Democracy Party into the country’s political system) as well as the important economic reforms have been undertaken, including floating of the currency, legalization of trade unions, tax reform and forthcoming legislation on foreign investment and banking reform, while acknowledging remaining challenges in each of these areas. The ISN describes Myanmar as embarking on a triple transition: from an authoritarian military system to democratic governance; from a centrally-directed economy to market-oriented reforms; and from 60 years of conflict to peace in the border areas. These transitions offer hope to the people of Myanmar for better, safer and more productive lives, but also pose the risk that setbacks in one of the transitions will affect the others. The proposed program of the World Bank Group (WBG) will thus focus on activities that can support the success of these three transitions and prepare the way for the resumption of a full country program..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


        Title: Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President
        Date of publication: 26 April 2012
        Description/subject: " Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President Available in: Español, 日本語 WASHINGTON, April 26, 2012 - The World Bank today released the following statement from World Bank Vice President for East Asia, Pamela Cox, on the Bank's steps toward re-engagement with the Government of Myanmar: “I want to update you on where the World Bank Group stands in relation to Myanmar. We are working closely with our Board and shareholders on our plans moving forward. As you’re aware, we have re-engaged with the government in Myanmar, with the aim of supporting reforms that will benefit all the people of Myanmar, especially the poor and vulnerable. In early June, we will be opening an office in Myanmar, which will be led by a new country manager. Also in June, I’ll be travelling to Myanmar to gain a firsthand assessment of the situation. The vice presidents of our private sector arm, IFC and our insurance arm, MIGA, will join me on that visit..."
        Language: English (Spanish also available)
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: html, pdf (91K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/WB_Myanmar_Statement2012-04-26.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2012


        Title: Multilaterals Warned Not to Go Too Far, Too Fast in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 18 April 2012
        Description/subject: "WASHINGTON, Apr 18, 2012 (IPS) - As multilateral lending agencies prepare to seriously re- engage with Myanmar for the first time in decades, observers at the spring meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are warning that a poor understanding of ground conditions in the country could jeopardise many of the early opportunities created by government-initiated reforms. While international economic sanctions, particularly those put in place by the United States and European Union, have significantly limited the ability of multilateral agencies to operate in Myanmar, recent weeks have seen several governments move to ease these measures. This week the U.S. announced a second round of loosening, while officials in both Australia and the EU are currently engaged in similar discussions..."
        Author/creator: Carey L. Biron
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Inter-Press Service (IPS)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 May 2012


        Title: Human Rights Watch Letter to World Bank President Zoellick on Burma
        Date of publication: 08 February 2012
        Description/subject: World Bank: Emphasize Civic Participation in Burma; Encourage Transparency, Accountability in Exploring Reengagement
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (203K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Download%20Human%20Rights%20Watch%20letter%...
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


        Title: Free trade area membership as a stepping stone to development: the case of ASEAN
        Date of publication: 28 February 2001
        Description/subject: World Bank Discussion Paper. "This study investigates the economic impacts of accession to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) by the new member countries of Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The trade policies of these countries are examined, and a series of quantitative analyses were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of accession. The results showed that the static impacts of reducing tariffs against ASEAN members are beneficial, although the magnitude of the net gains is diminished by the trade diversion resulting from the discriminatory nature of the reforms. The binding commitments on protection rates under the AFTA plan provide an important initial step to more broader and more beneficial trade reforms. The study focuses on some of the key country-specific policy challenges associated with trade liberalization--such as declining tariff revenues in Cambodia, and the negative impacts on sensitive domestic industries in Vietnam. The study recommends that accession to AFTA be viewed as an important transitional step in the broader process of trade reform and institutional development needed for successful development and poverty alleviation. Keywords: Free trade areas; Trade policy; Tariff reductions; Trade liberalization; Comparative advantage.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Text (586K), PDF (11979K), Page.
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/03/30//000094946_01032007262136/...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000094946_01032007262136
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Power trade strategy for the Greater Mekong Sub-region
        Date of publication: 31 March 1999
        Description/subject: Sector Report. "The main objectives of the study are to: a) assess options and formulate a strategy for power trade among the Greater Mekong countries, paying special attention to the barriers to trade and the policy, institutional and commercial framework required to develop and operate efficiently a regional power network; and b) establish the rationale and options for donors ' support to power trading and transmission network investment needs within the region. Although power trade among the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) countries is beginning to grow, there are important barriers that could prevent its development: 1) policy barriers, 2) technical barriers, 3) institutional barriers, and 4) commercial and financial barriers. The strategy proposed in the study addresses the following overarching issues: 1) Regional electricity trade should be second to national and local needs. 2) Conditions must be established for a public-private partnership to develop power trade in the region. 3) Conflicts must be resolved between short- and long-term objectives, between national and regional views, and eventually, between specific projects. 4) There must be a common path of fundamental economic practices to allow open access to transmission. 5) Financial and technical assistance must be secured. 6) There must be a regional agreement on policy issues and an institutional framework to address market uncertainties and potential conflicts, and to promote regional trade. Keywords: Electricity trade; Regional trade; Electric networks; Transmission; Mekong river; Trade barriers; Private-public partnerships; Technical assistance; Institutional framework; Trade policy; Greenhouse gas emissions; Sectoral reforms; Government policy; Power sector reform; Wholesale trade; Open access; Tariffs; Risks; Taxes; Royalties; Financial instruments; Thermal power; Watershed management
        Language: Text (261K), PDF (6529K), Page
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/12/11/000094946_99041505302543/R...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000094946_99041505302543
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Counting the full cost : parental and community financing of education in East Asia
        Date of publication: 30 November 1996
        Description/subject: Publication. "This study highlights the need for much more detailed attention to the cost of schooling incurred by parents and communities. In some societies these costs are greater than even the costs to governments. Quite apart from overt forms of privatization, the growth of household resourcing of public education has been a hidden form of privatization of enormous influence. This study presents empirical findings, and primarily focuses on nine East Asian countries -Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People ' s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam -although clear parallels can be drawn with experiences in some other parts of the world. While patterns are far from uniform, one striking feature from this study is that costs to households have increased in long-standing capitalist countries as well as in former socialist countries. The scale of the increase varies widely, but it is significant that in these countries there is an increase at all. The study concludes that governments seeking to achieve universal primary education and expanded enrollments in secondary education must consider the costs and benefits at the household level. Their resulting policies must focus not only on supply but also on demand for education. Included in demand will be complex considerations of the quality and the price of education. When assessing the cost side of the equation, policy analysts must count the full cost -not only to governments, but also to parents and communities- and not only the monetary costs of donated labor, materials, and land." Keywords: Educational financing; Human capital; Cost of education; Resources mobilization; Resources utilization; Parent-child relationships; School-community relationships; Public education; Denationalization; Human rights; Private schools; Private education; Household budgets; Enrolment ratio
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Page, Text (223K), PDF (5289K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Irrigation O & M and system performance in Southeast Asia: an OED impact study
        Date of publication: 27 June 1996
        Description/subject: Operations Evaluation Study. "This report discusses six gravity irrigation schemes supported by the World Bank in the paddy lands of Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Its main objective is to assess: (i) the agro-economic impacts of these schemes at least five years after completion of the investment operations, and (ii) the influence of operation and maintenance (O & M) performance on the sustainability of those impacts. The finding that dominates the study has little to do with O & M. Offering poor economics and low incomes, these paddy irrigation schemes face an uncertain future. Improved O & M performance will not rescue them. In fact, the study finds that this causality is being reversed. As the uncompetitiveness of paddy farming drives the younger members off farms and the older members to stay behind and concentrate on basic subsistence crops, social capital will erode and O & M standards are likely to suffer. Based on the study of the six schemes, several recommendations have been made and grouped into the following general categories, then expanded on: (1) to sharpen the response to O & M failures; (2) to simplify the technology of infrastructure and operations; (3) to promote the transfer of management to farmers and their Water User Groups; and (4) to improve household earnings." Keywords: Gravity irrigation; Paddyland; Competitiveness; Agricultural productivity; Household income; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming; Farm management; Rural infrastructure; Agro-economic impacts; Operation & maintenance; Water user groups
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Page, Text (609K), PDF (12415K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Re...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Re...
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Myanmar-- Policies for Sustaining Economic Reform
        Date of publication: 16 October 1995
        Description/subject: Important report, which criticises the SLORC's economic and social policies, including paddy procurement policies."A significant program of economic reforms has been instituted in Myanmar since the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) assumed power in late-1988. This shift in economic policies followed almost a quarter century of economic decline during which the prevalent development paradigm was termed " the Burmese way of socialism " . Under that model, economic development was to be achieved through rapid industrialization and self sufficiency, and led by the State Enterprise (SE) sector. Economic performance under that policy regime was poor. During 1962-77, real GDP growth barely kept up with population expansion and, as a result, living standards stagnated. Investment levels remained low, agricultural output grew slowly, and the economy grew more inward looking. The initial attempts at economic reform in the mid-1970s succeeded at first but could not be sustained due to macroeconomic and structural factors, which were reflected in widening budget and current account deficits, rising inflation, and stagnant agricultural output and exports. Faced with these serious external and internal imbalances in the early-1980s the Government's stabilization attempts relied on tightening import controls, cutting public investment, and demonetization but were ineffective in reversing the economic decline. Following the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the SLORC assumed power and announced that many key aspects of the earlier model would be abandoned in its economic reform program. With over seven years having elapsed since those reforms were initiated, it is an opportune time to take stock. Specifically, this report examines the impacts of the policy changes, with a view to identifying the areas in which progress has been made, as well as the gaps that still remain in the program. This analysis would then underpin the report's recommendations concernng areas in which additional reforms are required and how these measures should be phased. Keywords: Economic growth; Economic reform; Economic stabilization; Government role; Policy making
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Text (456K)or PDF (8416K) Page.
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/10/16/000009265_3961019103423/Re...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000009265_3961019103423
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma and the CGIAR centers: a study of their collaboration in agricultural research
        Date of publication: 30 November 1986
        Description/subject: CGIAR Study Paper "This report on the collaboration between international agricultural research centers (IARCs) and the agricultural research system of Burma was undertaken at the request of the CGIAR impact study and includes several objectives. They entail providing (1) a picture of the collaboration between CGIAR-supported IARCs and Burma; (2) an assessment of how international inputs have contributed to national research capacity; and (3) an evaluation of the relevance and impact of the centers ' training programs. Further to this, the report involves (4) a summary of the impact on food production; and (5) a discussion of the way in which selected technologies originating in the centers have been transmitted through national programs to farmers. By cooperating with various IARCs, Burma ' s agricultural research departments and other agencies under the Agriculture Corporation have greatly increased yields of rice, maize, sorghum, wheat, cotton, jute, sugarcane and food legumes in Burma. In addition, Burma has received genetic materials, training fellowships and opportunities to establish contacts with research workers and scientists in other countries to permit the continuous exchange of ideas." Keywords: International agricultural research coordination; Food production; Agricultural inputs; Food crops; Research centers; Training programs
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Text (164K), PDF (4315K), Page.
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/01/24/000178830_98101901560884/R...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000178830_98101901560884
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma - Issues and options in the energy sector
        Date of publication: 30 June 1985
        Description/subject: Sector Report. Burma' s energy resources are large and varied. While the Government has done a commendable job of developing these resources largely on its own, their development has nevertheless been comparatively slow. While this may have constrained economic growth to date, it also provides a ready basis for an acceleration in future economic growth and increased exports. This report analyzes the technical, financial and institutional requirements for realizing that potential through the turn of the century in the context of two scenarios - a Planned Growth scenario which reflects the official growth targets, and an Economic Growth scenario under which public finance and balance of payments constraints result in somewhat slower economic growth. Under either scenario a major investment program and infusion of current technology will be needed. The report recommends considerable technical assistance and studies to help effect this transfer of technology. To help finance these requirements, it will be necessary to improve the financial footing of the public corporations in the sector; this would entail price increases for many energy products. There is also a need to strengthen energy planning and inter-ministerial coordination on energy matters. Keywords: Hydroelectric power; Petroleum; Natural gas; Coal; Fuelwood; Biomass energy; Petroleum exports; Technical assistance; Technology transfer; Deforestation; Offshore gas fields; Energy planning
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: World Bank
        Format/size: Page, Text (432K), PDF (8531K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Re...
        http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Re...
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: UNCTAD
        Format/size: Try your luck with the search engine. Search for Myanmar
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Country fact sheet: Myanmar 2004
        Date of publication: 22 September 2004
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNCTAD -- World Investment Report 2004
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


        Title: FDI PROFILE: MYANMAR -- WID Country Profiles
        Date of publication: 04 September 2004
        Description/subject: Statistics on FDI and the operations of TNCs
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNCTAD - World Investment Directory
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


        Title: THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES REPORT 2004 - STATISTICAL ANNEX
        Date of publication: 24 May 2004
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD/LDC/2004)
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


        Title: FDI in brief: Myanmar
        Date of publication: 09 March 2004
        Description/subject: The 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis affected FDI flows to Myanmar...FDI flows to Myanmar continued to decline since 1998, primarily because of the impact of the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis (figure 1). FDI stock in Myanmar increased from $56 million in 1990 to $4.2 billion in 2002 (figure 2). Most FDI to Myanmar were from the developed countries in 1995-2001 (figure 3). Among the developing economies, ASEAN countries and the Asian newly industrialized economies were the largest investors. FDI from the United Kingdom and the United States were significant among the developed countries (table 1), and were dominated by oil and gas activities (table 2). More than 50 per cent of FDI in Myanmar in 1999-2001 were in the primary sector (figure 4), which were dominated by investment in oil and gas. FDI in tourism and real estate sector were also significant. FDI flows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation since 1997 has been declining (figure 5), while inward FDI stock as a percentage of gross domestic product has been increasing steadily since 1992, except for a blip in 2002 (figure 6).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


        Title: FDI Policies for Development: Myanmar, Country fact sheet
        Date of publication: 04 September 2003
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNCTAD: World Investment Report 2003
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


        Title: FDI in Least Developed Countries at a Glance: 2002
        Date of publication: 03 March 2003
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNCTAD
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


      • UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific )

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Asia-Pacific in Figures
        Description/subject: Click on Myanmar and check relevant boxes to generate a set of statistics for Myanmar.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2004


        Title: UNESCAP Statistics Division
        Description/subject: This page leads, by browsing and searching, to a number of documents on Burma/Myanmar statistics
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 August 2004


        Individual Documents

        Title: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2011
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar statistics etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf (10.5MB - full text).
        Date of entry/update: 11 May 2011


        Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 October 2005
        Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize.
        Author/creator: UNESCAP
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf (22 KB)
        Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


        Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 July 2005
        Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize. Thus, the Myanmar stats for the third quarter of 2004 were posted in the ESCAP report for June, 2005
        Author/creator: UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf (16 kb)
        Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


        Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 April 2005
        Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize.
        Author/creator: UNESCAP
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf (16 kb)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/myanmar_mar05.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


        Title: Statistical Indicators for Asia and the Pacific (Myanmar) July 2004
        Date of publication: 27 July 2004
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/pdf/index.asp
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


        Title: Statistical Indicators for Asia and the Pacific (Myanmar) May 2004
        Date of publication: 06 May 2004
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/pdf/index.asp
        Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


        Title: DEVELOPMENT OF ENABLING POLICIES FOR TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE IT SECTOR OF THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION - CHAPTER 5: MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: Chapter 5: Myanmar: 5. 1 Introduction: The Background; 5. 2 Policies Governing the Production and use of IT; The Computer Science Law (1996); The Draft IT Master Plan; 5. 3 Present state IT Use and Production; ICT use: Selected old Technology Indicators; Use of New Technology: Telecommunication; Mobile Telephone; Computers and Internet; Present state of IT Production; Human Resource Development in IT; 5. 4 Investment in IT: Policies, Performance and Challenges Investment Policies; Trend in Foreign Direct Investment; Role of FDI in Myanmar Economy; Working with Constraints: Promoting Investment in the IT Sector; 5. 5 Trade in IT: Policy, Performance and Challenges; Trends in the External Sector; Trade Policy: Present Scene; Structure and Direction of Trade; Promoting Trade: the Role of IT; Implications of e-ASEAN and ITA; 5. 6 Concluding Observations and Reflections on Policy Options; Tables; References .
        Author/creator: K J Joseph
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNESCAP
        Format/size: pdf (589K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/tid/projects/gms.asp
        Date of entry/update: 10 April 2004


        Title: Results of a Google search for Myanmar on the ESCAP site
        Description/subject: Many articles and notices of meetings
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UN ESCAP
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014


    • Burmese Economists on the Burmese Economy

      • National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar (NWR), Naypyitaw, 19–21 August, 2011
        These are papers we believe were presented at the Workshop, though not all of them refer to the NWR. We have dated them all 21 August 2011, the last day of the NWR, though some of them may have been written earlier. Some items are sourced to the Workshop, and some to a ministry or other institution, where known.

        Individual Documents

        Title: 2015 AEC: Opportunities and Challenges, August 19-21, 2011
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: 1. AEC သမိုငး္ ေနာက္ခံႏွင့္ အက်ဥ္း 2. အခြင့္အလမ္းႏွင့္ အားသာခ်က္မ်ား 3. စိန္ေခၚမႈႏွင့္ ကြာဟခ်က္မ်ား 4. လမ္းျပေျမပုံ-၂ ႏွင့္ အၾကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား... ေအအီးစီ ၂၀၁၅ - နိဒါန္း... - ေအအီးစီ = အီးယူ ၿပီးလ်ွင္ အႀကီးမားဆံုး စီးပြားေရး ေပါင္းစည္းမႈဆိုင္ရာ အားထုတ္ခ်က္ - ၂၀၁၄ အာဆီယံ ဥကၠဌမွသည္ ၂၀၁၅ သို႔ - ၂၀၁၅ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ အသြင္ကးူ ေျပာင္းမႈ ဒုတိယသက္တန္း - ၂၀၁၅ ရာစုႏွစ္ ဖြံ ့ၿဖိဳးမႈ ဦးတည္ခ်က္ မ်ားျပည့္မွီေရး Millennium Development Goals - လမ္းျပေျမပံု - ၂ - ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးမႈမွသည္ညီၫြတ္မႈသို႔
        Author/creator: U Zaw Oo ဦးေဇာ္ဦး
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Zaw Oo: Chiang Mai University
        Format/size: pdf (247K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: A Study on Myanmar's Fiscal Performance/ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ ရ-သုံးေငြစာရင္းကုိ ေလ့လာျခင္း
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရးဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္မႈ အတြက္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးဆုိင္ရာ အမ်ဳိးသားအဆင့္ အလုပ္႐ုံ ေဆြးေႏြးပဲြ... ျမန္မာအျပည္ျပည္ဆုိင္ရာ ကြန္ဗင္းရွင္း ဗဟုိဌာန (MICC) ေနျပည္ေတာ္၊ ၂ဝ၁၁ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ (၁၉-၂၁)ရက္... ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ ရ-သုံးေငြစာရင္းကုိ ေလ့လာျခင္း (A Study on Myanmar’s Fiscal Performance)
        Author/creator: U San Thein (ျပဳစုတင္ျပသူ – ဦးစံသိန္း)
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, Central Statistical Organization.
        Format/size: pdf (101K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: Banking Development in Myanmar / ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ ဘဏ္လုပ္ငန္း က႑တိုးတက္ျဖစ္ေပၚမႈ
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ဘ႑ာေရးႏွင့္ အခြန္၀န္ႀကီးဌာန... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ ဗဟိုဘဏ္... ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ ဘဏ္လုပ္ငန္း က႑တိုးတက္ျဖစ္ေပၚမႈ ... ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားစြမ္းေဆာင္မႈအရည္ေအေသြးျမင့္မားရန္၊... ပုဂၢလိကစီးပြားေရးက႑က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႔ျပန္႔တိုးတက္ေစရန္၊... ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ေဒသအသီးသီးဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေစရန္၊ ... ဘဏ္လုပ္ငန္းသည္စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအတြက္အဓိကေမာင္းႏွင္အား... ဘဏ္သမိုင္း ... ေစ်းကြက္စီးပြားေရးစနစ္အတြက္ဘဏ္မ်ားတည္ေထာင္ျခင္း... ေစ်းကြက္စီးပြားေရးစနစ္အတြက္ဘဏ္ဥပေဒမ်ားျပဌာန္းျခင္း ... ေစ်းကြက္စီးပြားေရးစနစ္အတြက္ဘဏ္မ်ားတည္ေထာင္ျခင္း ... အပ္ေငြလုပ္ငန္း ... ေခ်းေငြလုပ္ငန္း ... ေခ်းေငြအမ်ိဳးအစားမ်ား ... ေငြေခ်းသည့္နည္းလမ္းမ်ား ... အာမခံအမ်ိဳးအစားမ်ား ... ဘဏ္ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ... ဘဏ္မ်ားကိုႄကီးႄကပ္ျခင္း ... ဘဏ္မ်ားတည္ျငိမ္မရွိေအာင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ျခင္း ... ဘဏ္မ်ားကိုအကဲျဖတ္ျခင္း ... ဘဏ္၏ဆံုးရႈံုးႏိုင္ေျခ စီမံခန္႔ခြဲျခင္း... ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ဘဏ္ႏွင့္ ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္ မ်ား၏ အပ္ေငြမ်ားအား ႏွိုင္းယွဥ္မွုအေျခအေန ... ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ဘဏ္ႏွင့္ ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္ မ်ား၏ ေခ်းေငြမ်ားအား ႏွိုင္းယွဥ္မွုအေျခအေန ... ၃၁•၃•၂ဝ၁၁ ရက္ေန့႐ိွ ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ဘဏ္ႏွင့္ ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား၏ လုပ္ငန္း အမ်ိဳးအစား အလိုက္ေခ်းေငြ ထုတ္ေခ်းထားမွဳ အေျချပဂရပ္ ... ၃၁•၃•၂ဝ၁၁ ရက္ေန့႐ိွ ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ဘဏ္ႏွင့္ ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား၏ အာမခံ အမ်ိဳးအစား အလိုက္ေခ်းေငြ ထုတ္ေခ်းထားမွဳ အေျချပဂရပ္ ... ႏိုင္ငံပိုင္ဘဏ္ႏွင့္ ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား ထည့္ဝင္ၿပီး မတည္ေငြရင္း၊ အပ္ေငြႏွင့္ေခ်းေငြ အေျခအေန ၃၁•၃•၁၉၉၄ မွ ၃၁•၃•၂ဝ၁၁ အထိ... ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား၏ (၃၁•၃•၁၉၉၄) မွ (၃၁•၃•၂ဝ၁၁) ရက္ေန့ထိ ထည့္ဝင္ၿပီး မတည္ေငြရင္း၊ အပ္ေငြႏွင့္ေခ်းေငြ အေျခအေန ... ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား၏ အရင္း/ အတိုးေပး ဆပ္ရန္ ပ်က္ ကြက္ေသာေခ်းေငြမ်ား အခ်ိဳး ၃၁•၃•၂ဝဝ၂ မွ၃၁•၃•၂ဝ၁၁ အထိ ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ဘဏ္မ်ားအသင္း ... ဘဏ္္လုပ္ငန္း ကၽြမ္းက်င္ သူမ်ားေမြး ထုတ္ျခင္း... Banking Network ... Payment System Development ... Myanmar Payment Union Card (MPU Debit Card) ... Deposit Insurance ... ဆက္လက္ေဆာင္ရြက္ရမည့္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ...
        Author/creator: U Thein Zaw ဦးသိန္းေဇာ္ (ညႊန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး)
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of Finance and Revenue, Central Bank of Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (1.27MB)
        Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


        Title: Corruption: Causes, Consequences and Cures
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: Abstract: "The paper stresses the need to keep the issue of corruption in view in the development agenda. It discusses the causes and consequences of corruption, especially in the context of a least developed country, with an economy under considerable regulation and central direction. Lack of transparency, accountability and consistency, as well as institutional weaknesses such as in the legislative and judicial systems, provide a fertile ground for growth of rent seeking activities in such a country. In addition to the rise of the underground economy and the high social costs associated with corruption, its adverse consequences on income distribution, consumption pattern, investment, government budget and on economic reforms are discussed in the paper. The paper also touches upon the supply side of bribery and its international dimensions and presents some thoughts on how to address the corruption issue and to try to bring it under control."
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (90K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


        Title: Economy and Social development: Reform in the Agricultural Sector
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: “စီးပြားေရးႏွင့္လူမႈဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအတြက္စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑၏ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ား” ... ေရဆင္းစိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးတကၠသိုလ္ ... လူမႈစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑၏အေရးပါမႈ... ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲခဲ့ေသာမူဝါဒအခ်ိဳ႕ ... စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑ဆိုင္ရာမူဝါဒ ... ဖြံ႕ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မွဳ နည္းဗ်ဴဟာမ်ား ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ စားနပ္ရိကၡာ (ဆန္) ဖူလံုမႈႏွင့္စားသံုးမႈ ... အာရွနိုင္ငံအခ်ိဳ႔၏တစ္ဦးက်ဆန္စားသံုးမႈႏႈိင္းယွဥ္ျခင္း ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏စားနပ္ရိကၡာ (ဆန္) ဖူလံုမႈႏွင့္စားသံုးမႈ ... တုိင္း/ျပည္နယ္မ်ား၏ စပါးစိုက္ဧရိယာေျပာင္းလဲမႈ ... ၂ဝဝ၃ခုႏွစ္၊ဆန္တင္ပို႔မႈမူဝါဒသစ္ ... ကြာျခားခ်က္မ်ားေသာ ဆန္တင္ပို႔မႈတိုးတက္ႏႈန္းထား ... စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑ဖြံျဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးနည္းဗ်ဴဟာ ... ဆန္စားသံုးမႈႏွင့္ျပည္ပတင္ပို႔မႈအခ်ိဳးအစား ... စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးက႑အတြက္ SWOT Analysis ... ဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးမႈနည္းဗ်ဴဟာႏွင့္ေမခရိုေပၚလစီ ... ျမန္မာ့လယ္ယာဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးေရးဘဏ္ မွႏွစ္အလုိက္ေခ်းေငြမ်ား (က်ပ္သန္းေပါင္း) ... ေက်းလက္ေဒသအေသးစားေငြေခ်းဝန္ေဆာင္မွုလုပ္ငန္း ...
        Author/creator: Daw Theingi Myint ေဒၚသိဂႌျမင့္
        Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
        Source/publisher: ေရဆင္းစိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးတကၠသိုလ္ Yezin Agricultural University- Myanmar
        Format/size: pdf (3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Establishing a more Favourable Economic Environment for Private Sector Development
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ပုဂၢလိက က႑ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအတြက္ ျပည္စံုေကာင္းမြန္ေသာ စီးပြားေရး ဝန္းက်င္ ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ေရး... ပုဂၢလိကလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား၏အခန္းက႑... လက္ရိွစီးပြားေရး ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္တြင္ ပုဂၢလိကက႑ ေတြ႕ၾကံဳေနရေသာ စိန္ေခၚမႈမ်ား... လက္ရိွစီးပြားေရး ဝန္းက်င္ေကာင္းမြန္ေအာင္ စဥ္းစားသင့္သည့္ အခ်က္မ်ား... ပုဂၢလိကက႑ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး အတြက္ လိုအပ္ေသာ စီးပြားေရး မူဝါဒမ်ားအေပၚအၾကံျပဳခ်က္... ၁၉၈၈ ခုႏွစ္ ေစ်းကြက္ စီးပြားေရး စနစ္ကို စတင္က်င့္သံုးသည့္အခ်ိန္မွစတင္၍ စီးပြားေရး က႑တိုင္း တြင္ ေစ်းကြက္ စီးပြားေရးစနစ္ (Market Economic System) ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ႏုိင္ေရး အတြက္ ဦးစားေပး လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ့သည့္ အခ်က္ မ်ား...၁) ဗဟိုစီးပြားေရးခ်ဳပ္ကိုင္မႈေလွ်ာ့ခ်ျခင္း (Decentralization economic control) ၂) ေစ်းႏႈန္းထိမ္းခ်ဳပ္မႈမ်ား ပယ္ဖ်က္ျခင္း (Abolishing Price Control) ၃) ႏိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ားခြင့္ျပဳျခင္း (Allowing Foreign Direct Investment) ၄) ပုဂၢလိကဘဏ္မ်ား လုပ္ေဆာင္ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္း၊ ၅) ဆန္စပါးလုပ္ငန္းအား လြတ္လပ္စြာ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္း၊ ၆) အေျခခံအေဆာက္အအံုဆိုင္ရာ ဖံြ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈကို ပ့ံ ပိုး ျခင္း (Improving Infrastructure)... ၁၉၉၅ ခုႏွစ္မွစ၍ႏုိင္ငံပုိင္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားအား ပုဂၢလိက အသြင္ ကူးေျပာင္းေရး (Privatization) ကုိ စတင္လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ့ရာ ပုဂၢလိက အသြင္ကူးေျပာင္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားမွာ အရွိန္ရလာၿပီ ျဖစ္ပါ သည္။... ျပည္တြင္းအသားတင္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈတန္ဖုိးတြင္ ပုဂၢ လိကက႑ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈမွာ ၉၁ % ပါ၀င္ပါသည္။
        Author/creator: U Win Aung ဦး၀င္းေအာင္
        Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
        Source/publisher: Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Future Economy and Social Development စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရး မူ၀ါဒ
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: စီးပြားေရးႏွင့္ လူမႈဘ၀ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ ပိုမိုရရွိေရး အတြက္ ေမခရိုစီးပြားေရး မူ၀ါဒျမႇင့္တင္ေရး ဆိုင္ရာ အမ်ဳိးသား အဆင့္ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ ... "စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရး မူ၀ါဒ" စာတမ္းျပဳစုသူ- ဦးစိုးသိန္း (ဥကၠဌ -စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္း ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးေကာ္မတီ)... (၁) နိဒါန္း...(၂) နိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ နွင့္ စက္မႈက႑...(၃) စက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္း ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးေကာ္မတီ (၄) နိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္ ရန္ စီးပြားေရး မူ၀ါဒ ျပုျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရး (၅) အခြန္အေကာက္မ်ား အေျခ အေန (၆) မူ၀ါဒ ဆိုင္ရာ အၾကံျပုခ်က္ (၇) နိဂံုး (၈)ေမး ခြန္း မ်ား ျပန္လည္ေျဖၾကားျခင္း... နိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ တြင္ စက္မႈလက္မႈက႑သည္ လြန္စြာ အေရးပါေနသည့္ အတြက္ေအာက္ပါ က႑မ်ားအား အထူးအေလး ထားေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ လိုအပ္ေၾကာင္းေတြ့ရိွ ရပါသည္- (၁) လယ္ယာ၊ သားငါး ထြက္ပစၥည္း မ်ားျပုျပင္ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ (Processing Industry) (၂)စက္မႈကုန္ပစၥည္း ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ (Manufacturing Industry) (၃)သတၱဳတြင္းထြက္ ပစၥည္းမ်ား ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ (Mining Industry) (၄) လူသံုးကုန္ပစၥည္း မ်ား ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ (Consumer Goods Industry) (၅)ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း (Construction Industry) (၆)၀န္ေဆာင္မႈ လုပ္ငန္း (Services Industries –Logistics & Transport) (၇) သတင္းနွင့္ နည္းပညာ လုပ္ငန္း (IT Industry)... စက္မႈက႑ဟုဆို ရာတြင္ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈကို သာေဆာင္ရြက္သည့္ စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား သာမက ထုတ္လုပ္မႈေဆာင္ရြက္သည့္ စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား အား၀န္ေဆာင္ မႈျဖင့္ ပံ့ပိုးသည့္ စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား အားလံုး ပါ၀င္လ်က္ စက္မႈက႑ ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး ကိုေဆာင္ရြက္ လ်က္ရိွ ပါသည္။  နိုင္ငံပိုင္ ၀န္ၾကီးဌာနမ်ား အေနျဖင့္ အမွတ္(၁) စက္မႈ ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ အမွတ္(၂) စက္မႈ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန တို့သည္ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈအပိုင္း ကိုေဆာင္ရြက္ လ်က္ရိွျပီး၊  ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရး ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ စြမ္းအင္၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ ရထားပို့ေဆာင္ေရး ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ သိပၸံနွင့္ နည္းပညာ ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ ဆက္သြယ္ေရး၊ စာတိုက္နွင့္ေၾကးနန္း ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ အမွတ္ (၁) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန၊ အမွတ္ (၂) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား ၀န္ၾကီးဌာန တို့သည္ စက္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး အတြက္ အေထာက္အကူျပု သည့္ စြမ္းအင္၊ လွ်ပ္စစ္၊ လမ္းတံတား ဆက္သြယ္ေရးဆိုင္ရာ Infrastructure ပိုင္း တိုးတက္ေရး အတြက္ တာ၀န္ယူလ်က္ စီမံကိန္းမ်ားျဖင့္ အသီးသီး အေကာင္ အထည္ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ လ်က္ ရိွပါသည္။
        Author/creator: U Soe Thein ဦးစိုးသိန္း
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Myanmar: Industrial Development Committee
        Format/size: pdf (757.14K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


        Title: GDP Growth Rates: Myammar and Selected Asian Countries
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: "During the fifty years after independence and before onset of the new millennium, there have been 5 instances of double digit GDP growth – twice in the nineteen-fifties (1950 and 1956) and three times in the nineteen-sixties (1962, 1964 and 1967). In all these instances, a double digit growth year, has always been either immediately preceded by, or is followed by, a negative growth year. For instance, real growth of 12.9% in fiscal 1950 was preceded by a -5% real GDP decline in fiscal 1949 and a further -10% fall in fiscal 1948. Similarly, 13% growth in fiscal 1962 was followed by a decline of -6.1% in fiscal 1963. For three decades preceding fiscal 1999/00, there has never been a single event of double digit real GDP growth..."
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (79K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 October 2011


        Title: IMF, U.S. Dollar, and Global Financial Crisis
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: "Aims off present workshop 1. To distinguish between a disease and its symptoms. 2. The idea that the global crisis represents a warning that something is very wrong with the present world financial system. 3. If so, what is basically wrong with the present system? 4. How can this wrong be corrected? 5. How does all this affect poor countries?..." The presentation looks at the international financial system and and the "Bottom Billion" (BB)
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (329K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


        Title: Improving the communications sector as a support for the development of the state economy
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျပည္ေထာင္စုသမၼတ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ အစိုးရ၊ ဆက္သြယ္ေရး၊ စာတိုက္ႏွင့္ ေၾကးနန္း၀န္ႀကီးဌာန... ဆက္သြယ္မႈက႑အား ပိုမိုတိုးတက္ေအာင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေစျခင္းျဖင့္ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရး ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈကို အဓိက အေထာက္အကူျပဳေစသည္။ (၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္၊ ၾသဂုတ္လ) (စာတမ္းျပဳစုသူ- ဦးေက်ာ္စိုး- ေက်ာင္းအုပ္ႀကီး ေၾကးနန္းဆက္သြယ္ေရးႏွင့္ စာတိုက္သင္တန္းေက်ာင္း - ျမန္မာ့ဆက္သြယ္ေရးလုပ္ငန္း) ... ဆက္သြယ္ေရး က႑ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ား ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ဆက္သြယ္ေရးက႑... ေလ့လာေတြ႔ရွိခ်က္မ်ား...
        Author/creator: U Kyaw Soe ဦးေက်ာ္စိုး
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of Post and Telecommunication: Telecommunication and Post Training School
        Format/size: pdf (831.55 K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


        Title: Investment and Trade
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ စီးပြားေရး ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲရာတြင အေရးပါသည့္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ကုန္သြယ္မႈ က႑ ... ထုတ္ကုန္ပစၥည္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ထုတ္ကုန္ေစ်းကြက္... တရားမ၀င္ကုန္သြယ္ေရးလမ္ေၾကာင္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ႏိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမွဳပ္ႏွံမႈက႑ ... ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲရန္လိုအပ္ေသာ အခ်က္မ်ား...
        Author/creator: U Set Aung ဦးဆက္ေအာင္ [B.Sc,MBA,M.Sc Banking & Finance(Scotland), M.Sc Investment Management(London), International Consultant Vice Principle & Director, Asia Language & Business Academy(Director), AWRI-Research Institut
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (290K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: Investment Opportunities
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈဆုိင္ရာ အမ်ဳိးသားအဆင့္ အလုပ္ရံု ေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ... ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ အခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား...
        Author/creator: Daw Mya Thuza ေဒၚျမသူဇာ
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development:
        Format/size: pdf (215K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: Investment Opportunities (presentation)
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ရင္းနွီးျမွုပ္နွံမွုအခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား ... ၂၀၁၁ ခုနွစ္၊ ျသဂုတ္လ ... နိုင္ငံေတာ္ စီးပြားေရး ဖြံ့ျဖိုးတိုးတက္မွု တြင္ ရင္းနွီးျမွုပ္နွံမွု ၏ အေရးပါပုံ ... ရင္းနွီးျမွုပ္နွံမွု တိုးတက္ေရး အတြက္ ေဆာင္ရြက္မွုမ်ား ... ျမန္မာ အထူး စီးပြားေရးဇုန္ ဥပေဒ... ရင္းနွီးျမွုပ္နွံသူ၏ အထူးအခြင့္အေရးမ်ား ... အခြန္ဆိုင္ရာ ကင္းလြတ္ခြင့္နွင့္ သက္သာခြင့္မ်ား... ေျမအသုံးခ်နိုင္မွု... ခြင့္ျပုမိန့္ေလ်ွာက္ ထားရာ တြင္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရမည့္ အစီအစဥ္မ်ား...
        Author/creator: Daw Mya Thu Zar (ေဒၚျမသူဇာ)
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
        Format/size: pdf (484K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


        Title: Job and Employment Opportunities
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: Overview of the labour aspects of the economy
        Author/creator: U Chit Sein
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19–21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (757K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


