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Refugees
See also the sections on Internal Displacement/Forced Migration and Migration, and the sub-section on Forced Relocation (under Human Rights)

  • Refugees: international standards, mechanisms and research

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Refugee Protection in International Law
    Date of publication: 01 January 2003
    Description/subject: Contents: List of annexes page viii... Notes on contributors and editors ix... Foreword xv... Preface xvii... Acknowledgments xx... Expert roundtables and topics under the ‘second track’ of the Global Consultations xxi... Table of cases xxii Table of treaties and other international instruments xlv List of abbreviations lv... Part 1 Introduction: 1.1 Refugee protection in international law: an overall perspective 3... volker turk and frances nicholson 1.2 Age and gender dimensions in international refugee law 46 alice edwards 1.3 Declaration of States Parties to the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees 81 Part 2 Non-refoulement (Article 33 of the 1951 Convention) 2.1 The scope and content of the principle of non-refoulement: Opinion 87 sir elihu lauterpacht qc and daniel bethlehem 2.2 Summary Conclusions: the principle of non-refoulement, expert roundtable, Cambridge, July 2001 178 2.3 List of participants 180 v vi Contents Part 3 Illegal entry (Article 31) 3.1 Article 31 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: non-penalization, detention, and protection 185 guy s . goodwin-gill 3.2 Summary Conclusions: Article 31 of the 1951 Convention, expert roundtable, Geneva,November 2001 253 3.3 List of participants 259 Part 4 Membership of a particular social group (Article 1A(2)) 4.1 Protected characteristics and social perceptions: an analysis of the meaning of ‘membership of a particular social group’ 263 t. alexander aleinikoff 4.2 Summary Conclusions: membership of a particular social group, expert roundtable, San Remo, September 2001 312 4.3 List of participants 314 Part 5 Gender-related persecution (Article 1A(2)) 5.1 Gender-related persecution 319 rodger haines qc 5.2 Summary Conclusions: gender-related persecution, expert roundtable, San Remo, September 2001 351 5.3 List of participants 353 Part 6 Internal protection/relocation/flight alternative 6.1 Internal protection/relocation/flight alternative as an aspect of refugee status determination 357 james c. hathaway and michelle foster 6.2 Summary Conclusions: internal protection/relocation/flight alternative, expert roundtable, San Remo, September 2001 418 6.3 List of participants 420 Part 7 Exclusion (Article 1F) 7.1 Current issues in the application of the exclusion clauses 425 geoff gilbert Contents vii 7.2 Summary Conclusions: exclusion from refugee status, expert roundtable, Lisbon, May 2001 479 7.3 List of participants 486 Part 8 Cessation (Article 1C) 8.1 Cessation of refugee protection 491 joan fitzpatrick and rafael bonoan 8.2 Summary Conclusions: cessation of refugee status, expert roundtable, Lisbon, May 2001 545 8.3 List of participants 551 Part 9 Family unity (Final Act, 1951UN Conference) 9.1 Family unity and refugee protection 555 kate jastram and kathleen newland 9.2 Summary Conclusions: family unity, expert roundtable, Geneva, November 2001 604 9.3 List of participants 609 Part 10 Supervisory responsibility (Article 35) 10.1 Supervising the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and beyond 613 walter ka¨ lin 10.2 Summary Conclusions: supervisory responsibility, expert roundtable, Cambridge, July 2001 667 10.3 List of participants 672 Index 674 Annexes 2.1 Status of ratifications of key international instruments which include a non-refoulement component page 164 2.2 Constitutional and legislative provisions importing the principle of non-refoulement into municipal law 171 3.1 Incorporation of Article 31 of the 1951 Convention into municipal law: selected legislation 234 viii
    Author/creator: Edited by Erika Feller, Volker Türk and Frances Nicholson
    Language: English, French
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&skip=10&query=Refugee%20Protectio...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Description/subject: Research on refugees/migrants, mostly Thailand-related
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: List of UNHCR ExComm Conclusions on International Protection
    Description/subject: "Conclusions on International Protection International protection is included as a priority theme on the agenda of each session of the Executive Committee. The consensus reached by the Committee in the course of its discussions is expressed in the form of Conclusions on International Protection (ExCom Conclusions). Although not formally binding, they are relevant to the interpretation of the international protection regime. ExCom Conclusions constitute expressions of opinion which are broadly representative of the views of the international community. The specialist knowledge of ExCom and the fact that its Conclusions are taken by consensus add further weight...The complete collection of ExCom Conclusions (updated 2004) has been compiled to benefit those who wish to download and print all the Conclusions. It includes a table of contents and index..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=&comid=49eee4826&cid=49aea93a20&scid...
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2010


    Title: Non-refoulement
    Description/subject: Non-refoulement is a principle of the international law, i.e. of customary and trucial Law of Nations which forbids the rendering a true victim of persecution to their persecutor; persecutor generally referring to a state-actor (country/government). Non-refoulement is a key facet of refugee law, that concerns the protection of refugees from being returned to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened. Unlike political asylum, which applies to those who can prove a well-grounded fear of persecution based on membership in a social group or class of persons, non-refoulement refers to the generic repatriation of people, generally refugees into war zones and other disaster areas. Non-refoulement is a jus cogens (peremptory norm) of international law that forbids the expulsion of a refugee into an area, usually their home-country, where the person might be again subjected to persecution.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Title: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    Description/subject: "The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people...".....Use the drop-down menu (top right) to access the Myanmar page
    Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Office of the UN Hight Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e4877d6&submit=GO
    Date of entry/update: 11 February 2014


    Title: Refworld
    Description/subject: A substantial set of documents on refugees...Use the Country drop-down menu or search.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Search results for "Protection"
    Description/subject: More than 7000 documents (June 2003); 13192 (January 2014)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR Executive Committee (ExComm)
    Description/subject: "...An Executive Committee of 57 countries meets annually in Geneva to review and approve UNHCR's budget, protection policy and other programs. The committee's 'working group' or standing committee meetings several times a year. The High Commissioner reports on the results of the agency's work annually to the U.N.General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council..." This page has links to ExComm Conclusions and Summary Records, a list of General Assembly and ECOSOC resolutions relating to UNHCR, annual reports to the GA etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR publications online
    Description/subject: State of the World's Refugees, 2000; Resettlement Handbook; Refugee Statistics; "Refugees by Numbers"; Handbook for Determining Refugee Status; New Issues in Refugee Research; Global Appeal; "Refugees" magazine; Handbook for Emergencies etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR's EXCOM Conclusions and Decisions
    Description/subject: search for "EXCOM Conclusions and Decisions"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.icva.ch/doc00001404.html
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: A THEMATIC COMPILATION OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CONCLUSIONS
    Date of publication: 01 August 2009
    Description/subject: (4th edition)..... "This compilation consists of selected paragraphs of the Conclusions of UNHCR’s Executive Committee grouped by subject. It seeks to show the progressive development of Executive Committee deliberations on a given topic over time, and to add a reference tool to the chronological arrangement of Executive Committee Conclusions already published by UNHCR. The first edition of this compilation was published in 2001 to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. This 2nd edition includes Executive Committee conclusions from 1975, when they were first adopted, to 2004. The compilation is separated into 66 major chapters, arranged alphabetically. Many of the chapters are then divided into several subchapters, which are also arranged alphabetically. The conclusions are in chronological order within each subchapter, or within the chapter if there are no subchapters...TABLE OF CONTENTS: KEY TO USING THE COMPILATION. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 ACCESS 9 Access by UNHCR and Others 9 Access to Asylum Procedures 10 Denial of Access 11 Rejection at Frontiers 12 Safe Country of Origin 13 Safe Third Country 13 States’ Readiness to Admit / Receive 14 ACCESSION – SEE CONVENTION OF 1951 AND 1967 PROTOCOL AGE, GENDER AND DIVERSITY MAINSTREAMING 15 AGENDA FOR PROTECTION – SEE GLOBAL CONSULTATIONS / AGENDA FOR PROTECTION ASYLUM 17 Conclusions Specific to Asylum 17 Declaration on Territorial Asylum 21 Draft Convention on Territorial Asylum 21 First Country of Asylum 21 Institution / Character of Asylum 22 Liberal Asylum Practices 26 Restrictive Asylum Practices 27 Right to Seek Asylum 28 ASYLUM SEEKERS AT SEA – RESCUE AT SEA 30 BURDEN AND RESPONSIBILITY SHARING / INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF STATES 37 Access / Asylum 37 Burden of (First) Countries of Asylum / Mass Influx 38 International Initiatives and Cooperation 47 Irregular Movement of Refugees and Asylum Seekers From a Country in Which They Had Already Found Protection 53 Prevention / Causes / Solutions 53 Resettlement Opportunities 56 CAPACITY BUILDING 59 CAUSES OF POPULATION DISPLACEMENTS 61 Actual Causes 61 Comprehensive Approach 63 Irregular Movement of Refugees and Asylum Seekers from a Country in Which They Had Already Found Protection 66 Mass Influx 67 Prevention / Causes / Solutions 68 CESSATION OF REFUGEE STATUS 70 CHILDREN 72 Conclusions Specific to Children 72 Special Protection Needs 78 Unaccompanied Minors / Separated Children 82 UNHCR Policy and Guidelines 83 Violations of Rights (Forced Recruitment, Sexual Abuse, etc) 84 COMPLEMENTARY FORMS OF PROTECTION 87 COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH 88 Conclusion Specific to Comprehensive Approach 88 Nature of Comprehensive Approach 90 Need for Comprehensive Approach 94 CONVENTION OF 1951 AND 1967 PROTOCOL 96 Accession 96 Conclusions Specific to the Convention and Protocol 100 Implementation 102 Significance of Convention and Protocol 107 State Reporting 110 UNHCR’s Supervisory Role 111 CONVENTION PLUS 112 DETENTION 114 DISABLED REFUGEES 118 DISCRIMINATION 119 DOCUMENTATION 121 Conclusions Specific to Documentation 121 Confidentiality 123 Destruction of Documents / Fraudulent Documents 124 Identity Documents / Certificates of Refugee Status / Personal Documentation 125 Registration 129 Travel Documents 133 DURABLE SOLUTIONS 135 DUTIES OF REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS 148 EDUCATION 150 EMPLOYMENT / SELF-SUFFICENCY / SELF-RELIANCE 154 ENVIRONMENT 156 EXCLUSION 157 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CONCLUSIONS 159 Conclusions 159 Sub-Committee of the Whole on International Protection 159 EXPULSION 162 EXTRADITION 165 FAMILY UNITY AND REUNIFICATION 166 FORCED RECRUITMENT 171GLOBAL CONSULTATIONS / AGENDA FOR PROTECTION 174 HUMANITARIAN LAW 179 HUMAN RIGHTS 183 Basic Standards of Treatment 183 Child Rights / Convention on the Rights of the Child 187 Comprehensive Approach 190 Convention Against Torture 191 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 192 Link Between Human Rights and Refugee Issues 192 Responsibilities of States 196 Role of the High Commissioner for Refugees 199 Sexual Violence 200 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 203 Violations of Human Rights 204 Women’s Rights 206 ILLEGAL ENTRY 208 IMPLEMENTATION – SEE CONVENTION OF 1951 AND 1967 PROTOCOL INTERCEPTION 209 INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS 212 Causes of Displacement 212 Conclusion Specific to Internally Displaced Persons 212 High Commissioner’s Role and Mandate 214 New Approaches 216 INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION 218 IRREGULAR MOVEMENT OF REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS FROM A COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY HAD ALREADY FOUND PROTECTION 223 LOCAL INTEGRATION 226 MASS MOVEMENTS 230 Asylum / Non-Refoulement 230 Conclusions Specific to Mass Influx 231 Durable Solutions 235 General 236 Protracted Refugee Situations 237 Responses to Mass-Influx / Temporary Protection / Responsibility and Burden-Sharing 240 MIGRATION 247 MILITARY OR ARMED ATTACKS ON REFUGEE CAMPS AND SETTLEMENTS / CIVILIAN AND HUMANITARIAN CHARACTER OF ASYLUM 249 Character and Location of Camps 249 Children and Adolescents 251 Conclusions Specific to Military or Armed Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements 252 Duties of Refugees 256 Maintaining the Civilian and Humanitarian Character of Asylum 256 Protection and Assistance 260Responsibilities of States 262 Violations of Refugee and Asylum Seeker’s Rights / Personal Security 263 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS 268 Family Reunification 268 Internally Displaced Persons 268 Personal Security of Refugees and Asylum Seekers 268 Prevention 269 Promotion of Refugee Law / Public Awareness 269 Reception 271 Resettlement 271 Role in International Protection 272 Women / Children 272 NON-REFOULEMENT 275 Appeal to States 275 Comprehensive Approach 278 Definition / Character of Principle 279 Disregard of Principle / Violations of Rights / Personal Security 282 OLDER REFUGEES 285 PALESTINIANS 287 PARTICIPATION / COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPROACH / EMPOWERMENT 289 PERSECUTION 291 Asylum / Non-Refoulement 291 Cessation of Refugee Status 292 Extradition 293 Fear of Persecution in Country of Asylum 293 Gender-Related Persecution / Sexual Violence 294 Reasons for Persecution 295 War / Armed Conflict 296 PERSONAL SECURITY / PHYSICAL VIOLENCE 298 Appeals to States, UNHCR and Others 298 Conclusions Specific to Personal Security / Physical Violence 302 Violations of Basic Rights and Personal / Physical Security 303 PREVENTION 308 Development / Rehabilitation Assistance 308 Exploration of New Options / Strategies 308 Inter-Relationship Between Protection and Solutions 310 Stateless Persons / Internally Displaced Persons 311 Women 312 PROMOTION OF REFUGEE LAW 313 Conclusions Specific to the Promotion of Refugee Law 313 Importance of Promotion / Methods of Promotion of Refugee Law 314 Statelessness 318 Women / Children 319 PUBLIC OPINION / PUBLIC AWARENESS 321 RECEPTION OF ASYLUM-SEEKERS 324 REFUGEE STATUS DETERMINATION 326 Conclusions Specific to Refugee Status Determination 326 Detention 330 Family Members / Women / Children 330 Identifying Country Responsible for Examining an Asylum Request 331 Manifestly Unfounded or Abusive Claims 333 Others in Need of International Protection 334 Procedures 336 Refugee Definition 343 REFUGEES WITHOUT AN ASYLUM COUNTRY 344 Conclusions Specific to Refugees Without an Asylum Country 344 General 346 Stowaways 346 REGIONAL APPROACHES 348 Conclusions Specific to Regional Approaches 348 Regional Initiatives 351 Regional Instruments 353 RESETTLEMENT 356 RETURN OF PERSONS FOUND NOT TO BE IN NEED OF INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION 362 RIGHT TO RETURN 367 SEXUAL VIOLENCE 370 SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING 381 STATELESSNESS 383 STATUTE OF THE OFFICE OF UNHCR / MANDATE 389 STOWAWAY ASYLUM SEEKERS – SEE REFUGEES WITHOUT AN ASYLUM COUNTRY TEMPORARY PROTECTION 391 TORTURE 395 TRAVEL DOCUMENTS – SEE DOCUMENTATION UNHCR STAFF 398 Code of Conduct 398 Needs of Refugee Women and Children / Need for Female Staff 398 Provision of Necessary Staff / Competence of Staff 400 Safety of Staff 402 Training 403 VOLUNTARY REPATRIATION 406 Conclusions Specific to Voluntary Repatriation / General 406 Obstacles to Voluntary Repatriation / Land Mines 415 Promotion of Voluntary Repatriation / Creation of Conditions Favourable to Repatriation 416 Voluntary Character of Repatriation in, and to Conditions of Safety and Dignity 421WOMEN 426 Conclusions Specific to Women 426 Gender-Related Persecution / Sexual Violence 430 Obstacles to the Protection of Refugee Women 435 Promotion of Rights of Refugee Women / International Agenda 435 Special Protection Needs 436 UNHCR Guidelines on Refugee Women / Policy on Refugee Women 439 CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF CONCLUSIONS 442
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (3.5MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/3d4ab3ff2.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE: THE IMPACT OF RESETTLEMENT ON THE REMAINING CAMP POPULATION
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: MAP OF THAI-BURMESE BORDER CAMPS; ACRONYMS. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .. vi 1. INTRODUCTION .1 2. METHODOLOGY 2 3. CURRENT CONTEXT OF RESETTLEMENT ..3 4. IMPACT OF RESETTLEMENT: OVERALL OBSERVATIONS..4 4.1 Factors influencing depletion of skilled workers .5 4.2 Limited labour pool and the difficulty of replacement..6 4.3 Mood in the camps in the context of resettlement ..8 5. EDUCATION .8 5.1 Overall Impact on Education Sector...8 5.2 Actual and Anticipated Consequences of Resettlement on the Education Sector .11 5.3 Current and Possible Programmatic Responses to Resettlement: Coping Strategies ...12 5.4 Sectoral Recommendations for Education ...13 6. HEALTH14 6.1 Overall Impact on the Health Sector 14 6.2 Actual and Anticipated Consequences of Resettlement on the Health Sector...17 6.3 Current and Possible Programmatic Responses to Resettlement: Coping Strategies ...18 6.4 Sectoral Recommendations 19 7. CAMP ADMINISTRATION ...21 7.1 Overall findings ...21 7.2 Camp Committees ..22 7.3 CBOs..22 7.4 CBO and Camp Committee Recommendations ...25 8. OTHER RESETTLEMENT-AFFECTED GROUPS..25 8.1 Extremely Vulnerable Individuals (EVIs) ..25 8.2 Separated Children .26 9. POSITIVE IMPACTS ..26 10. FINANCIAL COSTS OF RESETTLEMENT..27 11. RECOMMENDATIONS TO KEY STAKEHOLDERS...27 11.1 NGOs and CBOs...27 11.2 UNHCR, IOM, OPE...29 11.3 Resettlement Countries.30 11.4 Royal Thai Government.31 11.5 Donors ..31 11.6 All Stakeholders 31 12. APPENDICES .32 Appendix A: Resettlement Activity vs. Education Level ..32 Appendix B: Guidelines and Procedures for the Identification of Myanmar .35 Refugees for Resettlement Submission.35 Appendix C: Camp-based workers, Education Level, and Projected Resettlement .39 Appendix D: Camp-Specific Data ..42 Appendix E: Financial Costs of Resettlement 49 Appendix F: List of Stakeholders Interviewed 51
    Author/creator: DR. SUSAN BANKI AND DR. HAZEL LANG
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CCSDPT
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