        Title: Job Security and Employment Opportunity
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: အလုပ္အကိုင္ရရွိမႈႏွင့္ အခြင့္အလမ္း ရပိုင္ခြင့္မ်ား... အလုပ္သမားေရးရာ စာရင္းအင္းမ်ားကို ေလ့လာျခင္း၊... အလုပ္အကိုင္ႏွင့္ဆက္စပ္ ၍ ဆင္းရဲမႈ ေလ်ာ့ခ်ျခင္း၊... ျပည္တြင္း၊ ျပည္ပအလုပ္အကိုင္ ရရွိေရးႏွင့္ အခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား တိုးတက္ေကာင္း မြန္ ေရး ေဆာင္ရြက္ေပးျခင္း၊...ႏိုင္ငံအဆင့္ ကၽြမ္းက်င္မႈ “စံ” သတ္မွတ္ျပဌာန္း၍ ကၽြမ္းက်င္ လုပ္သားမ်ား ေမြး ထုတ္ ေပး ရန္ ေဆာင္ ရြက္ျခင္း၊...
        Author/creator: U Chit Sein ဦးခ်စ္စိန္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar: Ministry of Labour
        Format/size: pdf (118K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Myanmar and Political Economy of Development
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: pdf version of a powerpoint presentation
        Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (149K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012


        Title: Myanmar Investment
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈအတြက္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈဆိုင္ရာ အမ်ဳိးသားအဆင့္ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ (ေနျပည္ေတာ္) - ရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံမႈ အခြင့္အလန္းမ်ား ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ (၂၀)
        Author/creator: Daw Mya Thu Zar (ေဒၚျမသူဇာ)
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development: Directorate of Investment and Company Administration
        Format/size: pdf (79K)
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


        Title: Myanmar Kyat Exchange Rate Issue (English)
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: "1. There has been a consistent and sharp appreciation of the kyat dollar exchange rate for the past few months.3 This has caused problems. The extent of the kyat exchange rate appreciation and its impact on costs and returns in some key sectors of the Myanmar economy are presented in a paper prepared by U Set Aung4, a member of the President's Economic Advisory Team. These matters are therefore not discussed here. Instead, three issues have been taken up in this paper. They are: 2. First, to explain why a currency’s exchange rate can rapidly appreciate and how this causes problems; 3. Second, to suggest measures that are to be undertaken immediately to deal with the kyat exchange rate appreciation problem presently facing Myanmar, in order to restore business and investor confidence in the exchange rate, and to prevent the situation from getting out of hand; and 4. Third, the current kyat exchange rate problem presents a good opportunity to initiate the process of reform of the exchange rate regime in Myanmar. The objective of the reform is to establish a foreign exchange market in Myanmar that meets international standards and where the exchange rate is relatively stable, is market-determined, and becomes a useful tool of macroeconomic management for the Central Bank of Myanmar. A suggestion on how to start this reform process is briefly presented in this paper..."
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19–21 August, 2011 via Mizzima.com
        Format/size: pdf (133K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


        Title: Myanmar Railway System
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား လက္ရွိအေျခအေနႏွင့္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈဆိုင္ရာ ဆန္းစစ္သံုးသပ္ခ်က္ (presentation)
        Author/creator: U Kyi Aye ဦးၾကည္ေအး
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar: Ministry Of Rail Transportation
        Format/size: pdf (109K)
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


        Title: Myanmar Railway System (Annex - list of present and future railways)
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ေဖာက္လုပ္ဆဲရထားလမ္းသစ္ စီမံကိန္းမ်ား ၏ ေဖာက္ လုပ္ရမည့္ ခရီးမိုင္၊ေဖာက္လုပ္ဖြင့္ လွစ္ျပီးခရီးမိုင္၊ ေဖာက္လုပ္ဆဲ ခရီးမိုင္စာရင္း... ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား လူစီးတြဲ အမ်ိုးအစားမ်ားနွင့္ သက္တမ္း အေျချပ ဇယား... ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား ကုန္တြဲ အမ်ိုးအစား မ်ားနွင့္ သက္တမ္း အေျချပ ဇယား... ကြန္ကရိ ဇလီဖား ထုတ္လုပ္မွု စက္ရုံမ်ား...နွစ္အလိုက္ ရထား‌ေျပးဆြဲမွုအေျခအေန...
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar: Ministry Of Rail Transportation
        Format/size: Excel (175K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 January 2012


        Title: Myanmar Railway Thesis about Present Situation & Reformation
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား လက္ရွိအ‌ေျခအေန နွင့္ ျပုျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမွုဆိုင္ရာ ဆန္းစစ္ သုံးသပ္ခ်က္... ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား၏ အဓိကတာ၀န္... ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား၏ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ တာ၀န္... ျမန္မာ့မီးရထား၏ လက္ရွိပိုင္ဆိုင္မွုမ်ား ... ဝန္ေဆာင္မွုေပးျခင္းနွင့္ ဝင္ငြေရွာဖြေျခင္း ... ဝင္ငြေနွင့္ အသုံးစရိတ္အေျခအေန ... ရထားလုပ္ငန္းကုန္က်စရိတ္ ... ကုန္က်စရိတ္ေလွ်ာ့ ခ်ေရးနွင့္ စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ျမင့္မားေရး... စိန္ေခၚမွုမ်ား ...
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar: Ministry Of Rail Transportation
        Format/size: pdf (183.58K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


        Title: Myanmar: Pattern of Household Consumption Expenditure
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar Myanmar International Convention Center (MICC) Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011....."...The household income and expenditure survey of 1997 further reveals that average incomes of families in many parts of Myanmar are inadequate to meet household consumption expenditures.9 Table (2) shows that except in Yangon and Ayeyarwady divisions, estimated monthly incomes of average households were insufficient to cover consumption costs in the remaining 12 states and divisions. The situation appears particularly acute in Kayah, Shan, Magway, Rakhine, and Sagaing state/divisions where estimated incomes accounted for between 42% to 57% of the respective expenditures. For the country as a whole the income of the average family can only meet 73% of its consumption expenditure..."
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (48K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 October 2011


        Title: Performance for Capital Market Development (ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ အရင္းအႏွီးေစ်းကြက္ ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈမ်ား)
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: စီးပြားေရး စနစ္အတြင္း ထုတ္လုပ္ျခင္း၊ စားသံုးျခင္း၊ စုေဆာင္းျခင္း ႏွင့္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံျခင္း စသည့္ စီးပြားေရး လုပ္ေဆာင္ခ်က္မ်ားရွိရာ ေငြေရးေၾကးေရး အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားသည္ ေငြပိုေငြလွ်ံ ရွိသူမ်ားႏွင့္ လုပ္ငန္းအတြက္ အရင္းအႏွီးလိုအပ္သူမ်ားအၾကား္ ေပါင္းစပ္ညႇိႏိႈင္းေပးေသာ ၾကားခံ အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားျဖစ္ၾကပါသည္။ စုေဆာင္းမႈ က႑မွ ေငြပိုေငြလွ်ံမ်ားကို ရယူစုစည္းၿပီး ... ေငြေရးေၾကးေရးေစ်းကြက္ (Financial Market) ေငြေရးေၾကးေရး ေစ်းကြက္တြင္ ေငြေၾကးေစ်းကြက္ (Money Market) ႏွင့္ အရင္းအႏွီးေစ်းကြက္ (Capital Market) ဟူ၍ (၂)ပိုင္းပါ၀င္ပါသည္။
        Author/creator: U Nay Aye [Deputy Governor-Central bank of Myanmar] ဦးေနေအး
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Central bank of Myanmar(Nay Pyi Taw)
        Format/size: pdf (102K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Population and Labour Force
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ႏုိင္ငံလူဦးေရႏွင့္ လုပ္သားအင္အား ခန္႔မွန္းမႈ ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ လူဦးေရ သမိုင္း ... လူဦးေရေျပာင္းလဲမႈ ျဖစ္စဥ္ ... လူဦးေရ တြင္ လုပ္သားအင္အားပါ၀င္မႈ အခ်ိဳးအစား... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ လုပ္သားအင္အားကို စစ္တမ္းမ်ားအေပၚတြင္ အေျခခံ၍ ခန္႔မွန္ျခင္း... အေရွ႔ေတာင္အာရွ ႏိုင္ငံမ်ားႏွင့္ ႏိႈင္းယွဥ္ေလ့လာခ်က္...
        Author/creator: U Nyi Nyi ဦးညီညီ
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Immigration and Manpower Department ?
        Format/size: pdf (572K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Production and Incomming Statistics Reforms
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: တုိုင္းျပည္၏ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈ စြမ္းအားႏွင့္ တိုင္းျပည္၀င္ေငြဆိုင္ရာ စာရင္းဇယားမ်ားအတြက္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲရန္လိုအပ္ခ်က္မ်ား (စာတမ္းရွင္- ေဒၚ၀င္းျမင့္- ဒုတိယညႊန္ၾကားေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္ စီမံကန္းေရးဆြဲေရး ဦးစီးဌာန) ... အမ်ဳိးသားစီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရး ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာန ၏ေဆာင္ရြက္ ခ်က္မ်ား... ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈဆိုင္ရာ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ား... တမ်ဳိးသားလံုးဆိုင္ရာ စာရင္းအင္းမ်ား... SNA စနစ္မ်ား အဆင့္ ဆင့္ေျပာင္း လဲလာမႈ ... GDP တြက္ခ်က္မႈနည္းလမ္းမ်ား ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ GDP တြက္ခ်က္မႈ... လက္ရွိတြက္ခ်က္မႈ စနစ္၏ အားနည္းခ်က္မ်ား... ေျပာင္းလဲေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္လိုအပ္ခ်က္မ်ား... ႀကံဳေတြ႔ရမည့္ အခက္အခဲမ်ား ...
        Author/creator: Daw Win Myint ေဒၚ၀င္းျမင့္
        Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
        Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development: Planning Department
        Format/size: pdf (97K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Reducing Poverty in Myanmar: the Way Forward
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: "To reduce poverty in Myanmar, it may be useful to give consideration to the following five issues: First, in order to go forward with poverty reduction, or more generally to go anywhere, we must know where we are at present. Hence, to improve the lot of the poor people in Myanmar we should start by having a clearer idea of who these poor people are, to find out what is their situation at present, and to listen to them about their needs and desires and what they feel should be done to help reduce their state of poverty. In addition, to get a better understanding of the situation of the poor people and to improve their well-being we must draw upon the vast experience of many of our compatriots in civil society organizations and NGOs, government officials, business people, scholars, academics and foreign experts and organizations that have done a lot of work related to poverty alleviation in the country, especially in rural and border areas and also with respect to meeting special needs of disadvantaged ethnic nationalities and other distressed communities in our society. Second, after finding out where we are at present and where we want to go, the next step will be to think of how to get there..." ....The following paper was presented to the ‘Forum on Poverty’ sponsored by the Burmese government in Naypyitaw on May 20-21, 2011...
        Author/creator: Dr. U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19–21 August, 2011 via Mizzima
        Format/size: pdf (173K)
        Alternate URLs: http://mizzima.com/edop/commentary/5314-poverty-in-burma-economist-u-myint.html
        Date of entry/update: 02 June 2011


        Title: Reforming Government-Business Relations in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: Market-oriented approach...Governed Market or Statist Approach...Governed Interdependence...Conclusion
        Author/creator: Kyaw Yin Hlaing
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (21.09K)
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


        Title: Revenue and Tax Policy in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ အခြန္အရပ္ ရပ္ေကာက္ခံရရွိ မႈႏွင့္ အခြန္ဆိုင္ရာ စီမံခန္႔ခဲြမႈ အေျခအေနကို ေလ့လာတင္ျပျခင္း (ျပည္တြင္းအခြန္မ်ားဦးစီးဌာန) ... မ်က္ေမွာက္ေခတ္ အခြန္အေကာက္စနစ္ အေျခခံမူမ်ား... ဘ႑ာေရးမူဝါဒ(Fiscal Policy) ... အခြန္မူဝါဒ( Tax Policy) ... ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏အခြန္အေကာက္ဖဲြ႕စည္းပံု ( Tax Structure) ... အခြန္အရပ္ရပ္ေကာက္ခံရရွိမႈ အေျခအေန... ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၏အခြန္ရေငြႏွင့္ ဂ်ီဒီပီအခ်ဳိး... အခြန္ရေငြႏွင့္ဂ်ီဒီပီအခ်ဳိး နိမ့္က်ရသည့္ အေၾကာင္းအရင္းမ်ား... အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာေငြေၾကးရန္ပံုေငြအဖဲြ႕ (IMF) ၏ အၾကံျပဳတင္ျပခ်က္... ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ အခြန္ေကာက္ခံရရွိမႈအေပၚ သံုးသပ္ျခင္း...
        Author/creator: Aung Moe Kyi ေအာင္မိုးၾကည္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: [Myanmar] Ministry of Finance and Revenue: Internal Revenue Department
        Format/size: pdf (277K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: Setting up a favourable Macro economic policy framework
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: Miicro and Macro Economic Policy: 1. Economic matters dealing with a household, a business firm, or a village fall under microeconomics. 2. Economic matters dealing with the whole economy, such as the total output of a country, the national income, consumption, saving, investment, national budget, balance of payments, labour force, employment, etc.; fall under macro-economics.... 1. Generally speaking, microeconomics look at trees. 2. Macroeconomics look at forest. 3. Sometimes, by paying too much attention to trees, we do not see the forest. 4. It can also happen, by concentrating too much on forest, we do not see the trees. 5. Both trees and forest are important. 6. At this workshop we look at the forest, keeping in mind trees are just as important. Because without trees there won't be any forest.
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19 – 21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (380K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


        Title: Social Welfare: ANNEX Social Welfare System/ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ လူမႈဖူလံုေရး စီမံကိန္း ႏွင့္ အနာဂါတ္ ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းခ်က္
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံႏွင့္ လူမႈ ဖူလံုေရး စီမံကိန္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ လူမႈ ဖူလံုေရး စီမံကိန္း၏မ်က္ေမွာက္ အေျခအေန... အျခားႏိုင္ငံမ်ား၏ လူမႈဖူလံုေရး အက်ဳိးခံစားခြင့္မ်ားႏွင့္ ႏႈိင္းယွဥ္ေလ့လာျခင္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ လူမႈ ဖူလံုေရး စီမံကိန္း၏ အနာဂါတ္ ေမွ်ာမွန္းခ်က္...
        Author/creator: U Yu Lwin Aung ဦးယုလြင္ေအာင္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: MINISTRY OF SOCIAL WELFARE, RELIEF AND RESETTLEMENT: DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE
        Format/size: pdf (360K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Speech by President U Thein Sein
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ စီးပြားေရး ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးမႈအတြက္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးဆိုင္ရာ အမ်ဳိးသားအဆင့္ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲတြင္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ သမၼတ ေျပာၾကားသည့္ အဖြင့္မိန္႔ခြန္း (၁၉-၈- ၂၀၁၁)(19.08. 2011)
        Author/creator: U Thein Sein ဦးသိန္းစိန္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: National Workshop on Reforms for Economic Development of Myanmar, Naypyitaw, 19–21 August, 2011
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


        Title: To Implement the Fiscal Policy of the State/ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္မွ ခ်မွတ္ထားေသာ ဘ႑ာေရး မူ၀ါဒမ်ားအား အေကာင္အထည္ေဖၚျခင္း
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျပည္ေထာင္စု သမၼတ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ ဘ႑ာေရးႏွင့္ အခြန္၀န္ႀကီးဌာန... ရသံုးမွန္ေျခ ေငြစာရင္း ဦးစီးဌာန... ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္မွ ခ်မွတ္ထားေသာ ဘ႑ာေရး မူ၀ါဒမ်ားအား အေကာင္အထည္ေဖၚ ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈ အေျခအေနအားသံုးသပ္တင္ျပျခင္း.... ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္၊ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၃ ရက္...
        Author/creator: Dr Linn Aung ေဒါက္တာ လင္းေအာင္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: [Myanmar] Ministry of Finance and Revenue: Budget Department
        Format/size: pdf (734K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Trade
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ျမန္မာ့ကုန္သြယ္ေရးႏွင့္ ပို႔ကုန္သြင္းကုန္ ခ်ိန္ဆက္ မႈ... ျမန္မာ့ကုန္သြယ္မႈ သမိုင္း အက်ဥ္း... ပို႔ကုန္ တင္ပို႔မႈပံုံသ႑ာန္ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈ... ပို႔ကုန္ေစ်း ကြက္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈ အေျခအေန... ကုန္ဖလွယ္မႈ အခ်ိးေျပာင္းလဲမႈ အေျခအေန... ပို႔ကုန္သြင္းကုန္ ခ်ိန္ဆက္မႈ (Balance of Trade) ... လက္ရွိျမန္မာ ႏိုင္ငံ၏ ကုန္သြယ္မႈ အေျခ အေန (၂၀၀၅ ခုႏွစ္မွ ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ ထိ)... အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံမ်ားႏွင့္ ကုန္သြယ္မႈအေျခအေန... ကုန္သြယ္ မႈျမႇင့္ တင္ေရး အစီအစဥ္မ်ား...
        Author/creator: ေဒါက္တာထိန္လင္း Dr. Htein Lynn, [B.Com.(Hons), M.Com., Ph.D, Deputy Director, Directorate of Trade,]
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: MINISTRY OF COMMERCE
        Format/size: pdf (1MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: Trade Policy / ကုန္သြယ္ေရးမူ၀ါဒ
        Date of publication: 21 August 2011
        Description/subject: ကုန္သြယ္မႈမူဝါဒမ်ားႏွင့္ ဖြံ႔ျဖိးမႈ ... စီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈတြင္ ကုန္သြယ္မႈ၏ အေရးပါပံု... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ကုန္သြယ္မႈမူဝါဒမ်ားႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရး ဖြံ႔ျဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ သမိုင္း... အာရွႏိုင္ငံအခ်ိဳ႔၏ ကုန္သြယ္မႈ မူဝါဒမ်ားကို ေလ့လာျခင္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ လက္ရွိ က်င့္သံုံးေနသည့္ ကုန္သြယ္ေရး မူဝါဒ...
        Author/creator: U Maung Aung ဦးေမာင္ေအာင္
        Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: MINISTRY OF COMMERCE/ Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development / BIMSTEC-Japan Cooperation in Energy Sector: Myanmar Perspective
        Format/size: pdf (553K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


      • Studies on the Burmese economy by individual Burmese economists

        Individual Documents

        Title: Myanmar’s new political-economic contours
        Date of publication: 02 July 2012
        Description/subject: "...The realities that will define Myanmar’s political economy in the medium-term future seem to be coming into focus. For foreign firms and governments and international organizations that take Southeast Asia seriously, whose understanding of the region transcends the level that one associates with, say, the leadership of American chambers of commerce in Southeast Asian capitals or the pampered, parochial globalists-in-their-own-minds who staff the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, this is good news. ... The high Cold War in Southeast Asia is long over. But the country is beginning to present what look like familiar, even generic, contours of post-Cold War Southeast Asian political economies. It is worth tracing some eight of these contours..."
        Author/creator: Myaungmya Aung Myint Myat (plus comments)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


        Title: Resumption of Official Development Assistance (ODA): Views from Myanmar Perspective - Statement by U Myint
        Date of publication: 01 March 2012
        Description/subject: "...the resumption of ODA flows, even if they were to come in substantial amounts, might not by themselves, help to improve the welfare of the ordinary people of Myanmar – particularly welfare of the large majority of poor people at the bottom of the income scale..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: WORKSHOP ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Traders Hotel, Yangon
        Format/size: pdf (116K)
        Date of entry/update: 18 March 2012


        Title: Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) Workshop Papers
        Date of publication: 17 September 2011
        Description/subject: A number of papers in English and Burmese on the Irrawaddy hydro projects. In a day or so there will be a neater and lighter version, with some details of the Burmese and English contents အမွတ္ (၁) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန-Minister for Electric Power No (1)... ပညာရပ္ဆိုင္ရာ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ (၃/ ၂၀၁၁) ... ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ စက္တင္ဘာလ (၁၇) ရက္ ... ဧရာ၀တီျမစ္၀ွမ္း ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စီမံကိန္း မ်ားေၾကာင့္ ဧရာ၀တီျမစ္ႏွင့္ သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္မႈ အလုပ္ရံုေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ... ၃/ ၂၀၁၁ အလုပ္ရံု ေဆြးေႏြးပြဲ ဖြင့္လွစ္ေၾကာင္း ေၾကျငာျခင္း... အမွတ္(၁) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု၀န္ႀကီးမွ အဖြင့္ အမွာစကား ေျပာၾကားျခင္း... BANCA ဥကၠ႒ ေဒါက္တာထင္လွ မွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... CPIYN President Mr. Li Guanghua မွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း ... ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံေရး ဦးစီးဌာန၊ ညႊန္ၾကားေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္၊ ဦးႀကီးစိုးမွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... ေကာင္းေက်ာ္ေစ ကုမၸဏီမွ Chairman/ CEO ဦးထြန္းႏိုင္ေအာင္မွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးႏွင့္ သစ္ေတာ၀န္ႀကီးဌာန ညႊန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး၊ ဦးလွေမာင္သိန္မွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း ... ပို႔ေဆာင္ေရး၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ညႊန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး ဦးကိုကိုမွ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း ... ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ထိမ္းသိမ္းေရးႏွင့္ သစ္ေတာေရးရာ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ၀န္ႀကီးမွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... ပိုေဆာင္ေရး၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု၀န္ႀကီး မွ အႀကံျပဳ ေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... သတၱဳတြင္း၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု၀န္ႀကီးမွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... လယ္ယာစိုက္ပ်ဳိးေရးႏွင့္ ဆည္ေျမာင္း၀န္ႀကီးဌာန ျပည္ေထာင္စု ဒုတိယ၀န္ႀကီးမွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... အမွတ္(၂) လွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ဒုတိယ၀န္ႀကီးမွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... ပညာရွင္မ်ားႏွင့္ လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားမွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... စာနယ္ဇင္းမ်ားမွ ေမးျမန္းျခင္းႏွင့္ေျဖၾကားျခင္း... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံမွဳေကာ္မရွင္၊ ဥကၠ႒မွ အႀကံျပဳေဆြးေႏြးျခင္း... အမွတ္(၁) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန၊ ျပည္ေထာင္စု၀န္ႀကီး မွ နိဂံုးခ်ဳပ္အမွာစကားေျပာၾကားျခင္း ...
        Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
        Source/publisher: Government of the Union of Myanmar: Ministry for Electric Power No (1); အမွတ္ (၁) လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအား၀န္ႀကီးဌာန
        Format/size: pdf (11MB)
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2011


        Title: A Game of Cat and Mouse
        Date of publication: February 2010
        Description/subject: Advising Burma’s generals on how to run the country’s economy is a risky business... "During a rare economic forum held [in Rangoon?] in cooperation with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in December, U Myint, a retired economics professor at the Rangoon Institute of Economics, unveiled a few economic reform proposals. Two Rangoon farmers chat in their feld after harvesting rice. About half of Burma’s GDP comes from agriculture. (Photo: AFP) In a follow-up to this gathering, which was attended by former World Bank chief economist and Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz, U Myint, who has also served as an economic adviser to ESCAP, held a press briefing at the Myanmar Egress Capacity Development Center in Rangoon on Jan. 9. In a press statement, U Myint recalled that someone at the earlier conference expressed the view that the only people worth talking to in Burma are the generals, but the generals are poor listeners, so it was a waste of time talking to them because nothing useful will result..."
        Author/creator: Htet Aung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


        Title: Myanmar Economy A Comparative View
        Date of publication: December 2009
        Description/subject: Revised and updated version of a paper presented to the Myanmar/ Burma Studies Conference, Singapore, 13–15 July 2006..... Contents: Introduction... GDP Growth Rate... Structure of GDP... Per Capita GDP and the Question of Catching-Up... Pattern of Household Consumption Expenditure... Export Commodities... Inflation... The Exchange Rate... Rethinking Policy and Implications for Regional Integration... Concluding Remarks... Appendix... About the Author.....Introduction1 Building a modern developed nation A stated objective of Myanmar is to become a modern developed nation that will stand shoulder to shoulder – proud, dignified and tall – with the countries of the world. How far has Myanmar come in achieving this goal, viewed from an economic perspective?2 Where does it stand at present in relation to other nations, and especially those in the Asian region? This paper attempts to provide some thoughts along these lines by looking at Myanmar’s official data on: • Rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) • GDP growth in relation to gross domestic investment (GDI) • Structure of GDP • Level of per capita GDP • Pattern of household consumption expenditure • Commodity composition of exports • Inflation rate • Exchange rate
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
        Format/size: pdf (576K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


        Title: Myanmar’s GDP growth and investment: lessons from a historical perspective
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: "According to official figures, Myanmar has achieved double-digit gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates every year for the six years from 2000 to 2005. These figures have proved controversial. A related and another contentious issue regarding Myanmar’s economic performance in the same period is that high real GDP growth rates have been achieved with comparatively low gross domestic investment (GDI) to GDP ratios. In order to gain a proper perspective on these issues, one approach is to use cross-sectional data for a particular period to obtain a comparative view of Myanmar’s performance vis-a-vis the performance of its neighbours in the same period. The comparative approach has been adopted frequently and has been useful in analysing developments in Myanmar’s economic and social situation through the years. Myanmar has, however, a rich tradition of data collection and analysis. National accounts data, for example, go as far back as 1948, when the country gained independence, and even beyond. In addition to cross-sectional analysis, therefore, the available time-series data could be used to review Myanmar’s recent economic performance, as reflected in official data of the country’s past experience. Such a brief review is attempted in this chapter with specific attention devoted to real GDP growth and GDI..."
        Author/creator: U Myint
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (168K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Burma Economic Review 2005-2006
        Date of publication: June 2007
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta claimed a 12.2 % growth in the Burmese economy in 2006 but international sources say differently; they forecast a slim growth of 2 to 3 % rise. Production and exploration in the oil and gas sector is active, but the rest of economy remains weak. Agriculture suffers from poor productivity, with output below potential. Manufacturing is constrained by inadequate quantity and quality of inputs, due to problems of imports and power shortages. Weak Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth reflects poor prospects for consumption and investment. In October 2005, the SPDC increased eight folds the state-subsidized petrol prices. This prompted higher prices for basic commodities. Inflation returned to double digit rates. Monetary policy has not addressed the inflationary pressures. Interest rates remain unchanged since 2001, despite high inflation. But the SPDC increased the interest rates by two per cent points to 12 per cent on 16 April 2006. Real rates are likely to be negative. Prices for important commodities soared in the wake of junta’s decision to raise public-sector salaries in April 2006. Rice and fuel prices remain high. Official data do not reveal the full extent of inflation reaching 14.3 % in December 2005 and 11 % in early 2006. Based on the official data series, the Economist Intelligent Unit (EIU) estimates the annual inflation to average over 21 % in 2006.The true rate of inflation could be 50 %. Strong growth in both narrow money supply (M1) and quasi-money (comprising time, savings and foreign exchange deposits) contributed to a 26.8 % year-on-year expansion in broad money supply (M2) at the end of May 2006. The junta demands credit from the Central Bank, which it uses to fund its budget deficit. Total outstanding credit of the junta was 2.5 trillion kyat (nearly US$440 billion at the official exchange rate, or US$1.9 billion at the free-market exchange rate) by May 2006, an increase of 28 %. The state budget remained unbalanced with substantial deficits during much of the 1990s. Fiscal deficits are financed automatically by credit from the Central Bank, a source of domestic inflation and instability in the economy. The Junta's state expenditures are disproportionately allocated on items that deny sustainable development of the people or the nation. Defense, ceremonies and rituals, festivals, inspection tours, meetings and seminars, building physical infrastructure-roads, railways, bridges, dams, monuments, museums, shiny office complexes and fancy airports, represent wasteful consumption or constitute expensive capital outlays, undertaken without proper feasibility studies and environmental impact assessments, and unclear, uncertain and dubious returns on investment. Chronic state budget deficits contribute to rapid monetary growth and everspiraling inflation. In order to recover the budget deficit, the junta-increased taxes and collected money and forced people to labor for developmental projects such as construction of roads, dams, and bridges. The junta continues to control, command, and centralize Burma’s people and the economy. Exchange rate distortions favor a few at the expense of many. Fiscal deficit comes at the expense of social spending which has been reduced far below necessary levels. At the same time, financing the fiscal deficit through central bank credit is one underlying factor of persistent high inflation. The nation’s tax revenue remains buoyant, rising by 28.1 % year on year in nominal terms in the first 11 months of fiscal year 2005/06 (April-March). Total tax revenue reached 292 billion kyat during this period (around US$50 billion at the inflated official exchange rate, or US$225 million at free-market exchange rate). Although revenue is still rising, growth has slowed since 2004/05, when revenue expanded by 77 % year on year for the whole fiscal year. This in part reflects a correction after an increase in average import tariffs, imposed in mid-2004, brought a 424 % year-on-year surge in customs tax fell by 15.1 per cent year on year to 16.2 billion kyat. A clamp-down on corruption among customs officials in recent months may be part of an effort to boost revenue from customs tax. Other sources of tax revenue expanded in the first 11 months of 2005/06. Profit tax jumped by 49 per cent year on year, slightly ahead of commodities and services tax (which rose by 47 per cent) and income tax (11 per cent)1. 2 Total public-sector deficit reached 6 % of GDP for 2004/05. Heavy losses by the state-owned enterprises (SOE) typically accounted for over 60 % of the overall deficit. The SPDC’s fiscal position is also weighted down by high off-budget spending on the country's huge armed forces. The budget position is unlikely to have improved in 2005/06 and 2006/07 (the current fiscal year), owing to the junta's expansionary fiscal policy. The junta's decision to relocate many government offices to a huge new administrative complex at Naypyidaw, 320 km north of Rangoon, imposed heavy costs. In addition, in April 2006 the junta raised salaries for around 1 million civil servants and military officers by between 500 and 1,200 per cent. The black market is estimated to be as big if not bigger than the official economy. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial border trade. Burma's trade with Thailand, China, and India is rising. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved political situation are needed to promote foreign investment, exports, and tourism. No new foreign direct investment projects have been approved in recent months. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) approvals totaled a meager US$35.7 million for the first 11 months of 2005/06, down from US$158.3 million for the whole of 2004/05. It is possible that the data do not capture some small FDI flows, such as those by Thai and Chinese firms in small projects along the border with Burma. International tourist arrivals totaled 320,275 in 2005, up by 5 % year on year, according to data from the Central Statistical Organization (CSO). Although arrivals rose, the pace of growth slowed compared with 2004 (rose 11.6 per cent). The slowdown reflected a 5.6 % year on year drop in arrivals by air, to 145,959, around 46 % total arrivals. Total international reserves reached US$951 million at the end of June 2006, according to data from the IMF. Reserves increased sharply in the first quarter of the year, surpassing US$900 million for the first time, before rising further in the second quarter. The main reason for the improvement in the overall balance-of-payments position and international reserves has been the rise in exports, which have been driven by strong growth in exports of natural gas. The official kyat exchange rate remains artificially inflated. The exchange rate like the rest of the junta system does not reflect the reality of the monetary system. The free-market exchange rate of kyat to US$ was 1,350:US$1 in July-October 2006, having recovered from kyat 1,450:US$1 at the end of April, which also put pressure on prices. There has been a mild appreciation of the kyat since then. The ratio of the parallel rate to the official rate is nearly 200:1. The kyat came under pressure earlier this year owing to fears that a pay rise for civil servants would sharply push up prices. However, strong gas exports have boosted international reserves, thereby helping the kyat to stabilize. The little-used official exchange rate is fixed against the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) special drawing rights (SDR) unit. The official rate held steady at around kyat 5.9:US$1 by August 2006.
        Author/creator: Sein Htay
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Fund (NCGUB)
        Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ncgub.net/mediagallery/download.php?mid=20070523134011574
        Date of entry/update: 06 June 2007


        Title: Economic Report on Burma 2004/05
        Date of publication: 06 May 2002
        Description/subject: "..The objective of this report is to help the policy makers with an analysis of the international sanctions effect and to try to explain the real current economic and social conditions, impact on and Burma's urgent need to combat poverty. Moreover, also try to present the relationship between macro economic situation such as economic growth, foreign trade, state budget, inflation, employment, wages and the conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity in Burma. In addition, to explain how the Burmese generals and their crony drug lords exploit the Burmese economy, and how the Burmese military has become the sole beneficiary of foreign direct investment by setting up its own industries separately from the state enterprises since 1988. And also would like to explain the impact on the military's confiscation of land, labor, crops and capital assets or militarization on the whole economy..."
        Author/creator: Sein Htay
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Federation of Trade Unions-Burma (FTUB)
        Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2011


        Title: Myanmar: The Dilemma of Stalled Reforms
        Date of publication: September 2000
        Description/subject: "Myanmar's economic reforms are constrained by the domestic political situation... This paper explores Myanmar's political and economic background in the context of stalled reforms. It finds that Myanmar's economic development is constrained by the domestic political situation, which has in turn been linked to sanctions on trade, investment and aid imposed by Western Europe and the United States. The paper states that further reforms are still required, as the previous round of reforms failed to redress problems such as: * High inflation * Persistent fiscal deficit * Widening trade deficit * Chronic foreign exchange shortage * A drastic fall in foreign investment * Inefficient state economic enterprises (SEEs) * Low value-added production... The paper notes: * The current military government is endeavouring to institute a new political order, while at the same time attempting a smooth transition from a closed to an open market economy. * The fundamental premise is that these broad political and economic reforms should not compromise the three principal main national causes including national sovereignty... The paper concludes: * Conflict between the NLD and the government and the resulting political impasse is the main obstacle for further reforms. * The realization of Myanmars reforms will depend on whether the government and the opposition can be reconciled..."
        Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute for South-East Asian Studies (ISEAS) via Eldis
        Format/size: pdf (80K) 40 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Dilemmas-TMMT.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Economic Development of Burma: A Vision and a Strategy - a study by Burmese economists
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: "...Together with the excessive crimes against human rights taking place in Burma, the economic underdevelopment is a matter of concern to political leaders and professional economists everywhere. It is, of course, of particular concern to the Burmese people themselves, both those who live in the country, and those who have travelled to other parts of the world. Therefore, it is a matter of great importance to analyse the main factors which have stood in the way of Burma's participation in the world-wide surge of economic growth in the past half a century, and even more importantly, to devise ways in which the country can overcome these obstacles and achieve a higher rate of economic development. It is towards this objective that the present report makes an important contribution. It is in fact a study undertaken by Burmese scholars themselves. Hence they have brought to this study their own rich and personal knowledge of the problems of the country and the possibilities that lie ahead. Additionally, most of the scholars who have undertaken the present study have in fact travelled widely and achieved high professional recognition as development specialists in the leading universities of the world. They are thus able to combine their intimate knowledge of the country with the latest advances in economic science in order to give us some deep insights about the best ways to advance the future development of Burma. What follows is not a plan for economic development as it is commonly understood. In that sense, a plan consists of definite targets to be achieved, schedules for the implementation of various programmes, the mobilisation of adequate resources for the purpose, and schemes for the appraisal and control of the results. But planning in this sense is not something which can be efficiently undertaken by a small group of scholars who are not in active collaboration with those responsible for the implementation of plans. This is particularly the case with those scholars who have been away from the country in recent years. However, what such a group of Burmese scholars can do, and have done in this study, is to think through the problems of developing the country in the long run, taking into account Burma's own historical experience, the changes which are taking place in the outside world, and to investigate the likely scenarios or trends for the future, and thus come up with a vision of what to aim for and an approach and sense of direction for the long term development of Burma. This will give political leaders, both those inside the country who are responsible for designing and carrying out its policies, and those in donor countries abroad who can assist this effort by the scale of their financial and technical assistance. Such strategic studies have been undertaken in countries as far apart as the United States on the one hand, and Chile on the other. Nearer home, such studies have been used by the governments of Singapore and Malaysia as the basis of their more specific policies. It is in this sense that the present study will serve as a useful basis for further thought and discussion by all concerned with the future welfare of the people of Burma. A welfare that can take place nor survive without political changes in the country..."...Overview and Policy Framework; Agriculture; Industry; Natural Resources and Environment; International Trade and Investment; The Monetary and Fiscal Framework for Macroeconomic Stability; Poverty and Income Distribution; Education; Infrastructure; Institutions; Priorities and Problems of Implementation; Conclusion
        Author/creator: Khin Maung Kyi, Ronald Findlay, R.M. Sundrum, Mya Maung, Myo Nyunt, Zaw Oo, et al.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Olof Palme International Center
        Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Vision-strategy.ocr.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005


        Title: MYANMAR: WILL FOREVER FLOW THE AYEYARWADY?
        Date of publication: 1993
        Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "When Myanmar (then known as Burma) attained its independence in 1948, international agencies identified it as one of the most promising regional candidates for economic take off. Its modern technical and university education system, high rate of literacy, well trained civil service and a cadre of educated middle class, basic infrastructure, and a well run legal system were considered as good ingredients for Myanmar's expected take off. In the 1950s, Myanmar's gross domestic product (GDP) was growing consistently at an annual average rate of over 4 per cent, in contrast with the chequered performance of its neighbours. In the early 1960s, the country was poised for labour intensive industrialization with a number of textile and consumer product firms manufacturing export quality goods. Then came the putsch and the socialist revolution, followed by stagnation and decline. Twenty six years passed before Myanmar finally erupted and the change to market economy was forcibly brought in. Myanmar is now in the throes of the struggle for modernization and change. With the military still holding on to the reins of power on the one hand and the contending democratic opposition and the ethnic groups with diverse claims and interests on the other, Myanmar has not come out of its pains of growing up, to meet the challenges of the outside world. This paper will review significant developments and changes in 1993 and re examine the complex of situations influencing its sluggish economic performance and the equally slow rate of political transformation. Myanmar's problems and prospects for long term development and modernization are also analysed."
        Author/creator: Khin Maung Kyi
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Southeast Asian Affairs" 1994,
        Format/size: pdf (215K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012


    • Economy: general, analytical, statistical (Burma Economic Watch)
      Burma Economic Watch (BEW) aims to provide up-to-date and reliable economic data and commentary on Burma's economy. It is founded on the principle that it is only when democracy and freedom return to Burma that the country and its people will be able to achieve their economic potential. Information on Burma's economy is both difficult to obtain and notoriously unreliable. BEW aims to rectify this by disseminating dependable information on Burma compiled by the IMF, the World Bank, embassy and foreign government reports, economic journals, news and business publications and other verifiable sources. Information gleaned from official Burmese Government sources is used with caution. Burma's military regime stopped publishing its own national accounts data in 1998. BEW analyses are produced by economists and other specialists who volunteer their time. The documents are free and, with appropriate acknowledgment, may be quoted without restriction. The BEW analyses are edited by Sean Turnell and Alison Vicary of the Economics Department, Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. We welcome correspondence, contributions and enquiries. Please address all correspondence to: Dr Sean Turnell, Economics Department, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. sturnell@efs.mq.edu.au

      Individual Documents

      Title: Gas Attack
      Date of publication: 04 September 2007
      Description/subject: "Recent protests over gas prices in Burma raise a complex question: Why Is Burma -- which sits atop a massive reserve of natural gas -- such an economic basket case? Look no further than the military government's track record of abysmal economic management. Formally classified as a "least developed" country by the United Nations, Burma is mired in deep poverty. Annual per capita GDP is around $1,800 in terms of purchasing-power parity ($300 at the market exchange rate). That's considerably below the income of the next poorest members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Cambodia and Laos, which boast per capita purchasing-power parity GDPs of $2,700 and $2,100, respectively. Burma's unemployment rate is officially just over 10%, but the real figure may be closer to 30%, with many people in the labor force either underemployed or engaged in activities of very low productivity, such as subsistence farming. Add to that a moribund financial system. At a time when even Vietnam is enjoying a booming stock market, Burma boasts all of about 400 bank branches (most of which are decrepit agencies of state-owned institutions), and only 20% of the population have bank accounts. Inflation is rampant -- averaging between 30% and 40% per year over the past five years (it's currently around 50%) -- thanks to a government that for years has financed extraordinary fiscal deficits by running the printing presses..."
      Author/creator: Sean Turnell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wall Street Journal Online
      Format/size: pdf (16k)
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2007


      • Burma Economic Watch (statistics)

        Individual Documents

        Title: Tables and Data (June 2001)
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: a) Burma's Economy at a Glance; b) Selected Social Indicators; c) Output and Growth; d) Foreign Trade and Payments; e) Government Spending and Taxation; f) Monetary and Banking Indicators; g) Agricultural Output and Yields.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: View html version and/or download and open Word version (one footnote extra)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Tables%20and%20Data.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Burma Economic Watch and its members (analyses)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Burma Economic Watch blog
        Description/subject: Go here for the latest from Burma Economic Watch, including: Strange world of post-Nargis numbers revisited: after PONJA...More evidence of the absurdity of 'engagement' with SPDC...Major Aung Linn Htut Open letter to Than Shwe... NOT MUCH BANG FOR THE AID BUCK -- FUND for HIV/AIDS IN MYANMAR (FHAM)...Lagging the pack - the grim realities of Burma's place in the economic firmament...ODA Burma 1988-2005...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch/Economics Department Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2008


        Individual Documents

        Title: Investment law to decide if Burma’s growth will be ‘transformational’
        Date of publication: 14 September 2012
        Description/subject: "...Currently awaiting the signature of the president [returned unsigned to Parliament for amendment late October] is the new Foreign Investment Law designed to make the country more attractive to foreign investors. This law will grant them the right to hold long leases on land (until now leases have been greatly restricted and the state was the exclusive owner of most productive land). Overseas investors will also be able to enjoy a five-year profit tax “holiday,” other tax concessions, and are guaranteed against the nationalization of their businesses (a necessary step given Myanmar’s long history of state expropriation). So far, so good, but Myanmar’s new Foreign Investment Law is also reflective of the country’s continuing divisions. The law has been heavily influenced by the interests of Myanmar’s “crony” conglomerates, which in recent years have come to dominate key areas of the economy. With interests that extend to almost every sector, such cronies (as people in Myanmar routinely refer to them) are likely to feel the threat of foreign competition first and foremost. Accordingly, despite the liberal elements of the new Foreign Investment Law, other key clauses limit the role of foreign investors in a host of sectors, including retail trade, agricultural processing, fisheries and many light industries and services. The outcome of this struggle between liberal reformers and the beneficiaries of Myanmar’s past regime will ultimately shape the new Foreign Investment Law. This struggle will also determine if Myanmar is finally on the path to genuine transformational growth. A tiger in waiting perhaps, but not one yet."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Mizzima News"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 September 2012


        Title: Can a free-floating currency boost Burma?
        Date of publication: 30 March 2012
        Description/subject: Viewpoint by Sean Turnell...."The decision of Burma's new government to float the country's currency is a welcome one. Injecting a degree of rationality into a policy-making environment that for 50 years has been conspicuous by the absence of this quality, the policy has the potential to greatly assist Burma's re-emergence into the global economy, as well as to transform its public finances..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: BBC News - Business
        Format/size: pdf (84K)
        Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


        Title: Finding Dollars and Sense: Burma’s Economy in 2010
        Date of publication: November 2010
        Description/subject: "In recent times, questions concerning the state of Burma’s economy have been unusually prominent. The December 2009 visit to Burma of Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz, the release a few weeks later of the latest official report on post-Cyclone Nargis reconstruction, and a series of “privatization” announcements for an array of hitherto state-owned enterprises have all drawn attention to economic conditions in one of the world’s poorest countries. So what is the state of Burma’s economy in 2010? In a word, it is grim. Among those old enough to remember, there is something of a general consensus among Burmese farmers, workers, civil servants—even former soldiers and favored entrepreneurs—that Burma’s economy is at its lowest point since the end of the Second World War. Frustration, despair, and a feeling that something has to give in a country in which its natural endowment promises prosperity, all the while its political economy serves up destitution, are near enough to universally expressed sentiments. The purpose of this paper is to examine Burma’s economy at the cusp of 2010, and to briefly look at some of the basic reforms that will be necessary to restore economic security to the Burmese people. The paper is divided into two parts—part I taking up the question of Burma’s current economic state of play, and part II addressing some of the reforms necessary for medium and long-term growth..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
        Format/size: pdf (200K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


        Title: A Year of Promise, or Tempest-tossed Again?
        Date of publication: January 2010
        Description/subject: "Burma’s economy could go in one of two very different directions: onward and upward, or further down the same old spiral...."
        Author/creator: SEAN TURNELL
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" VOLUME 18 NO.1
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17485
        Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


        Title: A State-run "Market Economy"
        Date of publication: November 2009
        Description/subject: Without the rule of law, there are no guarantees the economy will be free of state interference under the 2008 Constitution... "The economic aspects of Burma’s 2008 Constitution have been notably absent from the recent written analysis of its implications for Burmese society. Though constitutions are not primarily economic documents, Burma’s latest Constitution does contain clauses that have economic import, and it is worth looking at them carefully. There is an important caveat, however, and this is that a regime that consistently honors the rule of law only in the breach and has many incentives (financial and otherwise) for maintaining the status quo is unlikely to change its behavior anytime soon; therefore, the Constitution may amount to little. Regardless of whether the military abides by its Constitution, however, the document can provide insight into the thinking of its drafters..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17134
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


        Title: Comment on the 'Post-Nargis Recovery and Preparedness Plan’ (PONREPP)
        Date of publication: 03 March 2009
        Description/subject: "On February 9, 2009, the Tripartite Core Group (TCG) released its latest report on reconstruction efforts in Burma in the wake of Cyclone Nargis. The TCG, which is comprised of representatives of the Government of the Union of Myanmar, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the UN, was established in May 2008 as the body to coordinate relief efforts. In July 2008 it produced the ‘Post-Nargis Joint Assessment’ (PONJA) report into the damage wrought by the cyclone, and subsequent periodic reviews. PONREPP is meant to be the capstone of these efforts, and the TCG’s vision – not just of post-Nargis reconstruction – but of Burma’s medium term economic development. Seen in the light of these ambitions, it is unfortunate that PONREPP is a deeply disappointing document. Written as if the advances made in the last four decades as to ‘what works and what does not’ in terms of economic development had not occurred, it is a throwback to the top-down, state-driven, planning mindset that, in the 1950s and 60s, condemned countless developing countries to stagnation and retreat. In PONREPP the private sector is notable largely by its absence – this primary driver of economic development subsumed by local authorities of dubious standing, the ministrations of local and international NGOs and, above all, by the state and its agencies. In short, the recommendations set out in PONREPP would condemn Burma, in the view of BEW, to a continuation of the policies and programmes that have impoverished this once prosperous and hopeful country. We will review PONREPP in detail in a future document but, briefly stated, our conclusions above are informed by some of the following:..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell, Wylie Bradford, Alison Vicary
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (91K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 March 2009


        Title: Economic Aspects of Burma's New Constitution
        Date of publication: 28 October 2008
        Description/subject: "In recent times much ink (bytes?) has been spilt in analysing Burma's new Constitution. Just about every angle of the various drafts have been explored, with the exception ' aspect. Now, however, with the �official' English language version of the new Constitution finally appearing, the time seems ripe to at least have a preliminary look at the new arrangements from an �economics' point of view..." N.B. the URL of the Burma Constitution in OBL is http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/Myanmar_Constitution-2008-en.pdf -- not as given in the BEW blog.
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch blog
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2008


        Title: Strange world of post-Nargis numbers revisited: after PONJA
        Date of publication: 13 August 2008
        Description/subject: "n a previous post we highlighted the extremely odd nature of the loss and damage estimates from cyclone Nargis paraded before the world by the SPDC in Rangoon on 25 May. The UN and ASEAN have now been able to carry out the so-called Post Nargis Joint Assessment exercise and report on the results. The PONJA team derived their estimates from findings in sampled village tract areas. They lay out their sampling methodology explicitly in their report. By contrast the SPDC report at the Pledging Conference contained no such methodological cues; indeed the specious precision of the counts of lost lampposts etc strongly conveyed the impression that the losses etc had been comprehensively *counted* rather than estimated from samples. As we noted, not only did the claimed figures lack credibility but the extremely haphazard approach taken to the exchange rate used to convert kyat to $US alone accounted for an inflation of the sought relief budget of the order of US$15om. The results of the PONJA exercise reveal even more disturbing discrepancies in the SPDC's request for funds, as outlined in this table..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch blog
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


        Title: Lagging the pack - the grim realities of Burma's place in the economic firmament
        Date of publication: 02 July 2008
        Description/subject: n May we illustrated the extent of the challenge (purely in terms of the remorseless arithmetic of growth) that Burma would face in achieving something like Thailand's current standard of living. To further underscore the urgency of the need for regime change in Burma, we have compiled an assessment of where Burma is situated currently with regard to a wide range of countries and what will be required in terms of growth performance to close the gaps. It is vital to bear in mind that what is presented here represents unavoidable, non-contextual constraints. Increasing per capita income to a multiple of 4, say, in a short time requires, by definition, very high rates of annual growth by historical standards; maintaining low rates of growth must cause the time taken to blow out significantly. With that said, consider the following depiction of Burma's relative economic position and prospects for catchup and convergence circa 2007.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch blog
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 November 2008


        Title: Burma’s Economy 2008: Current Situation and Prospects for Reform
        Date of publication: May 2008
        Description/subject: "...This paper will present the current state of Burma’s economy, and explore the reforms that will be necessary should sudden political change take place. Such proposed reforms are limited to those required in a short to medium term horizon to stabilize the macroeconomy and lay the foundations for future growth. Longer term structural changes are also necessary if Burma is to begin to ‘catch up’ to the relative prosperity of its neighbours and erstwhile peers, but these are noted simply in passing. Nevertheless, and even according to this shorter horizon, profound changes to Burma’s political economy will be necessary for any real gains in the socio-economic circumstances of its people. It will also be apparent from what follows that economic reform in Burma will require changes that are not limited to macroeconomic policies (fiscal consolidation, exchange rate unification, interest rate liberalization, and so on), but which also includes fundamental institutional reform that will embrace the application of: - effective property rights; - basic freedoms (including at least an approximation of the rule of law);1 - basic functioning infrastructure; - government policy-making that is rational, consistent and informed by a reasonably honest and efficient civil service; - market opening policies, including the removal of remaining restrictions on private enterprise; - openness to foreign trade and investment. It is scarcely conceivable that such elements will be adopted by Burma’s current leaders, which as a consequence raises the question of the country’s political trajectory. The restrictions on enterprise imposed by Burma’s ruling junta, the self-styled ‘State Peace and Development Council’ (SPDC), are precisely the means of its economic power and, unreconstructed, it is unlikely to ‘do a China’ by relaxing economic control while maintaining its grip on political power. Accordingly, there is a presumption in this paper that the reforms outlined will be those applied by a new government in Burma, ideally democratically elected, but at the very least one that is interested in pursuing genuine economic development in its truest sense..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch/Economics Department Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
        Format/size: pdf (199K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2008


        Title: Migrant Worker Remittances and Burma: An Economic Analysis of Survey Results
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: Abstract" In recent years great interest has awakened in the question of migrant remittances. A phenomenon hitherto regarded as of little consequence, the potential for remittances to act as a means for poverty alleviation and economic development has increasingly come to enjoy a broad consensus. In the light of this, and the recognition that for many developing countries remittances constitute a larger and more stable source of foreign exchange than either trade, investment or aid, a vast and growing literature on the topic has emerged. However, and notwithstanding this broad interest, there is yet to appear any major study with respect to the question of migrant remittances to Burma. This paper seeks to at least partially redress this void by examining the extent, nature and pattern of remittances made by Burmese migrant workers in Thailand. Drawing upon a survey of such workers conducted by the authors, we find that remittances to Burma are large, disproportionately used to ensure simple survival, and are overwhelmingly realised via informal mechanisms. The latter attributes are a direct consequence of Burma’s dysfunctional economy, which sadly also severely limits the gains to the country that remittances might otherwise bring..... JEL Classification: O16, P34, Q14..... Keywords: Remittances, Burma, Migration, Development Finance.
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell, Alison Vicary and Wylie Bradford
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch/Economics Department Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
        Format/size: pdf (449K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 November 2008


        Title: Myanmar’s economy in 2006
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: Conclusion: "In 2006, Myanmar’s possession and exploitation of prized natural resources continued to flatter the appearance of the country’s economic circumstances. Behind this façade, however, is a narrative of chronic failure that is the consequence of a political economy that is yet to create the institutions necessary for long-term economic development. Such institutions, which include effective property rights, freedom to contract and a modicum of macroeconomic stability, are created out of domestic constituencies possessing incentives to bring about change. The economic rents that are accruing from Myanmar’s offshore energy deposits could further weaken these constituencies. Optimism with regard to Myanmar’s economy accordingly must remain, for the moment, suspended."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (153K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Burma Economic Watch, 2006, Issue 1
        Date of publication: November 2006
        Description/subject: 1. Profiles of Burma’s Banks, Sean Turnell; 2. The Risks and Benefits of Using Brokers: The Journey from Burma into Thailand; Jacqueline Lees; 3. Employment and Poverty in Mae Hong Son Province Thailand: ‘Burmese’ Refugees in the Labour Market Alison Vicary 4. Afterword: Shrimp Selling and Tuna Canning in Mahachai (Thailand), Kyi May Kaung.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


        Title: Burma’s Economic Prospects
        Date of publication: 29 March 2006
        Description/subject: Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, 29 March 2006...According to official statistics released by Burma’s ruling military regime, the self-styled ‘State Peace and Development Council’ (SPDC), Burma’s economy grew by an astonishing 12.2 per cent in 2005. Beating even the previous year’s stellar performance of 12.0 per cent, and coupled with double-digit growth all the way back to 1999, by these measures Burma is the fastest-growing economy in the world. What’s more, Burma achieved this astonishing growth using less energy, less material resources and, in the middle of it all, while negotiating a banking and financial crisis that was as serious as any in history. Truly, a miracle economy indeed. It is, alas, also a fantasy economy. Under the SPDC, the real Burma is a wasteland of missed opportunity, exploitation and direst poverty. More realistic numbers of Burma’s economic performance calculated by Burma Economic Watch show that far from stellar growth, Burma’s economy actually shrank in 2003 and 2004. In 2005 Burma will likely have returned to growth, but at a rather more modest 2 to 3 per cent. Similar growth can be expected for the coming year. None of this growth, however, has anything to do with improved economic fundamentals, but with the windfall gains accruing to the state from the rising demand for Burma’s exports of natural gas. The real Burma is one of the poorest countries in Southeast Asia. Only 50 years ago, it was one of the wealthiest. The dramatic turnaround of Burma’s fortunes is the product of a state apparatus that for decades has claimed the largest portion of the country’s output, while simultaneously and deliberately dismantling, blocking and undermining basic market institutions. The excessive hand of the state, which for many years was wedded to 2 a peculiar form of socialism, has manifested itself in a number of maladies that are the direct cause of Burma’s current disarray..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (101.91 K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


        Title: "Burma Economic Watch" 1/2005
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: 1. Preliminary Survey Results about Burmese Migrant Workers in Thailand: State/division of origin, year of entry, minimum wages and work permits, Wylie Bradford & Alison Vicary... 2. A Survey of Microfinance in Burma, Sean Turnell... 3. Burma/Myanmar: The Role of The Military in the Economy, David I. Steinberg.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Economic Watch" 1/2005
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


        Title: Burma’s April Fools
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: Are the official economic figures just a bad joke?... "It’s Official. Burma has the fastest growing economy in the world. Statistics released by the country’s Central Statistical Office, and reported in the New Light of Myanmar on April 3, reveal that Burma enjoyed an average rate of economic growth over the last four years (the first four years of the current five year plan) of 12.4 percent. Burma’s performance leaves famous growth laggards such as China (annual growth of ‘only’ about 8 percent) in its wake. As for the former Asian ‘tigers’ and rich industrial countries—well, ‘mediocre’ is about the best that can be said of their relative performances. Such growth is also a significant historical achievement. Previous five year plans yielded official economic growth in Burma of 7.5 percent (1992-1996) and 8.5 percent (1997-2001). Not bad, but the upward trend must surely be proof that the SPDC [State Peace and Development Council] is growing in the job of running the country. Certainly Burma’s (current) Prime Minister, Lt-Gen Soe Win, is confident enough to discard his previous growth estimate for 2005-2006 of 11.3 percent, for the more bullish mark of 12.6 percent. Let the good times roll. Of course, observers of Burma and its economy will know that the country begins its financial year on April 1. In many cultures this date is reserved for the playing of pranks and practical jokes. Suddenly a possibility emerges—are these latest reports of Burma’s phenomenal economic growth simply an elaborate April fool’s joke? A device, perhaps, to bring a smile to the weary faces of the Burmese people from a regime that is, at heart, just a bunch of loveable tricksters?..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


        Title: Some Talking Points Regarding Economics, and the ‘Independent Report’ for the EC
        Date of publication: 03 April 2005
        Description/subject: "In the following, we review certain economic aspects of Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process: Challenges and Opportunities, a self-labelled ‘Independent Report’ prepared for the European Commission by Professor Robert Taylor and Mr Morten Pedersen. We largely confine our comments to economic considerations, but within this sphere we find that the Report has numerous and severe limitations. Due largely to a scarcity of time, our comments are to a certain extent preliminary, and will be developed further in a subsequent issue of BEW that will address this and other recent reports on Burma’s economy. Feel free to use the following in ways you find useful, though for academic purposes we regard this ‘review’ as very much a ‘working draft’ at present. Of course, we welcome comments. We can be contacted, as always, at BEW@efs.mq.edu.au Website http://www.econ.mq.edu.au/BurmaEconomicWatch
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: html, (65K), Word (75K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Burma_Day-BEW.doc
        Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


        Title: BEW update November 2004
        Date of publication: 16 November 2004
        Description/subject: "In recent days some new data has been released by the Asian Development Bank that allows us to update our analysis of Burma's growth performance to 2001. You might recall that our previous analysis, conducted by Wylie Bradford and contained in BEW No.1/2004, recast Burma's growth performance according to purchasing power parity in international dollars. This provided a far superior statistical base from which to examine Burma's economic performance (relative to a common standard) than hitherto possible using 'market' or 'official' exchange rates (and unadjusted for inflation). The most important finding of Wylie's update is that, in 2001, economic growth in Burma, measured in inflation-adjusted international dollars, became negative. Of course this is well before the recent banking and financial crisis, the imposition of stiffer sanctions - and greatly at odds with the regime's claims."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (97K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


        Title: Burma Economic Watch, 2004 No. 2
        Date of publication: 21 October 2004
        Description/subject: Fiant fruges? Burma’s sui generis growth experience, Wylie Bradford; The State’s Incentive Structure In Burma’s Sugar Sector and Inflated Official Data: A Case Study of the Industry in Pegu Division, Alison Vicary; Some Further Developments in Burma’s Financial Sector, Sean Turnell; Sanctions and Burma: Revisiting the Case Against, Alfred Oehlers...In this issue of BEW we have four papers for your consideration: First is an article by Wylie Bradford which conducts an ‘external critique’ of the economic data Burma supplies to the rest of the world. Often used uncritically by commentators on Burma, such data has been interrogated according to its internal contradictions before (by BEW, other writers, and even by some international agencies), but the purpose here is to examine how it fits cross-country experiences historically - the empirical realities that establish the ‘stylised facts’ we can use to test the credibility of theory and data alike. Wylie finds that the only way Burma’s supplied data can be believed is that we simultaneously also believe ‘that Burma has discovered a hitherto unknown recipe for generating rapid growth…that a country with the characteristics of a growth disaster is in fact a growth titan’. Our second article, by Alison Vicary, likewise investigates problems in Burma’s official economic data, albeit with a tight focus upon the sugarcane growing and processing industry in Pegu Division. Alison’s comprehensive fieldwork paints a Kafkaesque picture – of an industry in which distorted incentives creates layers of deception as each stage in the production hierarchy inflates cultivation and output numbers to meet arbitrary targets imposed by the state. She highlights the extraordinary case of Burma’s recent investments in new sugar mills, mills that unaccountably seem to have both increased the country’s sugar output and, yet, also its need for sugar imports. Finally, she observes that the spectre of indebtedness and landlessness once more stalks the land. The third piece, by Sean Turnell, continues the examination of the ramifications of Burma’s banking crisis of 2003, and other issues concerning Burma’s financial sector. Amongst the latter include Burma’s efforts to extricate itself from allegations that the country’s financial system is prey to money-laundering. These efforts have been conducted at a high diplomatic level and seem to have reached something of a crescendo as BEW went to press. Sean examines the shifting fortunes amongst Burma’s surviving private banks and, perhaps not surprisingly, finds a winner in the bank regarded as closest to officers in Burma’s military regime, serving and retired. That Burma’s financial system is still ill-functioning is highlighted by a quote from a real estate developer in Rangoon who, bemoaning low sales for up-market apartments, observed that ‘buyers have to pay in cash, so they have to carry the money in bags, which is not very convenient…’. Finally, but by no means least, we have Alfred Oehler’s article on economic sanctions and Burma. As noted at the start of this introduction, the question of sanctions has dominated the discourse on Burma and its economy in 2004. Much recent commentary has taken up what might be called an anti-sanctions position, but here Alfred presents the argument that Burma’s particular structural and institutional characteristics make sanctions a potent device in pressuring its military regime to undertake internal political reform. Alfred notes that many anti-sanctions campaigners unwittingly base their arguments on a particularly narrow interpretation of ‘neo-classical’ economics which assumes, amongst many other things, that a country’s trade is (in the absence of sanctions) in a welfare-maximising, optimal equilibrium. He also highlights that much of the anti-sanctions literature is informed by a largely anecdotal understanding of Burma’s economy. A truer understanding, he argues, would identify the highly dualistic nature of Burma’s economy into formal and informal components. The former, dominated by Burma’s military regime and its allies, is most vulnerable to sanctions while the effects of sanctions on the informal economy (within which most people in Burma live) have been much exaggerated. Whatever your feelings on the sanctions question, Alfred’s article is a considered, thoughtful piece that deserves attention.
        Author/creator: Wylie Bradford, Alison Vicary, Sean Turnell, Alfred Oehlers
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (1.13 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


        Title: Burma Economic Watch: 2004 No. 1
        Date of publication: June 2004
        Description/subject: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Estimates for Burma; Burma Bank Update; Economic survey of 'Burmese' working in Thailand: An overview of a BEW project... "First up is an important piece by Wylie Bradford on coming to grips with the perennial difficulties of making comparisons between the economic performance of Burma and other countries. A principal obstacle that researchers face is the question of what common standard to employ – a difficult decision with respect to any country, but much worse in Burma’s surreal universe of multiple exchange rates. The decision is not a trivial one but, as Wylie demonstrates, is critical in determining outcomes. Sadly, many researchers on Burma pay too little heed to the issue, and their findings suffer as a result. Wylie’s contribution here in BEW provides something of a primer for getting it right. Our second article is written by Sean Turnell, and is concerned with updating his analysis of Burma’s banking crisis of 2003. A devastating if little understood event (not least by Burma’s monetary authorities!), its effects in undermining whatever trust the people of Burma had in formal monetary institutions will have profound implications for the country’s economic development. The need to update the story of the crisis is prompted by a number of developments, including the release of relevant data by the International Monetary Fund, and the growing scandal of recent revelations as to the extent to which leading financial institutions in Burma have been involved in money laundering. Our third article, by Alison Vicary, outlines a major project currently being undertaken by BEW into the contribution of Burmese refugees and migrant workers to the economy of Thailand. The project is an enormous logistical operation that will create a vast database from surveys that are currently in the field across the length and breadth of Thailand. The project is a unique one, and its findings will be reported on in many subsequent issues of BEW..."
        Author/creator: Wylie Bradford, Sean Turnell, Alison Vicary
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (613K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2004


        Title: ECONOMIC NON-VIABILITY, HUNGER AND MIGRATION: THE CASE OF MAWCHI TOWNSHIP
        Date of publication: 14 May 2003
        Description/subject: "Mawchi is a township in Northwest Karenni that was once a successful mining town. It was often referred to as 'little England' because of the life style on display there and its accompanying standards of living. Private British business interests developed the mines in Mawchi between the world wars, but the local economy began to decline, with the rest of Burma, with Ne Win’s Burmese Way to Socialism. The economy of Mawchi, and the standard of living for people in the Township, has continued to decline across successive military governments. The latest and the most severe economic crisis in Mawchi is the result of the regime's 1996 forced relocation campaign. This program led to the total collapse of agricultural production in the area and the subsequent collapse of the rest of the economy. All the villagers from the surrounding areas were forced to move into the town of Mawchi. The cessation of agricultural production brought about a massive increase in the price of food and a large increase in unemployment. Now most people are more or less constantly hungry and spend their days scrounging around looking for food. All the children in the city are engaged in helping their parents obtain food - collecting birds, worms, frogs and insects to eat. Hardly any rice produced gets to market as it is kept for the family to eat and to pay back debts. The small amount of rice that does reach the market, which most cannot afford, is of the lowest quality and fit only for being boiled. This has caused most people to leave the township for Thailand and a number of the cease-fire areas..."
        Author/creator: Alison Vicary
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: BURMA ECONOMIC WATCH
        Format/size: html (86K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma's Banking Crisis: A Commentary
        Date of publication: 06 March 2003
        Description/subject: "... Burma is currently undergoing one of its periodic monetary and financial crises. Unusually, however, this time the crisis is not a characteristic de-monetisation episode, but a failure of confidence in the country's nascent private banking sector. In this sense the current crisis is probably less immediately destructive of the 'wealth' of ordinary Burmese than previous dramas (as shall be examined below), but its longer-term damage to Burma's economy and to key institutions is likely to be severe indeed. Trust is the foundation of banking and the key ingredient of a country's social capital. There must be little of this (already scarce) commodity in Burma today. The following is an attempt to make sense of some of the developments that have been taking place in Burma's banking sector in recent weeks. It suffers from the usual information difficulties that come with attempting real-time commentary on the opaque world of Burma's political economy. It is hoped, nevertheless, that it might prove useful in at least shining a dim light into some very dark corners. It is not a comprehensive account of individual events either, but it arguably provides a sufficient outline upon which to begin a process of analysis. Extensive use is made throughout of a more detailed examination of the structure of Burma's banking system contained in Turnell (2002). We have made wide-spread use of many other sources, where possible indicated below. Finally, comments and suggestions would be greatly welcomed.
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell and Alison Vicary
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: html (81K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: MIGRANT WORKERS FROM BURMA AND THAILAND: POLICY REVIEW AND PROTECTION MECHANISMS
        Date of publication: 21 February 2003
        Description/subject: COMMEMORATING 10 YEARS OF POLICY GOVERNING MIGRANT WORKERS FROM BURMA...CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION: Summary of Migrant Worker Policy in Thailand and Recommendations for Reform; Policy Governing Migrant Workers in Thailand: An Examination of Policy and its Critics (Alison Vicary, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)... B. MIGRANT WORKERS IN THAILAND: Opening Remarks and Keynote Speech - Nakorn Silap-acha, Director of the Ministry of Labour; Resolutions of the Alien Labour Policy Committee - Dr. Premsak Piayura, Chairman of the Labour Committee House of Representatives, Thai Rak Thai M.P for Khon Kaen; Policy Motivations behind the Cabinet Resolutions of 2001 and 2002 - Sumsak Kanchnaborn, Representative from the Ministry of Labour; Migrant Worker Policy: Where to Now? Dr. Supang Chantavanich, Director of the Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University; Case Study of Migrant Labour Policy: The Textile and Garment Industry in Mae Sot - Dr. Sirinan Kittisubsatit, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University; The Problems of Migrant Workers from Burma - Nay Min, Migrant Workers from Burma, Representative; The Failure of the Thai Legal System: The Case of Ma Suu Preeda Tongchumnun and Surapong Kongchantuk - Law Project Coordinator Law Society of Thailand Forum Asia Human Rights of Stateless Persons and Ethnic Minorities Subcommittee; Migrant Workers from Burma: The Thai Government’s Policy Confusion - Bandit Thanchaisettawut, NGO Researcher, Arom Pongpa-Ngun Foundation;l The Protection of Migrant Workers in Thailand - Adisorn Kerdmongkol, Thai NGO Network on Migrants and their Families in Thailand, Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma (TACDB)... C. MIGRANT WORKERS FROM THAILAND: Overview: Thai Migrant Workers - Dr. Supang Chantavanich, Director of the Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University; Inequality in Thailand: The Cause of Migration - Dr. Yongyuth Chalamwong, Research Director Human Resources and Social Development Program, Thai Development Research Institute (TDRI); The Problems and Solutions for Thai Workers in Japan - H.E. Mr. Kasit Piromya, Ambassador of Thailand to Japan; Human Security Issues for Thai Migrant Workers - Salika Sorapipatana and Taksa Aura-ek, Asian Research Centre for Migration (ARCM), Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University; Closing Speech - Somchai Homlaor, Secretary General, Forum Asia Foundation... APPENDIX 1: Workers’ Demands in a Textile and Garment Factory, Mae Sot - Yaung Chi Oo Workers’ Association, Information Release 24 June 2003... APPENDIX 2: Case Summaries: Migrant Workers from Burma - Interpretation and Translation Service (ITS)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch (BEW)
        Format/size: PDF (304.85 K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


        Title: Reforming the Banking System in Burma: A Survey of the Problems and Possibilities
        Date of publication: 25 September 2002
        Description/subject: Sean Turnell, Economics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Abstract: "A country's financial system plays a critical role in its economic development. It is the vehicle through which the means of exchange are created, resources are mobilised and allocated, risks are managed, government spending is financed, foreign capital is accessed, and it is via financial institutions that individuals can protect themselves against economic fluctuations. Notwithstanding this essential role, Burma has not had a properly functioning financial system for four decades. The present system, an unstable mix of monolithic state-owned institutions and a cohort of new private banks of dubious legitimacy, is a serious brake on Burma's economy. This paper examines the role financial institutions can play in a country's development, explores how Burma's current system falls far short of this ideal and broadly outlines how it might be reformed. It argues the case for the standard remedies professed by economists of liberalisation, stabilisation and privatisation but, critically, suggests that these must be preceded by more fundamental reforms that create the legal, regulatory and other infrastructure that are the prerequisites of a modern, and efficient, financial system. ..". Keywords: Burma; Banks; Regulation; Supervision; Financial Liberalisation; Economic Development. Paper presented to the 1st Collaborative International Conference of the Burma Studies Group, Gothenburg, Sweden, 21-25 September 2002
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Format/size: pdf (239K), html (380K), Word (187K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Turnell_bankreform.doc
        http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Turnell_bankreform.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Burma's Economy - A Reply to Zaw Tun
        Date of publication: 15 January 2002
        Description/subject: "In August 2000 a speech by Brigadier General Zaw Tun, Deputy Minister for National Planning and Economic Development in Burma's military regime, was circulated on various mailing lists on the internet. The speech -- online on this website at http://www.ibiblio.rg/obl/docs/zaw_tun%2007-07-2000.htm -- which had been delivered a month earlier at a seminar on Burma's economy at the Institute of Economics in Rangoon, demonstrated, in the words BurmaNet, 'a frankness and grasp of economics not generally displayed by a ranking member of the regime'. The purpose of this note is to re-examine Zaw Tun's speech in the light of recent economic developments, and against what might be considered a consensual view of sound economics for a country such as Burma. Finding that Zaw Tun's grasp of economics is rather less than first appears, the note concludes that Burma's economy is also in a far worse state than he suggests. Turning this around, moreover, will not come from mere tinkering with economic policy in the ways he indicates, but will require the profound reconstruction of the country's political economy. The note is organised according to the same categories that were employed in Zaw Tun's original speech. They were: 1.Growth and GDP; 2.Investment; 3.Trade Policy; 4.Taxation; 5.Currency; 6.Interest Rates; 7.Open Discussion."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell (Macquarie University)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Banking in Burma: New Frontiers, or a Barren Wasteland?
        Date of publication: July 2001
        Description/subject: "A countrys financial system provides its means of exchange and is the mechanism through which its resources are mobilised and allocated. The financial system is the arena in which economic risk can be managed, government debt can be financed, foreign capital can be accessed and managed, and it is the vehicle through which monetary policy can be implemented. According to Larry Summers, the former Secretary of the US Treasury, a countrys financial system provides the wheels for its development...The foundations of a proper functioning financial system are transparency, accountability, governance and the effective transmission of market signals. Burmas financial system possesses few of these virtues. Burmas banks do not fulfil the role allotted to such institutions in allocating resources in ways beyond the whims of the military. Worse, they may be little more than facades for the activity of criminals and a narco-state. Unfortunately the history of financial sector reform in Burma does not lend optimism to the hope that this might change without more fundamental changes in the country. Like so much else in Burma, the emergence of a viable banking system must await the political reform that is so long overdue." Extra keywords: money laundering, joint venture regulation, exchange controls.
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: html (105k)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: BEW News (June 2001)
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: Sanctions, Burma's economy in brief, Japan, China, Thailand, IT Revolution and Nuclear Power in Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Foreign Direct Investment and the Garments Industry in Burma
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: "The coup d'etat by General Ne Win in 1962, and the introduction of the Burmese Way to Socialism, ensured that for almost 30 years foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma was near enough to non-existent. In 1989, after the uprisings of the previous year and the re-shuffling of the upper military echelons into the reconstituted State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the door to foreign investment was opened once more. The following attempts to clarify the state of play regarding FDI in Burma. A particular emphasis is placed on the apparel industry, the one area of FDI growth in Burma in recent years. The first section presents an overview of the procedures for foreign investment, highlighting the role of the military regime in garnering resources. The second section briefly examines the data relating to FDI in Burma, highlighting its limitations. The third section provides an overview of FDI, including the recent collapse, the main sectors in receipt of foreign investment, and source countries. Overall, FDI is small in comparison with comparable countries and the prognosis for future investment is poor due to the winding down of certain prominent gas pipeline projects. The fourth section examines Burma's growing exports of apparel, notably to the USA. Due to the unreliable nature of the data surrounding Burma's apparel industry, a brief comparison is made with this industrys development in Cambodia..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: html (491K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The FEC Crisis (BEW Comment, June 2001)
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: "...the crisis that is rapidly descending upon Burmas Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs) system..."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: A Proposal for a Currency Board in a Democratic Burma
        Date of publication: August 1999
        Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper argues that a currency board will provide a newly-democratic Burma with the stable monetary system it will need after decades of currency debasement under military rule. An old idea that has successfully re-emerged in recent years in a number of countries, currency boards are relatively simple and transparent institutions that can provide stability, predictability and credibility to an emerging economy's monetary institutions. Currency boards impose certain constraints on the ability of governments to conduct discretionary economic policies. The advantages they bring in establishing confidence in the currency, however, outweighs such considerations in countries whose greater need is the establishment of the sound foundations of a market economy."
        Author/creator: Sean Turnell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
        Format/size: pdf (102K); html (169K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.efs.mq.edu.au/intranet/docs/dept_docs/Econ_docs/research_papers2/1999_research_papers/6-...
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Economy: general, analytical, statistical (Government of Myanmar perspectives)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Central Statistical Corganisation: Selected Monthly Economic Indicators
      Description/subject: Selected Monthly Economic Indicators: * Foreign Trade * Production * Prices * Finance * Foreign Investment * Transportation and Travel * Labour and Employment
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: [Myanmar] Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: New Rivalry Taking Shape?
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: "Rumors of a split within Burma�s ruling military council have long focused on the alleged enmity between Gen Maung Aye and Lt-Gen Khin Nyunt. But now it appears that a new standoff has emerged, with even greater potential to jeopardize the junta�s unity. According to sources in Tokyo and Rangoon, Sr-Gen Than Shwe, chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has begun to assert greater authority over the regime�s economic policies, pitting him against its economics czar, Gen David Abel. Abel, who is a minister for the prime minister�s office, is highly regarded by Asian economic planners as a rare realist within Burma�s ruling clique. They see him as a key player in efforts to implement reforms needed to lift the country out of its economic morass. As such, he is a familiar face at regional gatherings aimed at enhancing Burma�s economic engagement with the rest of Asia..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


      Title: Brigadier General Zaw Tun on Burma's Economy
      Date of publication: 07 July 2000
      Description/subject: [BurmaNet adds-This translation of an unpublished report was circulated on mailing lists on August 10, 2000. The original speech was on July 7. The comments attributed to Gen. Zaw Tun indicate a frankness and grasp of economics not generally displayed by a ranking member of the regime.] "Brigadier General Zaw Tun, Deputy Minister for National Planning and Economic Development, delivered a speech at the "Seminar on Myanmar Economy" held in the Padamya conference room of the Department of Management Studies, Institute of Economics, on 7 July 2000. The seminar lasted over 3 hours from 9:00am to 12:15pm..." He was subsequntly dismissed. See "A Reply to Zaw Tun" by Burma Economic Watch in this section at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Reply_to_Zaw_Tun.htm
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SPDC>ABSDF>BurmanetNews
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Review of the Financial, Economic & Social Conditions of the Union of Myanmar
      Date of publication: June 1997
      Description/subject: Excerpts from a report by the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development > "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Agriculture, forestry and fisheries
    Agriculture and Forestry have been transferred to new top-level categories, "Agriculture" and "Forest and Forest Peoples" in Main Library. "Fisheries" remains here for a while.