    Title: Resettlement Handbook
    Date of publication: 01 November 2004
    Description/subject: Revised 2007...Resettlement: A Vital Instrument Of International Protection And An Element Of Comprehensive Solutions... Comprehensive Approach To Resolving Refugee Situations And Providing Appropriate Durable Solutions: 2.1 Voluntary Repatriation 2.2 Local Integration 2.3 Resettlement in the Context of other Durable Solutions Resettlement Processes Flowchart... Refugee Status and Resettlement: 3.1 General Considerations 3.2 Mandate Refugee Status as a Precondition 3.3 Convention Status and Mandate Status 3.4 Eligibility under the 1951 Convention and Regional Instruments 3.5 Prima Facie Eligibility 3.6 Continued Need for Protection 3.7 Exclusion of Persons Considered to Be Undeserving of international Protection... UNHCR Criteria for Determining Resettlement as the Appropriate Solution: 4.1 Basic Considerations 4.2 Legal and Physical Protection Needs 4.3 Survivors of Violence and Torture 4.4 Medical Needs 4.5 Women-at-Risk 4.6 Family Reunification 4.7 Children and Adolescents 4.8 Older Refugees 4.9 Refugees without Local Integration Prospects... Special Issues: 5.1 Stateless Persons 5.2 Returnees 5.3 Irregular, Secondary or Onward Movement 5.4 Stowaways 5.5 Criminal Records 5.6 Ex-combatants... Basic Procedures To Be Followed In Field Office Resettlement Operations: 6.1 Overview of Basic Resettlement Procedures 6.2 Standards, Accountability and Safeguards in the Resettlement Process 6.3 Case Identification 6.4 Case Assessment and Verification 6.5 Conducting Interviews 6.6 Preparation of a Resettlement Submission 6.7 UNHCR Submission Decision 6.8 State Decisions 6.9 Departure Arrangements and Monitoring... Group Resettlement: Expanding Resettlement Opportunities And Using Resettlement Strategically: 7.1 Purpose 7.2 Methodology 7.3 Tailored Approach... Resettlement Management In Field Offices: 8.1 Resettlement Management 8.2 File Management and Tracking 8.3 Co-ordinating and planning resettlement activities 8.4 Combating fraud in the resettlement process 8.5 Managing resettlement expectations within the refugee population 8.6 Coping with Stress... Resettlement Statistics And Data: 9.1 Resettlement Statistics... Partnership And Liaison: 10.1 Partnerships within the context of the Agenda for Protection and Convention Plus 10.2 Interagency Cooperation 10.3 Governments and Resettlement Operations 10.4 Non-Governmental Organizations 10.4 The Media... Training On Resettlement... Revised Country Chapters: Australia; Benin; Burkina Faso; Canada; Chile; Denmark; Finland; Iceland; Ireland; The Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Sweden; United States of America.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (2.07MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&query=Resettlement+Handbook&x=9&a...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Evaluation of the implementation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas
    Date of publication: December 2001
    Description/subject: (EPAU/2001/10)_ "UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEESEVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS UNIT"_ "UNHCR’s Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit (EPAU) is committed to the systematic examination and assessment of UNHCR policies, programmes, projects and practices. EPAU also promotes rigorous research on issues related to the work of UNHCR and encourages an active exchange of ideas and information between humanitarian practitioners, policymakers and the research community. All of these activities are undertaken with the purpose of strengthening UNHCR’s operational effectiveness, thereby enhancing the organization’s capacity to fulfil its mandate on behalf of refugees and other displaced people. The work of the unit is guided by the principles of transparency, independence, consultation and relevance....." CONTENTS: Introduction, Protection focus, Conceptual issues, Urban refugee profile, Self-reliance and solutions, Movement from camps, 'Irregular' movements, Refugees as partners, Annex: UNHCR's policy on refugees in urban areas.
    Author/creator: Naoko Obi and Jeff Crisp
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR_Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit
    Format/size: pdf (307.66 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&query=Evaluation+of+the+implementatio... (search result of Evaluation of the implementation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas)
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Evaluation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas: A case study review of Cairo
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: (EPAU/2001/07)_ UNHCR’s Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit (EPAU) is committed to the systematic examination and assessment of UNHCR policies, programmes, projects and practices. EPAU also promotes rigorous research on issues related to the work of UNHCR and encourages an active exchange of ideas and information between humanitarian practitioners, policymakers and the research community. All of these activities are undertaken with the purpose of strengthening UNHCR’s operational effectiveness, thereby enhancing the organization’s capacity to fulfil its mandate on behalf of refugees and other displaced people. The work of the unit is guided by the principles of transparency, independence, consultation and relevance....."
    Author/creator: Stefan Sperl
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit
    Format/size: pdf (670 K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Evaluation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas: A case study review of New Delhi
    Date of publication: November 2000
    Description/subject: Though the Chin refugees in Delhi are not mentioned, their legal situation is the same as that of the Afghan refugees who are the subject of this study.
    Author/creator: Naoko Obi and Jeff Crisp
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit
    Format/size: pdf (120K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&comid=4a2396946&cid=49aea93a6a&am...*
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Handbook on Voluntary Repatriation: International Protection
    Date of publication: 1996
    Description/subject: Chapter 1 - UNHCR's Mandate for Voluntary Repatriation: 1.1 The Statute; 1.2 The 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees; 1.3 General Assembly Resolutions; 1.4 UNHCR Executive Committee Conclusions; 1.5 Requests by the Secretary-General; 1.6 Summary of the Current UNHCR Mandate for Voluntary Repatriation... Chapter 2 - The Protection Content of Voluntary Repatriation: 2.1 International Human Rights Instruments and the Right to Return; 2.2 Cessation of Status and Fundamental Changes in the Country of Origin; 2.3 Voluntariness; 2.4 Ensuring Return in Safety and with Dignity; 2.5 Responsibilities of the Host Country; 2.6 Responsibilities of the Country of Origin... Chapter 3 - UNHCR's Role in Voluntary Repatriation Operations:; 3.1 Promotion of Solutions, Promotion of Repatriation, Facilitation 3.2 Profile of the Refugee Community and of the Country of Origin; 3.3 "Organized" and "Spontaneous" Repatriation: Being Prepared; 3.4 Cross-Border Coordination; 3.5 Communication in Repatriation Operations: Whom Do We Talk To?; 3.6 Repatriation Negotiations and Agreements; 3.7 New Arrivals; 3.8 Residual Caseload... Chapter 4 - Voluntariness: Practical Measures: 4.1 Establishing the Voluntary Character of Repatriation; 4.2 Information Campaigns; 4.3 Interviewing, Counselling and Registration; 4.4 Computerization... Chapter 5 - Repatriation in Complex Political Circumstances: 5.1 Repatriation During Conflict; 5.2 Repatriation as Part of a Political Settlement... Chapter 6 - UNHCR's Role in the Country of Origin: 6.1 UNHCR's Mandate for Returnee Monitoring; 6.2 Returnee Monitoring: Amnesties and Guarantees, Monitoring, Reporting, Intervening; 6.3 Internally Displaced Person; 6.4 Reintegration – the Anchor to Repatriation; 6.5 Landmines... Chapter 7 - Vulnerable Groups: 7.1 General Considerations; 7.2 Unaccompanied Children; 7.3 Tracing... Chapter 8 - Other Important Aspects: 8.1 Personal Belongings, Cash Holdings, Livestock, Pension Entitlements; 8.2 Health; 8.3 Education; 8.4 Security Considerations and Transport Arrangements; 8.5 Repatriation and Elections in the Country of Origin; 8.6 Repatriation of Individual Cases... Chapter 9 - Interagency and NGO Cooperation... Annex 1. Checklists... Annex 2. Executive Committee Conclusions 18 (XXXXI) and 40 (XXXVI).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (535 K) 96 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&query=Handbook+on+Voluntary+Repatriat...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR EXCOM of the UNHCR Executive Committee on Protection of Asylum Seekers in Situations of Large-Scale Influx, Conclusion No. 22 (XXXII), 1981
    Date of publication: 1981
    Description/subject: "The Executive Committee, Noting with appreciation the report of the Group of Experts on temporary refuge in situations of large-scale influx, which met in Geneva from 21-24 April 1981, adopted the following conclusions in regard to the protection of asylum seekers in situations of large-scale influx...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR via The Refugee Law Reader
    Format/size: pdf (53 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.en.refugeelawreader.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&lang=en&...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
    Description/subject: INTRODUCTION (By Guy S. Goodwin-Gill): "The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, with just one “amending” and updating Protocol adopted in 1967 (on which, see further below), is the central feature in today’s international regime of refugee protection, and some 144 States (out of a total United Nations membership of 192) have now ratified either one or both of these instruments (as of August 2008). The Convention, which entered into force in 1954, is by far the most widely ratified refugee treaty, and remains central also to the protection activities of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)...".....PROCEDURAL HISTORY...DOCUMENTS...STATUS
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: United Nations (Audiovisual History of International Law)
    Format/size: pdf (476K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3be01b964.html
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status
    Description/subject: "Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees" ..... FOREWORD: (I) Refugee status, on the universal level, is governed by the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. These two international legal instruments have been adopted within the framework of the United Nations. At the time of republishing this Handbook 110 states have become parties to the Convention or to the Protocol or to both instruments....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (676.29 K) 61 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=1BXl87H68tbTyRK-OgP6Wj...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


  • Groups working with/for refugees from Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: International Rescue Committee in Myanmar
    Description/subject: "In 2008, the International Rescue Committee launched aid programs in Myanmar (also known as Burma) following the devastation wrought by Cyclone Nargis. Today, the IRC provides health, water and sanitation, livelihoods and social development programs in some of the most remote areas of the country including Rakhine, Chin and Kayah states"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rescue Committee (IRC)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2009


    Title: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
    Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.msf.org/msf/content/content_home.cfm
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2008


    Title: TBC's camp population figures
    Description/subject: Figures back to December 1998
    Language: nglish
    Source/publisher: The Border Consortium (TBC)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


    Title: Thailand-Myanmar Cross Border Portal
    Description/subject: "The Information Management Common Service Portal is open to all humanitarian organizations as a way to help disseminate information that will assist refugees - in the nine Temporary Shelters located along Thailand’s border with Myanmar - in reaching freely informed decisions concerning their future lives, including the possibility of a voluntary return home. The information will be up-to-date and accurate, of a non-political and impartial nature concerning the socio-economic, human development and humanitarian activities taking place in southeast Myanmar."
    Language: Burmese, English, Karen
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 February 2014


    Title: The Border Consortium - TBC (formerly Thailand Burma Border Consortium - TBBC)
    Description/subject: Very useful site, well-structured, with lots of material on IDPs and refugees... "TBBC is a registered charity in England and Wales, a consortium of nine international NGOs from seven countries providing food, shelter and non food items to refugees and displaced people from Burma. TBBC also engages in research on the root causes of displacement and refugee outflows. Programmes are implemented in the field through refugees, community based organisations and local partners. With increased focus on a rights based approach, the organisation is committed to meeting international humanitarian best practices.. The organisation is based in Bangkok, Thailand with field offices in Mae Hong Son, Mae Sariang, Mae Sot and Sangklaburi. "
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: The Border Consortium -TBC (formerly the Thailand Burma Border Consortium - TBBC)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 July 2006


  • Refugees from Burma: general reports

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Refugee archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: AUSTCARE
    Description/subject: Works on the Bangladesh-Burma with the Rakhine as well as on the Thai-Burma border.
    Language: English
    Format/size: Search for Burma or Rakhaing
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch Asia page
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
    Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) - Myanmar page
    Description/subject: Highly recommended. Well-organised site. In "list of sources used" are most of the main reports from 1995 bearing on IDPs (though the reports from 1995 to 1997 are missing - temporarily, one hopes) and more Burma pages updated June 2001. Go to the home page for links on IDPs, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDMC
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.internal-displacement.org (Homepage)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Jesuit Refugee Service
    Format/size: Search the site for Burma reports
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Description/subject: The largest body of high-quality reports on the civil war in Burma, especially focussed on the civilian victims.
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/index.php
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees International Burma page
    Description/subject: One major report, several shorter articles. " The repressive government of Burma has caused hundreds of thousands of people, mainly members of minority ethnic groups, to flee to Thailand, Bangladesh and other countries in search of safety."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Refworld compilation of material on Burma/Myanmar
    Description/subject: Multiple sources...Despite the URL used here, users willl have to use the drop-down menu to access the Myanmar page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 December 2007


    Title: UNHCR country operations profile - Myanmar
    Description/subject: THE CONTEXT: "The political environment in Myanmar continues to be dominated by preparations for the 2010 elections, which will result in both constraints and opportunities for UNHCR's operations. There has been no significant change in the situation of Muslim residents of northern Rakhine State. However, in the lead-up to the 2010 elections, the Government has made some overtures to them, suggesting that their legal status may be improved and that restrictions on movement, marriage and other rights may be eased...." Reports, Statistics, Maps and other documents on Myanmar....the material changes by year so users who want a complete archive should download each year.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR: searches for Myanmar
    Description/subject: From the UNHCR Home page, Type "Myanmar" in the Search box and click. 256 hits (December 2001). Sort by date or relevance. You can limit the search to the specific areas in the left frame - News, Refugee protection, Partners, Publications, Executive Committee, Research/Evaluation, Administration. Go to the area xxxxx you want to search, type "Myanmar" in the search box, click on "Restrict to xxxxx" then click on Go. In addition, more Burma documents (most not accessed by the general search), can be found by going into Research/Evaluation, clicking on "Country of origin and legal information". Select "Myanmar" from the drop-down Country Index list. This takes you to the nearest thing the site has to a Burma/Myanmar page. There are 130 reports from various sources (US and Canadian Govts, human rights organisations, UN Special Rapporteur on Myanmar, UN Secretary-General, UNHCR docs etc.) back to 1990. Under Legal Information, this page also has the 1974 Constitution, the 1982 Citizenship Law and other citizenship-related legislation. There are also maps and news (25 stories, very little before 2001).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    Description/subject: UNHCR home page.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US Committee for Refugees
    Description/subject: Some reports and articles on Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 20: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: 23 November 2009
    Description/subject: "...Burma is one of the largest sources of refugees in the world. Most people leaving Burma have been displaced through the cumulative impact of various policies such as forced labour; extortion, land confiscation, and forced agricultural practices. Family incomes and food resources have been driven down until household economies have collapsed completely and people are left with no options for survival. Simultaneously, there have been many pull factors that have attracted migration. The governments of the four major host countries this chapter will discuss later have often used this notion when arguing for minimal support for refugees, for restrictions on employment and movement, when defending their decision to close the registration of new asylum seekers, or when arguing against the opening of a resettlement programme..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (1.13MB)
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