    • Fisheries

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Threat to Fisheries and Aquaculture from Climate Change
      Date of publication: 08 May 2014
      Description/subject: Key Messages: • Significance of fisheries and aquaculture. Fish provide essential nutrition and income to an ever-growing number of people around the world, especially where other food and employment resources are limited. Many fishers and aquaculturists are poor and ill-prepared to adapt to change, making them vulnerable to impacts on fish resources. • Nature of the climate change threat. Fisheries and aquaculture are threatened by changes in temperature and, in freshwater ecosystems, precipitation. Storms may become more frequent and extreme, imperilling habitats, stocks, infrastructure and livelihoods. • The need to adapt to climate change. Greater climate variability and ncertainty complicate the task of identifying impact pathways and areas of vulnerability, requiring research to devise and pursue coping strategies and improve the adaptability of fishers and aquaculturists. • Strategies for coping with climate change. Fish can provide opportunities to adapt to climate change by, for example, integrating aquaculture and agriculture, which can help farmers cope with drought while boosting profits and household nutrition. Fisheries management must move from seeking to maximize yield to increasing adaptive capacity.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: World Fish Center
      Format/size: pdf (747K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Climate%20Change%20and%20Fisheries.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


      Title: Coping and Adaptation against Decreasing Fish Resources :Case Study of Fishermen in Lake Inle, Myanmar
      Date of publication: March 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Fishermen depend on Lake Inle in Myanmar for their livelihood. However, the lake has been undergoing environmental degradation over the years. Adding to the long-term decrease in the catch because of this degradation, these fishermen faced extremely low water levels in 20 I 0, which they had previously not experienced. Based on field surveys, this paper aims to reveal how fishermen adapted and coped with the changing environment as well as the sudden shock of the abnormally low water levels"....Keywords: coping, adaptation, resource, fishermen
      Author/creator: Ikuko OKAMOTO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 329
      Format/size: pdf (183K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


      Title: Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study
      Date of publication: July 2009
      Description/subject: Abstract "This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand."
      Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO Discussion Paper 206
      Format/size: pdf (289K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


      Title: The Shrimp Export Boom and Small-Scale Fishermen in Myanmar
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This paper examines the impact of the recent shrimp export boom in Myanmar on the economic state of small-scale fishermen. Results indicate that there has been an active increase in shrimp fishing stimulated by expanding export demand. With this, the income of shrimp fishermen has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. However, future prospects appear gloomy due to the possibility of over exploitation of shrimp resources... Keywords: Fishery, Resources, Export JEL classification: N5, Q2
      Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 135)
      Format/size: pdf (248 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/135.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: Trends of Development of Myanmar Fisheries: With References to Japanese Experiences
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Judging by the increase in landing volume, Myanmar fisheries is developing fast. Due to the amount of export earning fisheries sector have its role as one of the main contributors to the national GDP. Thus fisheries are recognized as an important economic sector for the country. The fisheries landing is significantly increasing in recent years. It is more than three times larger than that of 1990s. In 1990-91 the earning form fisheries export was only US$ 13 million. It has been significantly increased in 10 years to US$ 218 million in 2000-2001 and then US$ 250 million in 2001-2002. Thereby fisheries export is promoted and the landings are given priority for exporting. Due to the lack of proper reporting and recording system, it is difficult to clarify the actual domestic utilization of fisheries products in terms of food or non food..."
      Author/creator: Khin Maung Soe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (VRF paper 433)
      Format/size: pdf (599K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


      Title: Myanmar Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION: International mission team members; Myanmar fisheries sector... MYANMAR - MISSION REPORT ON INLAND AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES: Myanmar - aquaculture and inland fisheries: Inland fisheries and aquaculture resources; The role of inland fisheries and aquaculture in people's livelihoods in Myanmar; Participation in capture fisheries; Gender aspects; Securing food; Fish consumption; Identifying the poor; Understanding peoples livelihoods... Leasable fisheries; Auction process, duration of lease and renewal; Fishery management; Thaung Tha Man - Mandalay; Mandalay town; South Mandalay; Inle Lake; Open fisheries and rice field resources: Enhancement of freshwater leasable fisheries/culture-based fisheries; Reservoirs; Freshwater aquaculture: Land use for aquaculture; Rice-fish culture; Pond aquaculture; Freshwater species cultured in Myanmar; Stocking and harvesting; Government hatcheries; Private hatcheries; Feeds and feeding... Marketing: Inle Lake fishery and marketing; Institutions and their roles; The role of the Department of Fisheries (DoF); The role of Myanmar Fisheries Federation (MFF)... Inland fisheries and aquaculture: conclusions and recommendations; Information and statistics and appropriate valuation of fisheries resources; Aquaculture and aquatic resources in rural development; Institutions, communications and networking; Research... MYANMAR - MISSION REPORT ON COASTAL AQUACULTURE: Myanmar - coastal aquaculture; Coastal aquaculture in Myanmar; Coastal habitats and resources; Brief history and status of coastal aquaculture... Sub-sector analysis: Shrimp farming; Crab farming; Marine and brackishwater fish culture (groupers and seabass); Other species; Role of coastal aquaculture in people's livelihoods in Myanmar... Gender: Role of small-holder aquaculture? Income diversification... Resources management and environmental issues: Coastal mangrove forests; Coral reef resource systems; Other environmental management issues for aquaculture... Government policies, plans and institutions: Institutions; Land use planning and coastal management; Business investment in coastal aquaculture; Market trends and implications... Coastal aquaculture: conclusions and recommendations: Coastal communities; Environmental issues and resource sustainability; Aquaculture technology; Institutional support and capacity building; Aquatic animal disease control and health management; Business investment in coastal aquaculture; Market trends and implications; Coastal fisheries resources; Entry points for support in coastal aquaculture... ANNEX 1: MISSION ITINERARY; ANNEX 2: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MYANMAR LEASABLE FISHERIES; ANNEX 3: LIST OF PERSONS MET; ANNEX 4: READING AND REFERENCES.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FAO
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/ad497e
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: Myanmar Fisheries Profile
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FAO
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index.asp?lang=en&iso3=MMR&subj=6
      http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_MM/en
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: What's Wrong in Ranong
      Date of publication: February 2001
      Description/subject: Ranong is the second largest Burmese community in Thailand, where many migrants work in the fishing and its related industries. However, the community has been hit by an economic downturn in part caused by the loss of fishing concessions from Burma.
      Author/creator: John S. Moncrief/Ranong, Thailand and Kawthaung, Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Support to Special Plan for Prawn and Shrimp Farming, Myanmar.
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: DEVELOPMENT PLANS, FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, JOINT VENTURES, MARKETS, MYANMAR, PRAWNS AND SHRIMPS, PRODUCTION ECONOMICS, PROFITABILITY, SHELLFISH CULTURE, TAXES. Investment, finance and credit. Development economics and policies. Bangkok 1998 Aquaculture production
      Author/creator: Basir Kunhimohamed, A.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FAO
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Reformulation and Strengthening of Fisheries Statistics System
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: An account is given of activities implemented during the Technical Cooperation Programme project 'Reformulation and strengthening of fisheries statistics system' in Myanmar which included the following: 1) computer training for staff; 2) species guide for field enumerators and for training purposes; 3) frame survey of Yangon Division; 4) data collection and catch analysis on industrial fisheries (trawlers); 5) training on grouping and ranking programme; 6) species coding list for industrial landing forms; 7) a study tour to Mee Pya and Thi La War fishing villages; 8) a visit to Marine Resources Centre and Fish Landing Site; 9) assistance to national gear technologist and aquaculturist; 10) training on 'The collection of catch and effort statistics, and basic sampling theory'; and, 11) workshop on Fisheries Resources Management. CATCH COMPOSITION, DATA ANALYSIS, DATA COLLECTION, DATA PROCESSING, FISHERY DATA, MARINE FISHERIES, STATISTICAL METHODS. Fisheries production, Mathematical and statistical methods. Bangkok 1997
      Author/creator: Dr Sann Aung (FAO National Expert/Fisheries Statistician)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FAO (TCP/MYA/4553)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Site selection towards sustainable shrimp aquaculture in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 1998
      Author/creator: Charles L. Angell (FAO Shrimp Culture Environment Expert)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FAO
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Freshwater Fisheries Law - SLORC Law No. 1/91 (English)
      Date of publication: 04 March 1991
      Description/subject: State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 1/91 (4 March 1991)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222123/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/myanmar%20law/Indexs/lr_law...
      Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


      Title: The Myanmar Marine Fisheries Law - SLORC Law No. 9/90 (English)
      Date of publication: 25 April 1990
      Description/subject: State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 9/90 (25 April 1990)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) via The Burma Lawyers' Council
      Format/size: pdf (82K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222005/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/lr_e_ml90_09....
      http://eelink.net/~asilwildlife/MyanmarFisheries.htm
      Date of entry/update: 09 December 2010


  • Banking

    Individual Documents

    Title: FINANCIAL REFORM: IT’S IMPACTS ON BANKING SECTOR IN CAMBODIA, LAOS, MYANMAR AND VIETNAM
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT" "This study focuses on financial sector reform-it’s impacts on banking sector in CLMV during 1990s. The objective of this study are (a) to provide an overview of the major financial reform and the impacts of interest rate deregulation on financial sector development in the CLMV countries; (b) to examine fiscal imbalances financed by monetary expansion that increases inflation and thus represses the banking system; (c) to evaluate the impact of high reserve requirements on banking sector; and (d) to analyze the effect of capital flight and dollarization on banking sector. One of the major financial reforms in CLMV is interest rate liberalization together with controlling inflation, this results in a positive real interest rate that contributes to financial deepening. Financial depth, as measured by broad money to Gross Domestic Product appears to increase in these economies, especially in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam. The growth of broad money was mainly contributed by foreign currency deposit particularly in Cambodia and Laos. Viet Nam, however, local currency deposit was the main contributor of growth. While in Myanmar, the growth of broad money started to decline as a result of real ii negative interest rate. In some of CLMV, banks’ lending portfolios have been weakening because of direct lending to the priority sector. Apart from that the major factor that weakens the financial intermediation is the inflation acceleration particularly in Laos and Myanmar. Inflation is a consequence of budget deficit financed by borrowing from financial system since these countries are at the early stage of financial market development. Laos and Myanmar pursued credit expansionary policy particularly providing loans to public sector that often results in increased fiscal deficit. By expanding public sector borrowing, government invested in the long term infrastructure projects and provides the subsidized loans to SOEs or SEEs who exhibited weak financial performance and loss making. The greater amount of public sector loans, the more non performing loans occur in the banking system, eventually discouraging financial intermediation. Another factor discouraging the financial intermediation is high reserve requirements in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. The high reserve requirements imposed by central bank raised the margin between lending rate and deposit rate. As a result, this has reduced the amount of loanable fund for the expansion of productive investment projects, creating hindrance to the financial intermediation functions. Financial liberalization together with inflationary finance induce capital flight, dollarization and misallocation of resources. In the situation, when a country has underdeveloped financial market, there could be capital flight or dollarization; as a result, this leads to financial disintermediation. The banking system in Myanmar is not allowed to offer foreign currency deposits; the response is increase in foreign currency holding outside banking system or holding durable assets. Myanmar maintains interest rate ceiling lower than the market determined rate and the overvaluation of fixed exchange rate that encourages the capital flight To avoid capital flight, the governments allow commercial banks to offer foreign currency deposits in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam. The result is that foreign currency deposits grow rapidly and there has limited opportunities for lending in foreign currency. The option available for banks is to transfer the excessive fund in foreign currency to deposit in foreign banks and this lead to a so called capital flight and final outcome is hindrance to the financial depth."
    Author/creator: TIN TIN HTWE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University
    Format/size: pdf (531K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010


    Title: Burma's Banking Crisis: A Commentary
    Date of publication: 06 March 2003
    Description/subject: "... Burma is currently undergoing one of its periodic monetary and financial crises. Unusually, however, this time the crisis is not a characteristic de-monetisation episode, but a failure of confidence in the country's nascent private banking sector. In this sense the current crisis is probably less immediately destructive of the 'wealth' of ordinary Burmese than previous dramas (as shall be examined below), but its longer-term damage to Burma's economy and to key institutions is likely to be severe indeed. Trust is the foundation of banking and the key ingredient of a country's social capital. There must be little of this (already scarce) commodity in Burma today. The following is an attempt to make sense of some of the developments that have been taking place in Burma's banking sector in recent weeks. It suffers from the usual information difficulties that come with attempting real-time commentary on the opaque world of Burma's political economy. It is hoped, nevertheless, that it might prove useful in at least shining a dim light into some very dark corners. It is not a comprehensive account of individual events either, but it arguably provides a sufficient outline upon which to begin a process of analysis. Extensive use is made throughout of a more detailed examination of the structure of Burma's banking system contained in Turnell (2002). We have made wide-spread use of many other sources, where possible indicated below. Finally, comments and suggestions would be greatly welcomed.
    Author/creator: Sean Turnell and Alison Vicary
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
    Format/size: html (81K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: On Shaky Ground
    Date of publication: March 2003
    Description/subject: How much further will Burma’s banks slide?...After the crash of more than a dozen finance houses that funded outside business ventures with their depositors’ money, anxious bank customers rushed to withdraw their savings, thus precipitating a rundown on reserves of the national currency, the kyat. Other banks in Burma face similar problems. At the end of last year, top bankers were forecasting a boom for 2003. Last month, however, predictions were rife that the collapse of financial houses would drag down all the 20 banks with 350 branches nationwide..."
    Author/creator: Naw Seng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Bank Crisis Reeks of a Ponzi Scheme
    Date of publication: 26 February 2003
    Description/subject: February 26, 2003—"Burma's banks are more like a dubious "Ponzi" or pyramid scheme than well-run commercial banks. Between 1962 and 1988, the banks in Burma were all state-owned, and lent primarily to state owned enterprises. After 1988, the declaration of a so-called open market economy made way for private commercial banks, but they were never built on strong capital..."
    Author/creator: Kyi May Kaung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Commentary Archive
    Format/size: html (11K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Reforming the Banking System in Burma: A Survey of the Problems and Possibilities - TAN
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "...The transformation of Burma into a fully institutionalised liberal democracy based on a market economy will be a multi-faceted process. One aspect of this must be, however, the creation of a properly functioning financial system. Financial institutions are integral to economic development. In a market economy they provide the central coordinating mechanism through which resources are allocated. At best, they do this in ways that maximise the wealth and welfare of their respective national economies. The foundations of a proper functioning financial system are transparency, accountability and the effective transmission of market signals. Burma’s existing financial system, unfortunately, possesses few of these virtues. Worse, its principal financial institutions may be little more than facades for the activity of criminals and a narco-state. Reforming Burma’s financial system, in particular the banks that make up its core, will require the privatisation of its state banks, the legitimisation of its existing private banks and the opening up of the sector to foreign competitors. Before these measures can be undertaken, however, fundamental institutional reform will be necessary. Burma must become an economy and a society ruled by law and not the whim of generals. The Burmese people must have rights to property in order to best liberate their latent skills and energy. Financial regulation must adopt practices that have been demonstrated to work elsewhere. Macroeconomic policy must leave the irrational world and enter that which reason and history teaches us can achieve all that governments are able. Burma’s political economy, in short, awaits its transformation..."
    Author/creator: Sean Turnell
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: The Burma Fund (Technical Advisory Network of Burma) WP07
    Format/size: pdf (287K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 June 2007


    Title: Reforming the Banking System in Burma: A Survey of the Problems and Possibilities
    Date of publication: 25 September 2002
    Description/subject: Sean Turnell, Economics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Abstract: "A country's financial system plays a critical role in its economic development. It is the vehicle through which the means of exchange are created, resources are mobilised and allocated, risks are managed, government spending is financed, foreign capital is accessed, and it is via financial institutions that individuals can protect themselves against economic fluctuations. Notwithstanding this essential role, Burma has not had a properly functioning financial system for four decades. The present system, an unstable mix of monolithic state-owned institutions and a cohort of new private banks of dubious legitimacy, is a serious brake on Burma's economy. This paper examines the role financial institutions can play in a country's development, explores how Burma's current system falls far short of this ideal and broadly outlines how it might be reformed. It argues the case for the standard remedies professed by economists of liberalisation, stabilisation and privatisation but, critically, suggests that these must be preceded by more fundamental reforms that create the legal, regulatory and other infrastructure that are the prerequisites of a modern, and efficient, financial system. ..". Keywords: Burma; Banks; Regulation; Supervision; Financial Liberalisation; Economic Development. Paper presented to the 1st Collaborative International Conference of the Burma Studies Group, Gothenburg, Sweden, 21-25 September 2002
    Author/creator: Sean Turnell
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (239K), html (380K), Word (187K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Turnell_bankreform.doc
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Turnell_bankreform.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Banking in Burma: New Frontiers, or a Barren Wasteland?
    Date of publication: July 2001
    Description/subject: "A countrys financial system provides its means of exchange and is the mechanism through which its resources are mobilised and allocated. The financial system is the arena in which economic risk can be managed, government debt can be financed, foreign capital can be accessed and managed, and it is the vehicle through which monetary policy can be implemented. According to Larry Summers, the former Secretary of the US Treasury, a countrys financial system provides the wheels for its development...The foundations of a proper functioning financial system are transparency, accountability, governance and the effective transmission of market signals. Burmas financial system possesses few of these virtues. Burmas banks do not fulfil the role allotted to such institutions in allocating resources in ways beyond the whims of the military. Worse, they may be little more than facades for the activity of criminals and a narco-state. Unfortunately the history of financial sector reform in Burma does not lend optimism to the hope that this might change without more fundamental changes in the country. Like so much else in Burma, the emergence of a viable banking system must await the political reform that is so long overdue." Extra keywords: money laundering, joint venture regulation, exchange controls.
    Author/creator: Sean Turnell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
    Format/size: html (105k)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Above it all
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: "Burmese banks are thriving, even as the country’s economy suffers its worst slump in years. Their secret, say businessmen in the know, is the nexus of generals and drug lords..."
    Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 2
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Bank Information
    Language: English, Burmese
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://myanmar.yoolk.com/search/?q=local%20banks&area=
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


  • Bilateral Development Assistance

    • Development assistance: Germany

      Individual Documents

      Title: Bald Wiederaufnahme der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit Birma?
      Date of publication: 12 June 2002
      Description/subject: After the visit of the German Bundestag delegation of economic development the German attitude to development co-operation with Burma has to be revisited. Im April 2002 reiste eine sechsköpfige Delegation des Bundestagsausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung nach Indien und Burma. Nach ihren Gesprächen mit Militär, Opposition, Minderheitenvertretern und Aung San Suu Kyi brachten sie die Botschaft mit, die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit neu zu überdenken. Eindrücke des MdB und ehemaligen Bundesministers Norbert Blüm werden in dem Artikel wiedergegeben.
      Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Das Sanktionsregime hat ausgedient. Interview mit Angelika Köster-Loßack (MdB, Bündnis 90/ Die Grünen)
      Date of publication: 12 June 2002
      Description/subject: Interview with Member of Parliament (Green) about sanctions and development co-operation with Burma. Nur drei Wochen bevor der neunzehnmonatige Hausarrest von Aung San Suu Kyi aufgehoben wurde, bereiste eine Delegation des Bundesausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung Indien und Myanmar/Burma. Die Abgeordneten sprachen in Myanmar/Burma mit Politikern aus Regierungskreisen, mit Vertretern der Oppositionspartei Nationale Liga für Demokratie (NLD) sowie ethnischen Minoritäten. Höhepunkt war ein Gespräch mit Aung San Suu Kyi. In den Gesprächen ging es unter anderem um entwicklungspolitische Projekte, die als Teil internationaler Sanktionspolitik seit Jahren größtenteils eingefroren waren. Angelika Köster-Loßack, die die internationale Sanktionspolitik jahrelang mitgetragen hatte, hat nach ihrer Reise nun eine andere Sicht darauf.
      Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Development assistance: Japan

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Mekong Watch Japan
      Date of publication: 1993
      Description/subject: "Mekong Watch is the Japanese NGO established in1993 to monitor and research social and environmental impacts of the Japanese development initiatives in the Mekong region, and to advocate more sustanable and people-centered ways..." It appears to be a consortium of NGOs, largely Japanese, which aims "...to create channels for local people in the Mekong region to participate in each decision-making process of development initiatives affecting their livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems. We will foster a deeper understanding of them and their impacts, and support local people for benefiting their own development paths based on their local resources and rules. Strategies 1.Information gathering and analysis on problematic development plans. 2.Understanding social and environmental situation in Mekong River Region. 3.Feedback of relevant information both to Mekong region and Japan. 4.Developing ideas on information disclosure, participation and civil society. Critical, in particular, of Japanese-funded dams.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Catfish Tales
      Description/subject: "CATFISH TALES is a newsletter sent every other week. It includes information about Japanese ODA policy and social and environmental problems related to development projects in the Mekong Region (Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan Province of China). It also contains news from the Japanese language media summarized in English and information on multilateral development banks in which Japan has influence. As the largest bilateral donor for all countries in the Mekong Region, the Japanese government's role in development in the region is significant. For people who are interested in information about Japan's policies from a critical perspective, this newsletter will be useful..." Archives of "Catfish Tales" from May 2002 and subscription information on site.... Note:"Mekong Watch is no longer issuing Cathfish Tales."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mekong Watch
      Subscribe: via site
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.mekongwatch.org/_archive/catfish/index.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: Japan-Myanmar Relations
      Description/subject: Diplomatic Relations, Number of Japanese Nationals residing in Myanmar, Number of Myanmar Nationals residing in Japan, Trade with Japan (1998) Direct Investment from Japan, Japan's Economic Cooperation, List of Grant Aid - Exchange of Notes in Fiscal Year 2002, VIP Visits. Statements by Japanese officials, Press Secretary's Press Conference on Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: A Yen to Help the Junta
      Date of publication: October 2004
      Description/subject: "Demystifying Japan’s resumption of aid to Burma.... Following Depayin, Japan claimed to have suspended ODA to Burma, in response to the bloodbath and subsequent detention of NLD general-secretary Aung San Suu Kyi (who was lucky to escape Depayin alive). Given that Japan has long pursued an engagement policy with Burma, and has been the largest provider of economic aid to the country, a suspension of ODA would presumably have carried a certain weight with Rangoon. Some news articles even speculated that Japan had finally shifted to a tougher policy on Burma similar to that of the United States and the UK. Not so fast! A year and a half later, with Aung San Suu Kyi still under house arrest, regime hardliners firmly in control and the overall dismal political situation in Rangoon unchanged, Tokyo has resumed ODA to Burma. Most notably, in June this year Japan gave the regime human resource development scholarships to the value of about US $4.86 million (532 million yen) and in July a grant of about $3.15 million for an afforestation project in Burma’s central dry zone. In addition, Tokyo has provided nearly 30 smaller ODA grants to non-governmental organizations for various operations in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


      Title: Is Japan Really Getting Tough on Burma? (Not likely)
      Date of publication: 28 June 2003
      Description/subject: "There was a flurry of articles last week about how Japan plans to suspend, or in fact suspended, economic aid (ODA: Official Development Assistance, which is comprised mainly of yen loans, grants and technical assistance) to Burma, thereby stepping up the pressure on the military junta to release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Most news reports say that the aid that is being frozen is further, or new, ODA. Given that Japan has long pursued an engagement policy with Burma, and is the largest provider of economic aid to Burma (2.1 billion yen of grants-in-aid was provided in fiscal year 2002), a suspension would carry a certain weight with the military regime. ...Japan's engagement policy with Burma has always been based on a gcarrot and stickh approach, which traditionally has involved far more "carrots" than gstick.h Notwithstanding the uncertainties surrounding the suspension of new ODA, Japan's freeze is a rare, and probably short-term, application of a gstick.h The Japanese governmentfs preference has been, and will continue to be, for gcarrots,h a posture that is due in part to apparent concern about China replacing Japan as a likely source of economic assistance to, and political influence on, Burma. In this context, therefore, it is essential that governments and non-governmental groups monitor Japan's Burma policy -- and be wary of overly optimistic or inaccurate news accounts concerning that policy. There is little doubt that, without pressure from other countries (notably the U.S.) and interested citizens, even a decision to suspend new ODA would likely have been much slower in coming. Such pressure must continue."
      Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Information Network - Japan
      Format/size: html (18K); pdf (16k)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/oda/analyseGOJpolicy20030628.pdf (pdf)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003


      Title: Tasang Dam Update #1
      Date of publication: 23 December 2002
      Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wire reports in English.
      Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
      Language: Japanese
      Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org (home page of publisher)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Development, Environment and Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar ~Examining the Impacts of ODA and Investment~Public Symposium Report, Tokyo, Japan
      Date of publication: 15 December 2001
      Description/subject: Chapter 1: ODA and Foreign Investment p7; Chapter 2: Japanese Policy Towards Myanmar p14; Chapter 3: Baluchaung Hydropower Plant No 2 p19; Chapter 4: Tasang Dam and Yadana Gas Pipeline p22; Chapter 5: The UNOCAL Case p26; Chapter 6: Panel Discussion p30; Chapter 7: Development in Other Countries 40; Chapter 8: Reviewing Development p43; References: p45. "...One objective of the symposium was to examine how development has affected people and the environment in Burma. Another objective was to examine the roles of the Japanese government, of private companies, and of individuals in development in Burma. Each speaker had his or her own ideas about what is best for Burma. Does Burma need development? If so, what kind of development does it need? For development, is it necessary for other countries to give Official Development Assistance (ODA)? Should ODA be given under the current military regime? Should companies invest in Burma now? Do ODA and investment help the people of Burma? ..."
      Author/creator: (Speakers): Ms. Taeko Takahashi, Mr. Teddy Buri, Ms. Hsao Tai, Ms. Yuki Akimoto, Mr. Nobuhiko Suto, Mr. Shigeru Nakajima
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mekong Watch, Japan
      Format/size: PDF (640K) 45pg
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japanese Aid to Burma Only Adds to Confusion
      Date of publication: 23 August 2001
      Description/subject: The news of the Japanese Government’s aid of ?3.5 billion (US $28 million) for the Lawpita hydropower plant renovation in Kayah (Karenni) State in Burma was very surprising news for Burmese democracy groups and the international community. The current situation of Burma’s political crisis is really critical and confusing. On one side is the powerful military junta, which never cares about violations of rights. On the other are the democracy groups and their international circle of sympathizers. Where the Japanese Government stands is not so clear. Those who can’t refuse to help others are noble; but is giving a gun to a bloodthirsty killer really helping?
      Author/creator: U Sein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" (Commentary)
      Format/size: If this URL does not get you to quite the right place, scroll down to the article, or use your
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japan errs again
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: "The surest sign that the talks between Burma�s ruling junta and the democratic opposition were in serious trouble came in early April, when Japan�s then-Foreign Minister Yohei Kono announced that his country was ready to "reward" the regime to the tune of $28 million for repairs to a hydroelectric power station in Karenni State..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 9, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: "Greedy" Regime Stuns Japanese
      Date of publication: February 2000
      Description/subject: Officials in Japan, historically Burma's largest creditor, have been left shaking their heads over the SPDC's latest efforts to tap into the wealth of Asia's richest nation.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2 (Business section)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The North Wind and the Sun: Japan's Response To The Political Crisis in Burma, 1988-1998
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: "Japan's response to the political crisis in Burma after the establishment of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in September 1988 reflected the interests of powerful constituencies within the Japanese political system, especially business interests, to which were added other constituencies such as domestic supporters of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's struggle for democracy and those who wished to pursue 'Sun Diplomacy,' using positive incentives to encourage democratization and economic reform. Policymakers in Tokyo, however, approached the Burma crisis seeking to take minimal risks--a "maximin strategy"--which limited their effectiveness in influencing the junta. This was evident in the February 1989 "normalization" of Tokyo's ties with SLORC. During 1989-1998, Japanese business leaders pushed hard to promote economic engagement, but "Sun Diplomacy" made little progress in the face of the junta's increasing repression of the democratic opposition." Online publication with kind permission of the author and the Journal of Burma Studies
      Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies, Vol. 4 (1999)
      Format/size: html (237K); pdf (2.17MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol4/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) Charter
      Date of publication: 30 June 1992
      Description/subject: Cabinet Decisions June 30, 1992. "In order to garner broader support for Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) through better understanding both at home and abroad and to implement it more effectively and efficiently, the government of Japan has established the following Charter for its ODA: ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Government of Japan
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Buddhist Economics

    Individual Documents

    Title: BUDDHIST ECONOMICS
    Date of publication: 1973
    Description/subject: "... "Right Livelihood" is one of the requirements of the Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path. It is clear, therefore, that there must be such a thing as Buddhist economics. Buddhist countries have often stated that they wish to remain faithful to their heritage. So Burma: “The New Burma sees no conflict between religious values and economic progress. Spiritual health and material well-being are not enemies: they are natural allies.” 1 Or: “We can blend successfully the religious and spiritual values of our heritage with the benefits of modern technology.” 2 Or: “We Burmans have a sacred duty to conform both our dreams and our acts to our faith. This we shall ever do.” 3 All the same, such countries invariably assume that they can model their economic development plans in accordance with modern economics, and they call upon modern economists from so-called advanced countries to advise them, to formulate the policies to be pursued, and to construct the grand design for development, the Five-Year Plan or whatever it may be called. No one seems to think that a Buddhist way of life would call for Buddhist economics, just as the modern materialist way of life has brought forth modern economics. Economists themselves, like most specialists, normally suffer from a kind of metaphysical blindness, assuming that theirs is a science of absolute and invariable truths, without any presuppositions. Some go as far as to claim that economic laws are as free from "metaphysics" or "values" as the law of gravitation. We need not, however, get involved in arguments of methodology. Instead, let us take some fundamentals and see what they look like when viewed by a modern economist and a Buddhist economist..."
    Author/creator: E.F. Schumacher
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered"
    Format/size: pdf (72K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 January 2005


  • Burma's economic relations with various countries

    • Burma/Myanmar's relationship with the Global Economy

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar’s Integration with Global Economy: Outlook and Opportunities
      Date of publication: 05 March 2014
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The first phase of BRC Research Report was published in 2013 entitled “Economic Reforms in Myanmar: Pathways and Pro spects”. The book was very well received and widely circulated throughout the region. This is the second phase of BRC Report entitled “Myanmar’s Integration with Global Economy: Outlook and Op portunities” To report and analyse further Myanmar’s integration with global economy, BRC commissioned eight chapters written by well - known regional scholars who are very familiar with updated development in Myanmar, to assess the outlook and opportunities facing Myanmar of the second phase of its strategy. What is the prospect for Myanmar in developing export - driven growth strategy after the lifting of sanctions by major Western countries? Would foreign direct investment (FDI) come to Myanmar following the introduction of new Foreign Investment Law to generate a much needed capital and technology to stimulate economic growth and employment? Equally important are the analyses of high - valued food production and supply chains and the role of Myanmar business c onglomerates in the context of economic, trade, and investment liberalization. Would FDI and competition from multilateral companies in Myanmar domestic economy create the necessary economic benefits to generate economic competition and efficiency necessar y to accelerate the rate of economic development and employment? Chapters are intended to provide clear explanation s and analyse s of various interrelated changes that may have perceptible implications to the second phase of Myanmar economic reform. A chapt er on transition from informal to formal foreign exchange transactions was analy s ed based on evidence from export firm survey data. It is a bold attempt to provide clear implications to Myanmar’s fragile financial and banking sector as a result of liberali zation and deregulation of foreign trade and stabilization and the measured de - regulation of foreign exchange market. Two chapters were written on Myanmar’s changing external political and economic relations with China and India which would have important implications to the process of Myanmar’s economic reforms and development."
      Author/creator: Hank Lim and Yasuhiro Yamada
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO
      Format/size: pdf (246K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/13.html
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


    • Burma's economic relations with the region

      Individual Documents

      Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 REGIONAL COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION (SUMMARY)
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: Role of Regional Cooperation and Integration in Myanmar’s Development: 1. Myanmar is strategically located in Asia. Having the largest land area in mainland Southeast Asia, it shares borders with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on the north and northeast, Lao PDR and Thailand on the east and southeast, and Bangladesh and India on the west and northwest. It has a long coastline of around 2,800 km which provides access to sea routes and deep-sea ports. It has the potential to serve as a land bridge between Southeast and South Asia, and between Southeast Asia and the PRC. Regional cooperation and integration (RCI), therefore, provides Myanmar with a great opportunity to secure benefits in terms of access to regional and global markets, technology, and finance and management expertise. It can also promote inflows of foreign direct investment which can enable Myanmar to link up with regional and global supply networks. Besides expanding employment opportunities, RCI can also help in addressing social and environmental concerns through cooperation with neighboring countries...II. The GMS Program... III. Myanmar and the GMS Program...IV. GMS Economic Corridors ...V. Myanmar’s Participation in BIMSTEC... VI. Issues facing the GMS Program including Myanmar...VII. RCI Opportunities in Myanmar...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: pdf (106K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-regional_cooperation.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


      Title: Trade Trumps Human Rights
      Date of publication: October 2008
      Description/subject: "Many countries have shown more interest in trading with Asean than in taking Burma's generals to task for trampling on citizens' basic rights... The more pressing needs of economic growth in East Asia appear to be overriding the issue of pressuring the Burmese military junta to reform. Economic giants China and India are on the verge of finalizing free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), to which Burma belongs, while both Australia and New Zealand have just formed closer trade pacts with the bloc..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


    • Burma's economic relations with ASEAN

      Individual Documents

      Title: COUNTRY REPORT OF THE ASEAN ASSESSMENT ON THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: MYANMAR
      Date of publication: July 2010
      Description/subject: I. The Social Impact of the Financial Crisis and the Government’s Responses... II. Social Protecti on Programmes... III. P Policy Iss ues... References
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ASEAN
      Format/size: pdf (773K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 October 2012


      Title: Analysis on International Trade of CLM Countries
      Date of publication: August 2009
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Since their accession to AFTA, trade volumes of CLM countries have being grown rapidly while their trade patterns and directions have significantly changed. Recognizing the importance of international trade in CLM [Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar]economies, this study attempts to analyze the trade patterns of CLM countries based the gravity model. The empirical analysis is conducted to identify the determining factors of each country's bilateral trade flows and policy implications for promoting their trade. The results indicate that CLM's trade patterns are mainly affected by partner country's GDP, the difference between per capita GDPs of two countries, distance, common border, and presence in particular FTA. Their trade relations with East Asian countries mainly China, Japan and Korea have yet to be exploited to their full potential. These findings suggest that CLM countries needs to promote their bilateral trade with countries in close proximity and having large economic size and high consumers' purchasing power through accelerating their trade liberalization efforts in FTAs in progress."..... Keywords: CLM countries, ASEAN, East Asia, FTA, Bilateral trade
      Author/creator: Nu Nu Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO
      Format/size: pdf (589K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 January 2010


      Title: Foreign Direct Investment Relations between Myanmar and ASEAN
      Date of publication: April 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: Myanmar highly appreciates foreign direct investment (FDI) as a key solution reducing the development gap with leading ASEAN countries. Accordingly, it is welcomed by the government. Myanmar's Foreign Investment Law was enacted in 1988 soon after the adoption of a market-oriented economic system to boost the flow of FDI into the country. Foreign investors positively responded to these measures in the early years and FDI inflow into Myanmar gradually increased during the period from 1989 to 1996. However, after 1997, FDI inflow was dramatically reduced and markedly declined until 2004. In 2005, FDI inflow increased at an unprecedented rate and reached the highest level in the country's history. However, this growth was not sustainable in the subsequent years, as it declined again and turned stagnant at the previous level. In terms of source regions, ASEAN is a major investor in Myanmar, which investment is significantly exceeds the combined investment of other regions of the world. Among top ten countries, Thailand's investment alone is significantly more than combined total investments of the other nine countries. Next to Thailand in terms of investments in Myanmar are Singapore and Malaysia among ASEAN, at second and third places, respectively. The combined total FDI inflows into the power and oil and gas sector represent about 65 percent of the total investment. There are many opportunities for foreign investment in other sectors, which are not, yet exploited. ASEAN countries will certainly be source countries of Myanmar FDI in the future, and Myanmar should expand to other Asian countries like Japan, India, China, Korea, and Hong Kong where its FDI portfolio is concerned. To effectively attract FDI into the country, Myanmar needs to minimize the effect of policy while opening and encouraging other potential sectors of FDI to foreign investors in ASEAN and Asian countries.... Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), Myanmar, ASEAN, Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC)... JEL classification: F21, L10, O11
      Author/creator: Thandar Khine
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 149
      Format/size: pdf (580K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    • Burma's economic relations with Australia

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Description/subject: 454 search results for "Burma". (August 2003)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Australia: Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Burma page)
      Description/subject: * Country Brief - December 2002; * Burma Country Fact Sheet (PDF); * THE NEW ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia and Laos - Report by the East Asia Analytical Unit; Travel information; * Travel advice for Burma | See also our Travel Information page; * Before you travel: Passports Australia | Visa information | Top 10 travel tips; * Assistance to Australian travellers: FAQ | Consular Services Charter; Representation:P * Australian Representation in Burm; o Australian Embassy in Burma; + Ambassador to Burma; + Accreditation; * Burmese Representation in Australia; o Embassy of the Union of Myanmar... Media: * Renewed call for Aung San Suu Kyi's release 22 July; * Visit to Burma by UNSG Special Envoy 5 June; * Downer calls for release of Aung San Suu Kyi 2 June; * Diplomatic Appointment - Ambassador to Burma 5 March; * Media releases from the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister for Trade on Burma... Related links: * AusAID Burma page; * IMF Burma page; * World Bank Burma page; * ADB Burma page;
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 August 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos.
      Date of publication: 20 June 1997
      Description/subject: This 1997 report was published by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The 70-page section on Burma is divided into 3 chapters: "Perpetuating the Military State" which among other things contains a few pages on the legal system which provide good background for the economics section; "Arrested Economic Development" and "Politicised business". The latter looks at trade, in particular between Australia and Burma. The analysis is useful but, given the 4-5 years since it was written, somewhat outdated.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Format/size: PDF (2943K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


      Title: The New ASEANS: Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia & Laos (Executive Summary)
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: A useful overview of the longer PDF document of the same name.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australian Fept of Foreign Arffairs and Trade
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burma Fact Sheet (Australian Govt.)
      Description/subject: One-pager. Some general country info and recent economic indicators but the main focus is on Australia-Burma trade.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australia: Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade
      Format/size: PDF
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma's economic relations with Canada

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Government of Canada
      Description/subject: Search for Burma
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://canada.gc.ca/main_e.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


      Title: Major Canadian Exports to Burma
      Description/subject: 1999, 2000 - March 2001
      Language: English
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/Entry.jsp
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Major Canadian Imports from Burma
      Description/subject: 1999, 2000 - March 2001
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (Burmese)
      Date of publication: February 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
      Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


      Title: Forgotten Workforce: Experiences of women migrants from Burma in Ruili, China (English)
      Date of publication: February 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s continuing political repression and economic deterioration, coupled with China’s rapid growth, have caused a new phenomenon over the past few years: large-scale northward migration from Burma to China. The Yunnanese border town of Ruili (called Shweli in Burmese) has seen an estimated tenfold increase in the number of migrants from Burma since 2006, with numbers now exceeding 100,000. Formerly mainly employed in the jade, transport and sex industries, migrants are now working in a range of sectors, including domestic work, restaurants and hotels, sales, construction and manufacturing industries. Migrants are arriving from all parts of central and eastern Burma, particularly from the central dry zone, where continuing drought has deprived farmers of their traditional livelihoods. In Sagaing and Magwe, whole villages are draining of young people coming to find work in China. A large proportion of the migrants are women. During 2010 the Burmese Women’s Union (BWU) conducted in-depth interviews with 32 of these women from various work sectors. Most were from Burma’s central divisions. About half were high school graduates, and some had even graduated from university, but none had been able to find jobs inside Burma. The migrant women interviewed by BWU in Ruili revealed persistent patterns of work exploitation, occupational health and safety hazards and mistreatment by employers throughout different work sectors. A particularly dangerous kind of work being carried out by migrant women in Ruili is processing of petrified wood, imported from Mandalay Division and sold as highly valued home ornaments throughout China. In hundreds of small workshops, women are paid a pittance to sit for long hours sanding and polishing wood, using hazardous electric equipment and chemical solvents, without protective clothing or health insurance. On top of general exploitative work conditions, women also face gender discrimination, receiving lower pay than men in most sectors, no maternity leave and benefits, and suffering sexual harassment from employers. Health and safety risks are particularly high for the several hundred Burmese women working in the sex industry in Ruili and Jiegao, who are often forced to have unprotected sex, and face violence from clients, especially those who are drug users There are no existing mechanisms for foreign migrant workers to seek redress for cases of exploitation and infringement of their rights. They also forbidden from organising any workers’ committees or unions. This has occasionally caused workers’ pent-up resentment to erupt into violence against employers. There are no signs that the migration from Burma will ease in the foreseeable future. Burma’s November 2010 elections were neither free nor fair, and power remains constitutionally firmly in the hands of the military, which continues to receive the lion’s share of the national budget, while health and education needs remain critically underfunded. During 2011 the Burma Army has launched fierce new offensives against ethnic resistance groups seeking to protect their communities and environment from damaging resource exploitation. The military mismanagement at the root of Burma’s economic woes thus looks sets to continue, together with the outflow of migration to neighbouring countries, including China. Mechanisms to protect the rights of foreign migrant workers and prevent further injustices, particularly against women in China are thus urgently needed.
      Language: English and Burmese
      Source/publisher: Burmese Women's Union (BWU)
      Format/size: pdf (764K-English; 2.95-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://womenofburma.org/Report/Forgotten-workforce-Bur.pdf
      http://www.burmesewomensunion.org
      Date of entry/update: 24 February 2012


    • Burma's economic relations with China

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Chinese Government Guidelines for Overseas Investment
      Date of publication: 18 April 2013
      Description/subject: "On February 28th, 2013, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Environmental Protection released its “Guidelines for Environmental Protection in Foreign Investment and Cooperation” (“Guidelines”), which are based on recommendations by the Chinese NGO, Global Environmental Institute (GEI). These Guidelines provide civil society groups with a new source of leverage when it comes to holding Chinese companies responsible for their environmental and social impacts overseas... View the “Guidelines for Environmental Protection in Foreign Investment and Cooperation” in Burmese | Chinese | English | Spanish... Read an analysis of the Guidelines by Grace Mang, China Program Director... Read a comparison of the Guidelines with international standards by Policy Director Peter Bosshard (also available in Chinese on chinadialogue)... Read interviews with Mr. Ren Peng of Global Environmental Institute and Dr. Hu Tao of the World Resources Institute... The Guidelines cover key issues, including legal compliance, environmental policies, environmental management plans, mitigation measures, disaster management plans, community relations, waste management, and international standards... While the Guidelines are non-binding, they are still government policy and can thus be a useful tool for civil society seeking to hold Chinese companies to account. Even though it is unlikely that the Guidelines will translate into immediate changes at project sites, the Guidelines create a new window for civil society to engage with Chinese companies abroad, obtain project information and documents, and hold them to a higher level of responsibility around mitigating damages."
      Language: English (links to docs in Burmese, Chinese, Spanish)
      Source/publisher: International Riivers
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/policyrelease/bbb/201303/20130300043226.shtml (Guidelines in English)
      http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/guidelines_on_environmental_policies_of_chi... (Guidelines in Burmese)
      http://hzs.mofcom.gov.cn/article/zcfb/b/201302/20130200039909.shtml (Guidelines in Chinese)
      http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/guidelines_on_environmental_policies_of_chi... (Guidelines in Spanish)
      http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/262/beijing-sends-a-signal-to-chinese-overseas-dam-builders (Analysis - English)
      http://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/227/holding-chinese-investors-to-account
      http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/interview-with-ren-peng-on-china-s-overseas-investment...
      Date of entry/update: 24 April 2013


      Title: Company responses (and non-responses) to "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" published by EarthRights International in March 2011
      Description/subject: "On 29 March 2011 EarthRights International released a report, entittled "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" [PDF], which "link[ed] major Chinese and Korean companies to widespread land confiscation, and cases of forced labor, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and violations of indigenous rights connected to the Shwe natural gas project and oil transport projects in Burma." The companies named in the report are: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Daewoo International [part of POSCO], GAIL (India), Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS), ONGC Videsh, and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2011


      Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
      Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Kyaukphyu SEZ ‘Key’ to China Business Corridor, But Doubts Remain
      Date of publication: 19 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Kyaukphyu port on Burma’s western coast could play a key role in a Beijing-led economic corridor plan linking neighbors India, Bangladesh and China. But economists and foreign policy analysts are divided over whether the Naypyidaw government’s ambitions for a special economic zone (SEZ) around Kyaukphyu in Arakan State are viable. The so-called BCIM Corridor, for Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar, was a key issue of discussion by China’s President Xi Jinping this week on a rare visit to India by a Chinese head of state. A pivotal spot along the corridor would be Mandalay, linking China’s Yunnan province capital Kunming with northeast India and on into Bangladesh. But observers see the BCIM proposal as also instrumental in giving China access to the Indian Ocean. The BCIM is a grand plan for Beijing to “gain access to multiple coastal zones that are considered crucial for the next-generation Chinese economy,” commented India’s Telegraph business newspaper. Within Burma this points to Kyaukphyu for the Chinese, who have already built a crude oil transshipment terminal there as well as controversial oil and gas pipelines that start at Kyaukphyu and run the length of Burma into Yunnan... However, Chinese plans for a railway linking Yunnan with Kyaukphyu have soured amid a cooling relationship between Naypyidaw and Beijing..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014


      Title: China, Myanmar: stop that train
      Date of publication: 14 August 2014
      Description/subject: "Since reports about the cancellation of a proposed US$20 billion railway line connecting China's southern Yunnan province with Myanmar's Rakhine western coast emerged in late July, conflicting accounts about the 1,200 kilometer project's status have raised new questions about the neighboring countries' commercial relations. The controversy erupted with a local news report quoting Myint Wai, director of Myanmar's Ministry of Rail Transportation, saying that the project had been "cancelled" after over three years of inaction on a 2011 agreement. A DPA report furthered the story by quoting an anonymous Myanmar government official saying the Kyaukpyu-Kunming railway was popularly perceived as having "more disadvantages than advantages" and was cancelled in line with the "people's desires". Yang Houlan, China's Ambassador to Myanmar, contradicted that report, saying China had not abandoned the project. The state mouthpiece China Daily underscored that official line, reporting that an "unidentified Myanmar economic official" said that the project only needs "continued coordination". The China Railway Engineering Corporation (CREC), the original Chinese investor in the project, meanwhile has been reluctant to respond to the conflicting reports... the railway is of strategic importance to China: it had been regarded as a key component of China's Trans-Asia railway network and a critical element for developing a southwest strategic corridor to the Indian Ocean, a route for crucial imports that bypassed the congested Malacca Strait and hotly contested South China Sea... cancellation of the multi-billion dollar railway project would indicate a further deterioration of Sino-Myanmar ties, despite Beijing's sustained bid to portray the relationship as strong and healthy..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


      Title: China, Myanmar face Myitsone dam truths
      Date of publication: 19 February 2014
      Description/subject: "Debate between China and Myanmar over the suspended US$3.6 billion Myitsone hydro-electric dam project recently reached a new pitch. A war of words between their governments erupted after China Power Investment launched a renewed public relations campaign to promote the mega-project. This included a corporate social responsibility report released in December beautifying the dam and its supposed wondrous contributions to local livelihoods and development..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


      Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: January 2014
      Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


      Title: Chinese Investment in Myanmar: What Lies Ahead?
      Date of publication: 16 September 2013
      Description/subject: This issue brief examines reasons for the sharp drop in Chinese investment in Myanmar since 2011, the impact of the reduced investment, and the prospects for future Chinese investment in the nation, formerly known as Burma..... Key Findings: 1. After a reformist government replaced a military junta in Myanmar in 2011, Chinese investment in the nation plummeted – approximately $12 billion from 2008 to 2011 to just $407 million in the 2012/2013 fiscal year.... 2. The three largest Chinese investments in Myanmar – the Myitsone Dam, the Letpadaung Copper Mine and the Sino-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines – have sparked local opposition and criticism in Myanmar to varying degrees, creating problems and uncertainties for Chinese investors... 3. China perceives that Myanmar is now a more unfriendly and risky place to invest and is displeased that the Myanmar government is not doing more to protect Chinese interest in the country.... 4. In a move to gain greater acceptance of its investments in Myanmar, China is improving its profit-sharing, environmental and corporate social responsibility programs in the nation... 5. China has learned important lessons about investing in other countries from the problems it has encountered in Myanmar... 6. Reduced Chinese investment in Myanmar could hurt Myanmar’s economy in unexpected ways. Greater foreign investment is needed in Myanmar, particularly in the nation’s underdeveloped and inadequate infrastructure that is acting as an obstacle to industrialization... 7. Chinese investors and the government of Myanmar should work together to reduce distrust and hostility on both sides and increase responsible and mutually beneficial investment in Myanmar to benefit both nations.
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 1)
      Format/size: pdf (386K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/2013-09-Stimson-Yun.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2013


      Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
      Date of publication: 13 August 2013
      Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
      Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


      Title: China Moves to Dam the Nu, Ignoring Seismic, Ecological, and Social Risks
      Date of publication: 25 January 2013
      Description/subject: "In a blueprint for the energy sector in 2011-15, China’s State Council on Wednesday lifted an eightyear ban on five megadams for the largely free-flowing Nu River [Salween], ignoring concerns about geologic risks, global biodiversity, resettlement, and impacts on downstream communities. “China’s plans to go ahead with dams on the Nu, as well as similar projects on the Upper Yangtze and Mekong, shows a complete disregard of well-documented seismic hazards, ecological and social risks” stated Katy Yan, China Program Coordinator for the environmental organization International Rivers. Also included in the plan is the controversial Xiaonanhai Dam on the Upper Yangtze. A total of 13 dams was first proposed for the Nu River (also known as the Salween) in 2003, but Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended these plans in 2004 in a stunning decision. Since then, Huadian Corporation has continued to explore five dams – Songta (4200 MW), Maji (4200 MW), Yabiluo (1800 MW), Liuku (180 MW), and Saige (1000 MW) – and has successfully lobbied the State Council to include them in the 12th Five Year Plan..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Rivers
      Format/size: pdf (71K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 January 2013


      Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 17 December 2012
      Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


      Title: APPETITE FOR DESTRUCTION - China’s trade in illegal timber (text, video and Burmese press release)
      Date of publication: 29 November 2012
      Description/subject: This report covers several countries in Asia and Africa....."Myanmar contains some of the most significant natural forests left in the Asia Pacific region, host to an array of biodiversity and vital to the livelihoods of local communities. Forests are estimated to cover 48 per cent of the country’s land. Yet other recent estimates put forest cover at just 24 per cent. These vital forests are disappearing rapidly. Myanmar has one of the worst rates of deforestation on the planet, with 18 per cent of its forests lost between 1990 and 2005. Myanmar’s forest sector is rife with corruption and illegality, leading to over-harvesting and smuggling. Natural teak from Myanmar is especially sought after on the international market for its unique characteristics and availability. Since the late 1990s, neighbouring China has imported large volumes of timber from Myanmar, the bulk of which have been logged and traded illegally. In 1997, China imported 300,000 cubic metres of timber from Myanmar; by 2005 this had risen to 1.6 million cubic metres....In April 2012, EIA investigators travelled to the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Yunnan to examine current dynamics of the illicit cross-border trade in logs from Myanmar, especially Kachin State. The investigation involved monitoring crossing points on the Yunnan-Kachin border, surveying wholesale timber markets to assess the origin of wood supplies, and undercover meetings with Chinese firms trading and processing timber from Myanmar. The investigation revealed continuing transport of logs across the border, despite the 2006 agreements between the two countries to halt such trade. Chinese traders confirmed that as long as taxes are paid at the point of import, logs are allowed in despite a commitment from the Yunnan provincial government to allow in only timber accompanied by documents from the Myanmar authorities attesting to its legal origin. As the authorities dictate that all wood exports must be handled by the Myanmar Timber Enterprise and shipped via Rangoon, logs moving across the land border to Yunnan cannot possibly be legal. Field visits uncovered movement of temperate hardwood timber species from the mountains of Kachin State into central Yunnan via several crossing points, with trade in teak and rosewood centred around the border town of Ruili further south. The contrast in the condition of the forests along the border was striking; while forests in the mountainous region on the Chinese side of the border are relatively intact, with large areas protected in the Gaoligong Nature Reserve, across the border in Kachin the devastation wreaked by logging is clearly visible. Chinese wood traders confirmed that supplies were coming from further inside Kachin, as timber within a hundred kilometres of the border has been logged out, and told how deals are done with insurgent groups to buy up entire mountains for logging. One local community elder in Kachin interviewed by EIA summed up the situation: “Myanmar is China’s supermarket and Kachin State is their 7-11.”..."
      Language: English; (Burmese press release)
      Source/publisher: Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)
      Format/size: pdf (1.42MB), 142K-Burmese press release; Adobe Flash (- 16 minutes, video)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction-PR-bu.pdf (Press release, Burmese)
      http://vimeo.com/54229395 (video)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/EIA-Appetite_for_Destruction.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2012


      Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 07 November 2012
      Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%2... (Summary in Chinese)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


      Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
      Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
      Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
      Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: China’s Policy toward Myanmar: Challenges and Prospects
      Date of publication: October 2012
      Description/subject: PDFpdf(672KB) October, 2012 Ever since the military regime assumed power in Myanmar, during which time European Union (EU) and the United States began imposing sanctions on the country, Myanmar’s economic and political dependence on China—her guardian in the international society—began increasing. Myanmar had become more dependent on China than ever before. However, in March 2011, the transition from military rule to civilian rule was realized for the first time in 23 years when Thein Sein’s administration was born, and Myanmar seeks to adjust its relations with China. Now, the relationship between China and Myanmar is at a crossroads. In this paper, we would like to review the history of the relationship between China and Myanmar and the former’s strategic interests in and policy toward the latter; we will then consider the future prospects of the China-Myanmar relationship in the advent of the age of democratization in Myanmar.
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Column
      Format/size: pdf (672K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


      Title: Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Myanmar: Remarkable Trends and Multilayered Motivations
      Date of publication: 2012
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Following the national responsibility theory in the school of international society which argues that national interest drives a state’s foreign policy, this thesis first attempts to deconstruct China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) in Myanmar since 2004 by picking apart and manipulating financial data in order to determine the resulting trends and developments. It then analyzes how Myanmar’s abundant natural resources could help alleviate China’s rising energy demands and how Chinese FDI can enhance China’s political security, reduce energy costs, diversify its imports, and mitigate mineral shortages. The United States’ marked presence in the region due to a transformation in foreign policy in the Obama administration, as well as the 2011 dissolution of military law in Myanmar, means that the motivation for Chinese FDI no longer solely revolves around the acquisition of natural resources and the previous lack of international competitors in the country. Nevertheless, I argue that China’s national economic interest will continue to serve as the primary incentive to invest billions of dollars into Myanmar, though political interest is beginning to factor more into China’s motivations."...Keywords: China, Myanmar, foreign direct investment, natural resources, national interest
      Author/creator: Travis Mitchell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lund University, Graduate School, Department of Political Science
      Format/size: pdf (1.17MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


      Title: Realpolitik and the Myanmar Spring Wondering why Hillary Clinton is in Myanmar right now? Hint: it's all about China.
      Date of publication: 30 November 2011
      Description/subject: "... The two old adversaries, Myanmar and the United States, may have ended up on the same side of the fence in the struggle for power and influence in Southeast Asia. Frictions, and perhaps even hostility, can certainly be expected in future relations between China and Myanmar. And Myanmar will no longer be seen by the United States and elsewhere in the West as a pariah state that has to be condemned and isolated. Whatever happens, don't expect relations to be without some unease. Decades of confrontation and mutual suspicion still exist. And a powerful strain in Washington to stand firm on human rights and democracy will complicate matters for Myanmar's rulers -- who are still uncomfortable and unwilling to relinquish total control. And last of all, there's China. Myanmar may be pleased that the reliance on a dominant northern neighbor might be lessened shortly, but with so many decades of ties and real, on-the-ground projects underway, the relationship with Beijing isn't nearly dead yet."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: New balance in China, Myanmar ties
      Date of publication: 13 October 2011
      Description/subject: "Myanmar President Thein Sein's decision to suspend construction of the China-backed Myitsone dam project has surprised many observers and raised questions about the state of the two countries' bilateral ties. Civil society groups and other observers have celebrated the decision as a people power success under a new democratic regime and perhaps Myanmar's first overt rebuff of China's economic dominance. Different analyses have emerged as to why Myanmar has turned its back on its powerful and wealthier northern neighbor. Many believe that Thein Sein's government responded to public opposition to the US$3.6 billion project, which threatened environmental degradation and the livelihoods of local communities in the area. Some think Naypyidaw is catering to the West to show it is genuinely different from the outgoing military junta and deserves a more positive and welcoming treatment. Others have argued that the decision was the result of an internal power struggle among different factions inside the government. However, none seems to be asking the critical question: What happens next?..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 September 2013


      Title: Sold Out - Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma
      Date of publication: 07 September 2011
      Description/subject: "Construction of various project components to extract, process, and export the Shwe gas - as well as oil trans-shipments from Africa and the Middle East - is now well underway. Local peoples are losing their land and fishing grounds without finding new job opportunities. Workers that have found lowpaying temporary jobs are exploited and fired for demanding basic rights. Women face unequal wages, discrimination in the compensation process, and vulnerabilities in the growing sex industry around the project. Resentment against the so-called Shwe Gas Project is growing and communities are beginning to stand up against abuses and exploitation. Despite threats and risk of arrest, farmers and local residents are sending complaints to local authorities. Laborers are striking for better pay and working conditions and women running households are demanding electricity. Burma’s military government is exporting massive world-class natural gas reserves found off the country’s western coast, sacrificing the country’s future economic security and dashing chances of electrification and job creation. The “Shwe” offshore fields will produce trillions of cubic feet of natural gas that could be used to spur economic and social development in one of the world’s least developed nations. Instead it will be piped across the country to China, fuelling abuses and conflict along its path. Meanwhile active fighting has broken out between armed resistance groups and government troops in the area of the pipeline corridor in northern Burma. The Korean, Chinese and Indian companies involved in this project are taking tremendous risks with their reputations and investments. Social tensions, armed conflict, human rights abuses, and lack of project standards have raised concerns in investor circles and caused at least one pension fund to divest from the Korean fi rm Daewoo International, the main developer of the gas fields. Genuine development can only be achieved when community rights and the environment are protected, affected peoples share in benefits, and transparency and accountability mechanisms are in place. The Shwe Gas and China-Burma Pipelines projects must be suspended and all financing frozen or divested until such conditions exist..."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB - English; 4.2MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/SoldOut(bu)-red.pdf
      http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SoldOut-Web-Verstoin.pdf
      http://www.shwe.org/campaign-update/sold-out-new-report/
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


      Title: The Kachin Conflict: Are Chinese Dams to Blame?
      Date of publication: 08 July 2011
      Description/subject: "More than 10 days have passed since the breakout of armed conflict between the Burmese military (tatmadaw) and the Kachin rebel group – the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). Many believe the fighting directly resulted from their struggle over the area where the Dapein dam is built, and blame the Chinese project for triggering the fight. Some speculate that Beijing’s pressure pushed Naypyidaw to use force against the KIA. This analysis is oversimplified, ignores the long standing hostility and complicated relations between Naypyidaw and the KIA, and will mislead key parties as they work toward a solution to the current quagmire..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pacific Forum CSIS (PACNET No. 32)
      Format/size: pdf (69K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/Chinese_dams-Kachin_conflict-Yun_Sun.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 September 2013


      Title: The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy
      Date of publication: 29 March 2011
      Description/subject: "...This briefer focuses on the impacts of two of Burma’s largest energy projects, led by Chinese, South Korean, and Indian multinational corporations in partnership with the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), Burmese companies, and Burmese state security forces. The projects are the Shwe Natural Gas Project and the Burma-China oil transport project, collectively referred to here as the “Burma-China pipelines.” The pipelines will transport gas from Burma and oil from the Middle East and Africa across Burma to China. The massive pipelines will pass through two states, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shan, and two divisions in Burma, Magway and Mandalay, over dense mountain ranges and arid plains, rivers, jungle, and villages and towns populated by ethnic Burmans and several ethnic nationalities. The pipelines are currently under construction and will feed industry and consumers primarily in Yunnan and other western provinces in China, while producing multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese regime. This briefer provides original research documenting adverse human rights impacts of the pipelines, drawing on investigations inside Burma and leaked documents obtained by EarthRights and its partners. EarthRights has found extensive land confiscation related to the projects, and a pervasive lack of meaningful consultation and consent among affected communities, along with cases of forced labor and other serious human rights abuses in violation of international and national law. EarthRights has uncovered evidence to support claims of corporate complicity in those abuses. In addition, companies involved have breached key international standards and research shows they have failed to gain a social license to operate in the country. New evidence suggests communities in the project area are overwhelmingly opposed to the pipeline projects. While EarthRights has not found evidence directly linking the projects to armed conflict, the pipelines may increase tensions as construction reaches Shan State, where there is a possibility of renewed armed conflict between the Burmese Army and specific ethnic armed groups. The Army is currently forcibly recruiting and training villagers in project areas to fight. EarthRights has obtained confidential Production Sharing Contracts detailing the structure of multi-million dollar signing and production bonuses that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is required to pay to MOGE officials regarding its involvement in two offshore oil and gas development projects that, at present, are unrelated to the Burma- China pipelines. EarthRights believes the amount and structure of these payments are in-line with previously disclosed resource development contracts in Burma, and are likely representative of contracts signed for the Burma-China pipelines; contracts that remain guarded from public scrutiny. Accordingly, the operators of the Burma- China pipeline projects would have already made several tranche cash payments to MOGE, totaling in the tens of millions of dollars..."
      Language: English, Korean
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.23 - English; 1.9MB - Korean)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/documents/the-burma-china-pipelines-korean.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


      Title: KIO Open Letter to the People's Republic of China
      Date of publication: 16 March 2011
      Description/subject: Text of the open letter sent to Chinese President Hu Jintao, in which the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) asks China to stop the planned Mali Nmai Concluence (Myitsone) Dam Project to be built in Burma’s northern Kachin state, warning that the controversial project could lead to civil war
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)
      Format/size: pdf (878K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2011


      Title: China’s Myanmar Strategy: Elections, Ethnic Politics and Economics
      Date of publication: 21 September 2010
      Description/subject: OVERVIEW: Myanmar’s 2010 elections present challenges and opportunities for China’s relationship with its south-western neighbour. Despite widespread international opinion that elections will be neither free nor fair, China is likely to accept any poll result that does not involve major instability. Beijing was caught off-guard by the Myanmar military’s offensive into Kokang in August 2009 that sent more than 30,000 refugees into Yunnan province. Since then it has used pressure and mediation to push Naypyidaw and the ethnic groups that live close to China’s border to the negotiating table. Beyond border stability, Beijing feels its interests in Myanmar are being challenged by a changing bilateral balance of power due to the Obama administration’s engagement policy and China’s increasing energy stakes in the country. Beijing is seeking to consolidate political and economic ties by stepping up visits from top leaders, investment, loans and trade. But China faces limits to its influence, including growing popular opposition to the exploitation of Myanmar’s natural resources by Chinese firms, and divergent interests and policy implementation between Beijing and local governments in Yunnan. The Kokang conflict and the rise in tensions along the border have prompted Beijing to increasingly view Myanmar’s ethnic groups as a liability rather than strategic leverage. Naypyidaw’s unsuccessful attempt to convert the main ceasefire groups into border guard forces under central military command raised worries for Beijing that the two sides would enter into conflict. China’s Myanmar diplomacy has concentrated on pressing both the main border groups and Naypyidaw to negotiate. While most ethnic groups appreciate Beijing’s role in pressuring the Myanmar government not to launch military offensives, some also believe that China’s support is provisional and driven by its own economic and security interests. The upcoming 7 November elections are Naypyidaw’s foremost priority. With the aim to institutionalise the army’s political role, the regime launched the seven-step roadmap to “disciplined democracy” in August 2003. The elections for national and regional parliaments are the fifth step in this plan. China sees neither the roadmap nor the national elections as a challenge to its interests. Rather, Beijing hopes they will serve its strategic and economic interests by producing a government perceived both domestically and internationally as more legitimate. Two other factors impact Beijing’s calculations. China sees Myanmar as having an increasingly important role in its energy security. China is building major oil and gas pipelines to tap Myanmar’s rich gas reserves and shorten the transport time of its crude imports from the Middle East and Africa. Chinese companies are expanding rapidly into Myanmar’s hydropower sector to meet Chinese demand. Another factor impacting Beijing’s strategy towards Myanmar is the U.S. administration’s engagement policy, which Beijing sees as a potential challenge to its influence in Myanmar and part of U.S. strategic encirclement of China. Beijing is increasing its political and economic presence to solidify its position in Myanmar. Three members of the Politburo Standing Committee have visited Myanmar since March 2009 – in contrast to the absence of any such visits the previous eight years – boosting commercial ties by signing major hydropower, mining and construction deals. In practice China is already Myanmar’s top provider of foreign direct investment and through recent economic agreements is seeking to extend its lead. Yet China faces dual hurdles in achieving its political and economic goals in Myanmar. Internally Beijing and local Yunnan governments have differing perceptions of and approaches to border management and the ethnic groups. Beijing prioritises border stability and is willing to sacrifice certain local commercial interests, while Yunnan values border trade and profits from its special relationships with ethnic groups. In Myanmar, some Chinese companies’ resource extraction activities are fostering strong popular resentment because of their lack of transparency and unequal benefit distribution, as well as environmental damage and forced displacement of communities. Many believe such resentment was behind the April 2010 bombing of the Myitsone hydropower project. Activists see some large-scale investment projects in ceasefire areas as China playing into Naypyidaw’s strategy to gain control over ethnic group territories, especially in resource- rich Kachin State..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N° 112)
      Format/size: pdf (1.06MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      Title: De Kunming a Mandalay: la nouvelle "Route de Birmanie"
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Développement des échanges commerciaux le long de la frontière sino-birmane depuis 1988... "Ce papier analyse les relations sino-birmanes et cherche à rendre compte de la vitalité et de la complexité des relations commerciales frontalières. Pour cela trois niveaux de réflexions doivent être mis en regard. Tout d'abord, l'engouement pour les échanges commerciaux est mis en perspectives avec les objectifs stratégiques plus larges de chacun des deux pays. Les relations bilatérales sont motivées par des intérêts économiques et sécuritaires tels que la sécurité énergétique, l'approvisionnement en matières premières, la coopération en faveur d'un développement régional ou encore le désenclavement des provinces de l'intérieur. Ensuite, il est essentiel de décrire la situation politique et la composition de la population dans les régions frontalières afin de comprendre la relative fluidité des biens, mais aussi des personnes dans ces régions. La seconde partie de cet article dressera donc un tableau détaillé des zones frontalières sino-birmanes. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, nous soulignerons le rôle important joué par la population d'origine chinoise en Birmanie (même s'il ne s'agit pas des seuls acteurs des échanges commerciaux). Aujourd'hui, le renouveau de l'identité chinoise et des communautés chinoises est à la fois un facteur et le résultat du rapide développement des échanges bilatéraux."
      Author/creator: Abel TOURNIER, Hélène LE BAIL
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: IFRI, Asie.Visions 25
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ifri.org
      Date of entry/update: 16 March 2010


      Title: From Kunming to Mandalay: The new "Burma Road"
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "Since the legalization of Sino-Myanmar border trade in 1988, flows of goods and persons have developed tremendously along the long frontier shared by these two countries. Reliable figures on bilateral trade, and to an even greater extent on migration, are scarce and contested. What is sure is that these exchanges are having deep consequences on both Yunnan and Myanmar. Some Chinese industries and workers, for example in mining, logging or jade trading, are dependent on access to primary resources across the border. A number of transnational issues affecting Yunnan province, such as drug trafficking and the spread of HIV/AIDS, have their roots in the Myanmar socio-political situation. With the planned completion of CNPC oil and gas pipelines in 2013, the strategic importance of the border will be further raised for China. Thus, China is expecting the upcoming legislative elections to bring about increased stability and development in Myanmar and the border areas while it tries to use its limited leverage to make that happen. China's relationship with Myanmar is often seen as unbalanced, with the former having the upper hand and being the only one benefiting from the relationship. As stated above, Chinese influence and presence in Myanmar is not only limited, it is also creating economic opportunities for Myanmar citizens, be they of Chinese descent or not. In fact, it is not on the border but at the central level that the problems created by Myanmar relations with China must be addressed. First, deep economic reforms are needed for Myanmar to move away from its overreliance on the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources to an improvement of agricultural, industrial and trade policies. Second, benefits stemming from ongoing projects between the Myanmar government and Chinese companies should be better shared with a Myanmar population that direly needs better health and education services."
      Author/creator: Abel TOURNIER, Hélène LE BAIL
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IFRI, Asie.Visions 25
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ifri.org
      Date of entry/update: 16 March 2010


      Title: Corridor of Power - China’s Trans-Burma Oil and Gas pipelines
      Date of publication: 07 September 2009
      Description/subject: Introduction: "On June 16, 2009 China's Vice-President Xi Jinping and Burma's Vice-Senior General Maung Aye signed a memorandum of understanding relating to the development, operation and management of the "Myanmar-China Crude Oil Pipeline Projects." After years of brokering deals and planning, China has cemented its place not only as the sole buyer of Burma's massive Shwe Gas reserves, but also the creator of a new trans-Burma corridor to secure shipment of its oil imports from the Middle East and Africa. China's largest oil and gas producer -the China National Petroleum Corporation or CNPC - will build nearly 4,000 kilometers of dual oil and gas pipelines across the heartland of Burma beginning in September 2009. CNPC will also purchase offshore natural gas reserves, handing the military junta ruling Burma a conservative estimate of one billion US dollars a year over the next 30 years. Burma ranks tenth in the world in terms of natural gas reserves yet the per capita electricity consumption is less than 5% that of neighbouring Thailand and China. Burma already receives US$ 2.4 billion per year - nearly 50 percent of revenues from exports - from natural gas sales but spends a pittance on health and education; one reason it was ranked as the second-most corrupt country in the world in 2008. Entrenched corruption combined with energy shortages have led to social unrest in the conflict-ridden country; unprecedented demonstrations in 2007 were sparked by a spike in fuel prices. An estimated 13,200 soldiers are currently positioned along the pipeline route. Past experience has shown that pipeline construction and maintenance in Burma involves forced labour, forced relocation, land confiscation, and a host of abuses by soldiers deployed to the project area. A lack of transparency or assessment mechanisms leaves critical ecosystems under threat as well. Yet it is not only the people of Burma who are facing grave risks from these projects. The corporations, governments, and financiers involved also face serious financial and security risks. A re-ignition of fighting between the regime and ceasefire armies stationed along the pipeline route; an unpredictable business environment that could arbitrarily seize property or assets; and public relations disasters as a result of complicity in human rights abuses and environmental destruction all threaten investments. The Shwe Gas Movement is therefore calling companies and governments to suspend the Shwe Gas and Trans-Burma Corridor projects; shareholders, institutional investors and pension funds to divest their holdings in these companies; and banks to refrain from financing these projects unless affected peoples are protected."
      Language: English, Burmese (press releases in also in Chinese and Thai)
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB, 2.3MB, English version; 7.7MB, Burmese version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/ (press releases in English, Burmese, Chinese and Thai)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Corridor_of_PowerSGM-bu.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/CorridorofPower-SGM-red.pdf (English)
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2009


      Title: China’s Chance
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: How the global financial crisis has helped Beijing expand its influence in Southeast Asia
      Author/creator: Antoaneta Bezlova
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 June 2009


      Title: China-Burma Ties in 1954: The Beginning of the “Pauk Phaw” Era
      Date of publication: May 2009
      Description/subject: "Although Burma was the first non-socialist country to recognize new China, the favorable beginning failed to facilitate development of China-Burma relations in the early period (1949-1953). On the contrary, their relations were “noncommittal and very cold”.1 Both sides were suspicious and mistrustful to each other. China regarded Burma as an underling of imperialist countries. Burma feared that China would invade it and threaten its national security. The cold condition began to alter when two countries’ Premiers visited each other in 1954. After 1954, Beijing and Rangoon began to contact closely and frequently, and China-Burma relations entered the friendly “Pauk Phaw” (fraternal) era during the Cold War. Some have been written about general China-Burma relations in the Cold War, but little as yet has been done in the detail of their ties, particularly the shift in 1954. This study focuses on the manifestation, the causes and impact of the relations change. The turn of 1954 basically consisted of two dimensions: political and economic relations..."
      Author/creator: Fan Hongwei
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2009-21
      Format/size: pdf (352K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010


      Title: Myanmar-PRC sign agreements
      Date of publication: 27 March 2009
      Description/subject: 4 PRC-Myanmar agreements on: (1) the Myanmar-China Oil and Gas Pipelines; (2) the Development of Hydropower Resources; (3) Buyer's Credit for Construction Projects; and (4) Economic and Technical Cooperation...pictures of the signing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2009


      Title: China and Japan's Economic Relations with Myanmar: Strengthened vs. Estranged
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: "China has historically been the most important neighbor for Myanmar, sharing a long 2185 km border. Myanmar and China call each other "Paukphaw," a Myanmar word for siblings that is never used for any country other than China, reflecting their close and cordial relationship. The independent China-Myanmar relationship is premised on the five principles of peaceful co-existence, including mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression. Japan and Myanmar have also had strong ties in the post-World War II period, often referred to as a "special relationship", or a "historically friendly relationship."! That relationship was established through the personal experiences and sentiments ofNe Win and others in the military and political elite of independent Myanmar. Aung San, Ne Win and other leaders of Myanmar's independence movement were members of the "Thirty Comrades," who were educated and trained by Japanese army officers.2 However, China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar have developed in contrast to one another since 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), later re-constituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), took power by military coup. The military government in Myanmar has improved and strengthened its relations with China, while their relationship with Japan has worsened and cooled. What accounts for the differences in China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development and changes in China-Myanmar and Japan-Myanmar relations from historical, political, diplomatic and particularly economic viewpoints. Based on discussions, the author evaluates China's growing influences on the Myanmar government and economy, and identifies factors that, on the contrary, have put Japan and Myanmar at a distance since 1988..."
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
      Format/size: pdf (201K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Regional Political Economy of China Ascendant:- Pivotal Issues and Critical Perspectives. Chapter 4: China Engages Myanmar as a Chinese Client State?
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: Introduction: The Role of Energy in Sino-Myanmar Relations; Myanmar Plays the China Card; China Engages Myanmar in the ASEAN Way; Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond: "Conclusion: Norms, Energy and Beyond This chapter has demonstrated two points. First, although ASEAN, China, India, and Japan form partnership with Myanmar for different reasons, interactions among the regional stakeholders with regard to Myanmar have reinforced the regional norm of non-intervention into other states’ internal affairs. Both India and Japan, the two democratic countries in the region, have been socialized, though in varying degrees, into the norm when they engage Myanmar as well as ASEAN.67 The regional normative environment or structure in which all stakeholders find themselves defines or constitutes their Asian identities, national interests, and more importantly, what counts as rightful action. At the same time, regional actors create and reproduce the dominant norms when they interact with each other. This lends support to the constructivist argument that both agent and structure are mutually constitutive.68 This ideational approach prompts us to look beyond such material forces and concerns as the quest for energy resources as well as military prowess to explain China’s international behaviour. Both rationalchoice logic of consequences and constructivist logic of appropriateness are at work in China’s relations with Myanmar and ASEAN. But pundits grossly overstate the former at the expense of the latter. To redress this imbalance, this chapter asserts that China adopts a “business as usual” approach to Myanmar largely because this approach is regarded as appropriate and legitimate by Myanmar and ASEAN and practised by India and Japan as well, and because China wants to strengthen the moral legitimacy of an international society based on the state-centric principles of national sovereignty and nonintervention. As a corollary, we argue that regional politics at play have debunked the common, simplistic belief that Myanmar is a client state of China and that China’s thirst for Myanmar’s energy resources is a major determinant of China’s policy towards the regime. A close examination of the oil and gas assets in Myanmar reveals that it is less likely to be able to become a significant player in international oil politics. Whereas Myanmar may offer limited material benefits to China, it and ASEAN at large are of significant normative value to the latter. Ostensibly China adopts a realpolitik approach to Myanmar; however, the approach also reflects China’s recognition of the presence and prominence of a regional normative structure and its firm support for it.".....11 pages of notes and bibliographic references
      Author/creator: Pak K. Lee, Gerald Chan and Lai-Ha Chan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies, University of Malaya
      Format/size: pdf (892K - OBL version; 1.2MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/China_engages_Myanmar_as_client_state.pdf-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2011