    Title: Burmese Refugee Transnationalism: What Is the Effect?
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Burmese refugees in Thailand maintain economic, social and political links with their country of origin, but these transnational activities are influenced by the politics and level of development of the country of origin and the host country. Through transnational activities, refugees can have a positive impact on the home country by contributing to peace-building and development or they can enhance conflict, as the discussion on community engagement and political transnationalism will illustrate. Clearly, the increased capacity and networks of the Burmese diaspora have bestowed it with a large (future) potential to influence peace-building, development and conflict. Therefore, it is argued here that the various civil, political and military groups in exile should be included in the peace-building process initiated by international actors, next to stakeholders inside the country."... Keywords: Burma/ Myanmar, Burmese refugees, transnationalism, diaspora conflict, development, peace-building.... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
    Author/creator: Inge Brees
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 23-46.
    Format/size: pdf (156K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: Contested Regimes, Aid Flows, and Refugee Flows: The Case of Burma
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "There is a substantial literature that critiques the role that international aid plays in lending support to oppressive and contested regimes. But few investigators have asked the inverse question: what happens when aid is withdrawn? Following government oppression in 1988, international aid to Burma decreased significantly, providing a case study enabling this question to be addressed. Using Burma as an example, this article asks: if the presence of aid has been shown to support oppressive and contested regimes, what is the impact when aid is withdrawn? The article reviews critiques of development and humanitarian aid and identifies three specific regime-reinforcing phenomena. It demonstrates that these have not diminished following the overall decrease of aid to Burma. The paper then addresses the related relationship between aid flows and refugee flows, and concludes with implications of the research."... Keywords: Burma, humanitarian aid, development aid, refugees.....ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
    Author/creator: Susan Banki
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 2/2009: 47-73
    Format/size: pdf (179K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: The “Everyday Politics” of IDP Protection in Karen State
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politicallyaverse intervention which marginalises local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the “everyday politics” of rural villagers. This article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritise a form of state-centric “neutrality” and marginalise the “everyday politics” through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights..."..... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
    Author/creator: Stephen Hull
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 7-21.
    Format/size: pdf (124K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: The Politics of Refugees in and outside Burma/Myanmar,
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Editorial, Marco Bünte: "Since gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1948, Burma has been faced with “the dilemma of national unity”.1 This dilemma has continued through all three successive periods of modern Burmese history: parliamentary democracy (1948-1962), military-socialist (one-party) rule (1962-1988) and renewed military rule under the SLORC/ SPDC regime (from 1988 to this day). What began with an armed insurrection by the Communist Party in March 1948 and with the rebellion of the Karen National Union in January 1949 ended in a protracted conflict in which nearly all the ethnic groups of Burma fought for some degree of autonomy or independence. Although the military government has signed ceasefire agreements with seventeen ethnic groups since 1989, the eastern part of Burma/ Myanmar is still plagued by low-intensity conflict and armed fighting. One consequence of these protracted conflicts is ongoing human rights abuses such as forced labour, political persecution and sexual abuse, with a huge number of refugees being created as a result. Since September 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) came to power, approximately one million Burmese nationals have fled to neighbouring states – either out of sheer economic necessity or for political reasons..."..... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
    Author/creator: Marco Bünte (ed)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 3-5.
    Format/size: pdf (74K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007: Chapter 17: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: Chapter Navigation Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances | Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment | Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions | Landmines | Forced Labour and Forced Conscription | Deprivation of Livelihood | Right to Health | Freedom of Belief and Religion | Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press | Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement | The Saffron Revolution – The 2007 Pro-Democracy Movement | Right to Education | Rights of the Child | Rights of Women | Ethnic Minority Rights | Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation | The Situation of Refugees | The Situation of Migrant Workers Chapter 17: The Situation of Refugees Download this chapter as PDF Right-click to download Section Navigation Introduction | Burmese Refugees in Thailand | Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh | Burmese Refugees in India | Burmese Refugees in Malaysia | Burmese Refugees in Other Locations | Endnotes 17.1 Introduction
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 17. Chapter 14: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: 25 June 2007
    Description/subject: Background: Burmese Refugees in Thailand: 2006 Demographics of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand ; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; Change of the Thai Government; Policy for Refugees in the Camps; Detained, Arrested and Deported Refugees; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Children in Refugee Camps; Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population; Timeline of Major Refugee-Related Events on the Thai-Burma Border in 2006... Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Rohingya Refugees in Nayapara and Kutupalong Refugee Camps; UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; Unofficial Rohingya Refugees; Arakanese Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese Refugees in Bangladeshi Prisons... Burmese Refugees in India: Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi; Chin Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Northeastern India; Crackdown on Chin Opposition Groups... Burmese Refugees in Malaysia... Burmese Refugees in Other Locations: Australia; Canada; Finland; Indonesia: Japan; South Korea; United States.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (443K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005 -- Chapter on refugees
    Date of publication: July 2006
    Description/subject: Covers Burmese refugees in Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and other countries.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (271K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "...According to the U.S. Committee for Refugees, more than 600,000 Burmese refugees and asylum seekers remained in countries neighboring Burma at the end of 2003. Driven out by the ruling military regime’s policies and practices that suppress their freedom and violate their human rights, refugees and asylum seekers have fled to countries including Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Refugees flee forced labor, forced relocation, torture, rape, and other human rights violations perpetrated by members of the Tatmadaw (armed forces) or other State sponsored individuals or organizations. As the SPDC continues to try and eliminate all armed and unarmed resistance, the military presence and involvement in every area of the country and all aspects of life continues to grow, forcing many to leave their homes fleeing to neighboring countries or to become displaced within Burma. There are an estimated one million internally displaced people in Burma who have the potential to become cross border refugees in times of increased military conflict. In Thailand, the U.S. Committee for Refugees reports a population of over 400,000 refugees, the majority of whom are from Karen, Karenni, Mon, and Shan ethnic groups. At the same time, there are more than one million migrant workers in Thailand who go there for many of the same reasons as refugees. A new trend is more ethnic Burmese leaving Burma from both urban and rural areas in family groups. They usually become migrant workers and leave Burma due to forced labor, heavy taxation, corruption, inability to maintain an adequate standard of living and interference with their livelihood through the theft or confiscation of land, property and livestock..."...Situation in Thailand: Refugee Demographics in 2003; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; The Provincial Admission Boards... Situation in the Camps; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Refugee Childre...Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population: Situation of Karen Refugees; Situation of Karenni Refugees; Situation of Mon Refugees; Situation of Pa-O Refugees; Situation of Shan Refugees...Timeline of Major Refugee Related Events on the Thai/Burma Border in 2003... Situation of Refugees in Bangladesh: UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; The Unofficial Rohingya Refugee Population; Situation of Rakhine Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese in Bangladeshi Prisons...Situation of Refugees in India; Situation of Chin Refugees in the Northeastern States of India; Situation of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi...Situation of Refugees in Malaysia...Refugees from Burma in Other Locations...Personal Accounts: Chin Refugee Testimony Regarding the Situation in Mizoram State, India; Account of A Karen Refugee in Thailand; Refugee Accounts of Forced Repatriation from Nayapara and Kutupalong Camps in Bangladesh.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: UNHCR: MYANMAR 2005 COUNTRY OPERATIONS PLAN - Executive Committee Summary
    Date of publication: 01 September 2004
    Description/subject: Refugee Repatriation from Thailand; Returnees and Vulnerable Groups in Northern Rakhine State; Promotion of Refugee Law; Myanmar refugees in India..... "(a) Context and Beneficiary Population (s): In a major administrative reorganisation in 2003, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) appointed a Prime Minister who subsequently presented a seven-point road map for a democratic transition in Myanmar. The first step in this process is the reconvening of the national convention to draft a new constitution for the country. The road map has been welcomed by the UN Secretary-General, who urged that it be implemented in an “all inclusive manner”. Most of the 17 armed ethnic groups who have reached a ceasefire agreement with the SPDC have had consultations with the new Prime Minister, and announced their willingness to join the national convention process. In an unprecedented development, the Kayin National Union (KNU), which has been engaged in active armed conflict with the regime in Myanmar for the past 50 years, reached a verbal ceasefire agreement with the SPDC in December 2003. At the time of writing, negotiations between the SPDC are ongoing. These discussions include the return of refugees in camps in Thailand....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (59.07 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&docid=4180edb64&query=MYANMAR%202...
    http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&query=MYANMAR+2005+COUNTRY+OPERATIONS...
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-2003: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: "According to the US Committee for Refugees, there are more than 450,000 Burmese refugees and asylum seekers in countries neighboring Burma. Driven out by the ruling military regimes unrelenting policies and practices that violate their human rights, refugees and aylum seekers have fled to Thailand, Bangladesh, India and Malaysia. The human rights abuses committed by the SPDC include forced relocations, rape, forced labor, torture, the confiscation of land and property, arbitrary arrest and lack of personal security. As the SPDC continues to try and eliminate all resistance forces, particularly in ethnic areas, they attempt to expand military control over the population through mass forced relocation programs. There are currently over 1 million internally displaced people who have the potential to become cross-border refugees in times of increased military conflict. In Thailand, there are over 144,000 refugees, the majority of whom are from Karen, Karenni, Mon, and Shan ethnic groups. At the same time, there are more than 1 million migrant workers in Thailand who flee to Thailand for many of the same reasons as refugees. A new trend is more ethnic Burmese leaving Burma from both urban and rural areas in family groups. They usually become migrant workers and leave Burma due to forced labor, heavy taxation, corruption, inability to maintain an adequate standard of living and interference with their livelihood through the theft or confiscation of land, property and livestock. In 1992 over 250,000 Rohingyas fled religious persecution in Arakan State to take refuge in Bangladesh. While most have been repatriated, there are still over 21,500 Rohingya refugees in the two remaining refugee camps as well as over 100,000 who are living and working among the Bangladeshi communities. Rohingyas have also fled to Malaysia while the refugee population in India consists mostly of Chin people. The Refugee Convention states that refugee protection rests on the principle of non-refoulement, which dictates that no refugee should be returned to any country where he or she is likely to face persecution on grounds of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group. This principle has been repeatedly violated by the governments of Bangladesh, India and Thailand, who continue to forcibly repatriate refugees back to areas where their safety cannot be guaranteed..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "...There are currently more than 135,000 refugees living in Thailand. Refugees from Burma are also in refugee camps along the Bangladeshi and Indian borders, as well as working and living in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Malaysia. The line between refugee and migrant is a thin one and there are also an estimated 1 million migrant workers living in Thailand who have fled from their homes for many of the same reasons that official refugees have. (The topic of migrant workers from Burma is covered in the next chapter) The majority of refugees living in Thailand are from the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Mon ethnic groups with migrant workers coming from all ethnic groups and all areas of Burma. The majority of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are Rohingya Muslims who face religious and ethnic persecution in their native Arakan State in western Burma. Many Rohingya refugees have been repatriated since 250,000 of them fled to the Coxs Bazaar District of Bangladesh in 1992 and there are currently 22,000 refugees remaining in the camps. Thousands of Rohingya refugees have also migrated or been trafficked to India and Pakistan where there are a number of Rohingya refugee women and girls who have been sold into prostitution..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: The Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "There are currently more than 120,000 refugees living in Thailand. Refugees from Burma are also in refugee camps along the Bangladeshi and Indian borders as well as working and living in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Malaysia. The line between refugee and migrant is a thin one and there are also an estimated 1 million migrant workers living in Thailand who have fled from their homes for many of the same reasons that official refugees have. (The topic of migrant workers from Burma is covered in the next chapter) The majority of refugees living in Thailand are from the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Mon ethnic groups with migrant workers coming from all ethnic groups and all areas of Burma. The majority of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are Rohingya Muslims who face religious and ethnic persecution in their native Arakan State in western Burma. Many Rohingya refugees have been repatriated since 250,000 of them fled to the Coxs Bazaar District of Bangladesh in 1992 and there are currently 22,000 refugees remaining in the camps. Thousands of Rohingya refugees have also migrated or been trafficked to India and Pakistan where there are a number of Rohingya refugee women and girls who have been sold into prostitution. Refugees flee Burma for a number of reasons, including large scale human rights abuses such as forced relocations, rape, forced labor, torture, the confiscation of land and property, arbitrary arrest and lack of personal security..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
    Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
    http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: "State of the World's Refugees, 2000"
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: "UNHCR's 50 years of humanitarian action". Though this report is a good introcution to refugee studies, it has rather few references to Burma. UNHCR in its wisdom has not given us the option of downloading the full text (thinking, perhaps, that 18MB or so would be indigestible), so we have to access it by individual chapters and therefore cannot do a full-document search. The chapters with the main Burma references (according to the index of the print version) are: Chapter 3 (mainly Box 3.3,"The plight of the Rohingyas"); another reference to the Rohingyas in Chapter 8 (Box 8.1, "Statelessness and disputed citizenship"). Chapter 9 (Box 9.1) refers to IDPs in Burma; The report contains: Preface by the UN Secretary-General; Foreword by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; Introduction. The chapters are: 1 The early years; 2 Decolonisation in Africa; 3 Rupture in South Asia; 4 Flight from Indochina; 5 Proxy wars in Africa, Asia and Central America; 6 Repatriation and peacebuilding in the early 1990s; 7 Asylum in the industrialized world; 8 Displacement in the former Soviet region; 9 War and humanitarian action : Iraq and the Balkans; 10 The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath; 11 The changing dynamics of displacement. There are useful tables in the Annexes and a good bibliography under Further Reading.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: PDF (individual chapters up to 1700K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000 (contents)
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Contains some sections on Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Bangladesh at a glance
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Maps, photos, tables, text. Main Objectives and Activities: "Facilitate voluntary repatriation to Myanmar of those refugees who are willing and cleared to return; promote and initiate activities fostering self-reliance for refugees unable or unwilling to return in the near future, pending a lasting solution; co-ordinate and ensure protection and basic services for the refugees, paying special attention to women and children....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (220K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/WorldReport-Bang.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Thailand at a glance
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: "Main Objectives and Activities: Ensure that the fundamentals of international protection, particularly the principles of asylum and nonrefoulement, are respected and effectively implemented; ensure that refugee populations at the Thai- Myanmar border are safe from armed incursions, that the civilian character of refugee camps is maintained and that their protection and assistance needs are adequately met; promptly identify and protect individual asylum-seekers; promote the development of national refugee legislation and status determination procedures consistent with international standards. ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/27437918/UNHCR-Global-Report-2000
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: "The State of the World's Refugees 1997-98: A Humanitarian Agenda" (Full Text)
    Date of publication: 1998
    Description/subject: Chapter Headings: 1 Safeguarding human security; 2 Defending refugee rights; 3 Internal conflict and displacement; 4 Return and reintegration; 5 The asylum dilemma; 6 Statelessness and citizenship; Conclusion - An agenda for action. Some references to the Rohingyas.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?catno=109648&set=4C098182_1_112&gp=0&lin=1&a...
    http://web.archive.org/web/20000510062155/http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/97/toc.htm
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 14 - Situation of Refugees
    Date of publication: September 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html (51K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 15 - Forced Repatriation
    Date of publication: September 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html (55K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: "During the past few years, the world has witnessed a succession of massive refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian organizations are struggling to keep pace with the demands of each new exodus, while governments around the world are becoming increasingly reluctant to offer refuge to these victims of violence. This book examines the origins of the current crisis and provides a comprehensive account of the way in which approaches to the problem of human displacement have changed since the end of the Cold War. While the right of asylum must be scrupulously maintained, the book argues, greater efforts must also be made to tackle refugee problems at their source, by restoring peace and prosperity to countries where large numbers of people have been forced to abandon their homes. And to achieve this objective, concerted international action will be required to protect human rights, establish effective peacekeeping operations, promote sustainable development and manage migratory movements....." * Preliminaries: Table of Contents, Preface and Foreword * Introduction: Searching for Solutions * Chapter 1: Changing Approaches to the Refugee Problem * Chapter 2: Protecting Human Rights * Chapter 3: Keeping the Peace * Chapter 4: Promoting Development * Chapter 5: Managing Migration * Conclusion: Investing in the Future * Bibliography * Annexes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (783.56 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/3eedd8db4.pdf
    http://web.archive.org/web/20010818155036/http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/95/contents.htm
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: State of the World's Refugees 1993: The Challenge of Protection
    Date of publication: 1993
    Description/subject: "By 1993, 18.2 million men, women, and children across the world had left their homelands to escape persecution and violence. An average of 10,000 refugees a day were forced to flee the year before, as new upheavals forced out new victims. At least another 24 million were displaced within their own countries. Yet despite these staggering numbers and the backlash they have provoked in overburdened countries of asylum, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees believes there is a solution to the international refugee crisis. This important book illuminates the problems and their causes with informed analysis, detailed charts, and discussions of policy alternatives. It voices an urgent plea that doors be kept open for those in need of asylum. It is also an eloquent appeal for early intervention by the international community, whose peacemaking efforts could prevent further crises before they start, and could enable millions of refugees to return safely to their homes once again....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20010818155036/www.unhcr.ch/refworld/refworld/refpub/refpub.htm
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


  • The Burmese diaspora

    • Third country resettlement of refugees from Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Process and Prospects for Resettlement of Displaced Persons on the Thai-Myanmar Border
      Date of publication: July 2011
      Description/subject: Sustainable Solutions to the Displaced Person Situation On the Thai-Myanmar Border.....Conclusion: Resettlement operations within the shelters in Thailand have now been ongoing continuously for more than 5 years with over 64,000 departures completed as of the end of 2010. However, despite the large investment of financial and human resources in this effort, the displacement situation appears not to have diminished significantly in scale as of yet. While no stakeholders involved with the situation in Thailand are currently calling for an end to resettlement activities, there has been little agreement about what role resettlement actually x serves in long-term solutions for the situation. For the most part, the program has been implemented thus far in a reflexive manner rather than as a truly responsive and solutions-oriented strategy, based primarily upon the parameters established by the policies of resettlement nations and the RTG rather than the needs of the displaced persons within the shelters. Looking towards the future, it appears highly unlikely that resettlement can resolve the displaced person situation in the border shelters as a lone durable solution and almost certainly not if the status quo registration policies and procedures of the RTG are maintained. All stakeholders involved with trying to address the situation are currently stuck with the impractical approach of attempting to resolve a protracted state of conflict and human rights abuses within Myanmar without effective means for engaging with the situation in-country. Neither stemming the tide of new displacement flows nor establishing conditions that would allow for an eventual safe return appear feasible at this time. Within the limitations of this strategy framework, a greater level of cooperation between resettlement countries, international organizations, and the RTG to support a higher quantity of departures for resettlement through addressing the policy constraints and personal capacity restrictions to participation appears a desirable option and might allow for resettlement to begin to have a more significant impact on reducing the scale of displacement within Thailand. However, realistically this would still be unlikely to resolve the situation as a whole if not conducted in combination with more actualized forms of local integration within Thailand and within the context of reduced displacement flows into the shelters. The overall conclusion reached about resettlement is that it continues to play a meaningful palliative, protective, and durable solution role within the shelters in Thailand. While it is necessary for resettlement to remain a carefully targeted program, the stakeholders involved should consider expanding resettlement to allow participation of legitimate asylum seekers within the shelters who are currently restricted from applying because of the lack of a timely status determination process. Allowing higher levels of participation in resettlement through addressing this policy constraint, as well as some of the more personal constraints that prevent some families within the shelters from moving on with their lives, would be a positive development in terms of providing durable solutions to the situation. In conjunction with greater opportunities for local integration and livelihood options for those who cannot or do not wish to participate in resettlement, the program should be expanded to make the option of an alternative to indefinite encampment within the shelters in Thailand available to a larger group of eligible displaced persons..."
      Author/creator: Ben Harkins, Nawita Direkwut, and Aungkana Kamonpetch
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
      Format/size: pdf (1.54MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Resettlement_Study_Final_Report.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


      Title: Searching for home: Explorations in new media and the Burmese diaspora in New Zealand
      Date of publication: 20 May 2011
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This study examines the place of new media in the maintance of Burmese diasporic identities. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study uses tapoetetha-kot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to explore aspects of new media use and identity among a group of Burmese refugees in Auckland, New Zealand. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. Participants in this project try to maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports this, by providing participants with access to opposition news reports of human rights abuses and suffering; through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible, and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."... Keywords: Burma, Karen, refugee, diaspora, indigenous, political activism, new media, tapotaethakot VIOLET CHO
      Author/creator: Violet Cho
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: PACIFIC JOURNALISM REVIEW 17 (1) 2011
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


      Title: New media and Burmese diaspora identities in New Zealand
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: Abstract: "This study examines ways in which Burmese diasporic identities are formed and maintained, and the importance of new media in this process. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study used tapoetethakot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to interact with fourteen participants in Auckland, exploring aspects of new media use and identity maintenance. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. This suffering is an important part of refugee identity and is also linked with resistance against assimilation in New Zealand. Instead, participants try and maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports these processes, by providing participants with access to opposition media reports of human rights abuses and suffering, through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."
      Author/creator: Naw Violet Cho
      Language: English (main text); Interviews (English, Karen, Burmese)
      Source/publisher: School of Communication Studies Auckland University of Technology
      Format/size: pdf (582K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 January 2011


      Title: A Fresh Start
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Resettlement program offers thousands the chance of a new life in the West... "Nowadays, we don’t greet people any more with ‘How are you?’” said Tun Tun, 40-year-old secretary of the committee administering Mae La refugee camp in Thailand’s Tak Province. “We say, ‘When is your resettlement interview?’” Third-country resettlement is a major topic of discussion among the residents not only of Mae La but of the other eight camps strung out along Thailand’s eastern border with Burma. With hopes of returning in the foreseeable future to their shattered villages at an all-time low, resettlement in the West offers refugees their only realistic chance of leaving the camps and leading normal lives again..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=16909
      Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


      Title: The Battle’s Not Over
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "Scarred and disillusioned—A Burmese Army vet continues to fight on a different front... IN June 2008, 46-year-old Myo Myint walked through the gates of Umpiem refugee camp on the Thai-Burmese border, travelled to Bangkok airport and boarded an aircraft for the first time in his life, for a journey of 19,000 km (12,000 miles) to the United States. Many hours later, on a humid Indiana evening, he embraced a brother he hadn’t seen in almost 20 years. The emotional reunion marked the end of one chapter in an extraordinary life and the beginning of a new one. For Myo Myint is no ordinary refugee. Multimedia (View) As a young man, he joined the Burmese army, witnessing appalling atrocities and losing an arm and a leg in battle. In 1988, he became an activist, appealing to his former comrades to join hands with those calling for peaceful democratic change. He was arrested, tortured and imprisoned for 15 years for his participation in the popular uprising..."
      Author/creator: Nic Dunlop
      Language: English (Burmese subtitles)
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


      Title: Difficult to remain: the impact of mass resettlement
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: In a context where the durable solutions of repatriation and local integration are not available, resettlement has become increasingly attractive.
      Author/creator: Susan Banki and Hazel Lang
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 417K; Burmese, 187K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/42-44.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: Karen voices on resettlement
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: With little support and often under threat, members of the Karen Women’s Organisation have conducted research, provided programmes and support, and challenged the wisdom of international NGOs and UNHCR...In 2005 the Royal Thai Government eased restrictions and allowed resettlement from the camps on the Thai- Burmese border to countries in the West. The impact of resettlement in the camps has been of great concern to the Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO)1 for several years. They want the voices of the refugees, in particular refugee women, and of their community-based organisations to be heard in discussions on the provision of durable solutions. Sadly, refugee women have to scream to be heard whispering.
      Author/creator: The Karen Women’s Organisation, with Sarah Fuller and Eileen Pittaway
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 387K; Burmese, 182K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/45-46.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: To Sheffield with love
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: Some 174 refugees from the Thai-Burma border have been resettled in Sheffield in the UK between May 2005 and September 2007. Better preparation and more practical assistance could have eased their integration into British society.
      Author/creator: Patricia Hynes and Yin Mon Thu
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 481K; Burmese, 268K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/49-51.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: Where Are They Now?
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Correspondent Anne Fletcher meets former activists of the 88 Generation who made new lives o­n the other side of the world... "The menacing group of five soldiers emerged from Rangoon’s city hall, knelt down and aimed their guns at the protesters. Tin Maung Htoo, a 16-year-old high school student, sat tight, linking arms with others in the front row. The first shots Tin Maung Htoo heard, however, sounded like machine gun fire from armored cars sweeping round both sides of the Sule Pagoda o­n that August night, 19 years ago. Then the soldiers facing Tin Maung Htoo and his companions opened fire, the bullets from their guns hitting the ground, ricocheting up and striking home. “Some students started running and then falling o­n o­ne another,” Tin Maung Htoo recalls. “I also ran and ran and ran.” Among the protesters who had massed in Rangoon streets the whole day was 21-year-old Toe Kyi. By 10:30 p.m. that night, sensing a terrible climax to come, the leader of his 100-strong group asked him to take half the young demonstrators back to safety in Sanchaung Township. One protester, Ko Naing, was doubly wary of the danger. Jailed for seven days after taking part in a march near Inya Lake o­n March 16—also violently broken up by government forces—he left the City Hall area about 5 p.m. to escort a group of teenagers home to Hlaing Township. Both Toe Kyi and Ko Naing, then 24, were in the crowd o­n Prome Road the following month, o­n September 19, when again the military fired o­n protesters. Those demonstrations were followed by the coup that brought the present regime to power. Today, after claiming UN refugee status in Thailand, all three men have built new lives in Canada, a country free but very foreign to those who grew up in the tropical time warp of pre-1988 Burma..."
      Author/creator: Anne Fletcher
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: A Little Burma in Fort Wayne
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Burmese residents of a US city still find it hard to escape the politics of their homeland... "Than Myint arrived in the “land of opportunities” as a refugee nine years ago, together with her husband and children. A native of Rangoon, Than Myint now lives in Fort Wayne, a city of some 200,000 people in the US state of Indiana. Now in her late 50s, she has learned how to survive and lead a satisfactory life in the US—the kind of existence she would never have been able to enjoy in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Lalit K Jha
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Off to a New Life
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: More than 10,000 Burmese migrants in Thailand’s Mae La refugee camp could soon be resettled in the US... "It could be a scene from a travel trade show—a crowd of mostly young people clusters in front of poster boards bearing pictures of life in the US. These are no tourists, however, but Burmese refugees in Thailand hoping to resettle in the US and eager for any illustration of what they can expect to find there..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Rolling the Dice for Freedom
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Short-term troubles for Burmese winners of the US ‘green card lottery’ cannot dampen their hopes for a better life for their children... "...For Burmese who have won the US government’s “freedom jackpot,” the process has been arduous and subject to abuse, and adjusting to life in the US o­nce they have arrived has for some proven to be no easy task. Their troubles begin with the application process. Candidates for the program must submit their applications electronically, and while Internet access has increased in Burma in recent years, it is not widespread. Candidates from Burma also struggle with the format of the application and the required familiarity with written English. This has led to a proliferation of “middle men” who offer their services to potential applicants, but for a substantial fee..."
      Author/creator: Aung Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Welcome to Texas
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Karen migrants find life in America has its downside... "When members of the Thai community in the US are asked to help resettle newly arrived Karen refugees from the Thai-Burmese border, old clichés surface. “Are these people members of the God’s Army?” ask some. Others recall headline-grabbing incidents like the murder of a Thai woman by her Burmese maid. Many Americans share this prejudiced view of the Karen arrivals, believing they have no idea of civilized bathroom or kitchen hygiene. Some are surprised that the Karen actually wear shoes..."
      Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      Title: Westward Bound
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: As thousands of Karen wait in resettlement camps, others already settled in foreign lands discover new challenges to their future... Heh Nay Thaw has lived in refugee camps in Thailand for nearly a quarter-century since he crossed the border from Burma with his family at age five. He is now 29, with a wife and two children, and the long years of waiting for a permanent home may soon be over. Like many of his fellow Karen, Heh Nay Thaw gave up hope that he could ever return to Karen State and applied for resettlement outside Asia—possibly in the US. “There is nothing here to improve our life,” said Heh Nay Thaw at the Mae La camp in Thailand’s Tak Province. “That’s why our family decided if the [resettlement] door is open for us, we will go to escape from this terrible compound.”..."
      Author/creator: Shan Paung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


  • Anthropological literature on refugees and migrants

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Anthropological literature on refugees and migrants
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 December 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Creating Non-State Spaces: Interfaces of Humanitarianism and Self-Government of Karen-Refugee Migrants in Thai Burmese Border Spaces
    Date of publication: October 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper examines the interfaces of local community based humanitarian organizations with displaced Karen people in Thai-Burmese border spaces and their claims for cultural rights. It argues that Karen people have to organize themselves in a context where they do not have access to social welfare of the state and in which the state is hostile and oppressive to them. Applying Merry’s thesis on the localization and vernacularization of international rights frameworks in the local context, the paper explores the context of power in which different humanitarian actors intervention in the local conflict zone. The author finds that Karen displaced people have differentiated access to humanitarian assistance and that powerful organizations like the Karen National Union are able to benefit while essentializing Karen culture and suppressing internal difference among the Karen to position itself towards the international donor community, thereby becoming “liked” or “preferred” refugees. The paper then also looks at secular and faith-based local humanitarian groups and finds that these groups are deeply embedded in local society and thus able to help effectively. Karen displaced people thus create non-state spaces in border spaces by establishing partnerships with local humanitarian organizations that act as brokers and mediators of international organizations and donors."
    Author/creator: Alexander Horstmann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religioius and Ethnic Diversity
    Format/size: pdf (940K-OBL version; 2MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mmg.mpg.de/publications/working-papers/2012/wp-12-17/
    www.mmg.mpg.de/workingpapers
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


    Title: Searching for home: Explorations in new media and the Burmese diaspora in New Zealand
    Date of publication: 20 May 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This study examines the place of new media in the maintance of Burmese diasporic identities. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study uses tapoetetha-kot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to explore aspects of new media use and identity among a group of Burmese refugees in Auckland, New Zealand. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. Participants in this project try to maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports this, by providing participants with access to opposition news reports of human rights abuses and suffering; through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible, and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."... Keywords: Burma, Karen, refugee, diaspora, indigenous, political activism, new media, tapotaethakot VIOLET CHO
    Author/creator: Violet Cho
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PACIFIC JOURNALISM REVIEW 17 (1) 2011
    Format/size: pdf (85K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: New media and Burmese diaspora identities in New Zealand
    Date of publication: November 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This study examines ways in which Burmese diasporic identities are formed and maintained, and the importance of new media in this process. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study used tapoetethakot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to interact with fourteen participants in Auckland, exploring aspects of new media use and identity maintenance. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. This suffering is an important part of refugee identity and is also linked with resistance against assimilation in New Zealand. Instead, participants try and maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports these processes, by providing participants with access to opposition media reports of human rights abuses and suffering, through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."
    Author/creator: Naw Violet Cho
    Language: English (main text); Interviews (English, Karen, Burmese)
    Source/publisher: School of Communication Studies Auckland University of Technology
    Format/size: pdf (582K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 January 2011


  • Burmese refugees: discussion groups

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burmarefugees
    Description/subject: Discussion and alerts concerning refugees from Burma. Hundreds of thousands of refugees are being driven into neighboring Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and China. Discuss the most needed aid and the best way to provide it. What's the UNHCR doing? What's the latest policy of the Thai govt? Want to change it? Visiting Thailand soon? Ask these folks what to take and how to help.
    Language: English
    Subscribe: burmarefugees-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
    Alternate URLs: For more information: http://freeburma.org
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burmese refugees in Bangladesh

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Kaladan News website - news archive
    Date of publication: 20 December 2010
    Description/subject: Many stories about the Rohingya back to January 2006
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kaladan Press Network
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=83&Itemid=41">http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=83&Itemid=...
    http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: "Bangladesh" from drop-down menu in Refworld
    Description/subject: * Country Information (997)... * Legal Information (94)... * Policy Documents (8)... * Reference Documents (7).....The Legal Information includes case law and refugee appeals, which may be useful for those preparing asylum cases.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2009


    Title: "Myanmar" from drop-down menu on Refworld
    Description/subject: * Country Information (527)... * Legal Information (65)... * Policy Documents (8)... * Reference Documents (16)....The legal Information includes refugee and case law as well as national legislation relating to refugees. The case law will be very useful for people bringing asylum cases.
    Language: English, French
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: "Thailand" from drop-down menu on Refworld
    Description/subject: [Holdings, January 2009]: * Country Information (355)... * Legal Information (26)... * Policy Documents (3)... * Reference Documents (10)...... [Holdings, September 2012]: *Country Information (757) *Legal Information (36) *Policy Documents (5) *Reference Documents (37)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
    Description/subject: "According to the 1947 Constitution, a group of people who entered Burma before 1825 and settled in a defined territory are also indigenous race of Burma. This clause was especially written for Rohingya people, said Dr. Aye Maung, one of the author of the 1947 constitution. Accordingly U Nu government recognized Rohingya as an indigenous race of Burma..." Keywords: Islam, Muslim, stateless. Big, flashy site with lots of content.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Kaladan News -- Online Burma Library archive 2002-2005
    Description/subject: Many stories on the Rohingya
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kaladan Press Network
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


    Title: MSF's reports and press releases on refugees in Bangladesh
    Description/subject: Mainly the Rohingyas
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Refugees International Bangladesh page
    Description/subject: Useful, well-designed page, with background, summaries of the political and humanitarian situation, refugee voices etc., with reports stragely headed "policy recommendations"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


    Title: Refugees International Burma page
    Description/subject: Useful, well-designed page, with background, reports, advocacy letters, congressional testimony and the shorter reports under the heading of "Policy Recommendations"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


    Title: Search results for "Bangladesh" on Refworld
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Search results for "Rohingya" on Refworld
    Language: English, French
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Individual Documents

    Title: Rohingyas: Asylum seekers, not infiltrators
    Date of publication: 26 June 2012
    Description/subject: "The Rohingya issue has received a fair degree of media coverage over the last few weeks. Admittedly, voices in favour of granting admission were far outweighed by those sharing the government's position of denying admission. While the former based their case on moral and legal grounds, the latter's case has been shaped by, what one may say, misguided notion of state interest and unsound understanding of the international human rights and refugee laws. Politicians, pundits and policy makers belonging to the latter group have put several reasons in justifying their position. This brief essay will examine the efficacy of their reasoning..."
    Author/creator: C.R. Abrar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Daily Star" (Bangladesh)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


    Title: Opening doors to Rohingyas: duty, not charity
    Date of publication: 20 June 2012
    Description/subject: "The current Rohingya crisis has once again underscored the need for the country to frame a national law for refugees. Such a law would lay down basic principles of refugee treatment and set up necessary administrative structures to deal with situations such as the Rohingya inflow. If proper procedures were in place the government’s reaction would not have been as reactive as it has been, writes CR Abrar..."
    Author/creator: CR Abrar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Age (Bangladesh)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


    Title: Bangladesh: The Silent Crisis
    Date of publication: 19 April 2011
    Description/subject: Introduction: "The Rohingya ethnic minority of Burma are trapped between severe repression in their homeland and abuse in neighboring countries. Bangladesh has hosted hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas fleeing persecution for more than three decades, but at least 200,000 Rohingya refugees have no legal rights there. They live in squalor, receive very limited aid and are subject to arrest, extortion and detention. Unregistered refugee women and girls are particularly vulnerable to sexual and physical attacks. The international community must urge the Bangladeshi government to register undocumented refugees and improve protection for all vulnerable Rohingyas. Donor governments must also work to restart and increase resettlement of refugees to a third country and increase assistance for communities hosting refugees."
    Author/creator: Lynn Yoshikawa and Melanie Teff
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html, pdf (NOT WORKING)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/sites/default/files/041911_Bangladesh_The_Silent.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2011


    Title: Refugees from Rakhine State, Myanmar in Bangladesh
    Date of publication: 20 December 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugee Nutrition Information System (RNIS)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unsystem.org/SCN/archives/rnis29/begin.htm#Contents
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: The Unwelcoming Committee
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: Resentment of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh is giving rise to highly organized and increasingly vocal resistance to their presence... "Sitting on a dusty balcony outside the local district office in Ukhia in southern Bangladesh, a group of smartly dressed men take turns speaking their mind. One man, taller than the average Bangladeshi, stands up. Throwing his fist in the air, he states the group’s objective. Rohingya children in Bangladesh face a bleak future. (Photo: Yuzo/ The Irrawaddy) “Those bloody naughty people, they destroy the environment, upset local law and order and sell drugs,” he says. “They must all go back to Burma.” The rest of the group nod their heads and wave their hands to compete for the next opportunity to speak. Two things have brought this group of men together: grievances against Rohingya refugees who have settled in the area, and their powerful positions in the local community. Together they have formed the Anti-Rohingya Resistance Committee, which has taken on the role of pressuring the government to repatriate Rohingya refugees to Burma. Despite their dedication to their cause, however, their goal remains highly ambitious and controversial. Citing religious oppression in Burma, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees have fled to Bangladesh over the last three decades to seek asylum. Several times the Burmese government has made major pushes to flush the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority, out of Burma’s Arakan State—the last one being in 1992..."
    Author/creator: Alex Allgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


    Title: STATELESS and STARVING - Persecuted Rohingya Flee Burma and Starve in Bangladesh
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In recent months Bangladeshi authorities have waged an unprecedented campaign of arbitrary arrest, illegal expulsion, and forced internment against Burmese refugees. In this emergency report Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) presents new data and documents dire conditions for these persecuted Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. PHR’s medical investigators warn that critical levels of acute malnutrition and a surging camp population without access to food aid will cause more deaths from starvation and disease if the humanitarian crisis is not addressed... Methods: The plight of the Burmese refugees in Bangladesh came to PHR’s attention while its researchers were conducting a quantitative study in the region on health and human rights in Burma. This emergency report is based on a sample of 100 unregistered refugee households at the Kutupalong makeshift camp in southeastern Bangladesh as well as in-depth interviews with 25 refugees and 30 other key informants throughout the region. Richard Sollom MA MPH, PHR’s Director of Research and Investigations, and Parveen Parmar MD, emergency physician at Harvard University’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital, conducted the eight-day assessment from 8-16 February 2010. Both team members have considerable experience working in refugee populations throughout the world and describe the conditions for unregistered Burmese in Bangladesh as alarming... Arbitrary arrest and forced expulsion of refugees by Bangladesh: The Burmese refugee population in Bangladesh is estimated at 200,000 to 400,000. The Government of Bangladesh and the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) jointly administer two “official” camps with a combined population of just 28,000 registered refugees. The remaining unregistered refugees are currently not protected by UNHCR because they arrived after 1993 when the Bangladesh government ceased conferring refugee status to any Rohingya fleeing Burma. In an apparent attempt to dissuade the influx of any further refugees fleeing anticipated repression prior to elections in Burma later this year, Bangladesh police and border security forces are now systematically rounding up, jailing or summarily expelling these unregistered refugees across the Burmese border in flagrant violation of the country’s human rights obligations. Although Bangladesh has not acceded to the UN refugee convention, it is minimally obligated to protect this vulnerable population against refoulement (forced deportation across the border)... Makeshift camp is “open-air prison”: Arbitrary arrest and expulsion by Bangladeshi authorities have acutely restricted all movement out of the unofficial camp, effectively quarantining tens of thousands of refugees in what one experienced humanitarian called “an open-air prison.” Because refugees fear leaving the camp, they are no longer able to find work to buy food. This confinement, coupled with the Bangladeshi government’s refusal to allow unregistered refugees access to food aid, presents an untenable situation: refugees are being left to die from starvation... Refugee children facing starvation and disease: Tens of thousands of unregistered Burmese refugees in the burgeoning camp in Bangladesh have no access to food aid. Physicians for Human Rights researchers observed children in the unofficial camp who were markedly thin with protruding ribs, loose skin on their buttocks, and wizened faces – all signs of severe protein malnutrition. The PHR team also came across many children who appeared to have kwashiorkor, as evidenced by swollen limbs and often distended abdomens. One out of five children with acute malnutrition, if not treated, will die. Results from the PHR household survey reveal that 18.2% of children examined suffer from acute malnutrition. In emergency settings, acute malnutrition is traditionally measured among children age 6–59 months. High rates of malnutrition in this age group correspond with high rates in the population as a whole. Child malnutrition levels that exceed 15% are considered “critical” by the World Health Organization (WHO), which recommends in such crises that adequate food aid be delivered to the entire population to avoid high numbers of preventable deaths. In addition, PHR received numerous testimonies from families who had not eaten in two or more days. As a coping mechanism, many refugees are now forced to borrow food or money to feed their families. Results from the PHR survey show that 82% of households had borrowed food within the past 30 days, and 91% of households had borrowed money – often with exorbitant interest rates – within the previous 30 days. Walking through the Kutupalong camp, PHR investigators saw stagnant raw sewage next to refugees’ makeshift dwellings. Human excrement and open sewers were visible throughout the camp. Results of the PHR survey show that 55% of children between 6–59 months suffered from diarrhea in the previous 30 days. Such inhuman conditions presage a public health disaster... Obstruction of humanitarian relief: PHR received reports of Bangladeshi authorities’ actively obstructing the little amount of international humanitarian relief that reaches this population. Corroborating eyewitnesses report that a Bangladeshi Member of Parliament recently Persecuted Rohingya Flee Burma and Starve in Bangladesh rounded up four national staff of an international humanitarian organization, tied them to a tree, and beat them for providing aid to the Rohingya refugees. This environment of regular harassment by Bangladeshi authorities severely impairs the ability of NGOs to provide assistance to unregistered refugees. The UK-based organization Islamic Relief ceased its humanitarian operations in one camp on 28 February 2010 because the Bangladeshi government refused to approve the group’s humanitarian activities that benefit these refugees... Bangladeshi hate propaganda and incitement against Rohingya refugees: The Bangladeshi government’s ongoing crackdown against Rohingya refugees appears to be coordinated among local authorities, police, border security forces, and the ruling political elite. Bangladeshis near the southern coastal town of Cox’s Bazar have formed Rohingya “resistance committees” that demand the expulsion from Bangladesh of the Rohingya. Bangladeshi authorities threaten villagers with arrest if they do not turn in their Rohingya neighbors. Local media disseminate ominous anti-Rohingya propaganda in editorials and opinion pieces, all of which incite xenophobic antagonism among local inhabitants... Background to the refugee crisis: Burma’s de facto president, Senior General Than Shwe, seized power 20 years ago while promising free and fair elections in 1990. That year, the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) defeated the military-backed State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), garnering 59% of the vote and 80% of the seats in the People’s Assembly. SLORC dismissed the results, and subsequently detained NLD’s Prime Minister-elect Aung San Suu Kyi, who is currently under house arrest. To fend off risk of a second defeat at the polls in late 2010, the Burmese military regime has stepped-up militarization and abuses against all ethnic minorities, who represent nearly 40% of Burma’s total population of 50 million. Than Shwe’s Tatmadaw military has locked up 2,200 political prisoners, destroyed more than 3,200 villages, and forced millions to flee, ensuring that opposition parties cannot organize prior to upcoming elections. Burmese ethnic minorities, including the Rohingya, continue to flee, seeking refuge in neighboring countries. An additional 8,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh in 2009. The Rohingya have a well-founded fear of persecution if forcibly returned to Burma. During the past five decades of continuous military rule, ethnic and religious minorities in Burma have suffered from systematic and widespread human rights violations including summary executions, torture, statesanctioned- rape, forced labor, and the recruitment of child soldiers. These acts of persecution by the military regime have resulted in up to two million ethnic minorities fleeing Burma..,."
    Author/creator: Richard Sollom MA MPH
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 09 March 2010


    Title: Bangladesh: Violent Crackdown Fuels Humanitarian Crisis for Unrecognized Rohingya Refugees
    Date of publication: 18 February 2010
    Description/subject: Summary Stateless Rohingya people in Bangladesh are currently victims to unprecedented levels of violence and attempts at forced repatriation. Recent weeks have seen thousands of people arrive at Kutupalong makeshift camp as they flee what appears to be a violent crackdown on the Rohingya presence in the country. At its clinic in Kutupalong, in Cox’s Bazar District in the south of the country, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has treated victims of beatings and harassment by the authorities and members of the community. The victims are people who have been driven from their shelters throughout the district and in some cases forced back into the river which forms the border to neighboring Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medecian Sans Frontieres Doctors Wothout Borders
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Unregistered Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh: Crackdown, forced displacement and hunger
    Date of publication: 15 February 2010
    Description/subject: "An unprecedented crackdown by Bangladesh law enforcement agencies against unregistered Rohingya refugees who had settled outside the two official refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar District started on 2 January 2010. More than 500 Rohingyas were subsequently arrested in January and the crackdown continues. Some of those arrested were pushed back across the Burmese border and others were charged under immigration legislation and sent to jail. In parallel to the roundups, there is a resurgence of anti-Rohingya movements among the local population and of anti-Rohingya propaganda in the local media fuelling xenophobia and pressing the government to take action against the Rohingya. A similar campaign started earlier in 2009 in Bandarban District and is still ongoing. Over the last few weeks, fearing arrest, harassment or facing expulsion, more than 5,000 self-settled Rohingya have already fled their homes and most flocked to the Kutupalong makeshift camp in Ukhia in search of safety. The makeshift camp population is now estimated to have swelled to over 30,000. Forced displacement appears to be a device to push the vulnerable unregistered Rohingya into this camp. The makeshift camp residents, including uprooted families, do not receive food assistance and are now denied access to livelihood as they would face arrest if they left the camp to find work. Food insecurity and hunger is spreading rapidly and a serious humanitarian crisis is looming."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2010


    Title: Living in a No-man's Land [PHOTO ESSAY]
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: The Rohingya of northwestern Burma are fleeing to Bangladesh, where unofficial, makeshift refugee camps are rapidly expanding. The plight of the Rohingya in Burma and Bangladesh has grown worse during the past year.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17499
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: No Place for Buddhist Refugees
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Burmese Rakhines also face problems and discrimination in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar District... "Thant Sin is one of thousands of Burmese Buddhist refugees living in Cox’s Bazar who fled from Burma across the Naf River, a long estuary that forms the Bangladeshi-Burmese border. Hiking through the jungle for 15 days to escape arrest for being a student organizer in the 1996 uprising in Sittwe, he reached Bangladesh and was able to register with the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, receiving an ID card that states in English and Bengali that the holder should not be forcefully repatriated to Burma. Unfortunately, he feels no safer because some Bangladeshi police are known to rip up Rakhine refugee cards and force them to pay bribes. “We get very little financial assistance and when we do, it usually ends up being hard to receive and full of complications,” he said, adding that Rakhine refugees believe that if they were Muslims like the Rohingya, the Bangladeshi authorities would allow them into camps where they could benefit from assistance and security..."
    Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17498
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Nowhere to Turn
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Many homeless Rohingya prefer hunger in a hostile land to life in Burma... "I’ve lost everything in my life and now I can only pray that I don’t get sent back to Burma,” said Haziqah, a 27-year-old Rohingya resident of the unofficial Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh... Before joining the camp, Haziqah lived in the Bandarban Hill Tract, about 150 km [93 miles] to the north, where many Rohingya refugees from Burma have settled. She and her husband managed to survive on the meager wages he earned from odd jobs in the area and were starting to hope they could lead a normal existence. Rohingya men gather round to listen to Haziqah tell her story. (Photo: ALEX ELLGEE) But then, one morning seven days after giving birth to her first child, soldiers from the Bangladeshi border force, the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR), stormed their village. Rounding up all the Rohingyas living there, they marched them toward the Bangladesh-Burma border. During the march, she said, the soldiers beat her husband severely and pushed her along, ignoring the week-old baby in her arms. When they reached the top of a hill bordering Burma, the soldiers simply gave them a shove to send them back to the country from which they had fled..."
    Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17497
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: ROHINGYA, ASYLUM SEEKERS & MIGRANTS FROM BURMA: A HUMAN SECURITY PRIORITY FOR ASEAN
    Date of publication: 30 January 2009
    Description/subject: Since October 2006, about 10,000 Rohingya have boarded boats in Bangladesh and Burma and headed for Thailand and Malaysia. The thousands of Rohingya boat people are only the tip of the iceberg. Millions of Burmese have fled the country in the past decade, with two million in Thailand alone... ASEAN must be proactive in pressuring Burma’s military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) to cease perpetuating the severe persecution and economic mismanagement that has been forcing millions of people to flee to neighboring countries.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (124K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 February 2009