      Title: CHINA IN BURMA: THE INCREASING INVESTMENT OF CHINESE MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN BURMA’S HYDROPOWER, OIL AND NATURAL GAS, AND MINING SECTORS
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: Updated September 2008...INTRODUCTION: Amidst recent international interest in China’s moves to secure resources throughout the world and recent events in Burma1, the international community has turned its attention to China’s role in Burma. In September 2007, the violent suppression of a peaceful movement led by Buddhist monks in Burma following the military junta’s decision to drastically raise fuel prices put the global spotlight on the political and economic relationships between China and neighboring resource-rich Burma. EarthRights International (ERI) has identified at least 69 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in at least 90 hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma. These recent findings build upon previous ERI research collected between May and August 2007 that identified 26 Chinese MNCs involved in 62 projects. These projects vary from small dams completed in the last two decades to planned oil and natural gas pipelines across Burma to southwest China. With no comprehensive information about these projects available in the public domain, the information included here has been pieced together from government statements, English and Chinese language news reports, and company press releases available on the internet. While concerned that details of the projects and their potential impacts have not been disclosed to affected communities of the general public, we hope that this information will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the involvement of Chinese MNCs in Burma. Concerns over political repression in Burma have led many western governments to prohibit new trade with and investment in Burma, and have resulted in the departure of many western corporations from Burma; notable exceptions include Total of France and Chevron3 of the United States. Meanwhile, as demand for energy pushes many Asian countries to look abroad for natural resources, Burma has been an attractive destination. India, Thailand, Korea, Singapore, and China are among the Asian countries with the largest investments in Burma’s hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining sectors. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma’s oil and natural gas sectors, for example, more than tripled from 2006 to 2007, reaching US$ 474. million, representing approximately 90% of all FDI in 2007. While China has embraced a foreign policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, the line between business and politics in a country like Burma is blurred at best. In pursuit of Burma’s natural resources, China has provided Burma with political support, 6 military armaments,7 and financial support in the form of conditions-free loans.8 Investments in Burma’s energy sectors provide billions of US dollars in financial support to the military junta, which devotes at least 40% of its budget to military spending, 9 only slightly more than 1% on healthcare, and around 5% on public education.10 These kinds of economic and political support for the current military regime constitute a concrete involvement in Burma’s internal affairs. The following is a brief introduction to and summary of the major completed, current and planned hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma with Chinese involvement. All information is based on Chinese and English language media available on the internet and likely represents only a fraction of China’s actual investment.
      Language: English, Burmese, Chinese, Spanish
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (825K; 3.22MB- original, Alternate URL; 1.85MB - Burmese; 1.3MB - Chinese; 3.52MB - Spanish)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corp...
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-English.pdf (English)
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


      Title: « Le nouveau partenariat commercial sino-birman de 1988 et ses effets en Birmanie : Illustration à la lumière du cas de Mandalay »
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: TABLE DES MATIERES:-- PREMIÈRE PARTIE- 1. INTRODUCTION: 1.1 La Birmanie, un état méconnu: l’isolationnisme en cause; 1.2. Les relations sino-birmanes comme cadre d’analyse; 1.3. Problématique : Mandalay et sa nouvelle population chinoise: Illustration des effets « pervers » des relations commerciales sino-birmanes; 1.4. Structure du texte et méthodologie... DEUXIEME PARTIE:- 2. LE PARTENARIAT ECONOMIQUE ET COMMERCIAL SINO-BIRMAN: 2.1. Les relations sino-birmanes avant 1988 : une amitié sous tension; 2.2. L’économie birmane à la veille de la prise de pouvoir du SLORC en septembre 1988; 2.3. Le commerce frontalier sino-birman et ses enjeux en Birmanie... TROISIEME PARTIE:- 3. ILLUSTRATION DES EFFETS PERVERS DU COMMERCE SINO-BIRMAN: 3.1. Le cas de Mandalay : les conséquences de l’immigration chinoise; 3.2. Vérification de l’hypothèse de départ et conclusion générale... BIBLIOGRAPHIE:- 1. Ouvrages de référence; 2. Articles de journaux et revues périodiques; 2.1. Sur la Birmanie de manière générale; 2.2. Au sujet des relations sino - birmanes; 3. Sources Internet (documents en ligne); 3.1. Sur la Birmanie de manière générale; 3.2. Sur les relations sino - birmanes; 3.3. Articles de presse en ligne traitant des relations sino - birmanes; 3.4. Autres Sources de presse en ligne
      Author/creator: Charles APOTHEKER
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: UNIVERSITE DE LAUSANNE FACULTE DES SCIENCES SOCIALES ET POLITIQUES INSTITUT D’ETUDES POLITIQUES INTERNATIONALES
      Format/size: pdf (232K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2009


      Title: Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Myanmar
      Date of publication: April 2008
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) share the biggest part in Myanmar economy in terms of number, contribution to employment, output, and investment. Myanmar economic growth is thus totally dependent on the development of SMEs in the private sector. Today, the role of SMEs has become more vital in strengthening national competitive advantage and the speedy economic integration into the ASEAN region. However, studies show that SMEs have to deal with a number of constraints that hinder their development potential, such as the shortage in power supply, unavailability of long-term credit from external sources and many others. Among them, the financing problem of SMEs is one of the biggest constraints. Such is deeply rooted in demand and supply issues, macroeconomic fundamentals, and lending infrastructure of the country. The government's policy towards SMEs could also lead to insufficient support for the SMEs. Thus, focusing on SMEs and private sector development as a viable strategy for industrialization and economic development of the country is a fundamental requirement for SME development. This paper recommends policies for stabilizing macro economic fundamentals, improving lending infrastructures of the country and improving demand- and supply-side conditions from the SMEs financing perspective in order to provide a more accessible financing for SMEs and to contribute in the overall development of SMEs in Myanmar thereby to sharpen national competitive advantage in the age of speedy economic integration."... Keywords: small and medium enterprise (SME), financing, competitiveness... JEL classification: G20, G30, L60, M10
      Author/creator: Aung Kyaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE)...IDE Discussion paper No, 148
      Format/size: pdf (590K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: China's Opening-up Strategy and Its Economic Relations with ASEAN Countries -- A Case Study of Yunnan Province
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: Concllusion: "The report approaches China's opening-up strategy and China's economic relations with ASEAN countries, meanwhile it takes Yunnan province as a case, analyzes Yunnan's economic cooperation with Southeast Asian countries. We can draw some conclusion from the analysis 1. Opening-up is China's basic state policy. Since 1978 when China started reform and opening-up, its economy has been developing rapidly and the living standards of the Chinese people have been notably improved. The unprecedented social changes and expanding liberalization have injected great vigor into China's development and vitality into the global economy. China's sustained and rapid economic growth is attributed to opening-up. Facts have proven that China's opening up strategy steered China towards to the right course. China will firmly implementing an opening up strategy for mutually beneficial and win-win nature, intensifying trade and economic cooperation and realizing common development with other countries. 2. Though economic strength constantly increased, China is still a developing country. As a world's largest developing country, China and other developing countries have much common interests. To consolidate and develop friendly and cooperative relations with developing countries remain as the base stone in China's foreign policy. To strengthen South- South cooperation, raising South- South cooperation level, and expanding assistance to the developing countries will probably be the focal point of China's South-South cooperation in the future. 3. Southeast Asian countries are China's neighboring countries, the bilateral friendly tie goes back to the ancient times. At present, the relationship between China and Southeast Asian countries is in the best stage after founding of the People's Republic China. Establishment of China-ASEAN FTA, the GMS cooperation are the remarkable symbol of good neighbourly and friendly relations development between China and Southeast Asian countries in new historical stage, and it is also a good example of South- South cooperation. The neighborhood policy of building friendship and partnership with our neighboring countries will not only become China's guiding principle for handling foreign political relations, but also become the guiding principle for handling economic cooperation with neighbouring countries. 4. In China's economic relations with Southeast Asian countries, trade occupies the most important position. In recent years China's trade deficit has been higher than favourable balance of trade in its trade with Southeast Asia. China has become the third largest worldwide importer, creating more manufacture and job opportunities for many trade partners. Interdependence between China and Southeast Asian countries deepens. Two sides become the other's major market each other. China cannot develop without the world, while the world needs China for its prosperity. this tendency is more and more apparent in economic relations between China and Southeast Asia. As one of the two important sides of China's basic state policy of opening-up, "going global" has been identified as a major national strategy by Chinese government. In the wake of economic development, China's investment in Southeast Asian countries and project contracts will further increase. The forms of investment may be diversified from the simple business establishment to cross-border mergers and acquisitions, equity swap, overseas listing, R&D centers and industrial parks. 5. The Southwest China regions neighboring on Southeast Asian countries play a important role in China's economic relations with Southeast Asia. Of which Yunnan province borders three countries, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, and it has kept close economic and cultural ties with neighbouring countries. Yunnan province has an obvious advantage in the establishment of China-ASEAN FTA. Yunnan's sustained and rapid economic growth is attributed to opening-up, especially opening up to Southeast Asian countries. Yunnan made great progress through border trade, participation in the GMS cooperation, and building China-ASEAN FTA. However, as to China's trade with Southeast Asia, and also as to China's investment in Southeast Asia, Yunnan is not accounted for more than 1 percent, almost has no status. As a result, Yunnan still has long way to go for catching up advanced coastal and inland regions of China. 6. The GMS cooperation is a multilateral cooperation mechanism. The GMS represents a correct direction of cooperative development in developing countries and it establishes some commonly accepted principles which have gradually developed from the cooperation of member countries throughout the GMS process. Its successful experience of GMS is worth summing up and spreading. Yunnan plays a constructive role in the GMS cooperation. It is important task to continue pushing forward development of the GMS for both China and other countries."....Some useful trade figures in the appendices.
      Author/creator: Zhu Zhenming
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (VRF paper 435)
      Format/size: pdf (542K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


      Title: Myanmar’s economic relations with China: who benefits and who pays?
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: "Against the background of closer diplomatic, political and security ties between Myanmar and China since 1988, their economic relations have also become stronger throughout the 1990s and up to the present. China is now a major supplier of consumer and capital goods to Myanmar, in particular through border trade. China also provides a large amount of economic cooperation in the areas of infrastructure, state-owned economic enterprises (SEEs) and energy. Nevertheless, Myanmar’s trade with China has failed to have a substantial impact on its broad-based economic and industrial development. China’s economic cooperation apparently supports the present regime, but its effects on the whole economy are limited. At worst, bad loans might need to be paid off by Myanmar and Chinese stakeholders, including taxpayers. Strengthened economic ties with China will be instrumental in regime survival, but will not be a powerful force affecting the process of economic development in Myanmar. Myanmar and China call each other ‘paukphaw’, a Myanmar word for siblings. Paukphaw is not used for any other foreign country, reflecting Myanmar and China’s close and cordial relationship.1 For Myanmar, China has historically been by far its most important neighbour, sharing the longest border, of 2227 kilometres. Myanmar regained its independence in 1948 and quickly welcomed the birth of the People’s Republic of China in the next year. The Sino–Myanmar relationship has always been premised on five principles of peaceful coexistence, which include mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression (Than 2003). Nevertheless, independent Myanmar has been cautious about its relationship with China. In reality, Sino–Myanmar relations have undergone a series of ups and downs and China has occasionally posed a real threat to Myanmar’s security, such as the incursion of defeated Chinese Nationalist (Kuomintang or KMT) troops into the northern Shan State in 1949, overt and covert Chinese support for the Burmese Communist Party’s insurgency against Yangon up until 1988 and confrontations between Burmese and resident overseas Chinese, including militant Maoist students in 1967. Indeed, the Myanmar leadership, always extremely sensitive about the country’s sovereignty, independence and territorial 87 integrity, had long observed strict neutrality during the Cold War, avoiding obtaining military and economic aid from the superpowers. Dramatic changes have emerged since the birth in 1988 of the present government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), originally called the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The United States, the European Union, Japan and multilateral aid organisations all withheld official development assistance and some Western countries imposed political sanctions and weapons embargoes after 1990. Under mounting international pressure, the military regime in Yangon had no choice but to approach Beijing for help. As diplomatic, political and security ties between the two countries grew closer, economic relations also strengthened. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development of and changes in Myanmar–China economic relations since 1988 and to evaluate China’s growing influence on the Myanmar economy. It seeks to answer the question of whether or not the Myanmar economy can survive and grow with reinforced economic ties with China. In other words, can China support the Myanmar economy against the imposition of economic sanctions by Western countries? This question is relevant to assess the impact and effectiveness of sanctions. The chapter also tries to answer another question—namely, who benefits in what ways and who pays what costs as the two countries strengthen their ties, in spite of Myanmar’s isolation from the mainstream of the international community. The second section introduces a brief history of how the two countries have become the closest of allies since 1988. The third section examines trade relations between Myanmar and China, while the fourth section describes Chinese economic and business cooperation with Myanmar. The last section summarises the author’s arguments and answers the research questions..."
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
      Format/size: pdf (252K)
      Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
      http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: Ein Freund und Helfer - China unterstützt aus strategischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen das Militärregime in Myanmar
      Date of publication: December 2007
      Description/subject: Staaten wie Russland, Indien, Serbien und die Ukraine liefern bedenkenlos militärische Güter in das Land, dessen Bevölkerung seit Jahrzehnten brutal unterdrückt wird. Insbesondere China verkauft der Junta Waffen in großem Stil: Die Volksrepublik hat sich in den letzten Jahren zu einem der weltweit größten Rüstungsexporteure entwickelt, und auch Myanmar steht auf der Empfängerliste. Waffenlieferungen aus China; Interessen Chinas in Burma; Rolle der UN; Rolle der EU; Military support from China; chinese ambitions in Burma; role of UN; role of EU;
      Author/creator: Verena Harpe
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International
      Format/size: Html (21kb)
      Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008


      Title: Where Money Grows on Trees
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Getting to the roots of Burma’s latest timber export trade... They had been rooted in Burma’s soil for many years, some of them for more than a century. Then the heavy excavation machinery moved in—and the trees moved out, across the border to China. Some Burmese nature lovers say the trees will be homesick, but for Burmese and Chinese entrepreneurs they just represent money. Lots of money..."
      Author/creator: Khun Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: Why China?
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: "To support its growing Economy, China has been exploiting Burma's natural resources cheaply by strongly pleasing the corrupted and incompetent dictators; China is also largest arm supplier, border trader and investor; China's support effectively water down the US and western sanctions. China refuse to condemn the recent killing; blocking stronger sanctions by UNSC; refuse to ask for the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the release of all political prisoners; has vetoed a Burma Resolution at the UNSC in January. China is also using Burma as its door to Indian Ocean as part of its so called "string of pearls" strategy that aims to project Chinese power overseas and protect China's energy security at home. "..... Letter to President Hu Jintao on Burma... Chinese dilemma over Burma protests... UNSC asks Burma's Neighbour to use influence on Myanmar... China's crucial role in Burma crisis... Myanmar and the world (Destructive engagement):The outside world shares responsibility for the unfolding tragedy in Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


      Title: The Ecology of Strategic Interests: China’s Quest for Energy Security from the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea to the Caspian Sea Basin
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: This article attempts to explore the ecological dimensions of strategic interests by examining China’s Asia-wide quest for key natural resources and safe seaways for their shipment. It takes a close look at three cases – one in the Indian Ocean region, the South China Sea region, and the Caspian Sea region – to explain interaction between natural resources and China’s emerging strategic interests in Asia. The article shows that Beijing’s quest for key natural resources underlies its economic and strategic alignments with the respective nations of Indian Ocean, South China Sea and Caspian Sea regions. The article implies that International Relations (IR) Theory and policy makers pay very close attention to the anchorage of strategic interests in the struggles over access and control of critical natural resources.... Keywords • Energy Security • China • South Asia • Caspian • Central Asia • East Asia • International Relations Theory
      Author/creator: Tarique Niazi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program
      Format/size: pdf (88MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


      Title: Myanmar’s Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Against the background of closer diplomatic, political and security ties between Myanmar and China since 1988, their economic relations have also grown stronger throughout the 1990s and up to 2005. China is now a major supplier of consumer and capital goods to Myanmar, in particular through border trade. China also provides a large amount of economic cooperation in the areas of infrastructure, energy and state-owned economic enterprises. Nevertheless, Myanmar’s trade with China has failed to have a substantial impact on its broad-based economic and industrial development. China’s economic cooperation apparently supports the present regime, but its effects on the whole economy will be limited with an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and distorted incentives structure. As a conclusion, strengthened economic ties with China will be instrumental in regime survival, but will not be a powerful force affecting the process of economic development in Myanmar."...Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), China, trade, border trade, economic cooperation, energy, oil and gas
      Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 66
      Format/size: pdf (510K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2007


      Title: A Choice for China: Ending the destruction of Burma's frontier forests
      Date of publication: 18 October 2005
      Description/subject: (Press release): "... Ending the destruction of Burma’s northern frontier forests" , details shocking new evidence of the massive illicit plunder of Burma’s forests by Chinese logging companies. Much of the logging takes place in forests that form part of an area said to be “very possibly the most bio-diverse, rich, temperate area on earth.” In 2004, more than 1 million cubic meters of timber, about 95% of Burma’s total timber exports to China were illegally exported from northern Burma to Yunnan Province. This trade, amounting to a $250 million loss for the Burmese people, every year, takes place with the full knowledge of the Burmese regime, the government in Beijing and the rest of the international community. Chinese companies, local Chinese authorities, regional Tatmadaw and ethnic ceasefire groups are all directly involved. “On average, one log truck, carrying about 15 tonnes of timber, logged illegally in Burma, crosses an official Chinese checkpoint every seven minutes, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year; yet they do nothing.” Said Jon Buckrell of Global Witness. In September 2001 the government of the People’s Republic of China made a commitment to strengthen bilateral collaboration to address violations of forest law and forest crime, including illegal logging and associated illegal trade. However, since then, illegal imports of timber across the Burma-China border have actually increased by 60%. “A few Chinese businessmen, backed by the authorities in Yunnan Province, are completely undermining Chinese government initiatives to combat illegal logging. Not only are the activities of these loggers jeopardising the prospect of sustainable development in northern Burma they are also breaking Chinese law.” Said Buckrell."... Download as Word (english 2.0 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution 6.9 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 1 1.6 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 2 1.5 Mb) | PDF (english - low resolution - part 3 1.2 Mb) | Word (chinese 2.5 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution 7.8 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution - part 1 4.0 Mb) | PDF (chinese - low resolution - part 2 2.9 Mb) | PDF (chinese - appendices 2.1 Mb) | Word (burmese - press release 47 Kb) | Word (chinese - press release 29 Kb) | Word (burmese - executive summary 51 Kb) In September 2004 EU member states called for the European Commission to produce “…specific proposals to address the issue of Burmese illegal logging…” Later, in October, the European Council expressed support for the development of programmes to address, “the problem of non-sustainable, excessive logging” that resulted in deforestation in Burma. To date, the EU has done next to nothing. “Like China, the EU has so far failed the Burmese people. How many more livelihoods will be destroyed before the Commission and EU member states get their act together?” Asked Buckrell. It is essential that the Chinese government stops timber imports across the Burma-China border, with immediate effect, and until such time sufficient safeguards are in place that can guarantee legality of the timber supply. The Chinese authorities should also take action against companies and officials involved in the illegal trade. Global Witness is calling for the establishment of a working group to facilitate measures to combat illegal logging, to ensure equitable, transparent and sustainable forest management, and to promote long-term development in northern Burma. “It is vitally important that all stakeholders work together to end the rampant destruction of Burma’s forests and to ensure that the necessary aid and long-term investment reach this impoverished region.” Said Jon Buckrell.
      Language: Burmese, Chinese, English,
      Source/publisher: Global Witness
      Format/size: pdf, Word
      Alternate URLs: http://globalwitness.org
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2005


      Title: ‘Going Out’: The Growth of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: Analysts have finally started to pay increasing attention to the rapidly rising levels of Chinese investment abroad. Deals such as Lenovo’s purchase of IBM’s PC production arm have sparked interest in a quiet revolution. The story now is not just about the flow of foreign investment in China, but also of the flow of China’s investment into other countries. However, most interest so far has concentrated on big ticket investments in the West and the consequences for European and particularly US geopolitical interests. Of less concern thus far have been the implications of Chinese investment on corporate social responsibility. This paper is a preliminary assessment of the potential implications of Chinese investments: in particular, the effect on sanctions designed to improve human rights (with specific reference to Myanmar), and whether pressure can be maintained on foreign investors to comply with international standards and norms in the face of Chinese investment...".....Keywords: China; Southeast Asia; foreign direct investment (FDI); outward direct investment (ODI); corporate social responsibility (CSR); investment
      Author/creator: Stephen Frost and Mary Ho
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management
      Format/size: pdf (118K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


      Title: An Overview of the Market Chain for China's Timber Product Imports from Myanmar
      Date of publication: 2005
      Description/subject: This article on China's forest trade with Myanmar builds on an earlier study by the same authors: “Navigating the Border: An Analysis of the China-Myanmar Timber Trade” [link]. The analysis in this study moves on to identify priority issues along the market chain of the timber trade from the Yunnan-Myanmar border to Guangdong Province and Shanghai on China’s eastern seaboard. Give the increased intensity of logging in northern Myanmar after the introduction of stringent limits on domestic timber production in China in 1998, the authors argue it is now downstream buyers on China’s eastern seaboard who are driving the timber business along the Yunnan Myanmar border. While the boom in the timber business has provided income generating opportunities for many, from villagers in Myanmar to Chinese migrant businessmen, forests that can be cost-effectively harvested in Myanmar along its border with Yunnan are in increasingly short supply. This entails a need to explore priority areas such as transitioning border residents away from a reliance on the timber industry, assessing and mitigating the cross-border ecological damage from logging in Kachin and Shan States, and developing a more sustainable supply of timber in Yunnan through improving state plantations and collective forest management.
      Author/creator: Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, Su Yufang
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forest Trends, Center for International Forestry Research, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
      Format/size: pdf (1.05 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_152.pdf
      http://www.forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=152
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: The 'Made in China' Syndrome - Chinese goods flood Burma—but is that good for the Burmese?
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "Win Hlaing looked around his home in Rangoon and made a list of the household items imported from China. Finally, he gave up—there were just too many. The bathroom was scrutinized first all in this unusual accounting exercise. Toothpaste, toothbrush, towel—“Made in China”. High road from China via Muse, a border town in Burma’s northeastern Shan State. Then came an inventory of the rest of Win Hlaing’s home: flashlight, light bulbs, switches, radio, VCD player, rice cooker and other kitchen accessories, children’s toys. All made in China..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12,. No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      Title: Chinese Outward Direct Investment in Southeast Asia: How much and What are the Regional Implications?
      Date of publication: July 2004
      Description/subject: CONCLUSION: RAMIFICATIONS OF CHINESE ODI IN ASEAN: "I want to flag two major issues with regard to Chinese ODI in ASEAN. The first concerns Burma and the issue of human rights and sanctions. The second, which is related, is the issue of labour rights and international labour norms. The issue of human rights and sanctions in Burma is a troublesome one. Although Burma Economic Watch (2001) disputes the claim that Asian (and particularly Chinese) companies are filling gaps left by departing European or US companies under pressure from a regime of sanctions, it is too early to say whether this is true. We know so little about Chinese ODI in the country that further research is desperately needed. However, my initial and preliminary research suggests that Burma is attracting more Chinese investment than most people realise. If this is indeed the case, then what role does a sanctions regime play? Will those pushing for sanctions, for instance, be able to pressure Chinese companies, especially SOEs, to disengage from the Burmese economy? It is almost certain that in the current environment Chinese companies will not withdraw investment as a result of pressure from the international community over Burmese human rights abuses. It is impossible to argue that China’s investment in Burma comes with no strings attached, but the government attaches little or no importance to the issue of human rights abuses committed by the military regime.16 In the longer term, China is building a considerable bank of goodwill with Burmese businesspeople and other sectors in the community. The question that now confronts the international community is not so much whether European investment outweighs Chinese (or Asian), but what role the Chinese will play in a post-junta Burma. For instance, it might now be worthwhile to start considering the question of how Chinese goodwill in the form of aid and investment might play out if the junta falls. Will Europe and the US find themselves marginalised in a rebuilding process, or at the very best having to deal with the Chinese state and SOEs to play a significant role?..."
      Author/creator: Stephen Frost
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SEARC Working Paper No. 67
      Format/size: pdf (213K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


      Title: One Way Ticket
      Date of publication: January 2004
      Description/subject: Whether seeking a spouse or a job, there is no turning back for many Burmese women who journey to China By /Ruili, China... "Nandar faces a tough time in Ruili, a Chinese town close to Burma. She has no money and lives in a small, messy room in an apartment building that doubles as a brothel. But her face shows no fear. She looks like many of the Burmese girls who hang out in Ruili at night, their faces painted a ghostly white, sporting tight skirts or jeans, and soliciting men along a busy, shadowy street corner in the town center. But Nandar is not among them—yet..."
      Author/creator: Naw Seng
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2004


      Title: Navigating the Border: An Analysis of the China-Myanmar Timber Trade
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: Summary: China’s trade in timber products with Myanmar grew substantially from 1997-2002, from 295,474 m3 (round wood equivalent, RWE) in 1997 to 947,765 m3 (RWE) in 2002. Despite increased volume, timber product imports from Myanmar comprised only 2.5% of China’s total timber product imports from 1997-2002. However, the small fraction of total imports masks two important features: i) timber imports from Myanmar are primarily logged in slow-growing natural forests in northern Myanmar; and ii) logging activities that support the China-Myanmar timber trade are increasingly concentrated along the border in northern Myanmar’s Kachin State. This greater concentration of the timber trade has begun to have substantial ecological and socio-economic impacts within China’s borders. The majority of China’s timber product imports from Myanmar are shipped overland through neighboring Yunnan Province – 88% of all imports from 1997-2002 according to China’s national customs statistics. Of these, more than 75% of timber product inflows passed through the three prefectures in northwest Yunnan that border Kachin State. Most of these logging activities are currently concentrated in three areas — Pianma Township (Nujiang Prefecture), Yingjiang County (Dehong Prefecture), and Diantan Township (Baoshan Municipality). Logging that sustains the timber industry along Yunnan’s border with Kachin State is done by Chinese companies that are operating in Myanmar but are based along the border in China. Logging activities in Kachin State, from actual harvesting to road building, are almost all carried out by Chinese citizens. Although the volume of China’s timber product imports from Myanmar is small by comparison, the scale of logging along the border is considerable, and border townships and counties have become over-reliant on the timber trade as a primary means of fiscal revenue. As the costs of logging in Myanmar rise, this situation is increasingly becoming economically unsustainable, and shifts in the timber industry will have significant implications for the future of Yunnan’s border region. Importantly, a large proportion of logging and timber processing along the border is both managed and manned by migrant workers. Because of companies’ and workers’ low level of embeddedness in the local economy, border village communities are particularly vulnerable to swings in the timber trade. More broadly, timber trade has done little to promote sustained economic growth along the China-Myanmar border as profits, by and large, have not been redirected into local economies. In addition to socio-economic pressures, the combination of insufficient regulation in China and political instability in northern Myanmar has exacted a high ecological price. The uncertain regulatory and contractual environment has oriented the border logging industry toward short-term harvesting and profits, rather than investments in longer-term timber production. Degradation in Myanmar’s border forests will have an impact on China’s forests, as wildlife, pest and disease management, forest fire prevention and containment, and controlling natural disasters caused by soil erosion all become increasingly difficult. While political reform in northern Myanmar is a precondition for improved regulation and management of Myanmar’s forests, the Chinese government has a series of economic, trade, security and environmental policy options that it could pursue to ensure its own ecological security and enhance the socio-economic benefits of trade. Potential avenues explored in this analysis include: i) promoting longer-term border trade and distributing benefits from the timber trade, ii) improving border control and industry regulation, iii) enhancing environmental security and strengthening environmental cooperation, and iv) exploring flexibility in the logging ban... TABLE OF CONTENTS: LOGGING IN MYANMAR: A BACKGROUND; MYANMAR’S FORESTS; BASIC TRADE; GEOGRAPHY; AN ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATE IMPORT STATISTICS, 1997-2002; THE LOGGING BAN IN YUNNAN; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: INTRODUCTION; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: EXTRACTION; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: PROCESSING; THE TIMBER PRODUCTION CHAIN: DISTRIBUTION AND EXPORT; TIMBER TRADE TRENDS BY PREFECTURE; BORDER AND TRADE ADMINISTRATION: CHINA; FOREST AND TRADE ADMINISTRATION: MYANMAR; DEVELOPMENTS WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHINA-MYANMAR TIMBER TRADE; CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS; REFERENCES.
      Author/creator: Fredrich Kahrl, Horst Weyerhaeuser, Su Yufang
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forest Trends, World Agroforestry Centre
      Format/size: pdf (1.28MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:x5pqY-71SO8J:147.202.71.177/~foresttr/publicat...
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: A CONFLICT OF INTERESTS: The uncertain future of Burma’s forests
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: A Briefing Document by Global Witness. October 2003... Table of Contents... Recommendations... Introduction... Summary: Natural Resources and Conflict in Burma; SLORC/SPDC-controlled logging; China-Burma relations and logging in Kachin State; Thailand-Burma relations and logging in Karen State... Part One: Background: The Roots of Conflict; Strategic location, topography and natural resources; The Peoples of Burma; Ethnic diversity and politics; British Colonial Rule... Independence and the Perpetuation of Conflict: Conflict following Independence and rise of Ne Win; Burma under the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP); The Four Cuts counter – insurgency campaign; The 1988 uprising and the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC); The 1990 General Election and the drafting of a new Constitution; Recent Developments: The Detention of Aung San Suu Kyi... The Administration of Burma: Where Power Lies: The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); The Cabinet; The Three Generals; The Tatmadaw; Regional Commanders... Part Two: Logging in Burma:- The Economy: The importance of the timber trade; Involvement of the Army; Bartering; Burma’s Forests; Forest cover, deforestation rates and forest degradation... The Timber Industry in Burma: The Administration of forestry in Burma; Forest Management in Burma, the theory; The Reality of the SPDC-Controlled Timber Trade... Law enforcement: The decline of the Burma Selection System and Institutional Problems; Import – Export Figures; SPDC-controlled logging in Central Burma; The Pegu Yomas; The illegal timber trade in Rangoon; SLORC/SPDC control over logging in ceasefire areas... Ceasefires: Chart of armed ethnic groups. April 2002; Ceasefire groups; How the SLORC/SPDC has used the ceasefires: business and development... Conflict Timber: Logging and the Tatmadaw; Logging as a driver of conflict; Logging companies and conflict on the Thai-Burma border; Controlling ceasefire groups through logging deals... Forced Labour: Forced labour logging... Opium and Logging: Logging and Opium in Kachin State; Logging and Opium in Wa... Conflict on the border: Conflict on the border; Thai-Burmese relations and ‘Resource Diplomacy’; Thais prioritise logging interests over support for ethnic insurgents; The timber business and conflict on the Thai-Burma border; Thai Logging in Karen National Union territory; The end of SLORC logging concessions on the Thai border; The Salween Scandal in Thailand; Recent Logging on the Thai-Burma border... Karen State: The Nature of Conflict in Karen State; The Karen National Union (KNU); The Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA); Logging in Karen State; Logging and Landmines in Karen State; Charcoal Making in Nyaunglebin District... The China-Burma Border: Chinese-Burmese Relations; Chinese-Burmese relations and Natural Resource Colonialism; The impact of logging in China; The impact of China’s logging ban; The timber trade on the Chinese side of the border... Kachin State: The Nature of Conflict in Kachin State; The Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO); Jade and the KIA’s insurgent Economy; Dabak and Mali Hydroelectric Power Projects; The New Democratic Army (Kachin) (NDA(K)); The Kachin Defence Army (KDA); How the ceasefires have affected insurgent groups in Kachin State; HIV/AIDS and Extractive Industries in Kachin State ; Logging in Kachin State; Gold Mining in Kachin State; The N’Mai Hku (Headwaters) Project; Road Building in Kachin State... Wa State: Logging in Wa State; Timber Exports through Wa State; Road building in Wa State; Plantations in Wa State... Conclusion... Appendix I: Forest Policies, Laws and Regulations; National Policy, Laws and Regulations; National Commission on Environmental Affairs; Environmental policy; Forest Policy; Community Forestry; International Environmental Commitments... Appendix II: Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG): Ministerial Declaration... References. [the pdf version contains the text plus maps, photos etc. The Word version contains text and tables only]
      Language: English (Thai & Kachin summaries)
      Source/publisher: Global Witness
      Format/size: pdf (4 files: 1.8MB, 1.4MB, 2.0MB, 2.1MB) 126 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.globalwitness.org
      http://asiantribune.com/news/2003/10/10/conflict-interests-uncertain-future-burmas-forests
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2010


      Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 3 - China–Burma relations
      Date of publication: 14 December 2001
      Description/subject: I Historical preface; II Strategic relations; III Drugs in the China–Burma relationship; IV China-Burma border: the HIV/AIDS nexus; V Chinese immigration: cultural and economic impact; VI Opening up southwest China; VII Gains and losses for various parties where Burma is (a) democratizing or (b) under Chinese “suzereinty”; VIII Possible future focus; IX Conclusions. " This paper has argued that China’s support for the military regime in Burma has had negative consequences for both Burma and China. The negative impact on Burma of its relationship with China is that it preserves an incompetent and repressive order and locks the country into economic and political stagnation. The negative impact on China is that Burma has become a block to regional development and an exporter of HIV/AIDS and drugs. China’s comprehensive national interests would be best served by an economically stable and prosperous Burma. China could help the development of such an entity by encouraging a political process in Burma that would lead to an opening up of the country to international assistance and a more competent and publicly acceptable administration..."
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International IDEA
      Format/size: pdf (274K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 July 2003


      Title: Jiang Visit Yields New Deals, But Tensions Persist
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "Seven new accords covering bilateral economic relations and border security were signed as Chinese President Jiang Zemin’s made his first-ever visit to Burma on Dec 12. But despite eagerness on both sides to profit more from closer ties formed over the past thirteen years, independent analysts and recent developments pointed to growing strains in the relationship, especially on the economic front..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma's economic relations with Denmark

      Individual Documents

      Title: Special Economic Measures (Burma) Regulations, SOR/2007-285
      Date of publication: 13 December 2007
      Description/subject: INTERPRETATION [1.] -LIST [2.] 2.Designated person -PROHIBITIONS [3. - 13.] 3.Export 4.Import 5.Assets Freeze 6.Technical data 7.(1)Investment — property in Burma held by or on behalf of Burma or national of Burma not ordinarily resident in Canada 7.(2)Investment — property held by or on behalf of a person in Burma 7.(3)Property 8.Financial services 9.Docking — ship registered in Burma 10.Docking — ship registered under an Act of Parliament 11.Landing in Canada 12.Landing in Burma 13.Prohibition -DUTY TO DETERMINE [14.] 14.Determination -DISCLOSURE [15.] 15.(1)Report 15.(2)Immunity -APPLICATION TO NO LONGER BE A DESIGNATED PERSON [16.] 16.(1)Petition 16.(2)Decision 16.(3)Presumption 16.(4)Notice 16.(5)New application -APPLICATION FOR A CERTIFICATE [17.] 17.(1)Mistaken identity 17.(2)Certificate — time frame -EXCLUSIONS [18. - 19.] 18.Import and export 19.Financial services -APPLICATION PRIOR TO PUBLICATION [20.] 20.Application -COMING INTO FORCE [21.] 21.Registration SCHEDULE
      Language: English, Francais/ Français
      Source/publisher: Canadian Legal Information Institute
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.canlii.org/fr/ca/legis/regl/dors-2007-285/derniere/dors-2007-285.html (Français)
      http://canadagazette.gc.ca/archives/p2/2007/2007-12-26/html/sor-dors285-eng.html#tphp
      Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    • Burma's economic relations with the European Union

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: EU-MYANMAR ECONOMIC INDICATORS
      Date of publication: 15 October 2010
      Description/subject: MYANMAR MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS; EU'S TRADE BALANCE WITH MYANMAR; MYANMAR'S TRADE BALANCE - MYANMAR, Trade with the European Union; EU TRADE WITH MAIN PARTNERS (2009); MYANMAR'S TRADE WITH MAIN PARTNERS (2009); EUROPEAN UNION, TRADE WITH THE WORLD AND MYANMAR, BY SITC SECTION (2009); European Union, Imports from... Myanmar; European Union, Exports to... Myanmar; RANK OF MYANMAR IN EUROPEAN UNION TRADE (2009); EU TRADE WITH THE WORLD AND EU TRADE WITH MYANMAR (2009)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EUROSTAT, IMF, DG Trade,
      Format/size: pdf (215K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
      Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
      Format/size: PDF (890k)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


      Title: The European Union and Burma: The Case for Targeted Sanctions
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: The political stalemate in Burma will not be broken until the military regime considers it to be in its own self-interest to commence serious negotiations with the democratic and ethnic forces within the country. This paper outlines how the international community can bring about a political and economic situation which will foster such negotiations. Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. The regime continues to ignore the 1990 electoral victory of Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. The regime has shown no commitment to three years of UN mediation efforts. It has failed to end the practice of forced labour as required by its ILO treaty obligations and demanded by the International Labour Organization. It continues to persecute Burma’s ethnic peoples. It continues to detain more than 1,350 political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Any proposal of a road map to political change in Burma will fail to bring about democracy in this country unless it is formulated and executed in an atmosphere in which fundamental political freedoms are respected, all relevant stakeholders are included and committed to negotiate, a time frame for change is provided, space is provided for necessary mediation, and the restrictive and undemocratic objectives and principles imposed by the military through the National Convention (ensuring continued military control even in a “civilian” state) are set aside.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
      Format/size: pdf (120K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 March 2004


      Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: European Commission
      Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
      Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


      Title: Calculations of imports from Burma to the EU
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: Tables and charts illustrating the accompanying document "The increasing imports from Burma to the EU". Tables showing value of imports to EU from Myanmar/Burma and exports from EU to Myanmar/Burma,1996-2001 and charts showing import and export between Burma and Denmark, Belgium-Luxumbourg France, Germany, Netherlands, Nordic countries, UK, and charts covering all EU countries.
      Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Danish Burma Committee Support Group
      Format/size: html (159K)
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Den beskidte liste
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "En rapport fra Støttegruppen for Den Danske Burma Komité om den hastigt stigende tøjimport fra Burma...Danmark er det land i Vesteuropa, der trods massive krav om sanktioner slår både EU og Norden i Burma-import, målt pr. indbygger. Rekorden skyldes først og fremmest importen af tøj fra Burma til Danmark, der de seneste år er steget kraftigt og næsten nåede 100 millioner kroner i fjor. Hidtil har alle tøjfirmaer i Danmark, der handler med Burma, været hemmeligholdt, men research kan nu afdække en række af firmaerne. Et af firmaerne er Føtex, hvor Burma-tøj (Kappa) kan spores helt til bøjlestængerne. Andre firmaer er Brandtex og B&C Tekstiler, der, uanset afvisning fra deres danske hovedkontorer, har importeret tøj fra Burma ifølge norske toldpapirer. Bestseller er også Burma-importør, men overvejer at stoppe, mens IC Company og Lindon ifølge firmaerne har stoppet for deres Burma-import. Endelig er der mærkerne Fjällräven, Mexx og Mango, der også har import fra Burma..."
      Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
      Language: Dansk, Danish
      Source/publisher: Støttegruppen for Den Danske Burma Komité
      Format/size: html (33K)
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: The increasing imports from Burma to the EU
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: …or how EU five-doubled their import from Burma after Aung San Suu Kyi asked for trade sanctions. A report from the Danish Burma Committee Support Group, September 2002..."Did European companies listen to Aung San Suu Kyi’s demand for sanctions against Burma from 1996? Did they reduce their import from Burma, after EU cancelled trade benefit with Burma from 1997, or after EU banned all visa for Burmese officials from the same year? Not at all. Since 1996, EU-countries has more than five-doubled their import from Burma, according to information from EU’s statistical office Eurostat. The total import from Burma to EU was almost 500 million € in 2001, so Europe has become a major trade partner for this Asian dictatorship. In the first chart, you can see how many € each EU-citizen has imported in average from Burma in the period 1996-2001. Second chart shows a big difference between the EU-countries: Worst country is Denmark, followed by The Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom and France..."
      Author/creator: Bjarne Ussing
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Danish Burma Committee Support Group
      Format/size: html (200K)
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Garment exports get new boost
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: " Burma�s booming garment industry has received more good news, with a decision by the European General Affairs Council to include Burma on its list of 48 of the world�s least developed countries eligible for duty-free access to the European Union market. The move is not expected to seriously impact on Burma�s trade deficit with the EU, but should give a boost to the country�s garment exports, 60% of which already go to Europe..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3 (Business section)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma's economic relations with Germany

      Individual Documents

      Title: Außenhandel zwischen Burma und Deutschland im Steigflug
      Date of publication: 08 April 2001
      Description/subject: Obwohl Wirtschaftssanktionen als wichtiges politisches Druckmittel angesehen werden und das Auswärtige Amt seine Wirtschaftsbeziehungen auf ein Minimum reduziert, befindet sich der Außenhandel zwischen Burma und Deutschland im Aufschwung. Eine kurze Analyse der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik und Deutschland, aber auch Nordrhein Westfalens und Burmas in den Jahren 1990 bis 1999. On foreign trade Germany-Burma: (statistics on import and export)
      Author/creator: Susanne Gotthart
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus, Essen
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma's economic relations with India

      Individual Documents

      Title: New role for India in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 13 September 2013
      Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. With ongoing communal and ethnic violence on one hand and the implementation of bold reform initiatives on the other, Myanmar's transition from authoritarianism to democracy presents immense challenges as well as opportunities for neighboring India. How New Delhi reacts to these tests will have wide-ranging impacts on the future of India-Myanmar relations. The challenges are many. The diplomatic row over pillar number 76 in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur on the Indo-Myanmar border in Holenphai village near Moreh has added to long-running border problems. Although the two sides have agreed to negotiate the issue peacefully, past misunderstandings and alleged intrusions have raised alarm bells on both sides of the border..."
      Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 May 2014


      Title: One cannot step into the same river twice: making the Kaladan Project people-centred
      Date of publication: 11 June 2013
      Description/subject: "The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (hereafter “Kaladan Project”) will see the construction of a combined inland waterway and highway transportation system connecting Mizoram State in Northeast India with a Bay of Bengal deepsea port at Sitetway, Arakan State in Western Burma. The Indian government is entirely financing the Kaladan Project, and these funds are officially classified as development aid to Burma. Once completed, the infrastructure will belong to the Burma government, but the project is unquestionably designed to achieve India’s economic and geostrategic interests. The Kaladan Project - conceived in 2003, formalized in 2008 and slated for completion in 2015 - is a cornerstone of India’s “Look East Policy” aimed at expanding Indian economic and political influence in Southeast and East Asia. The Kaladan Project is being developed in Arakan and Chin States - Burma’s least-developed and most poverty-prone states - where improved infrastructure is badly needed. Yet it remains an open question whether the Kaladan Project will be implemented in a way that ensures the people living along the project route are the main beneficiaries of this large-scale infrastructure development. This report from the Kaladan Movement provides an update on the progress of the Kaladan Project; assesses the potential Project-related benefi ts and negative impacts for people living in the project area; provides an overview of the current on-the-ground impacts, focusing on the hopes and concerns of the local people; and makes a series of recommendations to the Burma and India governments......."Part 1: Introduction to the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.1 Specifications of the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.2 Context of the Kaladan Project: India-Burma relations; 1.3 Economies of Mizoram, Arakan, and Chin States; 1.4 The natural environment in the Kaladan Project area... Part 2: Potential Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 2.1 Potential beneficial impacts of the Kaladan Project; 2.2 Potential negative impacts of the Kaladan project... Part 3: Current Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 3.1 Lack of consultation; 3.2 Lack of information provided to the community and lack of government transparency; 3.3 Lack of comprehensive and public Environmental, Health and Social Impact Assessments; 3.4 Labour discrimination; 3.5 Land confi scation and forced eviction; 3.6 Destruction of local cultural heritage; 3.7 Riverine ecological destruction from aggregate mining and dredging..... https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/102872850/KM_Report_Eng.pdf
      Language: English (main text); Burmese (press release)
      Source/publisher: Kaladan Movement
      Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-bu.pdf (Press Release - Burmese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-en.pdf (Press Release - English)
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: Prostration and Diplomacy
      Date of publication: August 2010
      Description/subject: Junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe made a pilgrimage to India in search of bilateral accords, development aid, legitimacy and atonement. He got at least some of what he was after... "Burmese junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe’s five-day visit to India began with a pilgrimage to one of Buddhism’s most sacred shrines and ended with the signing of a wide range of agreements on finance, technology, arms and border issues.... As a result of these meetings, a series of bilateral treaties, memorandums of understanding and other agreements were signed..."
      Author/creator: Zarni Mann
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


      Title: India-Burma relations gaining momentum of its own
      Date of publication: 04 September 2008
      Description/subject: The Indo-Burmese relationship is acquiring a positive momentum of its own despite western rights groups' criticism of Myanmar 's handling of pro-democracy demonstrations some six months back. India had rolled out red-carpet for Burmese military junta’s top leadership who were on a five day visit to India that began from April 4, 2008.
      Author/creator: Syed Ali Mujtaba, Ph.D.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Global Politician
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


      Title: Why India?
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Why is India responsible for continued dictatorship, prolong suffering and the repeated bloodshed in Burma! Why India: 1.India: Military Aid to Burma Fuels Abuses... 2.India unveils business proposals with Myanmar... 3.Business Week: India's Role in Burma's Crisis... 4.India Silent on Myanmar Crackdown... 5.India's foreign policy pragmatism
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    • Burma's economic relations with Japan

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Japan INternational Cooperation Agency (JICA) - Myanmar
      Description/subject: Reports of meetings, projects eetc....."The new administration of Myanmar, which was formed in March 2011, is furthering reforms toward democratization and national reconciliation. Given this movement, the government of Japan changed its economic cooperation policy in April 2012 so that a wider scope of people could appreciate the effects of the reforms, and has decided to expand its areas of support. In addition to the conventional fields of cooperation such as improving BHN and capacity along with providing assistance to minority ethnic groups, JICA is working to ascertain the needs for infrastructure to promote economic development, and is planning to form well-balanced projects. Specifically, JICA will continue such past assistance as measures for the three major infectious diseases (malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis), as well as implement an economic reform program as assistance to reform the economy through capacity development. JICA is also planning to provide cooperation for urban development in Yangon, along with port and transportation network infrastructure, as support that will lead to economic growth."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: JICA
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2014


      Title: Japan Times
      Description/subject: Searchable archive from January 1999. 322 hits for "Myanmar" (May 2003) ... 472 for "Myanmar", 138 for "Burma" (Feb 2005); 1,740 for Burma OR Myanmar (August 2012)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Japan Times"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japan-Myanmar Relations
      Description/subject: Diplomatic Relations, Number of Japanese Nationals residing in Myanmar, Number of Myanmar Nationals residing in Japan, Trade with Japan (1998) Direct Investment from Japan, Japan's Economic Cooperation, List of Grant Aid - Exchange of Notes in Fiscal Year 2002, VIP Visits. Statements by Japanese officials, Press Secretary's Press Conference on Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Search for Myanmar on the IDE/JETRO site
      Description/subject: Several Myanmar-Japan items
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE/JETRO
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
      Date of publication: 04 May 2012
      Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
      Author/creator: Robin Bromby
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Australian"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: Japan and the Myanmar Conundrum
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar, also known as Burma, is an exception to many of the success stories of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Throughout the postwar period the country has pursued a foreign policy line that has been obstinately indepen-dent, with a basic stance towards the outside world pervaded by a sense of noli me tangere. Once it was one of the key Asian countries convening the 1955 Bandung Conference at which the non-aligned movement was launched, but policies pursued since have made the country a peripheral member of the international community. One of the country’s key relationships in the postwar period has been with Japan. The beginning of this bilateral relationship goes back to the Second World War period. In December 1941, Japan began a mili-tary campaign into Southeast Asia and a puppet government for Burma under the Burmese nationalist Ba Maw was set up on August 1, 1942, which replaced British colonial rule. In May 1945, the British Army returned to Rangoon and the colonial masters regained power but two years later they agreed to hand over the ruling of the country to the Burmese, and Burma became independent in January 1948. In 1954, an agreement on war reparations was reached be-tween Japan and Burma totalling US$200 million over ten years, which began to be paid out the following year. Not only was aid from Japan forthcoming but it was increasing, from about US$20 million in the 1960s to around US$200 million in the 1970s. The aid amounted to a total of US$2.2 billion during 1962–1988. Japan became the largest aid donor to Burma. For Japan, the agreement with Burma was important in that a window of opportunity opened for Japan’s diplomacy towards Southeast Asian countries that had been at a standstill since the end of the Second World War. After a military coup in 1988, Japanese ODA to Burma was suspended‚ in principle,‛ and new aid was limited to projects that were of an ‚emergency and humanitarian nature.‛ Nevertheless, Japan was soon again accounting for the lion’s share of aid to the country. General elections took place in Myanmar in May 1990 and resulted in a serious setback for the military junta. The oppo-sition National League for Democracy (NLD) secured a landslide victory. The outcome did not result in a new government, since the ruling military ignored the election result of the NLD and refused to hand over power. In 1992 a shift of Japan’s ODA policy was announced with the adoption of Japan’s ODA Charter, which prescribed that decisions on ODA should be tak-en after taking into account the recipients’ record on military spending, de-mocracy, moves towards market economy, and human rights. From this pe-riod a carrot and stick policy as codified in the ODA Charter has been applied to Myanmar which represented a clear break with Japan’s previous ‚hands-off‛ stance. A bifurcated Myanmar policy pursued by the Japanese govern-ment emerged, resulting from its efforts to relate to the two important political forces confronting each other in Myanmar. Nevertheless, there has been a strong bias on part of the Japanese government towards favoring relations with the ruling military. Relations between Japan and Myanmar have been receding ever since the military junta took power in 1988 and Japan instituted its policy of carrots and sticks. For Myanmar’s ruling junta, Japan’s carrot and stick policy was unwel-come news when it was first introduced, and has been seen ever since as an attempt by Japan to interfere in what the junta considers Myanmar’s internal affairs. With the junta in Myanmar facing international isolation after its sup-pression of democracy, China’s exchanges with Myanmar increased drastically. Soon after the 1988 coup, China had become the main external supporter of the Myanmar junta. In order to coming to grips with the situation around Myanmar a proposal has been launched focusing on the formation of an international coalition strong and viable enough to institute change. Due to its strong historical ties and good relations inside and outside Myanmar, Japan is one candidate for playing a key role in such an endeavor. With its strong links with all major forces, Japan occupies a pivotal position with a viable chance of bringing to-gether critical actors into a process of dialogue and reform. Two recent devel-opments increase the possibility that Japan and China would cooperate in such an endeavor. During Prime Minister Abe Shinzō’s visit to China in 2006 after only one week in office, he admitted that China played the key role in the negotiations with North Korea and expressed hope that China would exercise its influence. It was in realization of the fact that, in dealing with North Korea, Japan’s strong-handed policy of ‚dialogue and pressure‛ had not worked, which made the Japanese government conclude that united international ac-tion was needed if negotiations were to progress, and that chances were great-er to reach results if the Chinese could be persuaded to use their influence to talk the North Koreans out of their provocative policies. The second move that has a bearing on Japan’s Myanmar policy are the events surrounding the cold-blooded killing of the Japanese photographer Nagai Kenji during demonstra-tions in Yangon on September 27, 2007. An important step taken by Japan was the fact that Prime Minister Fukuda Yasuo brought up Myanmar in talks over the phone with Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of China the day after the fatal shooting, and asked that China, given its close ties with Myanmar, exercise its influence and Premier Wen said he will make such efforts. Abe’s visit to Beijing broke the ice between China and Japan, and a series of top-level meetings have followed. The two countries have clarified that they seem themselves to bear a responsibility for peace, stability, and development of the Asia-Pacific region and have agreed to together promote the realization of peace, prosperity, stability, and openness in Asia. Not only that, the two governments pledged to together forge a bright future for the Asia-Pacific re-gion. If Japan and China see themselves as bearing a responsibility for the peace, stability, and development of the Asia-Pacific region, it is hard to see how they can avoid being annoyed by the existence in their immediate neigh-borhood of a country that is widely treated an international outsider, especial-ly if they want to live up to their declared aim of aligning Japan–China rela-tions with the trends of the international community."
      Author/creator: Bert Edström
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010


      Title: China and Japan's Economic Relations with Myanmar: Strengthened vs. Estranged
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: "China has historically been the most important neighbor for Myanmar, sharing a long 2185 km border. Myanmar and China call each other "Paukphaw," a Myanmar word for siblings that is never used for any country other than China, reflecting their close and cordial relationship. The independent China-Myanmar relationship is premised on the five principles of peaceful co-existence, including mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and mutual non-aggression. Japan and Myanmar have also had strong ties in the post-World War II period, often referred to as a "special relationship", or a "historically friendly relationship."! That relationship was established through the personal experiences and sentiments ofNe Win and others in the military and political elite of independent Myanmar. Aung San, Ne Win and other leaders of Myanmar's independence movement were members of the "Thirty Comrades," who were educated and trained by Japanese army officers.2 However, China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar have developed in contrast to one another since 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), later re-constituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), took power by military coup. The military government in Myanmar has improved and strengthened its relations with China, while their relationship with Japan has worsened and cooled. What accounts for the differences in China's and Japan's relations with Myanmar? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the development and changes in China-Myanmar and Japan-Myanmar relations from historical, political, diplomatic and particularly economic viewpoints. Based on discussions, the author evaluates China's growing influences on the Myanmar government and economy, and identifies factors that, on the contrary, have put Japan and Myanmar at a distance since 1988..."
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
      Format/size: pdf (201K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Review of Donald Seekins': "Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ "
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: "...The book looks at Burma’s ‘tragedy’ as being a result of both internal and external factors, thus placing the country’s history in a global context. It demonstrates that Japanese attitudes and actions towards the country throughout different periods were mainly guided by Japanese self-interest and lacked a deeper understanding of Burma’s ‘real’ problems. Japan did not liberate Burma in 1942, nor did it do so later. This thesis might also be applicable to the relations of other countries with Burma. The country was and is a fine projection screen for fantasies about what Burma ‘is’ in connection with practical self-interests of varying kinds – economic as well as humanitarian. The book also provides detailed facts and figures on Japanese investment in Burma, as well as the cultural background behind Japanese perceptions of the country and its protagonists. What is missing, however, is an evaluation of the activities of the many Japanese NGOs working in post-1988 Burma; these provided help for many projects in the country and thus contributed to the emergence of segments of civil society in Myanmar..."
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
      Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 1/2009
      Format/size: pdf (84K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


      Title: Myanmar and Japan: How Close Friends Become Estranged
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Independent Myanmar and Japan had long held the strongest ties among Asian countries, and they were often known as having "special relations" or a "historically friendly relationship."Such relations were guaranteed by the sentiments and experiences of the leaders of both countries. Among others, Ne Win, former strongman throughout the socialist period (1962-1988), was educated and trained by the Japanese army officers of the Minami Kikan, leading to the birth of the Burma Independence Army (BIA). Huge official development assistance provided by the Japanese government also cemented this special relationship. However, the birth of the present military government (SLORC/SPDC) in 1988 drastically changed this favorable relationship between the two countries. When the military seized power in a coup, Japan was believed to be the only country that possessed sufficient meaningful influence on Myanmar to encourage a move toward national reconciliation between the junta and the opposition party led by Aung San Suu Kyi. In reality, Japan failed to exert such an influence due to its sour relations with the military government and reduced influence in the new international and regional political landscape. What is worse, Japan seems to be losing its say on Myanmar issues in the international political arena, as it has been wavering in limbo between the sanctionist forces, such as the United States and the European Union, and engagement forces, such as China and ASEAN."... Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), Japan, China, ODA, Foreign Relations, Cold War JEL classification:F14, F35, N45
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 118)
      Format/size: pdf (233K)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


      Title: Japan Envoy Visits Northern Arakan
      Date of publication: 31 July 2004
      Description/subject: Maung Daw, July 31: "A Japanese envoy visited Northern Arakan from the 23rd to the 27th of July, according to our correspondent. The envoy led by Masache O’ Jawa, Business attachée of the Japanese Embassy in Rangoon, also included Taka Hiro Susu Ki, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)’s regional representative to Burma as well as Choche Yo Ho Rekie, a chief engineer of JICA office in Cambodia. The purpose of the foreign envoy's visit to Maung Daw was to inspect a damaged road that was constructed by the British government during the Second World War. The Japanese government may assist in the rebuilding of the road in the near future..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Narinjara News
      Format/size: html (6K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


      Title: Japan Vows Aid to Burma Despite Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's Detention
      Date of publication: 19 July 2004
      Description/subject: Chittagong, July 19: "Japan is to provide 344 million yen (3.1 million dollars) in aid to help Burma battle environmental deprivation, regardless of the ongoing detention of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, according to Myanmar Times..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kaladan News
      Format/size: html (11K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 August 2004


      Title: Is Japan Really Getting Tough on Burma? (Not likely)
      Date of publication: 28 June 2003
      Description/subject: "There was a flurry of articles last week about how Japan plans to suspend, or in fact suspended, economic aid (ODA: Official Development Assistance, which is comprised mainly of yen loans, grants and technical assistance) to Burma, thereby stepping up the pressure on the military junta to release Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Most news reports say that the aid that is being frozen is further, or new, ODA. Given that Japan has long pursued an engagement policy with Burma, and is the largest provider of economic aid to Burma (2.1 billion yen of grants-in-aid was provided in fiscal year 2002), a suspension would carry a certain weight with the military regime. ...Japan's engagement policy with Burma has always been based on a gcarrot and stickh approach, which traditionally has involved far more "carrots" than gstick.h Notwithstanding the uncertainties surrounding the suspension of new ODA, Japan's freeze is a rare, and probably short-term, application of a gstick.h The Japanese governmentfs preference has been, and will continue to be, for gcarrots,h a posture that is due in part to apparent concern about China replacing Japan as a likely source of economic assistance to, and political influence on, Burma. In this context, therefore, it is essential that governments and non-governmental groups monitor Japan's Burma policy -- and be wary of overly optimistic or inaccurate news accounts concerning that policy. There is little doubt that, without pressure from other countries (notably the U.S.) and interested citizens, even a decision to suspend new ODA would likely have been much slower in coming. Such pressure must continue."
      Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Information Network - Japan
      Format/size: html (18K); pdf (16k)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/oda/analyseGOJpolicy20030628.pdf (pdf)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003


      Title: JAPAN URGED TO AID MYANMAR DEVELOPMENT
      Date of publication: 10 January 2002
      Description/subject: Kuala Lumpur; jan 10; "UN envoy Razali Ismali is expected to urge Japan to play a larger role in developing Myanmar s education, health and energy sector, a Malaysian official said Thursday, reports AFP..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Narinjara news
      Format/size: html (6K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Development, Environment and Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar ~Examining the Impacts of ODA and Investment~Public Symposium Report, Tokyo, Japan
      Date of publication: 15 December 2001
      Description/subject: Chapter 1: ODA and Foreign Investment p7; Chapter 2: Japanese Policy Towards Myanmar p14; Chapter 3: Baluchaung Hydropower Plant No 2 p19; Chapter 4: Tasang Dam and Yadana Gas Pipeline p22; Chapter 5: The UNOCAL Case p26; Chapter 6: Panel Discussion p30; Chapter 7: Development in Other Countries 40; Chapter 8: Reviewing Development p43; References: p45. "...One objective of the symposium was to examine how development has affected people and the environment in Burma. Another objective was to examine the roles of the Japanese government, of private companies, and of individuals in development in Burma. Each speaker had his or her own ideas about what is best for Burma. Does Burma need development? If so, what kind of development does it need? For development, is it necessary for other countries to give Official Development Assistance (ODA)? Should ODA be given under the current military regime? Should companies invest in Burma now? Do ODA and investment help the people of Burma? ..."
      Author/creator: (Speakers): Ms. Taeko Takahashi, Mr. Teddy Buri, Ms. Hsao Tai, Ms. Yuki Akimoto, Mr. Nobuhiko Suto, Mr. Shigeru Nakajima
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mekong Watch, Japan
      Format/size: PDF (640K) 45pg
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japan errs again
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: "The surest sign that the talks between Burma�s ruling junta and the democratic opposition were in serious trouble came in early April, when Japan�s then-Foreign Minister Yohei Kono announced that his country was ready to "reward" the regime to the tune of $28 million for repairs to a hydroelectric power station in Karenni State..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 9, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Gambling on Japan
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: In recent years Japan has attempted to assert itself as a major player on the Asian political stage, only to have its efforts rebuffed by its neighbors and its major strategic partner, the United States. But, writes Neil Lawrence, Asian countries struggling out of a major economic crisis may finally be ready to give Japan the leading role it has long coveted. But doubts remain about Japan's political values.
      Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The North Wind and the Sun: Japan's Response To The Political Crisis in Burma, 1988-1998
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: "Japan's response to the political crisis in Burma after the establishment of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in September 1988 reflected the interests of powerful constituencies within the Japanese political system, especially business interests, to which were added other constituencies such as domestic supporters of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's struggle for democracy and those who wished to pursue 'Sun Diplomacy,' using positive incentives to encourage democratization and economic reform. Policymakers in Tokyo, however, approached the Burma crisis seeking to take minimal risks--a "maximin strategy"--which limited their effectiveness in influencing the junta. This was evident in the February 1989 "normalization" of Tokyo's ties with SLORC. During 1989-1998, Japanese business leaders pushed hard to promote economic engagement, but "Sun Diplomacy" made little progress in the face of the junta's increasing repression of the democratic opposition." Online publication with kind permission of the author and the Journal of Burma Studies
      Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies, Vol. 4 (1999)
      Format/size: html (237K); pdf (2.17MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol4/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Japan Seeks Respect - But from Whom?
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: Japan's resumption of ODA to Burma's junta begs questions about its motives and what its political values really are.
      Author/creator: LJN
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma's economic relations with Russia

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Google search results for "Russia Myanmar"
      Description/subject: 34,200,000 results (March 2009)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Google
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Why Russia
      Description/subject: * Russia to build atomic plant for Burmese junta * Weapons Sales by India, China and Russia Fuel Abuses, Strengthen Military Rule * Russia, China Veto Resolution On Burma * Human rights no barrier for Myanmar arms deals
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar, Russia to jointly explore oil, gas
      Date of publication: 09 September 2008
      Description/subject: "A Myanmar's oil company and a Russian one will jointly explore oil and gas in two onshore areas in Myanmar, the state-run newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported Tuesday. According to a production sharing contract signed last weekend between the state-operated Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) and the Closed Joint Stock Oil Company "Nobel Oil" of the Russian Federation, the exploration will be done in Hukaung and U-ru regions. Other three Russian oil companies have been engaged in oil and gas exploration in Myanmar under respective contracts since 2006. The first, which is JSC Zarubezhneft Iteraaws along with the Sun Group of India, has been exploring oil and gas at block M-8 lying in the Mottama offshore area..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Xinhua
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Russian company gains right to explore for minerals in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 17 February 2008
      Description/subject: YANGON: "A Russian company has won exploration rights for gold and other minerals in Myanmar, the official media reported, in the latest business deal between the Southeast Asian nation's junta and one of its few international friends. The Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration Department of Myanmar and the Victorious Glory International of Russia signed a deal Friday for exploration for "gold and associated minerals" in the mineral-rich country, the New Light of Myanmar newspaper reported Saturday. The agreement covers an area along the Uru River in northern Myanmar, between Phakant in Kachin State and Homalin in Sagaing Division, the newspaper said, with no further details. Phakant is in a region known as the "Land of Jade," while the Homalin area is known for deposits of gold, which reached a record high level of $936.50 an ounce in early February..."
      Author/creator: Aung Hla Tun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters via International Herald Tribune
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Myanmar generals visit arms maker in Russia
      Date of publication: 12 October 2007
      Description/subject: MOSCOW (Reuters) - A Myanmar military delegation visited Russia on Friday, a day after the Asian state's military junta was deplored by the United Nations for crushing pro-democracy protests. Two leading Russian newspapers said the delegation was discussing buying missile systems from Russia, which has in the past sold fighter planes to Myanmar and has said it believes sanctions against the junta are premature. A Russian Air Force spokesman said the delegation was headed by Lieutenant-General Myint Hlaing, commander of Myanmar's air defense forces. The spokesman declined to specify whether the visitors were buying arms.
      Author/creator: Dmitry Solovyov
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Moscow will offer Myanmar its first nuclear reactor
      Date of publication: 18 May 2007
      Description/subject: "Russia's federal atomic energy agency has signed an agreement with the Burmese regime to build its first nuclear power plant. The project aims to balance ex Burma's total dependence on neighbouring power China. The US protests: too high a risk..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AsiaNews.it
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Myanmar and Russia: Strengthening Ties
      Date of publication: 04 April 2007
      Description/subject: "On 20 March 2007, the oil and gas ministry of Kalmykia (a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) signed an agreement with Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) and Singapore's Silver Wave Energy for exploration and production of oil and gas from the B-2 onshore block, which borders India. According to reports quoting the Kalmykia republic's oil and gas minister, Boris Chedyrov, the participation will be "partial" with "only its specialists and drilling crews" taking part. Earlier in 2006, Russia's oil company Zarubezhneft and Myanmar's Energy Ministry signed a production-sharing contract for oil and gas exploration and production in Block M-8 of Mottama offshore fields in Southern Myanmar. Russia's importance for Myanmar was demonstrated earlier this year when it vetoed the US-sponsored resolution on Myanmar in the UN Security Council. Russia's veto (along with that of China's) was welcomed by Myanmar's junta. On several occasions its leadership has thanked Russia for vetoing the resolution, which from Myanmar's viewpoint, marks another cornerstone in its relations with Russia..."
      Author/creator: K Yhome
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi via Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Myanmar: new field of Russia, China cooperation
      Date of publication: 04 May 2006
      Description/subject: "The Moscow visit of second in command in Myanmar Vice-Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council and Vice-Senior General Maung Aye is telling in many respects. Russian business and diplomacy have made a breakthrough in South-East Asia, a region where President Vladimir Putin attended the first ASEAN-Russia summit in Kuala Lumpur at the end of last year. ASEAN (the Association of South East Asian Nations), which unites the region's ten countries, conducts summits only with its closest partners. ASEAN's decision to make Russia a permanent participant of such summits (on a par with the heads of state or government of China, India and Japan, to name a few) reflected stronger political ties with Moscow and more active business contacts. Energy projects have always been Russia's obvious advantage. As for South East Asia, Moscow invests in oil and gas production in Vietnam and supplies Thailand with know-how and technologies. Now the Russian company Zarubezhneft has signed a memo of understanding in Moscow on strategic cooperation in the oil industry with the Myanmar Ministry of Energy..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: RIA Novosti
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Russia, Myanmar to enhance oil cooperation
      Date of publication: 04 April 2006
      Description/subject: "Russia and Myanmar are to develop strategic cooperation, particularly in the oil sector, said Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov during his meeting with visiting Myanmar's Vice-Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Maung Aye in Moscow on Monday. "We have rubber, gas and oil. We have a lot of prospects for cooperation in this field," Fradkov was quoted by the Itar-Tass news agency as saying, "Russia seeks to expand its participation in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, Russian-Myanmar relations have good and promising prospects."..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Xinhua
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    • Burma's economic relations with Singapore

      Individual Documents

      Title: Why Singapore?
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: 1. U.S. Congress urges ASEAN to suspend Burma/Myanmar... 2. Singapore bans Myanmar protest at ASEAN summit.... 3. International students to attend forum to explain protest action... 4. Admin the peoples' uprising Singapore ship a weapons factory to Burma's Junta to seek economic favor... 5. Singapore PM Keep denying.....Singapore’s arms sales to Myanmar not substantial... 6. Reuters: Singapore under pressure to get tough with Myanmar... 7. Reuters: Singapore denies money laundering Myanmar leaders-AFP... 8. Asia Times: Singapore squirms as Burmese protest
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    • Burma's economic relations with South Korea

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Company responses (and non-responses) to "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" published by EarthRights International in March 2011
      Description/subject: "On 29 March 2011 EarthRights International released a report, entittled "The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy" [PDF], which "link[ed] major Chinese and Korean companies to widespread land confiscation, and cases of forced labor, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and violations of indigenous rights connected to the Shwe natural gas project and oil transport projects in Burma." The companies named in the report are: China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Daewoo International [part of POSCO], GAIL (India), Korean Gas Corporation (KOGAS), ONGC Videsh, and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Burma-China Pipelines: Human Rights Violations, Applicable Law, and Revenue Secrecy
      Date of publication: 29 March 2011
      Description/subject: "...This briefer focuses on the impacts of two of Burma’s largest energy projects, led by Chinese, South Korean, and Indian multinational corporations in partnership with the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), Burmese companies, and Burmese state security forces. The projects are the Shwe Natural Gas Project and the Burma-China oil transport project, collectively referred to here as the “Burma-China pipelines.” The pipelines will transport gas from Burma and oil from the Middle East and Africa across Burma to China. The massive pipelines will pass through two states, Arakan (Rakhine) and Shan, and two divisions in Burma, Magway and Mandalay, over dense mountain ranges and arid plains, rivers, jungle, and villages and towns populated by ethnic Burmans and several ethnic nationalities. The pipelines are currently under construction and will feed industry and consumers primarily in Yunnan and other western provinces in China, while producing multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese regime. This briefer provides original research documenting adverse human rights impacts of the pipelines, drawing on investigations inside Burma and leaked documents obtained by EarthRights and its partners. EarthRights has found extensive land confiscation related to the projects, and a pervasive lack of meaningful consultation and consent among affected communities, along with cases of forced labor and other serious human rights abuses in violation of international and national law. EarthRights has uncovered evidence to support claims of corporate complicity in those abuses. In addition, companies involved have breached key international standards and research shows they have failed to gain a social license to operate in the country. New evidence suggests communities in the project area are overwhelmingly opposed to the pipeline projects. While EarthRights has not found evidence directly linking the projects to armed conflict, the pipelines may increase tensions as construction reaches Shan State, where there is a possibility of renewed armed conflict between the Burmese Army and specific ethnic armed groups. The Army is currently forcibly recruiting and training villagers in project areas to fight. EarthRights has obtained confidential Production Sharing Contracts detailing the structure of multi-million dollar signing and production bonuses that China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is required to pay to MOGE officials regarding its involvement in two offshore oil and gas development projects that, at present, are unrelated to the Burma- China pipelines. EarthRights believes the amount and structure of these payments are in-line with previously disclosed resource development contracts in Burma, and are likely representative of contracts signed for the Burma-China pipelines; contracts that remain guarded from public scrutiny. Accordingly, the operators of the Burma- China pipeline projects would have already made several tranche cash payments to MOGE, totaling in the tens of millions of dollars..."
      Language: English, Korean
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.23 - English; 1.9MB - Korean)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/documents/the-burma-china-pipelines-korean.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 March 2011


      Title: A Governance Gap: The Failure of the Korean Government to hold Korean Corporations Accountable to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Regarding Violations in Burma
      Date of publication: 15 June 2009
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report is intended to inform the upcoming meetings of the OECD Investment Committee in Paris, France in 2009. It documents substantive errors in the Korean NCP’s interpretations of the OECD Guidelines, and its failure to achieve functional equivalence with other NCPs. EarthRights International (ERI) and the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM) request the Investment Committee to address the governance gap within the OECD Guidelines system of implementation by acknowledging the Korean NCP’s errors in interpretation, and by clarifying certain aspects of Guidelines with respect to the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case. Chapter 1 provides an updated context of the situation in Burma, highlighting the environmental and human rights, political, and economic situations, with particular attention to updates on the impacts of natural gas development in the country. Chapter 2 describes the OECD Guidelines specific instance procedure and the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. in October 2008. Chapter 3 explains structural shortcomings and conflicts of interest at the Korean NCP, noting that these are problems that appear to pervade the NCP system, raising important questions about the ability of the Guidelines to have their desired effect. Chapter 4 describes specific substantive problems with the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case, noting how the NCP decided in favor of the companies on every count, concluding that the complaint did not merit further attention. Chapter 5 highlights the ways in which the Korean NCP’s decision is inconsistent with decisions of other NCPs, most notably with decisions by the French and UK NCPs. Chapter 6 makes specific requests of the OECD Investment Committee with respect to clarifying certain aspects of the Guidelines and taking effective action to improve the performance of the Korean NCP. Appendix A of this report is an unofficial English translation of the Korean NCPs decision. The text of the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. is available at www.earthrights.org."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International, Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (496MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/A_Governance_Gap-ERI.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    • Burma's economic relations with Thailand

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar seeks new Dawei SEZ partners
      Date of publication: 03 December 2013
      Description/subject: "Myanmar is allowing international investors to bid for a mammoth project to develop a special economic zone in its southernmost region following the withdrawal of the sole developer, a Thai company, which had been unable to secure partners for the venture, an official said on Monday. Chairman of the Management Committee of Dawei SEZ Han Sein told a press conference in Yangon that developer Italian-Thai Development Pcl - Thailand's largest construction group - had terminated its work on the project in Myanmar's Tanintharyi region to make way for international bidders. "Myanmar Port Authorities [MPA] and Italian-Thai had an agreement in place to work on this project previously," Han Sein, who is also Myanmar's deputy minister of transport, said at the MPA office. "We ended this [agreement] because we want [to open the project up to] international investment," he said. Plans for the Dawei SEZ include a deep-sea port, industrial zone, steel plant, fertilizer plant, coal and natural gas-fired power plant and water supply system. The SEZ will have a motorway linked to Thailand's Kanchaburi province, as well as a railroad hub, links to oil and gas pipelines, and electrical cable lines..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Lwin Oo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


      Title: Dawei helps Thailand become auto hub
      Date of publication: 01 August 2012
      Description/subject: "The Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) has thrown its full support behind a rail network linking Laem Chabang with Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast. The TDRI says the route will support Thailand's ambition of becoming the region's automotive and logistics hub. However, Narong Pomlaktong, the TDRI's research director of transport and logistics, said the 427-kilometre route should be extended by another 877 km to connect with Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


      Title: Complaint letter to Burma government about value of agricultural land destroyed by Tavoy highway
      Date of publication: 24 July 2012
      Description/subject: "The complaint letter below, signed by 25 local community members, was written in July 2011 and raises villagers' concerns related to the construction of the Kanchanaburi – Tavoy [Dawei] highway linking Thailand and the Tavoy deep sea port. Villagers described concerns that the highway would bisect agricultural land and destroy crops under cultivation worth 3,280,500 kyat (US $3,657). In response to these concerns, local community members formed a group called the 'Village and Public Sustainable Development' to represent villagers' concerns and request compensation."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (96K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b69.html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: ADB: Don't rush Dawei - Sufficient time needed to do it right
      Date of publication: 22 June 2012
      Description/subject: "The capital-intensive Dawei project in Myanmar needs time to ensure adequate preparation, while investment and assurance from relevant governments are also critical, says the Asian Development Bank. The ADB, which is part of the Greater Mekong Subregion secretariat, has concluded that the GMS's Southern Economic Corridor should be extended to include Dawei on Myanmar's eastern coast, said Arjun Goswami, the bank's director of regional cooperation and operations coordination in Southeast Asia. But he said this type of large infrastructure project requires time for good preparation and careful planning. For example, the preparation stage for the Nam Theun 2 hydropower project in Laos lasted 10 years. "The project needs to complete all feasibility studies including environmental and social impact assessments as well as due diligence. You should not rush into it," Mr Goswami told Euromoney's Greater Mekong Investment Forum..."
      Author/creator: Nareerat Wiriyapong
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 June 2012