    Title: Rohingya: Burma's Forgotten Minority
    Date of publication: 18 December 2008
    Description/subject: Among Burma's ethnic minorities, the Rohingya, a stateless population, stand out for their particularly harsh treatment by Burmese authorities and their invisibility as a persecuted minority. Despite decades of severe repression, there has been minimal international response to the needs of this extremely vulnerable population compared to other Burmese refugees. The United Nations (UN) and donor governments should integrate the Rohingya into their regional responses for Burmese refugees. Host countries should allow the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and implementing partners to provide basic services to all the Rohingya and officially recognize them as a refugee population.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Rohingya: Burma's Forgotten Minority
    Date of publication: 18 December 2008
    Description/subject: Refugees International, Rohingya: Burma's Forgotten Minority, 18 December 2008. Online. UNHCR Refworld, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/494f53e72.html [accessed 29 January 2009]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Rohingya: The forgotten people
    Date of publication: 18 December 2008
    Description/subject: Among Burma's ethnic minorities, the Rohingya, a stateless population, stand out for their particularly harsh treatment by Burmese authorities and their invisibility as a persecuted minority. Despite decades of severe repression, there has been minimal international response to the needs of this extremely vulnerable population compared to other Burmese refugees. The United Nations (UN) and donor governments should integrate the Rohingya into their regional responses for Burmese refugees. Host countries should allow the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and implementing partners to provide basic services to all the Rohingya and officially recognize them as a refugee population.
    Author/creator: Dr. Habib Siddiqui
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Rohingya Info Corner
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Bangladesh: A Life on Hold. The story of Noor Jahan, a refugee from Myanmar (video)
    Date of publication: 01 December 2008
    Description/subject: "Noor Jahan fled from Myanmar in 1992. She lives in Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh. Life has always been hard- espcially with no chance to return home. But recent improvements in camp life have made her family's life a little easier. "
    Language: English subtitles
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 minutes 49 seconds)
    Date of entry/update: 13 February 2009


    Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 2nd and 3rd periodic State party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) -MYANMAR-....."...Rohingya women and girls suffer from the devastating consequences of brutal government policies implemented against their minority group but also from socio-religious norms imposed on them by their community, the combined impact of which dramatically impinges on their physical and mental well-being, with long-term effects on their development. a) State-sponsored persecution: The 1982 Citizenship Law renders the Rohingya stateless, thereby supporting arbitrary and discriminatory measures against them. Their freedom of movement is severely limited; they are barred from government employment; marriage restrictions are imposed on them; they are disproportionately subject to forced labour, extortion and other coercive measures. Public services such as health and education are appallingly neglected. Illiteracy is estimated at 80%. The compounded impact of these human right violations also results in household impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing the vulnerability of women and children....Rohingya women and girls are also subject to serious gender-based restrictions due to societal attitudes and conservative interpretation of religious norms in their male-dominated community. The birth of a son is always favoured. Girls’ education is not valued and they are invariably taken out of school at puberty. Women and adolescent girls are usually confined to their homes and discouraged from participating in the economic sphere. They are systematically excluded from decision-making in community matters. Divorced women and widows are looked down upon, exposed to sexual violence and abandoned with little community support..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
    Format/size: pdf (179K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


    Title: Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine State in Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in their country of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significant improvements in recent times.
    Author/creator: Pia Prytz Phiri
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 387K; Burmese, 260K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/34-35.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Rohingya and Muslims in Arakan State: slow-burning genocide - August 2006
    Date of publication: August 2006
    Description/subject: "Almost 14 years have passed since the UN General Assembly recognized the suffering the Rohingya experienced at the hands of Burma’s military regime. Yet, Rohingya and Muslims from Burma continue to be subjected to a widespread and systematic campaign of persecution and discrimination at home and the denial of basic protection and fundamental rights in neighboring countries. Often overlooked in global media coverage, the plight of more than 1 million Rohingya and Muslims from Burma should be more closely watched by the international community, to prevent what increasingly appears to be another genocide in the making"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (102K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2007


    Title: The Rohingya Riddle
    Date of publication: June 2006
    Description/subject: Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are running out of options... "Iman Hussein does not officially exist. But standing less than 100 feet from the Naff River which separates his makeshift refugee camp in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh from his homeland of Arakan State in Burma, he says there are more pressing concerns for his group of 14,000 refugees: “We are just hoping for assistance,” he says. In Dhaka, the Ministry for Food and Disaster Management has yet to permit the UNHCR refugee agency to register this group of Rohingyas, thereby denying them food and medical aid. The Burmese Ambassador to Bangladesh, Thane Myint, does not even recognize the Rohingyas as an ethnic group. “Many people are claiming they lived in Rakhine [Arakan] State a long, long time ago,” he says, chuckling. “Some of them are, or have been, living in Myanmar [Burma]. Some of them may not be [from Burma].” The Bangladesh government says there are just over 20,000 Burmese people in the area—the number registered officially with UNHCR in two refugee camps south of Cox’s Bazaar. But the Burmese embassy in Dhaka recognizes only 10,000 as citizens of Arakan State. There are many more Buddhist Burmese refugees living illegally in Bangladesh. Those interviewed by The Irrawaddy—both Buddhists and Muslims—gave the same reason for leaving their homeland: they were fed up with human rights abuses inflicted by the Burmese military government..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


    Title: Stateless in Arakan
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: Rohingyas have struggled for decades to legitimize their presence in the country, and their fight looks to be anything but over... "Burma’s contentious Arakan State has long been a sore spot for the country’s ruling military dictatorship. Physical brutality and draconian measures to stifle the region’s Muslim Rohingya population have produced waves of refugees over the western border to Bangladesh (formerly eastern Bengal) since the 1970s. Some historians suggest that Muslims in northern Arakan State—predominantly ethnic Rohingya—can trace their lineage back to Muslim merchants of the 8th and 9th centuries who made their living as tradesmen in coastal ports. Never ones to let historical facts get in their way, the generals in Rangoon tell quite another story..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Bangladesh: Burmese Rohingya Refugees Virtual Hostages
    Date of publication: 09 May 2005
    Description/subject: "Protection and humanitarian problems continue to plague the Burmese Rohingya refugees living in two camps in southern Bangladesh. A wave of more than a quarter of a million Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority, fled to Bangladesh in the early 1990s as a result of severe oppression and human rights abuses by the Burmese military government. Since then about 230,000 of the refugees have been repatriated to Burma, many against their will, and there remain approximately 20,000 Rohingya in the refugee camps of Nayapara and Kutupalong in Bangladesh. The situation for the Rohingya in the camps has become more complicated due to UNHCR's decision in 2003 to phase out its support for the 20,000 refugees remaining in the camps and implement its proposed self-sufficiency plan to integrate the Rohingya refugee population with the local Bangladeshi community. The self-sufficiency plan was rejected by Bangladeshi authorities in September 2004. UNHCR, however, is continuing to seek an exit strategy and plans to rework the self-sufficiency program in 2005 into one involving temporary stay and freedom of movement and present it again to the Bangladeshi government..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


    Title: WFP/UNHCR REPORT OF THE JOINT ASSESSMENT MISSION: BANGLADESH: 10 TO 17 OCTOBER 2004
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: WFP/UNHCR mission to assess the health situation of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh... "a) The Joint Assessment Mission comprising of representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the Government of Bangladesh conducted the mission from the 10th to the 17th of October 2004. The objectives of the mission were to carry out an assessment of food and non-food requirements of the ongoing operation, to focus on the underlying causes of persistently high malnutrition and to make specific recommendations on the potential to reduce dependency on food assistance, alleviation of causes of using food for other purposes, modalities of assistance, composition of the food basket and the duration of assistance... b) The mission met with representatives of UNHCR, WFP, NGOs and representatives of the GOB at the capital, district and camp level. The mission visited facilities in Nayapara camp these included the medical facilities, water and sanitation facilities, school, women’s training facility, food storage and distribution facility. The mission conducted focus group discussion with women refugees in the camp and carried out interviews with key informants such as Concern’s counsellors and staff, representatives of BDRCS, DC of Food, DPHE staff, Civil surgeon, WFP and UNHCR field staff and the Camp in Charge... c) Briefing and Debriefing sessions by the mission team were given presenting the main recommendation (annex 3) of the mission at the district level to UNHCR, WFP, NGO and Government representatives and in Dhaka to the Secretary of the MFDM, representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the EC..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR/WFP
    Format/size: pdf (769K) 53 pages
    Date of entry/update: 06 March 2005


    Title: Sikkerheds- og menneskeretsforhold for rohingyaer i Burma og Bangladesh
    Date of publication: December 2003
    Description/subject: Rapport fra fact-finding mission til Bangkok i Thailand, Dhaka og Cox’s Bazar i Bangladesh og Maungdaw i Burma Oktober – november 2003 København, december 2003 Udlændingestyrelsen
    Language: Dansk, Danish
    Source/publisher: Udlændinge Styrelsen
    Format/size: pdf (991K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nyidanmark.dk/
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: The situation of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh
    Date of publication: 07 November 2003
    Description/subject: Delivered at the Regional Conference on the Protection for Refugees from Burma, Chiang Mai, 6 & 7 November 2003... "Bangladesh hosted one of the largest numbers of refugees in Asia when 250,000 Rohingya fled en masse from Burma in 1978 and again in 1991/92. However, like most countries in the region, Bangladesh has not acceded to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention, nor has it enacted any national refugee legislation. Refugees are dealt with on an ad-hoc basis. Bangladesh has allowed the UNHCR to assist and protect some Burmese refugees. Burmese refugees currently in Bangladesh can be divided into three categories: 1) About 20,000 Rohingya refugees sheltering in two camps: They remain from the mass exodus of 1991/92 and are recognised as "prima facie" refugees by the UNHCR (group recognition)... 2) Between 100,000 and 200,000[1] Rohingya refugees outside camps in South Bangladesh: They are not recognised as refugees and are often labelled as economic migrants... 3) A caseload of about 70 mostly Rakhine urban refugees in Dhaka: They have been granted "Person of Concern" status by the UNHCR (individual basis)... This paper will first examine the root causes of the Burmese refugee exodus to Bangladesh and then address the specific situation and protection issues of each category of refugees..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forum Asia
    Format/size: html (93K), Word
    Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/#hl=en&biw=1055&bih=416&q=The+situation+of+Burmese+refugees+in+...
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2003


    Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
    Date of publication: November 2003
    Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report of Myanmar... Conclusion: "Rohingya children bear the full brunt of the military regime’s policies of exclusion and discrimination towards the Muslim population of Rakhine State. The combination of the factors listed above, which deny them fundamental human rights, gravely damage their childhood development and will affect the future of the Rohingya community. With regard to Rohingya children, the State Peace and Development Council has failed to implement most of the rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Myanmar ratified in 1991. The Government has also ignored the suggestions and recommendations provided by the Committee in 1997, in particular, paragraph 28 in which “The Committee recommends that the Citizenship Act be repealed” and paragraph 34 which stated: “In the field of the right to citizenship, the Committee is of the view that the State Party should, in light of articles 2 (non-discrimination) and 3 (best interests of the child), abolish the categorization of citizens …” and that “all possibility of stigmatisation and denial of rights recognized by the Convention should be avoided”"
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forum Asia
    Format/size: pdf (151.35 KB) html (280K) , Word (224K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_ForumAsia_ngo_report.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Lewa-CRC2004.doc
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


    Title: Conflict, discrimination and humanitarian challenges
    Date of publication: 08 October 2003
    Description/subject: Delivered at the EU – Burma Day 2003 Conference..."In contrast to the Thai-Burma border, very little international attention has been given to conditions on the Bangladesh-Burma border. Consequently, Arakan State has remained a largely ignored region of Burma. Awareness is generally limited to the cycle of exodus and repatriation of Rohingya refugees. But Arakan is no less than a microcosm of Burma with its ethnic conflicts and religious antagonisms, and is by far the most tense and explosive region of the country. The refugee outflow to Bangladesh does not result from counter-insurgency strategies to undermine ethnic armed resistance, as it is the case for the Shan, Karen and Karenni along the Thai-Burma border, but is the outcome of policies of exclusion against the Rohingya community..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forum Asia
    Format/size: html (100K), Word
    Date of entry/update: 23 October 2003


    Title: Thousands of refugees harassed to return to Myanmar
    Date of publication: 17 September 2003
    Description/subject: The free choice of refugees should be respected. In recent months, staff from MSF received over 550 complaints of coercion from the refugees. The complaints ranged from incidents of intimidation to outright threats of physical abuse to push people to repatriate...... Dhaka/Amsterdam - "The Bangladesh government is subjecting thousands of Rohingya refugees to intimidation and harassment as part of a campaign to pressure them to return to Myanmar (Burma), says the international humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: SRI On-Site Action Alert: Rohingya Refugees of Burma and UNHCR’s repatriation program
    Date of publication: 17 July 2003
    Description/subject: "SRI met with UNHCR officials, officials from the Ministry of Relief and Disaster Management, journalists, academics, international organizations such as Medicins Sans Frontier (MSF) and Concern International which has been working with the Rohingyas for over ten years as well as with local people in the Teknaf region and the refugees themselves. Access to international organizations was not difficult to obtain and neither was it extremely challenging to talk to civil society about the Rohingyas, the situation in the state of Arakan and the current UNHCR policy. However, it was evident that UNHCR was hesitant to discuss its current proposal and the allegations of abuse against the Rohingyas by camp officials with a representative of an international organization; and given the recent criticisms leveled by Refugees International and Burma Center Holland against UNHCR..."
    Author/creator: Tazreena Sajjad
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Survivors’ Rights International
    Format/size: html (114K), pdf (3.57MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.survivorsrightsinternational.org/pdfs/UNHCRalert.pdf (original version with 3.4MB of photos)
    Date of entry/update: 06 February 2004


    Title: "We are like a soccer ball, kicked by Burma, kicked by Bangladesh!"
    Date of publication: 20 June 2003
    Description/subject: -- Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh are facing a new drive of involuntary repatriation -- "...This report attempts to give a voice to the Rohingya refugees in the camps and includes 57 refugee accounts illustrating the types of abuses used by the camp authorities to enforce repatriation. These testimonies denounce 26 acts of forced repatriation itself, usually involving detention in the camp followed by a forceful removal to the transit camp and back to Burma (18 in May 2003 alone), and also expose different types of mental and/or physical pressure to induce repatriation. Refugees unwilling to repatriate have been arrested and then given the choice of signing up for repatriation or going to jail (5 cases of threats and 5 cases of actual transfer to jail). Families have had their ration book seized until they agreed to repatriate (6 cases of deprivation of food). Other incidents have involved physical ill treatment (12 cases of beatings), sudden transfer to other sections of the camp (5 cases), destruction of housing (2 cases). The consequences have been particularly dramatic when families have been divided, when children have been separated from their parents, wives from their husbands, old people left behind and sick refugees abandoned (19 cases of family separation). As a result of these pressures, many refugees fled from the camp to avoid repatriation. Often, the male head of the household runs away, leaving women and children vulnerable in the camps (1 rape case reported). These accounts seriously challenge the voluntary character of the ongoing repatriation exercise. And, thus far, UNHCR has remained rather quiet. The UNHCR proposal also promotes self-sufficiency within the local host community pending return. The UNHCR initiative of promoting "temporary local integration" raises many questions with regard to protection and feasibility of self-reliance in an already tense and saturated environment. The Government of Bangladesh has not endorsed the proposal, and yet the UNHCR is already moving into the implementation phase. FORUM-ASIA calls upon the UNHCR and the Government of Bangladesh to immediately halt these forced repatriations and ensure that the principle of voluntariness is respected. In particular, we call on the UNHCR to continue to provide effective protection and humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya refugees in the camps until a durable solution emerges..." TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgment; Executive Summary; Map; Introduction; The Rohingya Refugee Exodus And Its Root Causes In Burma; - Root causes; The UNHCR Plan for the camps: Promoting Self-sufficiency Pending Voluntary Return: - UNHCR's Proposal; - Bangladesh's position; - Issues of Concern... The Current Situation in the Camps: Coercion, Harassment and Forced Repatriation: - Repatriation figures; - Overview of the Abuses in the Camps and their Consequences ; - Reduction of Humanitarian Assistance... Conclusion; Recommendations; Appendices: The Refugees' Voices - Appendix 1 - Declaration from Rohingya refugees dated 25 May 2003; Appendix 2 - A refugee account of a meeting with UNHCR in Kutupalong camp; Appendix 3 - Selection of 57 refugees' accounts.
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
    Format/size: pdf (303K), html (602K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKED-June2003.doc
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKED-June2003.htm
    Date of entry/update: 21 June 2003


    Title: Rohingya-Flüchtlinge in Bangladesch sehen sich einer neuen unfreiwilligen Wiedereingliederung gegenüber
    Date of publication: 20 June 2003
    Description/subject: "Ungefähr 21500 Rohingya Flüchtlinge haben Schutz in den beiden Flüchtlingslagern, Kutupalong und Nayapara, im Süden Bangladeschs gefunden. Diese Flüchtlinge sind das Überbleibsel der Massenflucht der Jahre 1991/92, als 250000 Rohingyas der brutalen Repression gegen Muslime im Norden des Arakan-Staates in Burma entflohen. Ein Repatriierungsprogramm unter der Aufsicht des Flüchtlingshilfswerks der Vereinten Nationen UNHCR, fand in den Jahren 1994/95 statt. Die Rohingyas verließen Bangladesch jedoch alles andere als freiwillig. Seitdem wurden die Rückführungsprogramme bis zum September 2002 eingestellt..." [Übersetzung der Zusammenfassung des Berichts "We are like a socker ball, kicked by Burma, kicked by Bangladesh" von Chris Lewa, Forum Asia, über die Repatriierung der burmesischen Rohingya-Flüchtlinge in Bangladesch. Gesamttext in Englsich unter http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKEDTOBURMA-Final-3.htm ]
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa (Deutsch von Jan Zalewski, für Burma Initiative Asienhaus)
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: FORUM ASIA
    Format/size: html (14K)
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


    Title: CAUGHT BETWEEN A CROCODILE AND A SNAKE: The Increasing Pressure on Rohingyas in Burma and Bangladesh & The Impacts of the Changing Policy of UNHCR
    Date of publication: 05 June 2003
    Description/subject: Report of the fact-finding mission - April/May 2003... "In Arakan (Rakhine) State in Western Burma, the Burmese military regime (SPDC) and border police (NaSaKa) are still committing serious human rights violations. Although both peoples in Arakan (Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims) are victims of these crimes, especially the Rohingyas living in Northern Arakan are marginalized as a people. By definition, the Rohingyas do not have full citizenship, still suffer from gross human rights violations, are still forced to perform unpaid labour (especially in the countryside) and are not free to practice their religion. The Rohingyas in Arakan/Burma are often denied basic freedoms like the right to marry, and they are forced to pay the military authorities for all basic necessities. Rohingyas have no freedom of movement. Finally, often the military orders them to handle over all there belongings, including their land, without any compensation. The future of Rohingyas in Arakan still looks grim..."
    Author/creator: Peter Ras
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Center Netherlands
    Format/size: html (240K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR map of Northern Rakhine State and Bangladesh
    Date of publication: June 2003
    Description/subject: Shows refugee camps in Bangladesh, UNHCR offices, main towns and villages etc.....UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Map of Myanmar, Northern Rakhine State, as of January 2006, 18 January 2006. Online. UNHCR Refworld, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/471897460.html [accessed 29 January 2009]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf (263.62 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/471897460.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 January 2011