      Title: NO RIGHTS TO KNOW: The Collective Voices of Local People from the Dawei Special Economic Zone
      Date of publication: April 2012
      Description/subject: "...The Dawei Special Economic Zone (Dawei SEZ) will be implemented with a joint venture between Thai companies and Burmese companies and business cronies close to the regime. Accordingly to the source from Rangoon (Yangon), one of the regime’s closest cronies, Max Myanmar Company headed by Zaw Zaw, have already been awarded huge contracts related to the Dawei project along with Italia-Thai company. Zaw Zaw also accompanied with Burma’s top generals on a tour of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in China in 2011...The Tavoy deep seaport and special industries lie in Yebyu township and is between Tavoy town in the south and Yatana pipeline in the north. 213.7 square meters comprises two town quarters in Yebyu Town, 11 village tracks in Yebyu Township and one village track in eastern part of project site in Long-lon Township. In the project site, a population of 30,000 will be directly affected, comprising of 21 communities and about 5,500 families. In order to go ahead with the project the Burmese government authorities and the companies will move the communities out to make way for the project site. The ethnic Tavoyan people are the majority affected population in coastal areas and many Karen communities in the eastern part of project site will be seriously affected by the dam construction and road construction to Thailand. However, when the Dawei Project Watch’s (DPW) field workers (reporters) traveled to the area and conducted interviews especially with the Tavoyan and Mon villagers they found that the villagers had no idea what would happen to them..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Dawei Project Watch
      Format/size: pdf (8.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/N0_Rights_to_Know-Dawei-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 June 2012


      Title: Boom or Bust?
      Date of publication: August 2010
      Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
      Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


      Title: Border Industry in Myanmar: Turning the Periphery into the Center of Growth
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Myanmar economy has not been deeply integrated into East Asia's production and distribution networks, despite its location advantages and notably abundant, reasonably well-educated, cheap labor force. Underdeveloped infrastructure, logistics in particular, and an unfavorable business and investment environment hinder it from participating in such networks in East Asia. Service link costs, for connecting production sites in Myanmar and other remote fragmented production blocks or markets, have not fallen sufficiently low to enable firms, including multi-national corporations to reduce total costs, and so the Myanmar economy has failed to attract foreign direct investments. Border industry offers a solution. The Myanmar economy can be connected to the regional and global economy through its borders with neighboring countries, Thailand in particular, which already have logistic hubs such as deep-sea ports, airports and trunk roads. This paper examines the source of competitiveness of border industry by considering an example of the garment industry located in the Myanmar-Thai border area. Based on such analysis, we recognize the prospects of border industry and propose some policy measures to promote this on Myanmar soil." Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), regional cooperation, border industry, cross-border trade, migrant workers, logistics, center-periphery JEL classification: F15, F22, J31, L67
      Author/creator: Toshihiro Kudo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE Discussion Paper 122)
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008


      Title: Why Thailand?
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Energy for Thailand, Tragedy for Burma: Looming Humanitarian Crisis in Burma... Main Expenses of the Military Regime... Main Sources of Regime's Income The Burma Connection...
      Author/creator: Sann Aung, ANDREW HIGGINS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese American Democratic Alliance (BADA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


      Title: Straining to Bridge the Divide
      Date of publication: February 2006
      Description/subject: In building a new “Friendship Bridge,” Thailand and Burma hope to consign their troubles to the past and increase cross-border trade... "Burma’s Foreign Minister Nyan Win and his Thai counterpart, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, shook hands and smiled warmly. The January 22 opening of the second “Friendship Bridge”—connecting the Thai town of Mae Sai and, across the river in Burma, Tachilek—would help promote cross-border contact and “alleviate” the tense relationship between the two countries, they said. It should also provide a massive boost to trade relations between the traditionally wary neighbors..."
      Author/creator: Clive Parker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: The Regional Development Policy of Thailand and Its Economic Cooperation with Neighboring Countries
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Thailand has recently strengthened its economic policy toward its neighboring countries in coordination with domestic regional development. It is widely recognized that economic cooperation with neighboring countries is essential in preventing the inflow of illegal labor and effectively utilizing labor and resources through the relocation of production bases. This direction is strengthened by elaborating the GMS-EC and the ECS (Economic Cooperation Strategy). In addition, economic dependency of the neighboring countries on Thailand is generally high. In this report, firstly, Thai regional development policy will be made clear in relation to its economic policy toward neighboring countries as well as the status quo of the industrial estates. Secondly, Thai policy toward the neighboring countries is examined referring to the concept of wide-ranging economic zones, regional economic cooperation and special border economic zones. Thirdly, the paper will discuss how closely the economies between Thailand and the neighboring countries are related through trade and investment. Lastly, some implications on Japan's economic cooperation will also be explored."...Keywords: industrial estates, GMS-EC, ECS, economic corridors, border zones
      Author/creator: Takao TSUNEISHI
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Discussion Paper No. 32
      Format/size: pdf (674K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Dp/pdf/032_tsuneishi.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


      Title: The Burma-Thailand Gas Debacle
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "Thailand’s state-controlled gas firm signed up for two expensive gas deals that it later realized it didn’t want. Burma has used the revenue to finance an arms build-up. In 1989 with the treasury bare, Burma’s ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, as the junta then called itself, opened up petroleum exploration to foreign oil companies. In the short term Rangoon profited from signing bonuses paid for exploration blocks. If any of the firms struck commercially viable oil or gas, Burma would collect free rents from petroleum exports that would help maintain an unelected, unpopular administration in power..."
      Author/creator: Bruce Hawke
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


    • Burma's economic relations with Ukraine

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Kiev Connection
      Date of publication: April 2004
      Description/subject: "The former Soviet republic of the Ukraine is helping to satisfy the Rangoon regime’s apparently insatiable demand for modern weapon systems..." In May 2003 the Malyshev HMB plant in Kharkov reportedly signed a contract with Rangoon to provide the Burma Army with 1,000 new BTR-3U light armored personnel carriers, or APCs. The APCs will be supplied in component form over the next 10 years, and assembled in Burma. The size of the deal is estimated to be in excess of US $500 million. It is not known if it will be paid in hard currency, or whether an element of barter trade is involved. Some of Burma’s other arms suppliers—for example Russia and North Korea—have accepted part payment in rice, teak and marine products..."
      Author/creator: William Ashton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


    • Burma's economic relations with the USA

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Foreign Trade Statistics (USA)
      Description/subject: Search for Burma OR Myanmar. Otherwise, browse the Index (not for the faint-hearted)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Census Bureau
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: National Labor Committee
      Description/subject: "In support of human and worker rights". Documents on Burma-US trade, particularly US garment companies sourcing in Burma.
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns?id=0010
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: US-ASEAN Business Council (Myanmar page)
      Description/subject: Many useful links but there are no events to display for this time period.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Can we fine-tune the sanctions against Burma?
      Date of publication: 20 July 2012
      Description/subject: " Last week, the Obama Administration suspended some of the most important financial sanctions against Burma. U.S. companies are now allowed to invest in Burmese industries (including oil and gas) and to sell services. Yet on Wednesday of this week, the U.S. Senate Finance Committee took a decision that pointed in exactly the opposite direction. It voted to renew trade sanctions passed nine years ago in response to the military junta's attempted assassination of Aung San Suu Kyi. (She survived, but the attack resulted in scores of other deaths.) The renewal of the legislation -- if it passes a vote of the full Senate and the House, which still have to confirm the decision -- will technically ban all imports from Burma for another three years. Since the ban was first imposed in 2003, imports from Burma to the U.S. have fallen to almost zero, a sweeping prohibition that has done a lot of damage to Burma's nascent manufacturing industry. For that reason, Aung San Suu Kyi actually asked U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell to remove the remaining sanctions early last week. But her plea didn't seem to help..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 August 2012


      Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
      Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
      Format/size: PDF (890k)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


      Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
      Date of publication: 03 March 2004
      Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
      Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
      Format/size: pdf (261K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


      Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
      Date of publication: 29 July 2003
      Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


      Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
      Date of publication: 28 July 2003
      Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
      Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
      http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


      Title: BURMA COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY2002
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at Burma's (Myanmar's) commercial environment, using economic, political and market analysis. The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. Country commercial guides are prepared annually at U.S. embassies through the combined efforts of several U.S. Government agencies..." 1. Executive Summary... 2 Economic Trends and Outlook -Government Role in the Economy -Major Trends and Outlook -Major Sectors -Balance of Payments -Infrastructure... 3 Political Environment � -Brief Synopsis of Political System -Nature of Bilateral Relationship with the United States -Major Political Issues -Business Policy -Scope of Sanctions... 4 Marketing US Products and Services � -List of Newspapers and Trade Journals -Advertising Agencies and Services -IPR Protection -Need for a Local Attorney... 5 Leading Sectors for US Exports and Investment... 6 Trade Regulations, Customs and Standards -Barriers to Trade and Investment -Trade Regulations... 7 Investment Climate/US Investment Sanctions -US Investment Subject to Sanctions -Status of Investment -Executive Order -Sanctions Regulations... 8 Trade and Project Financing -Description of Banking System -Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trade -Availability of Financing -List of Banks... 9 Business Travel -Travel Advisory -Visas, International Connections -Customs, Foreign Exchange Controls... 10 Economic and Trade Statistics: Appendix A: Country Data; Appendix B: Domestic Economy; Appendix C: External Accounts - Trade and Payments; Appendix D: Investment Statistics; 11 US and Country Contacts... Bibliography.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Commercial Service
      Format/size: html, pdf (276K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2003


      Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 2000
      Date of publication: 21 February 2001
      Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year. The biggest import item, "Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles" is not broken down, which makes it less useful (most is garments (apparel) manufactured in Burma, but the tables do not say so).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
      http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1999
      Date of publication: 18 February 2000
      Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: FOREIGN ECONOMIC TRENDS REPORT: BURMA, 1997
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: "This report is a public document, prepared in June 1997 and released in September 1997 by American Embassy Rangoon. All statistics in this report are unofficial Embassy estimates, not official U.S. Government statistics. That is, they are compiled and reviewed only by Embassy officials, not by U.S. Government officials in Washington, even though they largely originate from the Government of Burma, from the governments of Burma's trading partners, or from such international financial institutions as the IMF and World Bank, as indicated by source notations in the appended statistical tables, and by the section on sources and data. Similar reports are prepared and distributed to the public annually, separately or as part of an annual Country Commercial Guide, by most American embassies throughout the world, in compliance with standing instructions from, and following a standard format specified by, the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. This report is intended chiefly for economists and financiers; except for its first section, "Major trends and outlook," it is highly technical and sometimes redundant, intended to serve largely as a reference work...I. Economic trends and outlook:- -- Major trends and outlook: -- Major trends; -- 1996/97 economic performance; -- Economic outlook... -- Principal growth sectors: --Tourism; -- Defense; -- Agriculture: -- Paddy (unmilled rice) cultivation; -- State procurement of paddy; ; -- Rice exports; -- Beans and pulses... -- Remaining structural issues in the agricultural sector; -- Living conditions in the agricultural sector; -- The government's role in the economy: -- Historical background; -- The extent and limits of economic liberalization since 1988; -- Fiscal developments; --Non-financial expenditures; -- Non-financial receipts; -- Fiscal balances; -- External financing; -- Domestic financing; -- Errors and omissions; -- Monetary developments; -- The exchange rate regime; -- Exchange rate movements; -- Recorded money supply growth; -- Recorded money supply composition; -- Recorded domestic credit and domestic reserves; -- Recorded net foreign assets (foreign reserves); -- Aggregate price inflation; -- Balance of payments; -- Merchandise trade data and balances; -- Recorded merchandise exports; -- Recorded merchandise imports; ; -- Non-factor services trade; -- The overall trade balance; -- Unrequited private transfers (workers' remittances); -- Foreign direct investment; -- Other recorded cash financial inflows: grants, loans and other; -- External debt, debt service, arrears and debt relief; -- Aggregate external accounts: the flow of funds; -- Errors and omissions: unrecorded external flows; -- Narcotics exports and other foreign exchange rents and their real exchange rate effects; -- Infrastructure situation; -- Human infrastructure: education and health; -- Physical infrastructure; -- Use of uncompensated labor in infrastructure projects; -- Major infrastructural projects; II. Political environment; -- Nature of the bilateral relationship with the United States; -- American concerns: human rights violations, narcotics exports; -- U.S. Government activities and policies; -- Private investment, trade and travel; -- U.S. direct investment in Burma; -- U.S. exports to Burma ; -- U.S. imports from Burma; -- Travel and migration; -- Major political issues affecting the business climate ; -- Brief synopsis of the political system, schedule for elections, and orientation of major political parties; Note on sources, data and method; -- Recent improvements in publicly available economic data; -- Remaining flaws in the publicly available economic data; -- The statistical basis and methodology of this report; List of commonly used abbreviations... Appendix: Statistical Tables; --Table A: Socio-economic profile; -- Tables B.l.a - B.3.c: National income accounts (GDP and GNP); -- Table C: Aggregate price indicators; --Tables D l.a-D.6: Balance of payments accounts; -- Tables E.l.a - E.2: Monetary accounts; -- Tables F.I - F.2.b: Flow of funds accounts; -- Tables G.1.a-G.6: Public sector finance accounts.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon
      Format/size: pdf (979K) 152 pages
      Date of entry/update: 30 May 2005


      Title: Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with Burma (Myanmar)
      Description/subject: Import and export and Trade Balance available by year. "Last updated on August 11, 2010."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: US Census Bureau (Foreign Trade Division)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1998
      Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
      Format/size: Undated, but most likely published in February 1999
      Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Import/Export

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Culture for Sale
      Date of publication: January 2000
      Description/subject: "In one of the poorest countries in the world, people take solace in donating their gold and jewels to pagodas to become rich in the next life, according to their Buddhist beliefs..."
      Author/creator: Win Htein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Customs Tariffs ASEAN
      Description/subject: Harmonized System for tariff and statistical nomenclature on April 1, 1992. After incorporating necessary changes in the Myanmar Customs Tariff, the 1996 Version of the Harmonized System was applied ...
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar Export Import Procedures
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Commerce
      Alternate URLs: http://www.commerce.gov.mm/eng/
      Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


      • Gems
        The articles in this section are largely technical and/or political. For sites dealing with sale of gems, do an Internet search for gems Myanmar etc (there are more than 40,000)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Burmese Gems
        Description/subject: "Burmese Gems is one of the leading purveyors of rare, gem-quality rubies, sapphires, and diamonds. We carry both loose stones and custom-made finished jewelry for our clients. We have been in business for over eight decades and specialize mainly on gems from Burma as they are the most precious and rarest. We cater to customers who desire the best in life and who are unwilling to settle for second best. In essence, we are in the business of making beautiful people more beautiful..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burmese Gems
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


        Title: Ganoksin
        Description/subject: "The Gem and Jewelry World's foremost Resource on The Internet". A number of articles about gems in Burma (search Library or "Orchid" for Burma)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ganoksin
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Gemological Institute of America
        Description/subject: "...Established in 1931, GIA is the world’s largest and most respected nonprofit institute of gemological research and learning. Conceived 73 years ago in the august tradition of Europe’s most venerated institutes, GIA discovers (through GIA Research), imparts (through GIA Education), and applies (through the GIA Gem Laboratory and GIA Gem Instruments) gemological knowledge to ensure the public trust in gems and jewelry. With nearly 900 employees, the Institute’s scientists, diamond graders, and educators are regarded, collectively, as the world's foremost authority in gemology..." A search for "Burma" on the GIA site produced 47 results. For "Myanmar", 63.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


        Title: GRS (Gem Research Swisslab)
        Description/subject: Browse the site to find information on Burmese gems
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: GRS
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Myanmar Gems and Jewellery: Myanmar (Burma) Gems, Jade Jewellery
        Description/subject: ... Gems and Complete Database of Gems Emporiums held in Myanmar (Burma) in Yangon (Rangoon) Myanmar myanmar Gems gems, Myanmar myanmar Jade jade, Myanmar myanmar ... Online auction; sections on rubies, jade, pearls etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd.
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.maynmark.com/
        http://www.mvesjewelry.com.mm/
        http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/jewelry
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Myanmar Gems Enterprise
        Description/subject: Scrutinising and issuing permits for gemstone mining to local private entrepreneurs; manufacturing and marketing of jewelry. ..Not much there apart from a few maps and pictures and contact information.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SPDC/Ministry of Mines
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Professional Jeweller
        Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Professional Jeweler
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Ruby-sapphire.com
        Description/subject: A number of articles on gems and Burma
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ruby-sapphire.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: SSEF (Swiss Gemmological Insitute)
        Description/subject: Provides certificates of origin.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SSEF
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


        Title: THE GEMSTONE FORECASTER NEWSLETTERS
        Description/subject: The newsletters, from 1995, contain a number of articles on Burmese gems, including jade.
        Author/creator: Robert Genis
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: National Gemstone Corporation
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.preciousgemstones.com/index.html#Options
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Individual Documents

        Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
        Date of publication: 15 October 2007
        Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: "New bonanza" jilted by specialists
        Date of publication: 25 February 2004
        Description/subject: "After spending nearly two weeks in October in the mountains where a rubymine was said to have been discovered, a 9-men team of gem specialists dispatched by Rangoon had finally decided that the rock formations there were still to young to be worthwhile, said gem traders close to the local militia. "Samples that the experts obtained melted when they were heated, unlike Monghsu stones," one of the gem traders who also occasionally deal in drugs told S.H.A.N..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: S.H.A.N.
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 26 February 2004


        Title: Namya Rubies
        Date of publication: 04 February 2004
        Description/subject: Just when the U.S. government has halted America’s Ruby market from banning all imports from Burma, dealers are starting to see the best red corundum’s to come from that country in years. These stones were coming in form a promising trickle of good s from a vast untapped area called Namya, which is not too far away from Mogok the world’s most famous ruby district.
        Author/creator: By David Federman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Modern Jeweler
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.airesjewelers.com/
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
        Date of publication: 20 November 2003
        Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
        Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


        Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
        Author/creator: Ken MacLean
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
        Format/size: pdf (939K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


        Title: Expedition to the Namya Mines in Northern Burma
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Kanpraphai, Anong
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August 2003, p. 1-8.
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch/journal/No2/No2.htm
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Spinel from Namya
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Günther D.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August, p. 15-18.
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Burmese Gems in Dhaka, Bangladesh
        Date of publication: 03 February 2003
        Description/subject: Dhaka, 3 February: "The Burmese stall at the ongoing Dhaka International Trade Fair has become well-known for selling the most costly items, according to a stall-owner in the fair. The items to be found in the Burmese gems stall include gold jewellery with precious Burmese stones like emerald, ruby, jade, sapphire and diamonds as well as cultured pearls..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Narinjara news
        Format/size: html (9K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Banned! Burmese Gems in the Crossfire
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: "Note: On July 28th 2003, US President George W. Bush signed into law the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (H.R. 2330). This act bans the importation into the United States of any article that is produced, mined, manufactured, grown or assembled in Burma. The following piece is actually two: 1. Thoughts on the US Embargo Against Burma by Richard W. Hughes; 2. How Sanctions Can Work by Brian Leber... In these two articles, Richard Hughes and Brian Leber examine the impact of these sanctions on the US gem trade, along with the entire issue of national sanctions, both pro and con."
        Author/creator: Richard Hughes and Brian Leber
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ruby-saffire.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
        Date of publication: 11 November 2001
        Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
        Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GEM ADVENTURES: A Journey to Mogok
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: "This article is excerpted by the story written by Ted Themelis, an expert on Myanmar (Burmese) gem deposits, and it was published in the Gemkey Magazine (Dec. 1998-Jan.1999 issue). It was updated in October 2001 incorporating all the latest news and observations gathered during Ted's latest visit to Mogok in September 2001. This article represents the most updated and authoritative account on Mogok available anywhere..."
        Author/creator: Ted Themelis
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Gemlab Inc.
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://themelis.com/
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


        Title: Out of the black: Burmese gems & politics.
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: Gems, drugs and conflict in Burma
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Guide, Vol. 20, No. 4, Issue 5, Part 1, Sept.–Oct 2001, pp. 8–14.
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Out of the Jungle
        Date of publication: 09 July 2001
        Description/subject: Out of the Jungle, Part I "Conversation with a Burmese gem smuggler in a Maesai snooker hall: "Can you get a big chunk of jade into Thailand?" "Sure, not a problem." "But we want a really big chunk ..." "It’s okay, the soldiers will deal with getting it across." We pump the smuggler for more information, but he senses that we’re more interested in who "the soldiers" are than in buying jade. He departs without making an arrangement. But you can be sure that along the porous Burmese-Thai border that night, several large pieces of jade and other goods ranging from the sacred to the profane crossed over rivers and through mountain passes into Thailand, to be distributed to the rest of the world..."...FOR PARTS 2 AND 3, CLICK ON "ARCHIVES" AND NAVIGATE.
        Author/creator: Damon Poeter, Ted Themelis
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Spleen
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


        Title: The fluid inclusions in jadeitite from Pharkant area,
        Date of publication: 20 October 2000
        Description/subject: "Abstract A lot of liquid-gas and liquid-gas-solid inclusions were found in Pharkant jadeitites, northwestern Myanmar and their characteristics, geological setting and porphyroclastic jadeites with inclusions in them were described in detail. The results analyzed by Raman spectrometer showed that the component of liquid-gas phase and solid phase (daughter minerals) in fluid inclusions is H2O + CH4 and jadeite separately. The results indicated that Pharkant jadeitites were crystallized from H2O + CH4 bearing jadeitic melt which may originate from mantle. The P-T conditions in which the jadeitites were crystallized were speculated to be T 650 , P 1.5 GPa..." Keywords: Pharkant Myanmar, jadeitite, jadeite, fluid inclusion, H2O + CH4, jadeitic melt, mantle.
        Author/creator: SHI Guanghai, CUI Wenyuan, WANG Changqiu & ZHANG Wenhuai
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Chinese Science Bulletin Vol. 45 No. 20 October 2000
        Format/size: pdf (406.03 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.springerlink.com/content/32m1m417gn4h3m41/
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Burmese Jade, the Inscrutable Gem
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: Part 1: Burma's Jade MInes...Part 2: Jadeite Trading, Grading and Identification...Abstract: "The jadeite mines of Upper Burma (now Myanmar) occupy a privileged place in the world of gems, as they are the principal source of top-grade material. Part 1 of this article, by the first foreign gemologists allowed into these important mines in over 30 years, discusses the history, location, and geology of the Burmese jadeite deposits, and especially current mining activities in the Hpakan region. Part 2 will detail the cutting, grading and trading of jadeite – in both Burma and China – as well as treatments. The intent is to remove some of the mystery surrounding the Orient’s most valued gem".
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, George Bosshart, Fred Ward, Thet Oo, Mark Smith, Tay Thye Sun, George E. Harlow
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/jade_burma_part_2.htm
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Burma's Jade Mines: An Annotated Occidental History
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: "The history of Burma’s jade mines in the West is a brief one. While hundreds of different reports, articles and even books exist on the famous ruby deposits of Mogok, only a handful of westerners have ever made the journey to northern Burma’s remote jade mines and wrote down their findings. Occidental accounts of the mines make their first appearance in 1837. Although in 1836, Captain Hannay obtained specimens of jadeite at Mogaung during his visit to the Assam frontier (Hannay, 1837), Dr. W.Griffiths (1847) was the first European to actually visit the mines, in 1837 (Griffiths, 1847). The following is his account, as given in Scott and Hardiman (1900–1901):..."
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of the Geoliterary Society (Vol. 14, No. 1, 1999). via ganoksin
        Format/size: html (55K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: Summary: "There are two major sources of rubies in Myanmar (Burma)—Mogok (Mandalay Division) and Mongshu (southern Shan State)—and several minor sources Nawarat/Pyinlon (near Namkhan, Shan State); Tanai and Nayaseik (Kachin State); Katpana (Kachin State); and Sagyin and Yatkanzin stone tracts (Madaya township) near Mandalay. Mogok and the smaller deposits are similarly hosted in white marble with considerable diversity among the rubies from each tract and strong similarities among the rubies between the tracts. Mongshu, although associated with metasediments and marbles, yields distinctly different rough and treated stones. Thus, stones from Mongshu are easily distinguished from those found at Mogok and the smaller deposits. These differences can be discerned using an optical microscope. Basic characteristics of stones from the minor sources are described, however further research is required to assess criteria for distinguishing among these sources and Mogok... Methodology: Several hundred rubies from these source areas in Myanmar were examined for features that could be recorded photographically using a Mark 6 Gemolite with a 10X eyepiece normally at maximum magnification (~60x). Images were recorded on 35 mm Ektachrome tungsten film (ASA 160) with an "eye-piece" camera and printed electronically on a FUJIX Pictography 3000 (TDT process printer). Images are presented here at relatively low resolution."
        Author/creator: Han Htun, George E. Harlow
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The American Museum of Natural History,
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Diamonds from Myanmar and Thailand: Characteristics and Possible Origins
        Date of publication: 1998
        Author/creator: Griffin, W.L., Win, T.T., Davies, R., Wathanakul, P., Andrew, A. and Metcalfe, I.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Geochemical Evolution and Metallogeny of Continents (GEMOC)
        Format/size: html, MS 199 KB
        Alternate URLs: http://it.geol.science.cmu.ac.th/gs/courseware/218462/TEXT/Diamond/Diamond%20from%20Myanmar%20and%2...
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: Fracture healing/filling of Möng Hsu Ruby
        Date of publication: 1998
        Description/subject: "...Mogok is not the only active ruby mining area in Burma. Stones from the Möng Hsu (pronounced ‘Maing Shu’ by the Shan; ‘Mong Shu’ by the Burmese) deposit, located in Myanmar’s Shan State, northeast of Taunggyi, first began appearing in Bangkok in mid-1992. Since that time they have completely dominated the world’s ruby trade in sizes of less than 3 ct. Indeed, 99% of all the rubies traded today in Chanthaburi (Thailand) are from Möng Hsu..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Australian Gemmologist (1998, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 70–74).
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Heaven and Hell - the quest for jade in Upper Burma
        Date of publication: April 1997
        Description/subject: "n a remote corner of Upper Burma, thousands are busy, seeking, searching, clawing at a mountain, prying loose boulders from the compact brown soil. Jack hammers pound out a rat-a-tat beat, punctuated by the occasional cymbal crash of pick and shovel, while a choir of coolies stand behind with baskets to carry the debris out of this earthen tomb. As each boulder is turned over, it is quickly examined, then discarded, along with the mounds of dirt that surround it. So the process is repeated. Over and over, again and again, hour after hour, day after day. The operation is a study in patience. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they make mistakes, they miss the prize, they don’t go to heaven. The construction of the Great Pyramids in Egypt was a study in patience; that in Upper Burma today is on no less a scale, but involves deconstruction, the dismantling of entire mountains, step by step, bit by bit, stone by stone, one pebble at a time. Like the builders of pyramids, all involved share a single-minded devotion to the task. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they miss something, they don’t go to heaven. Those who hurry don’t find jade..." .
        Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Fred Ward
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-toc.htm
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


        Title: "Ruby & Sapphire" - chapter 12, on Burma (Myanmar)
        Date of publication: 1997
        Description/subject: In four substantial parts, with text, pictures, maps, tables...
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma2.htm (Part 2)
        http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma3.htm (Part 3)
        http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm (Part 4)
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Where the twain do meet: Thailand's border towns
        Date of publication: 1997
        Description/subject: "...Burma is home to one of the planet’s richest sources of gem wealth. Rubies and sapphires from Mogok, rubies from Möng Hsu, jade from Hpakan, pearls from the Mergui Archipelago, these are but a few of her treasures. But since 1962, Burma has also achieved notoriety of a different sort – home to one of the planet’s most repressive regimes.
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Momentum magazine (1997, Vol. 5, No. 16, pp. 16–19)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Pigeon's Blood: A Pilgrimage to Mogok - Valley of Rubies
        Date of publication: 1996
        Description/subject: "...Long before the Buddha walked the earth, the northern part of Burma was said to be inhabited only by wild animals and birds of prey. One day the biggest and oldest eagle in creation flew over a valley. On a hillside shone an enormous morsel of fresh meat, bright red in color. The eagle attempted to pick it up, but its claws could not penetrate the blood-red substance. Try as he may, he could not grasp it. After many attempts, at last he understood. It was not a piece of meat, but a sacred and peerless stone, made from the fire and blood of the earth itself. The stone was the first ruby on earth and the valley was Mogok..."
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Tracing the Green Line - A journey to Burma's jade mines
        Date of publication: 1996
        Description/subject: "... This article resulted from the first visit by foreign gemologists to Burma’s jade mines in over thirty years. the mines are described in detail, along with the road to and from the area...For over thirty years, foreigners had petitioned the Burmese government to visit the jade mines. Due to the war which had raged between the central government and successionist rebels, the answer always came back no. But times had changed. The country was now called Myanmar. And the central government had recently made peace with the rebels. So, hat in hand, we went and asked again. And we received. They said we could go..." ... I did not see any publication date for the article, but the journey was in 1996, which I have therefore put as the date of the article.
        Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Oliver Galibert, Mark Smith & Dr. Thet Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Ganoksin
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/burma_jade_journey2.htm (Part 2)
        http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/tracing-green-line.htm (Part 1)
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Burmese Sapphire Giants
        Date of publication: October 1995
        Description/subject: "...Introduction to Burmese sapphires Although it is rubies for which Burma (Myanmar) is famous, some of the world’s finest blue sapphires are also mined in the Mogok area. Today the world gem trade recognizes the quality of Burmese sapphires, but this was not always the case..."
        Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, U Hla Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Gemmology (Vol. 24, No. 8, October, pp. 551–561)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


        Title: Gem Mining in Burma
        Date of publication: April 1957
        Description/subject: An engaging account of the historical, social and technical dimensions of gem mining and trading in Burma. "For many centuries, Burma has been one of the most important gem centers in the world. The Mogaung area, practically in the path of the famous World War II Burma Road, is the only commercial source of jadeite that produces qualities ranging from the finest gem emerald green to the cheapest utilitarian quality. The gem mines in Mogok are the only sources of fine gem rubies; Siam rubies are generally inferior. Only in rare cases is a fine Siam ruby found. Today, approximately eighty-five percent of all rubies and sapphires mined are of Burmese origin, especially since the Kashmir mines in India have ceased operations on any large scale. Despite sufficient time and adequate facilities for making a complete and thorough investigation, a superficial survey in the course of several trips during the past two years revealed the presence of immense wealth still hidden within Burma. Until a complete scientific investigation is made of the gem areas in Burma, it is hoped that this article will fill the interim gap..." (c) Gemological Institute of America. Reprinted by permission.
        Author/creator: Martin Ehrmann
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Gems and Gemology" Spring 1957
        Format/size: pdf (1.1MB, 2.7MB- original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Ehrmann.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


        Title: Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones, in the District of Kyat-pyen, in the Kingdom of Ava
        Date of publication: 1833
        Description/subject: Editor’s note: This first-hand communication from Giuseppe d’Amato appears to have been written originally in Italian. It was translated for publication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1833, although the translator’s name is not provided. However short this account, it provides valuable detailed information mining in royal Burma as well as a few hints concerning Chinese traders in Upper Burma. M.W.C.
        Author/creator: Père Giuseppe D’Amato
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
        Format/size: pdf (21K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


  • Business and the Military

    Individual Documents

    Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
    Date of publication: 03 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
    Author/creator: Kevin Woods
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
    Format/size: pdf (593K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


    Title: Air Bagan’s High Fliers
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: Air Bagan, the Burmese domestic airline owned by tycoon Tay Za, soared to new heights at this year’s Thingyan water festival in Rangoon, flying in foreign disc jockeys and dancers to keep the crowds entertained.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


    Title: A Different Breed
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: "Burmese businessmen were once a force for positive political change in Burma; now they serve nobody’s interests but their own—and the generals’...Long gone are the days when Burmese admired their country’s most successful entrepreneurs. Burmese business empires were once a source of pride to a subject people living under British rule, and native-born tycoons were regarded as patriotic men of the people. How things have changed...Now, as Burma’s gross domestic product per capita remains at less than half that of Cambodia, millionaires mingle with generals over glasses of champagne, enjoying the fruits of a new economic order that has done nothing to lift the rest of the population out of grinding poverty..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


    Title: Tracking the Tycoons
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: "THREE years after profiling Burma’s most successful tycoons in its September 2005 issue, The Irrawaddy is again directing attention to the men who govern the country’s business world. They continue to prosper, and have been joined by others, yet they are coming increasingly under the international spotlight and critical scrutiny. Many of those who featured in our September 2005 issue found themselves on another list last year—penalized by US and EU sanctions because of their relationship with, and unquestioning support for, Burma’s military regime. The sanctions list contained such names as Tay Za and his elder brother, Thi Ha; Asia World’s director Tun Myint Naing; Aung Thet Mann, whose father is the regime’s third most powerful general; and Khin Shwe, who faithfully attended the regime-sponsored National Convention and is well connected to the top junta leaders. They were penalized by the US shortly after the regime they so assiduously back brutally suppressed demonstrations last September demanding changes that would advance prosperity and freedom for all, not just a favored clique..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


    Title: Tycoon Turf
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Burma’s business czars tread a wary path... "In today’s Burma, two groups of people command from the general population a mixture of envy, anger and a dose of admiration. The first group is, of course, the military leadership, the generals who have been governing the country since 1988. The rulers of Burma have so far somehow failed to persuade the public to accept the notion that the military government is there to serve the interests of the country and its citizens. The regime remains deeply unloved by most of the population. The second group is the tycoons who grow rich in their impoverished country. Since the regime introduced an “open market economy” in 1989 and abandoned the “Burmese Way to Socialism” introduced by the previous government, many have taken advantage of this change, and the country has seen a growing number of tycoons and entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs opened business offices and set up companies overnight as they became self-appointed CEOs or managing directors in newly-established companies. Chauffeured in their powerful SUVs and sleek Mercedes Benz limousines, they travel far, locally and internationally, to conduct business and find new markets. Their business interests cover export-import, construction, agriculture, transportation and communications, mining, hotels and tourism, and the garment trade..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Tycoon Te Za: Well-Connected, and Well-Heeled
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: Profile of a modern Burmese empire-builder... "It wouldn’t be wrong to say many young men dream of a military career in military-ruled Burma. It promises both power and security. That may be what 20-year-old Te Za had in mind when he enrolled at the Defense Service Academy, Burma’s prestigious military academy, 20 years ago. If so, he shattered his own dream by eventually dropping out of the DSA to elope with his love, Thida Zaw, whom he later married. But Te Za (also spelled Tay Za) has no regrets. Today he is one of Burma’s most promising tycoons, a millionaire with both power and deep pockets. As president and managing director of Htoo Trading Company, Te Za is a major player in Burma’s tourism, logging, palm oil, real estate, hotel and housing development industries. He now controls 80 percent of the country’s legal timber production..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


    Title: Befreiung des Handels aus den Fängen des Militärs
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: Burma: Fairer Handel, ›Deglobalisierung‹ und andere Alternativen? Eine Diskussion von Walden Bellos Konzept der De-Globalisierung und Lokalisierung angewandt auf Burma. Warum sind die Ideen der globalisierungskritischen Bewegung derzeit auf Burma nicht anwendbar? key words: anti-globalisation, fair trade, military / state economy, neo-liberalism,
    Author/creator: Alfred Oehlers, Deutsch von Gudrun Witte
    Language: Deutsch, German, English
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 19, Nr. 1 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: pdf (51K - English)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Globalisation_Oehlers.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004


    Title: No Sex Please - We'Re Burmese
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: "Despite draconian laws and official denial, sex is big business in Burma. But brothel owners find it doesn't pay to offend the morals of modest generals..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy, Vol. 9. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Fall from Fortune
    Date of publication: January 2001
    Description/subject: Business people in Burma gamble their fortunes -- and their freedom -- on picking the winners in the country's power struggles.
    Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Power and Money: Economics and Conflict in Burma
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "...The regime's persistent military targeting of ethnic peoples has significantly compounded the negative effects of economic mismanagement. Although the ethnic conflict in Burma is widely considered a human rights problem, many of the regime's tactics are economic; in an attempt to starve them into submission, ethnic groups are routinely denied the ability to secure an income sufficient for survival... Continued conflict and human rights abuses have severely weakened the economy, to the detriment of both ethnic peoples and the general population, and made economic reform a practical impossibility in Burma. Although gross human rights violations and cultural destruction seem not to bother Burma's government, perhaps the impossibility of sustaining the country on a continually deteriorating economic base will eventually force the ruling power to make concessions and respect the rights of Burma's ethnic nationalities."
    Author/creator: Laura Frankel
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: English
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2010


    Title: Used Car Salesman
    Date of publication: September 2000
    Description/subject: Following up on our Burmese Tycoons series, The Irrawaddy presents thispersonal account of the pitfalls of doing business in Burma.
    Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmese Tycoons, Part III
    Date of publication: August 2000
    Description/subject: This is the last installment of our Burmese Tycoons series. We hope it has provided a useful overview of the Burmese business environment.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmese Tycoons, Part II
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Drug money and close ties with top generals are two of the not-so-secret ingredients in the success stories of some of Burma's richest men. Using a variety of sources, this special report takes a look at what lies behind the rising fortunes of four of Burma's leading businessmen of the past decade...Thein Tun (Myanmar Golden Star Co., Ltd., Crusher Drinks, Tun Foundation Bank); Michael Moe Myint (Myint & Associates Company Limited). Kyaw Win [May Flower] (Myanmar May Flower Bank Limited, Chin Su Plywood Industry); U Kyaw Win (Shwe Than Lwin Company); U Kyaw Myint (Golden Flower Co., Ltd., Shwemarlar Housing Project, Two Fish Brand Pure Groundnut oil)...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmese Tycoons Part I
    Date of publication: June 2000
    Description/subject: Drug money and close ties with top generals are two of the not-so-secret ingredients in the success stories of some of Burma's richest men. Using a variety of sources, this special report takes a look at what lies behind the rising fortunes of four of Burma's leading businessmen of the past decade.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Tun Myint Naing [Steven Law] (Asia World Co Ltd.); U Eike Htun (Asia Wealth Bank, Olympic Construction Company); U Htay Myint (Yuzana Co Ltd, Yuzana Super Market, Hotel and Plaza); U Aung Ko Win [Saya Kyaung] (Kanbawza Bank).
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003