    Title: Lack of Protection Plagues Burma's Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh
    Date of publication: 30 May 2003
    Description/subject: "The Muslim Rohingya people of Burma�s Arakan state are in an impossible situation. They are wanted neither in Burma nor in neighboring Bangladesh. The flight of the Rohingya from Burma is the direct result of Burmese government policies, which deny them citizenship under the 1982 Citizenship Law, limit their religious practice, facilitate land confiscations for army camps or settlement by Buddhist settlers and prohibit them from leaving their villages to access markets, employment, education and medical care. Unlike the Buddhist Rakhine who also live in Arakan state, or the ethnically dominant Burmans, the Rohingya must pay a large fee in order for their daughters to be married and to register their newborns. Such discrimination has contributed to a continuing influx of Rohingya into Bangladesh, estimated at more than 10,000 in 2002.Despite this clear record of discrimination by the Government of Burma, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has stepped up repatriation efforts in an attempt to phase out its responsibilities to the 21,000 refugees residing in camps in Bangladesh. This group remains from the mass exodus of 250,000 Rohingya who sought refuge in Bangladesh in the early 90s. These refugees received "prima facie" refugee status, obliging UNHCR to protect and assist them. Refugees fleeing similar conditions following the mass repatriations in 1994 and 1995, however, were less fortunate, having been labeled economic migrants who have no legal right to UNHCR�s protection and assistance. While conditions for Rohingya inside Burma have hardly changed in the last decade, what appears to have changed is UNHCR�s policy towards Rohingya concerning rights to UNHCR protection and support..."
    Author/creator: Veronika Martin and Kavita Shukla
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Burmese Rohingya in Bangladesh Face an Uncertain Future
    Date of publication: 22 May 2003
    Description/subject: "By June 30, 2003 the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is planning a dramatic change in its responsibilities towards the remaining 21,000 Rohingya refugees from Burma residing in two camps in Cox"disengage"residual case load," left over from the influx of 250,000 Rohingya in the early 90s, proposes providing skills training with the intention of enabling refugees to become economically and socially independent by the end of 2004. The proposed plan raises numerous questions and concerns regarding its feasibility and its impact on the future welfare of the refugees from both a humanitarian and protection standpoint. How well can humanitarian assistance or protection be delivered if the main organization mandated to assist and protect this group distances itself from them?..."
    Author/creator: Veronika Martin and Kavita Shukla
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International via Asian Tribune
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Weakness in Numbers
    Date of publication: 10 March 2003
    Description/subject: "Muslim minorities across Asia are under siegeand their persecution fuels fundamentalists' rage...the Burmese government has convinced many Buddhists in the Arakan region that the Rohingyas are fighting for an independent Islamic statea goal embraced by radical militant groups in exile in Bangladesh but not by the majority of Muslims living in Arakan. "It's propaganda," says Christina Fink, a cultural anthropologist at Chiang Mai University in Thailand. "It's a way for the regime to divide the Arakanese and make sure the people are less interested in the pro-democracy movement and more interested in driving the Muslims out." The United Nations has overseen the return to Burma of more than 200,000 Rohingya refugees. But many have found their houses and land appropriated by Buddhist settlers and their basic rights still denied by the authorities. For example, to qualify for citizenship, says Fink, the Rohingyas must prove that their grandparents on both sides were born in Burma, but "there are very few who can." Many have abandoned hope and go back to Bangladesh, only to find they are no longer allowed access to the refugee camps, says French anthropologist Chris Lewa, who studies the Rohingya refugees. "Perhaps as many as 100,000 live in slums around Cox's Bazar," she says. "They are not wanted in Bangladesh or in Burma. Effectively, they are stateless people."..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Perrin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Time Asia Vol. 161 No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The refugee situation on the western borders of Burma
    Date of publication: 09 October 2002
    Description/subject: Delivered at the Canadian Friends of Burma Public Conference Ottawa – 9 October 2002. "Burma’s borders with India and Bangladesh have received much less international attention than the Thailand-Burma border. A major reason is the difficult access to refugees in these border areas due to policies of the host governments. Nevertheless, outflows of refugees from Burma to India and Bangladesh are no less significant. More than 50,000 mostly Chin refugees have fled to India while up to 200,000 Rohingya refugees are found in Bangladesh in and outside refugee camps..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
    Format/size: html (39K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "The exodus has not stopped: Why Rohingyas continue to leave Myanmar”
    Date of publication: 01 April 2002
    Description/subject: Delivered at the Medecins Sans Frontieres Conference: “10 Years for the Rohingya Refugees: Past, Present and Future” Dhaka – 1 April 2002. "As long as the situation in Rakhine State does not show any fundamental improvement, Rohingya people will continue to enter and seek shelter in Bangladesh. The refugees in the two remaining camps are only the visible side of an outflow that has never ceased. Indeed, the exodus of Rohingya to Bangladesh has never stopped. Every day, new Rohingya individuals and families continue to cross the border illegally and seek sanctuary in Bangladesh. It is no longer a mass exodus, but a constant trickle. This influx seems to be encouraged and at the same time strictly controlled by the Myanmar authorities, and concurrently it is rendered invisible by the Bangladesh administration. New arrivals are denied access to the refugee camps, and these undocumented Rohingya have no other option than to survive among the local population outside the camps. Their exact number is unknown. An estimate of 100,000 has regularly been cited for several years now, which does not take into account the constant increase. According to the local press, there may be as many as 200,000 living in the Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf-Bandarban area and this amount appears to be more realistic. They are not referred to as refugees but labelled as “economic migrants”..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: 10 years for the Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: Past, Present and Future
    Date of publication: April 2002
    Description/subject: "The Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh have been living in tents and refugee camps for the past ten years. After fleeing their homes in Myanmar, the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh are still facing an unacceptable humanitarian situation. Either unwanted or unwelcomed, they continue to be neglected and live with an uncertain future. MSF has released a report and collection of temoignage accounts that details the conditions of this near-forgotten collection of refugees. At its peak in 1991 and 1992, over 250,000 refugeees had fled persecution and discrimination. Since then, some 230,000 have been returned to Myanmar under a frequently questionable 'voluntary' programme supervised by the UNHCR. Human rights reports, witness accounts and testimonies from Rohingyas newly arriving in Bangladesh, state that the situation in Mayanmarhas not improved. Today the remaining 21,000 refugees in Bangladesh are completely dependent on assistance from relief organisations for their survival..". The MSF Rohingya refugees index page contains testimony from refugees.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
    Format/size: pdf (1.28 MB, 0.97 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.kaladanpress.org/images/document/MSF_10%20years%20Rohingya%20Refugee.pdf
    http://www.kaladanpress.com/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1576:10-years-f...
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations and the Stateless Rohingyas
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: "I have lately been disturbed by two developments. Firstly, at the very moment when 'realism' has lost its post-Westphalian glories and is suffering from disrepute, the stateless people continue to be at the mercy of the state. In the case of the Rohingyas it is even more pathetic for their refuge across the border brought no change to their sufferings. On the contrary, as camped and non-camped refugees, they ended up becoming victims of yet another state power, this time of Bangladesh. Secondly, when the power of the state has been eroded considerably, particularly in the wake of misgovernance and globalization, the state is brought in to resolve the issue of statelessness. Indeed, the Rohingyas were sent home, amidst criticism of 'involuntary' repatriation, with the hope that the government of Myanmar (GOM) after over half-a-century would change its position and make them all worthy citizens of Myanmar. What we have is a representation of a dialectic in the constitution of the state, that is, state as usurper and state as salvation, without of course realizing that the former cancels the latter and vice versa. It is against this background that I intend to discuss the Bangladesh-Myanmar relations and that again, from the standpoint of the stateless Rohingyas. Two questions, I believe, are pertinent. One, how do stateless people view the state/s? And two, what impact does the stateless people have on the state-to-state relationship? Few will dispute that the discussion requires a sound understanding of the 'stateless,' which in our case are the Rohingyas..."
    Author/creator: Imtiaz Ahmed
    Language: English
    Format/size: html (26K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 July 2003


    Title: Bangladesh: Information on the Situation of Rohingya Refugees
    Date of publication: 28 March 2001
    Description/subject: [In keeping with the practice of the US Department of State, the Resource Information Center will use the term "Burma" as opposed to "Myanmar," though the Burmese government renamed Burma "the Union of Myanmar" in 1989.] From December 1991 to March 1992, between 210,000 and 250,000 Burmese Rohingya fled Arakan state in western Burma for neighboring Bangladesh. The Rohingya, later designated refugees by the UNHCR, claimed rape, torture, summary killings, confiscation and destruction of homes and property, destruction of mosques, physical abuse, religious persecution, and forced labor by Burmese armed forces. Their reports of widespread human rights abuses were verified by an Amnesty International fact-finding team sent to interview the refugees in Bangladesh (Refuge Dec. 2000, 39).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Burma [Myanmar]: Information on the Situation of Rohingyas
    Date of publication: 28 March 2001
    Description/subject: Background The Rohingya people are of Muslim descent and are native to the northern Arakan region of Burma, which borders Bangledesh. The name Rohingya originates from the name "Rohang" or "Rohan" given to the Arakan region during the ninth and tenth centuries. Another group, the Rakhine people, reside in the same area of Burma and are the ethnic majority, with a Hindu and Mongol background. (Human Rights Watch, 1996) The Rohingyas have suffered a history of abuse, and since World War II have been fighting for recognition as a distinct ethnic group as well as an independent state. "By 1947, the Rohingyas had formed an army and had approached President Jinnah of the newly created Pakistan to ask him to incorporate northern Arakan into East Pakistan (Bangladesh)." (Human Rights Watch, 1996) Many observers speculate that it was this disloyal action by the Rohingyas that led to the group's present problems with the government because the state still views the Rohingyas as untrustworthy. (Smith, 1993)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: (US) Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: The Rohingya: Forced Migration and Statelessness
    Date of publication: 28 February 2001
    Description/subject: "Forced Migration in the South Asian Region: Displacement, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution" Paper submitted for publication in a book edited by Omprakash Mishra on "Forced Migration in South Asian Region", Centre for Refugee studies Jadavpur University, Calcutta and Brookings Institution Project on Internal Displacement. "In the eyes of the media and the general public, whether in Bangladesh or further afield, the situation of the Rohingya from Burma[ii] is usually referred to as a ?refugee problem?. Over the last two decades, Bangladesh has born the brunt of two mass exoduses, each of more then 200,000 people, placing them among the largest in Asia. Each of these massive outflows of refugees was followed by mass repatriation to Burma. Repatriation has been considered the preferred solution to the refugee crisis. However, this has not proved a durable solution, since the influx of Rohingyas over international borders has never ceased. And it is unlikely that it will stop, so long as the root causes of this unprecedented exodus are not effectively remedied. The international community has often focussed its attention on the deplorable conditions in the refugee camps in Bangladesh, rather than on the root causes of the problem, namely the denial of legal status and other basic human rights to the Rohingya in Burma. This approach doubtless stems from the practical difficulty of confronting an intractable military regime which refuses to recognise the Rohingya as citizens of Burma, and of working out solutions acceptable to all parties involved. The actual plight and continuous exodus of the Rohingya people has been rendered invisible. Though they continue to cross international borders, they are also denied the right of asylum, being labelled ?economic migrants?. The international community has preferred to ignore the extent of this massive forced migration, which has affected not only Bangladesh, but also other countries such as Pakistan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, etc..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Religious Persecution in Myanmar (Burma) Must End
    Date of publication: 09 February 2001
    Description/subject: Petition: "Dear Secretary of State Colin Powell, We, the undersigned, are disturbed by the intolerance to and systematic preaching of hatred against religions other than Buddhism, which is an established fact and policy of the ruling military junta in Burma. Most affected groups are the Muslims followed by Christians and followers of other faiths..."
    Author/creator: Ghazi Khankan.
    Language: English
    Format/size: Petition launched, February 9, 2001.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Malaysia/Burma: Living in Limbo
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Burmese Rohingyas in Malaysia. Contains a good discussion of the Rohingyas' de facto statelessness under the 1982 Citizenship Law as well as background material on the Rohingyas' situation in Burma.."Burmese authorities bear responsibility for the Rohingya's flight. Burma's treatment of the Rohingya is addressed in the background section of the report, and the report offers specific recommendations to the Burmese government. The focus of this report, however, is on what happens to Rohingya when they reach Malaysia. There, they are not treated as refugees fleeing persecution who should be afforded protection, but as aliens subject to detention or deportation in violation of Malaysia's international human rights obligations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Still No Durable Solution
    Date of publication: May 2000
    Description/subject: "Since 1991, Bangladesh has been the main country of refuge for members of the Muslim Rohingya minority in Burma's Arakan State, many thousands of whom have fled gross human rights violations perpetrated by the Burmese government. In 1991-92 alone, discrimination, violence and the imposition of forced labor practices by Burmese authorities triggered an exodus of some 250,000 Rohingya across the border into Bangladesh. Most of these refugees returned between 1993 and 1997 under a repatriation program arranged through the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The future of 22,000 Rohingya who remain in refugee camps in Bangladesh, however, remains unclear. Donor countries, frustrated by the lack of progress in finally resettling these remaining refugees, have reduced the level of support available to them. Meanwhile, continuing discrimination against, attacks upon, and other widespread violations of the rights of Rohingya in Burma have led to new refugee outflows into Bangladesh. More than 100,000 Rohingya, who have not been formally documented as refugees, now live in Bangladesh outside the refugee camps. Their situation too remains precarious..." HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: World War II, Independence, and Rohingya Flight; Operation Nagamin and the 1970s Exodus; Flight in the 1990s; Continued Obstacles to Repatriation; DISCRIMINATION IN ARAKAN: Denial of Citizenship; Freedom of Movement; Education and Employment; Arbitrary Confiscation of Property; Forced Labor. .. CONDITIONS IN THE CAMPS: Registration: Withholding Essential Services as Leverage; Physical Abuse. .. UNDOCUMENTED ROHINGYA: Refugee status determination. .. THE SEARCH FOR DURABLE SOLUTIONS: Voluntary Repatriation; Protection and Prevention: The United Nations in Northern Arakan; Local Integration; Resettlement.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Birmanie: Repression, Discrimination Et Nettoyage Ethnique En Arakan
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: Mission Internationale d’Enquête Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme... L’Arakan: A. Présentation de l’Arakan; B. Historique de la présence musulmane en Arakan; C. Organisation administrative, forces répressives et résistance armée. .. Le retour forcé et la réinstallation des Rohingyas - hypocrisie et contraintes: A. Les conditions du retour du Bangadesh après l’exode de 1991-92; B. Réinstallation et réintégration. Répression, discrimination et exclusion en Arakan: A. La spécificité de la répression à l’égard des Rohingyas; B. Les Arakanais : une exploitation sans issue. .. Nouvel Exode: A. Les années 1996 et 1997; B. L’exode actuel.
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Federation International des Droits de l'Homme
    Format/size: pdf (479K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Repression, Discrimination and Ethnic Cleansing in Arakan
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: International Mission of Inquiry by the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues. I. Arakan: A. Presentation of Arakan - A buffer State; B. Historical background of the Muslim presence in Arakan; C. Administration organisation, repressive forces and armed resistance... II. The forced return and the reinstallation of the Rohingyas: hypocrisy and constraints: A. The conditions of return from Bangladesh after the 1991-92 exodus; B. Resettlement and reintegration. .. III. Repression, discrimination and exclusion in Arakan: A. The specificity of the repression against the Rohingyas; B. The Arakanese: an exploitation with no way out. .. IV. A new exodus: A. The years 1996 and 1997; B. The current exodus.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Federation International des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
    Format/size: pdf (446K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rohingyas in Bangladesh: Anmerkungen zur Flchtlingshilfe
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Rohningyas in Bangladesh: some comments about international assistance for refugees. Sociological analysis of acteurs in migrant situations, questions of space and place in and around refugee camps, migrant's identities. Am Beispiel der Flchtlinge aus Myanmar, der Rohingyas, im Sdosten Bangladeshs, die mit internationaler Hilfe in Flchtlingslagern angesiedelt wurden, u.a. folgende Fragen untersucht: Akteure der Fluchtsituation, Rume und Schaupltze in und um Flchtlingslager, Identitt von Flchtlingen. Eine Lehrforschung des Sociology of Development Research Centre. Gliederung: Einleitung; Methoden; Geschichte(n) des Problems; Akteure; Rume und Schaupltze; Fazit; Literatur.
    Author/creator: Stephanie Hering
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Universitats Bielefeld
    Format/size: pdf (119K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Bangladesh at a glance
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Maps, photos, tables, text. Main Objectives and Activities: "Facilitate voluntary repatriation to Myanmar of those refugees who are willing and cleared to return; promote and initiate activities fostering self-reliance for refugees unable or unwilling to return in the near future, pending a lasting solution; co-ordinate and ensure protection and basic services for the refugees, paying special attention to women and children....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (220K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/WorldReport-Bang.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR: Myanmar/Bangladesh Repatriation and Reintegration Operation
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: UNHCR GLOBAL REPORT 1999 "Main Objectives and Activities - Bangladesh: Protect and assist 22,000 refugees remaining in the camps; facilitate their repatriation to Myanmar while ensuring the voluntary nature of returns; and promote interim solutions for those remaining refugees unable or unwilling to return by encouraging self-sufficiency activities___ Myanmar: Continue to work with the Government on the successful reintegration of returnees; promote the stabilisation of the population of Northern Rakhine State through multi-sectoral assistance and monitoring in areas hosting returnees. The establishment of a UN Integrated Development Plan in Northern Rakhine State continued to be a key factor in UNHCR�s strategy to phase down its assistance activities throughout 2000..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (59K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.un-bd.org
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry: customised version highlighting violence against the Rohingyas
    Date of publication: 02 July 1998
    Description/subject: Extracts on the Rohingyas from the report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry into forced labour in Myanmar (Burma). ".... the situation in the northern part of Rakhine State appears to be more severe in all respects than that prevailing in most other parts of the country. Most of the witnesses questioned on this subject, who were members of the Rohingya ethnic group, and who had left the country very recently, claimed to have been subjected to systematic discrimination by the authorities..." (ILO Report, para 435). The 1998 ILO Inquiry into forced labour in Burma covers a wide range of human rights violations in addition to forced labour. The Commission of Inquiry, which is the most senior body to have examined human rights in Burma, reported that the Rohingyas suffer a higher level of discrimination than other groups in the country.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ILO (customised by BPF)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: UNHCR: Bangladesh/Myanmar
    Date of publication: March 1998
    Description/subject: "An estimated 21,000 refugees from Rakhine State in Myanmar live in two camps in southern Bangladesh. They were among 250,000 people who originally fled Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) in 1992, claiming widespread human rights abuse, including rape and excessive unpaid community labor..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: MYANMAR/BANGLADESH: ROHINGYAS - THE SEARCH FOR SAFETY
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: "Thousands of Burmese Muslims from the Rakhine (Arakan) State in Myanmar, known as Rohingyas, have fled into southeastern Bangladesh during the first half of 1997. Unlike more than 250,000 Rohingya refugees who came to Bangladesh in 1991 and 1992, these new arrivals are largely living in local villages rather than in designated refugee camps. The Government of Bangladesh has not permitted the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to interview these people, asserting that they are all economic migrants. Amnesty International is aware of reports that some of the new arrivals have stated that they have left Myanmar solely because of economic hardship. However, it is concerned that others are in fact people fleeing serious human rights violations in Myanmar, and therefore would be in need of protection. Indeed, it should be noted that the distinction between economic hardship and violations of civil and political rights is not necessarily a clear one; for example, many of the Rohingyas have been unable to make a living due to continuing unpaid forced labour in Rakhine state. Given the grave human rights situation in Myanmar, it is impossible to state in a blanket fashion that Rohingyas are only fleeing economic hardship and therefore are not worthy of protection..." KEYWORDS: REFUGEES 1 / REFOULEMENT1 / MINORITIES 1 / FORCED LABOUR / TORTURE/ILL-TREATMENT / RELIGIOUS GROUPS - ISLAMIC / WOMEN / MILITARY / ARMED CIVILIANS / HUNGER-STRIKE / ARMED CONFLICT / SECOND GOVERNMENTS / UNHCR / RECOMMENDED ACTIONS /
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (Al INDEX: ASA 13/07/97)
    Format/size: html (86K), Word (61K) The html version works better with Netscape than IE, or download the Word version.
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/AI-Rohingya97-09.doc (Word version)
    Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


    Title: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: the Search for a Lasting Solution
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: "Between July 20 and 22, 1997, the Bangladesh government forcibly repatriated some 400 refugees belonging to the Rohingya minority of Burma's northern Arakan state. The repatriations, which drew international protests, highlighted the dilemma facing the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the international community in addressing the Rohingya situation. When the host government's patience runs out, and abuses are continuing in the country from which the refugees fled, what choices are available? ...The report describes the forced repatriations, and conditions for the new arrivals in Bangladesh. It then documents the abuses committed by the SLORC against the Rohingyas in Burma, including forced labor, arbitrary taxation, confiscation of property and restrictions on freedom of movement. These abuses are linked to the Rohingyas' status as non-citizens in Burma, a status which the Burmese government has thus far refused to alter. This policy is in clear violation of international standards on the elimination of statelessness. Human Rights Watch/Asia and Refugees International conclude that as long as individuals and families continue to flee Burma, temporary asylum in Bangladesh is critical, and the UNHCR should seek to maintain the camps there and assist the new arrivals. The longer term solution, however, lies in improving the human rights situation inside Burma, and for this, theinvolvement of the international community, and especially the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) which recently admitted Burma as a member, is crucial..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma - The Rohingya Muslims: Ending a Cycle of Exodus?
    Date of publication: September 1996
    Description/subject: I. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS; II. THE 1996 INFLUX; III. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND; IV. THE REPATRIATION: The first stage, September 1992-January 1994; Mass repatriation, July 1994 - December 1995; V. THE REINTEGRATION PROGRAM; VI. CONTINUING DISCRIMINATION: Citizenship Legislation and Identity Cards; International Law and the 1982 Citizenship Act; Current Status of Returnees; Forced Labor; Land Ownership and Arbitrary Taxation; Forced Relocations; Model Villages; Freedom of Movement; VII. CONCLUSIONS.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch/Asia
    Format/size: html (391K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: REPATRIATION OF ROHINGYA REFUGEES
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: "In 1978 and 1991 Bangladesh was faced with influx of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. In 1978 about 200,000 refugees crossed into Bangladesh to flee persecution by the Myanmarese army in the Arakan region. Their stay in Bangladesh at that time was short lived as the problem was resolved through diplomatic initiatives in sixteen months. The situation is somewhat different this time when about a quarter of a million of refugees took shelter in the Teknaf-Cox's Bazar region. Following the successful completion of the Cambodian operation the Rohingya repatriation constitutes the single largest UNHCR operation in Asia. In spite of the Bangladesh Government's agreement with the Myanmar authorities and UNHCR's Memorandum of Understanding with both the governments on repatriation, initial steps in the repatriation has been rather slow. Currently the repatriation process has virtually stagnated. The presence of such a large number of refugees, which at one stage appeared to be for an indefinite period, has created tensions in the host communities and impacted adversely the economy and environment of the region. It is in this setting that a study on the Rohingya refugees is being undertaken..."
    Author/creator: C.R. Abrar
    Language: English
    Format/size: html (133K)
    Date of entry/update: 22 June 2003


    Title: Repatriation to Myanmar
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: "Between late 1991 and the middle of 1992, more than 250,000 people fled from the Rakhine State of Myanmar (formerly Burma) to neighbouring Bangladesh. Almost all of the refugees were Rohingyas, a Muslim minority group living in a predominantly Buddhist country. Although accurate statistics are not available, the Rohingyas are thought to constitute just under half of Rakhine State's population, which is estimated to be some 4.5 million..." Extract from "The State of The World's Refugees 1995: In search of solutions" (Chapter 2, Box 2.2)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Recommendations on the Rohingyas in Bangladesh: Mission to Bangladesh - April 21 to 29, 1994
    Date of publication: 06 June 1994
    Description/subject: "Repatriation, although agreed upon to be voluntary, has in fact not been voluntary. Those who "agreed" to return to Arakan have faced and continue to face severe coercion, including reportedly, physical abuse, deprivation of food rations, confiscation of their money or possessions, arrest and threats. Donor governments should express concern that UNHCR Geneva is currently not providing adequate monitoring of the process to return refugees to Arakan and must take action to ensure the voluntary nature of the repatriation is upheld. UNHCR should increase protection of the refugees currently in the camps; UNHCR must supply additional staff - at least one per camp - tasked not only with preparations for repatriation, but also focussed on protecting the refugees from a non-voluntary return. The Memorandum of Understanding focusses primarily on the short term needs of the refugees and fails to address many of the root causes of their distrust and fear. Because of these circumstances, UNHCR and the Government of Bangladesh should re-evaluate the time frame for repatriation. Refugees should not be returned until their safety can be insured. UNHCR and donor countries should solicit the continued patience of the Bangladesh government. UNHCR should arrange for adequate monitoring in Arakan. Their team should be given access to all areas where refugees are returning and be allowed to conduct their monitoring without official escort or official interpreters. We urge UNHCR to work with Burmese government authorities to reinstate former land use privileges to those returning. If not applicable, the government should allocate new land in proximity to their former residence. This would help to reassure refugees of the government's good faith commitment. UNHCR and the governments involved should be identifying and addressing the special needs of vulnerable and at risk groups both in Bangladesh and Arakan. Requests should be made for continued monitoring of both the Bangladesh camps and Arakan by an appropriate additional NGO within the next 2 to 3 months. In light of refugee anxieties over the Burmese government's compulsory three month training courses for girls aged 15 to 18 which separates girls from their families, UNHCR should work with the Burmese authorities to eliminate these courses. UNHCR and the international community should encourage SLORC to participate in tripartite meetings to facilitate coordination on repatriation policy..."
    Author/creator: Yvette Pierpaoli
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html (93K)
    Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


    Title: BANGLADESH: ABUSE OF BURMESE REFUGEES FROM ARAKAN
    Date of publication: 09 October 1993
    Description/subject: "Beginning in late 1991, wide-scale atrocities committed by the Burmese military, including rape, forced labor, and religious persecution, triggered an exodus of ethnic Rohingya Muslims from the northwestern Burmese state of Arakan into Bangladesh.[1] Nearly 240,000 refugees, now housed in 19 camps in and around the Bangladeshi town of Cox's Bazar, face the prospect of possible mass repatriation when the 1993 rainy season ends in October. That repatriation would be cause for concern on two grounds. First, though talks have taken place between Burmese authorities and Mrs. Sadako Ogata, head of the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) to allow a UNHCR presence inside Burma, no final agreement has yet been reached, and grave concerns remain about military abuses in Arakan and thus about the safety of repatriated refugees. Second, when mass repatriations took place in 1992, they became the occasion for coercion and physical abuse of refugees by Bangladeshi authorities, raising serious doubts about whether most returned voluntarily. Asia Watch has not been able to investigate abuses on the Burmese side of the border. But in April 1993, an Asia Watch consultant visited the refugee camps in Bangladesh. He also met in Dhaka with officials in both the Foreign Ministry and the Home Ministry, local government officials in the Cox's Bazar area directly responsible for implementing policy with respect to the Rohingyas, staff members of the UNHCR, foreign government officials, international relief workers, Bangladeshi human rights monitors, and refugees. The Bangladeshi government was cooperative in allowing the mission to take place. The Asia Watch consultant compiled evidence of verbal, physical and sexual abuse of refugees at the hands of Bangladeshi military and paramilitary forces in charge of the camps. Those abuses indicate the need for international agencies, particularly the UNHCR, to have full access to all camps to interview refugees in confidence about their willingness to return, and for the Bangladeshi authorities to investigate the pattern of abuse against refugees and bring those responsible to justice..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Watch (A Committee of Human Rights Watch)
    Format/size: html (129K)
    Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


    Title: 1993 Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance
    Date of publication: 06 January 1993
    Description/subject: Paras 45-47 contain a substantial treatment of the persecution of the Rohingyas by the Burmese Army. The report contains the response of the Government of Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Rape, Forced Labor and Religious Intolerance in Northern Arakan
    Date of publication: 07 May 1992
    Description/subject: "Muslims from Arakan State in northwestern Burma, have become the latest targets of Burmese military atrocities. Since late 1991, they have been streaming into neighboring Bangladesh at the rate of several thousand a day with stories of rapes, killings, slave labor and destruction of mosques and other acts of religious persecution. By mid-March, the Bangladesh government had registered over 200,000 refugees and the exodus was continuing. In many ways, the treatment of these Muslims, called Rohingyas, seemed to be part and parcel of the stepped up military offensive against ethnic minorities and opposition activists by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the military junta that has become one of the most abusive governments in Asia. Intensive fighting has been taking place along Burma's eastern border against the Karen and Mon people as well, with refugees pouring into Thai border camps with similar accounts of rape and forced labor..." INTRODUCTION; ARAKAN AND THE ROHINGYA MUSLIMS:The 1978 Exodus; The 1990 Election and Its Aftermath; PATTERNS OF ABUSE 1991-92: Rape; Forced Labor; Population Transfers and Religious Persecution; Summary Executions;
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Watch - A Division of Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html (167K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Union of Myanmar (Burma): Human rights violations against Muslims in the Rakhine (Arakan) State
    Date of publication: May 1992
    Description/subject: "During February and March 1992 Amnesty International conducted over 100 interviews in Bangladesh with Burmese Muslim refugees from the Rakhine (Arakan) State, which is in the southwest of Myanmar (Burma)[1] bordering Bangladesh. All of those interviewed told Amnesty International that they had fled from their homes in the Maungdaw and Buthidaung township areas of the Rakhine State to escape a wide range of human rights violations at the hands of the Myanmar security forces, including ill-treatment, deliberate killings, and arrests on religious and political grounds. In their testimonies, these refugees said they were themselves victims of human rights violations, or had witnessed such violations committed against others, or were personally acquainted with the victims of such abuses. The human rights violations documented in this report are part of a general pattern of repression by the Myanmar security forces against Muslims in the Rakhine State. Troops have entered Muslim villages in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships, occupied and closed mosques, confiscated farmers' livestock and crops, seized villagers for forced labour, and evicted them from their houses. The repression of Muslims in the Rakhine State is part of the gross and consistent pattern of human rights violations committed by the SLORC against all forms of political opposition and dissent and against vulnerable and weak sectors of the country's population, such as ethnic minorities, who the military authorities suspect may not support its national ideology. All the available evidence indicates that Muslims are targeted for repression by the Myanmar security forces simply because they belong to a particular religious minority, some members of which seek greater autonomy from central Myanmar control. Reports of human rights abuses against Muslims in the Rakhine State by Myanmar security forces rose sharply in early 1991, and they began to leave Myanmar in the thousands to seek asylum in Bangladesh. Those numbers increased dramatically in late 1991 and early 1992, with more than 200,000 now believed to be in Bangladesh." KEYWORDS: RELIGIOUS GROUPS - ISLAMIC / MINORITIES / FORCED LABOUR / TORTURE/ILL-TREATMENT / DEATH IN CUSTODY / EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION / WOMEN / SEXUAL ASSAULT / ARBITRARY ARREST / POLITICAL PRISONERS / TRIALS / MILITARY TRIBUNALS / LONG-TERM IMPRISONMENT / FARMERS / FARM WORKERS / AGED / RELIGIOUS GROUPS - HINDU / FAMILIES / CHILDREN / JUVENILES / STUDENTS / COMMUNITY LEADERS / TEACHERS / RETIRED PEOPLE / CIVIL SERVANTS / REFUGEES 1 / DISPLACED PEOPLE / MISSIONS / PRISONERS' TESTIMONIES / MILITARY / PARAMILITARIES / POLICE / POLITICAL VIOLENCE / EMERGENCY LEGISLATION /
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA (Al INDEX: ASA 16/06/92)
    Format/size: html (123K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/myanmar_burma/document.do?id=F79CBBE0DDE22757802569A600601F12
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Our Journey" - Voices from Arakan, Western Burma
    Date of publication: May 1991
    Description/subject: Introduction, map and 32 interviews with Arakanese (Rakhine) and Rohingya refugees and activists.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: REPORT ON THE 1978-79 BANGLADESH REFUGEE RELIEF OPERATION
    Date of publication: June 1979
    Description/subject: "During the past year the problems of international refugees have received much coverage in the world press -most of it devoted to the Vietnamese "boat people" arriving on the shores of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian nations. Another refugee movement of almost equal magnitude in the area, however, has received little attention: the 200,000 Muslim refugees from Burma in Bangladesh. Some press coverage appeared in May and June, 1978, when tens of thousands of the Muslim minority community were pouring into Bangladesh from neighboring Burma. And the signing of an agreement between the two governments on July 9th, allowing the refugees to return, merited short articles in many papers. But from then on there was virtually no news for six and a half months until January 26, 1979, when the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva announced to the press that since June 1, 1978, more than 10,000 of the Burmese refugees had died in the Bangladesh camps. Between late March and mid-July, 1978, approximately 200,000 of the estimated 1,400,000 Bengali Muslims (called Rohingyas) living in the state of Arakan in north-western Burma fled into nearby Bangladesh. The roots of this mass exodus can evidently be traced to increased immigration from Bangladesh in recent years into this isolated area somewhat tenuously controlled by the central government of the Union of Burma, and to the apparent growth of a movement for the autonomy or independence of the Arakan among both the Buddhists and the Muslims of the area. While some of the Buddhist community wanted independence for the Arakan state, they were also afraid of absorption into Bangladesh..."
    Author/creator: Alan C. Lindquist
    Language: English
    Format/size: html (95K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 June 2003


  • Burmese refugees in China

    Individual Documents

    Title: Isolated in Yunnan: Kachin Refugees from Burma in China’s Yunnan Province
    Date of publication: June 2012
    Description/subject: "since June 2011, renewed fighting between the Burmese military and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in northern Burma has driven an estimated 75,000 ethnic Kachin from their homes. Many have fled abuses by the Burmese army, including attacks on Kachin villages, killings and rape, and the use of abusive forced labor. About 65,000 have stayed inside Burma, where they remain at risk. At least another 7,000-10,000 have sought refuge across the border in Yunnan Province in southwestern China....In the months immediately following the June 2011 outbreak of renewed hostilities between the Burmese army and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), some displaced Kachin were denied entry into China or forcibly returned to Burma, which put them at great risk and created a pervasive fear of forced return among the Kachin refugees who remain in Yunnan. Despite Chinese government claims to the contrary, refugees in Yunnan told Human Rights Watch they had received no humanitarian assistance from the government and major humanitarian agencies have had no access to the refugees since they began arriving in June 2011. The refugees are scattered across more than a dozen makeshift settlements lacking adequate shelter, food, potable water, sanitation, and basic health care. Most children have no access to schools. Needing to work to provide for their families, they are vulnerable to abuses by local employers, and have been subject to arbitrary drug testing and prolonged detention by the Chinese authorities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: pdf (2.76K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
    Date of publication: 19 March 2012
    Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


  • Burmese refugees in India

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (SAHRDC)
    Description/subject: Has material on the Burmese refugees in India as well as Indian refugee legislation and policy. Search for Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Chin Refugees Coexist and Survive in India
    Date of publication: 28 April 2012
    Description/subject: 9 photos of Chin/Zo refugees in India
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje via "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html. jpeg
    Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


    Title: Burmese Refugees in Delhi - The Travails of everyday life
    Date of publication: 29 September 2011
    Description/subject: "India lacks a coherent legal framework for the protection of refugees, treating them simply as non-citizens who may be a potential threat to society. As a result of this treatment, which is also reflected in societal attitudes, many of India’s refugees suffer severe hardship. The South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre ( SAHRDC) recently interviewed seven representative Burmese refugees about their experiences as refugees in Delhi. Each of the seven refugees detailed a grim life of poverty and insecurity, often accompanied by physical danger. Their stories underscore the urgent need for India to adopt national legislation that grants refugees rights and protects them from exploitation and abuse inherent in the vulnerable situation in which refugees find themselves...Conclusion: Coherent national legislation granting refugees rights and protections in India could go a long way toward alleviating the climate of fear and insecurity in which Burmese refugees live in India. It could start to shift governmental and societal attitudes towards refugees. Instead of the current legal framework that sees foreign threats everywhere; new legislation could send the right message that refugees are not threats but rather persons unfairly persecuted by their country of origin who deserve India’s protection..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre ( SAHRDC)
    Format/size: pdf (54K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 September 2011


    Title: Caste Out
    Date of publication: June 2010
    Description/subject: A rigid social class system adds to the troubles of Burmese who seek a better life in India... "Life is never easy for Burmese migrants and refugees, but those in India are burdened with a handicap absent from the difficulties faced by those who place their hopes in Burma’s other neighboring countries. That handicap is India’s controversial caste system. The traditional system, which divides India into rigidly defined social classes, has no recognized place for Burmese immigrants, most of whom are relegated to the lowest rank, lower even than India’s “untouchables.” ..."
    Author/creator: Zarni Mann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


    Title: India: Close the Gap for Burmese Refugees
    Date of publication: 09 December 2009
    Description/subject: "Like Burma’s other neighbors, India hosts a large and growing refugee population, the majority of whom are Chin ethnic minorities. India generally tolerates the presence of Burmese refugees, but does not afford them any legal protection, leaving them vulnerable to harassment, discrimination, and deportation. While India’s lack of a legal regime for refugees is a major impediment to addressing the needs of Burmese refugees, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and international donors need to explore creative ways to work within the existing framework to provide assistance and increase protection for this population."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: pdf (110K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2009


    Title: Waiting on the Margins - An Assessment of the Situation of the Chin Community in Delhi, India
    Date of publication: April 2009
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The steep mountain chains and deep valley gorges in Burma’s northwestern Chin State is the homeland of some 1.5 million ethnic Chin. Due to ongoing human rights abuses, severe restrictions on basic freedoms, and widespread poverty within Chin State, only 500,000 ethnic Chin remain in Chin State. More than two-thirds of the Chin population have fled to other parts of Burma and neighboring countries in a quest for protection and survival. Some 100,000 Chin are currently living in uncertain conditions in India’s northeastern state of Mizoram, which shares a border with Burma’s Chin State. Another 4,200 Chin have made their way to Delhi with the hope of obtaining protection from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Another 30,000 Chin have fled to Malaysia also with the hope of finding some form of protection and security. This report examines the lack of protection and adequate living conditions of Chin refugees and asylum-seekers in Delhi. As India is not a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, few protections are available to Chins living in Delhi. Although UNHCR is currently registering and recognizing refugees in Delhi, the Chin face long wait times due to processing delays. Resettlement is unduly slow and opportunities are limited. Although the Indian government allows UNHCR-recognized Chin refugees to obtain residential permits to stay in Delhi, the process to obtain such permits is complicated by redundant documentation requirements, corruption, and unnecessary delays. While protection and permanent solutions are long in coming for the Chin community in Delhi, their wait is made more urgent by untenable living conditions, a lack of adequate and acceptable livelihoods, poor health, an inability for their children to receive an education, and the impossibility of integrating with the local community. Although UNHCR supports several programs to provide for and improve the welfare of Chin refugees, many of these programs are inadequate and ineffective to meet the needs of the community. Access to such programs are limited to UNHCR-recognized Chin refugees, excluding those not yet registered with UNHCR and those with cases pending before UNHCR. Considering the human rights situation in Burma and ongoing violations against basic human rights and freedoms in Chin State, the Chin people of Burma will continue to require protection and accommodation in neighboring countries in the foreseeable future. For this reason, the Chin Human Rights Organization urges the Indian government and the UNHCR to: • Ensure Chin refugees and asylum-seekers have unhindered access to effective and expedient protection mechanisms. • Minimize processing delays and corruption that hinder members of the Chin community from obtaining protection and access to crucial benefits and services. • Ensure Chin refugees and asylum-seekers have access to: acceptable and appropriate accommodations; stable and adequate sources of income and job opportunities; and quality and affordable healthcare and education. • Promote, expand, and improve current humanitarian programs that benefit and serve members of the Chin community.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
    Format/size: pdf (3MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.chro.ca/publications.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 April 2009


    Title: Without refuge: Chin refugees in India and Malaysia
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Most Chin refugees have never set foot in a refugee camp; they live as urban and undocumented refugees in India and Malaysia.
    Author/creator: Amy Alexander
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 334K; Burmese, 194K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/36-37.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Shame of the Forgotten Refugees
    Date of publication: April 2007
    Description/subject: Tens of thousands of Burmese Chin lead a shadowy existence in India's remote Mizoram State..."...Tens of thousands of Chin live in Mizoram illegally, slipping easily through a long, porous border. They cross over to earn money to send back home, or to escape poverty or persecution by the Burmese military. But without legal status and proper permits, the Chin usually get the lowest-paid jobs, in road and construction work, markets, restaurants or as domestics. As porters they carry produce to the market in huge cone-shaped baskets fixed by straps to their foreheads. Others sell goods spread out o­n the ground. The Chin lacking proper documentation generally face deportation if they are arrested by police and cannot afford the usual bribe of 200 to 500 rupees (US $4.50 to $11). Weavers among the Chin tend to fare better. They are skilled laborers in an important sector of the local economy, and this usually spares them harassment..."
    Author/creator: Tamara Terziana
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    Title: RAZOR'S EDGE: Survival Crisis for Refugees from Burma in Delhi, India
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "The situation for refugees from Burma in Delhi, the capital city of India, has reached a survival crisis point. About 1,500 post-1988 refugees from Burma live in Delhi. An estimated 1,300 or more are of the Chin ethnic group from western Burma, with others from western Burma's Arakan State (estimated at 30 to 50), northern Burma's Kachin State (estimated at about 100), and elsewhere in Burma (estimated at 30 to 50.) They have been gradually losing their Subsistence Allowance stipends from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to the point that such money is about to essentially vanish by the end of 2004. The small UNHCR payments (approximately US$30 to $11 a month for "head of household" adults, with an additional amount for children) have been shared among the refugees for the most basic living expenses. Alternatives for income earning for the refugees in Delhi are nearly nonexistent, as refugees would have to compete with native-born Indians, and even foreigners who seem more "Indian," for scarce employment. In October 2004, Project Maje met with members of Delhi's refugee community in the Vikaspuri neighborhood. The contacts took place in a session with representatives of refugee organizations, visits to two refugee housing units, and at a group assembly of refugees. This brief report is a summary of impressions from those contacts..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: html (23K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2004


    Title: Denied Hope, Denied Respect:
    Date of publication: 12 June 2003
    Description/subject: "With temperatures approaching the high 40s, hundreds of Burmese refugees in New Delhi held a demonstration on 9 June, protesting the refusal of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to grant them refugee certificates and Subsistence Allowance (SA). The demonstration, the most recent in a series of protests organized by members of the Burmese refugee community, highlights a number of severe problems faced by refugees in New Delhi...The current situation for many Burmese refugees in Delhi is perilous. The recent violence and detention of pro democracy leader Aung Sang Suu Kyi does not augur well for their already vulnerable condition. Without a secure legal status, and with limited capacity for economic self-sufficiency, the withdrawal of financial support by UNHCR will place many in a situation of considerable risk. As SAHRDC’s research has shown, UNHCR in India has been failing to fulfil its mandate. It does not adequately protect the refugees within its jurisdiction and has failed to seek out and promote realistic durable solutions. These failings are compounded by the manner in which the UNHCR office and its employees have treated the refugee community. As a result, refugees have a fundamental lack of trust in the organisation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia-Pacific Human Rights Network/South Asia Human Rights Documentatoin Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


    Title: The Long and Winding Road to Asylum
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "Burmese refugees in New Delhi have traveled a hard road in their pursuit of legal recognition. The agency responsible for assisting these asylum-seekers has not made their lives any easier... "The road for a refugee is only as long as you make it," reads a poster hanging in the lobby of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) office in New Delhi. Outside, over 200 asylum seekers from Burma are protesting in front of the compound, pleading for interviews, for recognition as a refugee, and for a simple piece of paper confirming their status as a "person of concern", which would allow them to stay legally in India. Nearly half of the demonstrators say that their asylum applications have already been rejected by the UNHCR for unknown reasons. Others continue to wait for the organization to hear their cases despite arriving in New Delhi months ago. Asylum seekers, human rights lawyers and Indian activists say that besides the confusing application process, the mission in New Delhi also lacks accountability, offers no support system for refugees whose asylum status is pending�for over one year in some cases�and is trying to implement unrealistic programs of self-reliance for the refugees. To make the recognition process run more smoothly, demonstrators say refugees deserve greater attention and compassion from UNHCR officials. Moreover, they say the influence of the Indian government now pervades all facets of the refugee�s existence..."
    Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees from Burma need US protection
    Date of publication: 30 April 2002
    Description/subject: Fact Finding Trip to New Delhi by Zo T. Hmung April 17-30, 2002 Executive Summary: "I spent April 17-30, 2002, in New Delhi to assess options for durable solutions for refugees from Burma who reside in the Indian capital. "According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in New Delhi, as of the end of March 2002, there are 952 people from the country of Burma recognized as refugees by the UNHCR. Out of 952 refugees, 90 percent of them belong to Chin ethnic groups. The rest are Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, and Kachin. They include torture survivors, women, children, elderly people, and people persecuted because of their ethnicity, religion, and prodemocracy activism. "During my trip, I met with Wei-Meng Lim-Kabaa, UNHCR Deputy Chief of Mission, Kathy A. Redman, Officer in Charge Immigration, Attache of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and Mr. Christopher George, YMCA Refugee Program Coordinator. I also met with over 250 refugees in one large meeting, met six times with 10 key leaders from the refugee community, conducted five interviews at refugees' apartments, spent most of my time visiting their housing and neighborhoods, and gathered voluminous information regarding their current hardship and vulnerability and their compelling reasons for fleeing Burma. "These groups are distinguishable from other refugee groups in India. For years, they had been living in suburban areas of New Delhi without future hope for a better life. They are unable to obtain jobs. Because they are Christians, they cannot feel comfortable and are not welcomed in the local Hindu community. They are unable to speak the local language, which is Hindi. Their children are unable to attend school. Psychologically, they are traumatized. They cannot go back to Burma because Burma is still under the rule of a military regime. Most importantly, they can be deported back to Burma at any time even though they are recognized as refugees by the UNHCR." Unfortunately, the UNHCR has referred only a dozen cases to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) authority in New Delhi. At the same time, the U.S. INS in New Delhi does not take a case unless UNHCR refers a case to them. The INS does not accept walk-in cases. Therefore, they are in need of special protection by the U.S. The U.S. Department of State should designate them as refugees and process their cases. This would be a durable solution for them. The Chin community in the U.S. would be very happy to welcome these refugees..."
    Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
    Language: English
    Format/size: HTML (206K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Evaluation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas: A case study review of New Delhi
    Date of publication: November 2000
    Description/subject: Though the Chin refugees in Delhi are not mentioned, their legal situation is the same as that of the Afghan refugees who are the subject of this study.
    Author/creator: Naoko Obi and Jeff Crisp
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit
    Format/size: pdf (120K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&comid=4a2396946&cid=49aea93a6a&am...*
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: Ethnic political crisis in the Union of Burma
    Date of publication: 25 October 2000
    Description/subject: (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA). "Approximately, Burma has a population of 48 million people. Of those 48 million, 68% are Burman, and the rest, 32 %, belong to the ethnic groups such as Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, etc. These are only estimated statistics as there is no proper documented information available inside Burma. The ethnic people have their own religions, culture, and languages. There are different religions such as Buddhism, Muslim, Christianity, and Hinduism. Burmans belong to the majority religion, Buddhism while most ethnic Chins and Kachins are Christians. The ethnic political issue is important to Burma's politics. Because in order to put an end to civil war, which has spanned over half a century in Burma, the ethnic political crisis must first be resolved in accordance with the full consent of the ethnic minority people. Therefore, Burma's political history, especially how the minority and the majority groups came to live together under the Union government, needs to be addressed..." (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA)
    Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
    Language: English
    Format/size: HTML (66K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugee Protection in India
    Date of publication: October 1997
    Description/subject: Deals with Indian refugee legislation and policy. "A large number of ethnic Chin and other tribal refugees have escaped repression from the Burmese military and entered the Indian state of Mizoram. The presence of Chin refugees from the Chin State of Burma, Nagas from Burma, Rakhain refugees from Arakan State in Burma, and ethnic Nepalese of Bhutanese nationality is not acknowledged by the Government of India. The largest among these refugees groups is the Chins, numbering about 40,000. While the Burmese Nagas have sought refuge in the Indian State of Nagaland, the Chins and Rakhains have sought refuge in Indian State of Mizoram.(47) Though they have generally assimilated into Indian society, their living standards are still poor. They can be described as Category III refugees since neither the Indian Government nor UNHCR recognize their presence. Moreover, the Chin do not receive state assistance or international assistance because of their ambiguous status. They have been left unto themselves in a foreign land where they have no means for survival. The Mizoram State Government has forcibly repatriated many Chin refugees since 1994. While it was not reported in the press, a senior official of the Mizoram State Government confirmed to a SAHRDC representative that a large number of Chin refugees indeed had been forcibly returned to Burma by the State Government in 1994.(48)..." (These are the only paras specifically on refugees from Burma).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Survival, Dignity and Democracy: Burmese Refugees in India
    Date of publication: 1997
    Description/subject: "Since September 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) came to power, approximately one million Burmese nationals have fled to neighboring states. Approximately 55,000 Burmese nationals are currently in India, however, of that number, only about 467 are recognized and protected refugees of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in India. This report focuses on the plight of Burmese refugees in India, in particular, the predicament of Burmese nationals who remain unrecognized and unassisted in the North Eastern frontier, and the situation of the refugee population in Delhi..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Situation of Burmese Refugees in Asia: Special Focus on India
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: " The South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (SAHRDC) has closely been monitoring the situation of the Burmese refugees in Asia with special focus on India. Hundreds of pro-democracy activists took shelter in border states of North east India. The staunch support of pro-democracy movement by former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi made students in Yangoon to seek help from India. However, after five years diplomatic stand-off, Prime Minister Narashima Rao sent Mr J N Dixit to Yangoon in April 1993 to mend fences with the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The Deputy Foreign Minister of Burma also visited New Delhi early 1994 and exerted pressure upon New Delhi to stop anti-SLORC activities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Country Report on the Refugee Situation in India
    Date of publication: 1994
    Description/subject: "A few hundred refugees belonging to the ethnic Nagas have sought shelter in Manipur and Mizoram in 1991 after the Burmese military started a crack down on the Naga and other insurgents on the side of Burma. They were not recognized as refugees by the Government of India but allowed to stay in India. A large number of ethnic Chin and other tribal refugees also sought refuge in Indian State of Mizoram to escape from repression by the Burmese military authorities. However, State Government of Mizoram has allegedly forcibly repatriated many Chin refugees living in the State in 1994. While it was not reported in the press, a senior official of the Mizoram State Government confirmed on animosity to a SAHRDC representative that a large number of the Chin refugees were forcibly repatriated by the State Government in 1994..." (only these paras in the report deal with refugees from Burma)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burmese refugees in Malaysia

    Individual Documents

    Title: Malaysia: Invest in Solutions for Refugees
    Date of publication: 19 April 2011
    Description/subject: Introduction: "Malaysia has taken significant steps forward in improving refugee rights. In the past year, there have been no reported attempts to deport Burmese refugees to the border with Thailand and a decrease in immigration raids and arrests of registered refugees. But these advances have not yet been codified into written government policy, leaving refugees considered “illegal migrants” and subject to arrest and detention. The Government of Malaysia should build on this progress by setting up a system of residence and work permits for refugees. The international community should mobilize additional funds for the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and non-governmental agencies to leverage this opportunity to improve refugee rights."
    Author/creator: Melanie Teff and Lynn Yoshikawa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2011


    Title: Asia’s new boat people
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: "...Thousands of stateless Rohingyas are leaving Burma and Bangladesh, dreaming of a better life in Malaysia...On 25 November 2007, a trawler and two ferry boats carrying some 240 Rohingyas being smuggled to Malaysia sank in the Bay of Bengal. About 80 survived; the rest drowned. A week later, another boat sank, allegedly fired at by the Burmese Navy. 150 are believed to have perished. Many Rohingyas are ready to embark on a risky sea journey in order to escape oppression, discrimination and dire poverty..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 426K; Burmese, 196K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/40-42.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Without refuge: Chin refugees in India and Malaysia
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Most Chin refugees have never set foot in a refugee camp; they live as urban and undocumented refugees in India and Malaysia.
    Author/creator: Amy Alexander
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 334K; Burmese, 194K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/36-37.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Desperate Conditions: Update on Malaysia as Burma Refuge
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Nine months after the research which produced the Project Maje report "We Built This City: Workers from Burma at Risk in Malaysia" (July 2007) the situation for people from Burma seeking refuge and work in Malaysia has not improved at all. Raids by the Malaysian vigilante group Rela have continued and may be even more widespread. Rela activities are said to be especially violent and relentless in regions other than Kuala Lumpur, with the island of Penang especially prone to Rela raids. In addition to the abusive behavior of the government-sanctioned legitimate Rela units, the unlimited power of Rela has spawned copycat criminals who simply pose as Rela members in order to rob and extort from foreigners. Lack of police or government control of Rela continues in spite of international press coverage and pressure campaigns. Members of the Chin and Kachin communities mentioned recent legal in-sourcing of Bangladeshi workers to Malaysia as a new problem, driving down wages for the illegal foreign workers and increasing competition for jobs..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 April 2008


    Title: Undocumented migrants and refugees in Malaysia: Raids, Detention and Discrimination
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "there are no publicly available statistics on the number of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia. Estimates refer to 1,8 million registered (or documented) migrant workers and about 5 million undocumented migrant workers. “Migrant workers account for about 30% to 50% of the total Malaysian labour force. In spite of the important contribution that this represents to the Malaysian economy, the authorities have not put in place any consistent national immigration policy”, said Souhayr Belhassen, President of FIDH. Undocumented migrants usually work for the ‘3D jobs’ (Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult) and are not adequately protected against unscrupulous recruitment agencies and employers. Domestic legislation does not provide for a specific protection for refugees, asylum seekers or trafficked persons. Only a temporary residence permit, the IMM 13 visas, can offer a de facto protection for refugees against refoulement. Domestic legislation provides for an insufficient protection of children refugees and asylum seekers, in particular as regards access to education. Detention of children for immigration purposes is common, while it should be prohibited as a principle. The People’s Volunteer Corps-RELA, a volunteer force composed of more than 400 000 reservists, is meant to safeguard peace and security in the country. In times of peace, it contributes to the enforcement of the immigration law. The lack of training and supervision of RELA members are major concerns. “RELA carries raids against migrants, without distinction between undocumented migrants, asylum seekers and refugees and with unnecessary use of force. The Malaysian authorities should immediately cease the use of RELA officers in the enforcement of immigration law”, said Swee Seng Yap, Executive Director of SUARAM. The Immigration Act raises a number of concerns with regard to the administration of justice: the length of time a migrant arrested under the Act may be held before being brought before a Magistrate is overly long (14 days); detention may even be indeterminate pending removal; the exclusion of the right to challenge decisions under the Act on a number of grounds; and the absence of specific protection for migrants in case of abuse by employers or unpaid wages. The report documents the poor conditions of detention, particularly in the « immigration depots ». Overcrowded facilities are leading to breaches of basic standards of hygiene; insufficient diet and health care, ill treatment of detainees and a failure to adequately protect women and children in detention are of particular concern. FIDH urges the Malaysian authorities to amend the immigration Act with a view to avoiding that violations of provisions relating to migration are treated in the criminal justice system. Meanwhile and as a minimum, the sentence of whipping should be abolished as corporal punishment is prohibited under international human rights law, and the maximum term of imprisonment provided for immigration offences should be reduced. "Up to now, the government has been adopting a punitive approach to the issue of migration: the poor conditions of detention of migrants in the immigration detention centers and the fact that they can be condemned to corporal punishments (whipping) are part of this policy. Time has come for a comprehensive policy on migration, based on international human rights standards”, said Cynthia Gabriel, Vice-president of FIDH and Board member of SUARAM. “We call upon the newly elected parliamentarians to consider our recommendations, and to put aside the RELA Bill that was tabled last year for first reading”, she concluded.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SUARAM, FIDH
    Format/size: pdf (236K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fidh.org/spip.php?article5357
    Date of entry/update: 04 April 2008


    Title: Burma - Visit to the Thailand-Burma Border and Malaysia
    Date of publication: 25 February 2008
    Description/subject: "...In addition to the crisis inside Burma, CSW wishes to highlight the seriously under-reported challenges facing Burmese refugees in Malaysia, and the desperate conditions in which they exist in urban and jungle camps in and around Kuala Lumpur. The regular detention and deportation of Burmese refugees by the Malaysian authorities, including severe mistreatment such as caning, require urgent international attention and action..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)
    Format/size: pdf (165K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2008


    Title: Unsafe Harbor
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: Malaysia provides no protection for its refugee population... "I’ve always thought that the lives of Burmese refugees were much the same from place to place. They’re generally unwanted, have few opportunities to better their lives and in many cases suffer unconscionable abuse. An Irrawaddy correspondent witnesses the hardships facing migrant in Malaysia Witnessing the appalling conditions endured by Burmese refugees in Malaysia, however, has brought their misery and lack of hope into greater focus. During a visit to the Ampang suburb of the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur, a Rohingya community leader casually pointed to a group of young Burmese children playing near the small hut that served as their home. “Look,” he said, pointing in their direction. “None of these children can read or write.” None of the schools in Malaysia accepts refugee children from Burma, so these children are unlikely ever to learn while they remain in the country..."
    Author/creator: Violet Cho
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: We Built This City: Workers from Burma at Risk in Malaysia
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: "Having fled regions of Burma which are among the closest equivalents of hell on earth, refugees from an array of ethnic groups have found an uneasy stopping point in Malaysia. They have run for their lives from forced labor, land confiscation, agricide, military rape and torture, religious persecution, and other severe human rights violations, as well as in some cases forced conscription into the very government army that is committing these crimes. While Malaysia does not border Burma, and is distant from the inland homes of many of the refugees, it is within reach of the Burma/Thailand border. Malaysia has become a particular destination for refugees from areas of Burma that do not border Thailand, the traditional first stop for those who have fled Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2007


    Title: Nowhere to Go: Chin Refugees in Malaysia
    Date of publication: October 2005
    Description/subject: "Starting from the early 1990s Chin refugees come to Malaysia in search of security and survival. Most Chin refugees say they fled to Malaysia to escape life-threatening conditions at home as a result of widespread human rights abuses such as political repression, forced labor, arbitrary arrest and torture at the hands of Burma’s ruling military regime. These claims were validated by the fact that while preparing this brief report, CHRO received a report that a Chin civilian was beaten to death and four village council members from Salen village severely tortured by members of the Burma military. In the spring of 2005, the population of Chin refugees in Malaysia was estimated at about 12,000. Of these numbers only about 600 are recognized by UNHCR Kuala Lumpur as refugees. There are about 6000 Chin refugees who have already obtained serial number from Chin Refugees Committee CRC, a first step in a long waiting process for a UNHCR interview. Because UNHCR is currently accepting only 18 new interviews per week for Chin applicants, it is most likely that with the current pace it will take years before a regular individual case can get processed by UNHCR. As the amnesty period for “illegal migrants” in Malaysia expired at the end of February, the security of Chin refugees has become more precarious. “We are not allowed to live here in Malaysia, and we can not go back to our home country, we have got no where to go” said a 60 year-old former school teacher who is now seeking refuge in Malaysia. The living conditions of the refugees are deplorable. About 20-40 people on average are clustered in a two-bedroom apartment. These are only those who can afford to live in the city and towns. Many more thousands of refugees are living in the jungle of Putrajaya and Cameron Highland Plantation in makeshift tents with plastic roof. On several occasions, police have raided their jungle camps and burnt their tents. The refugees usually come back and rebuild their tents as they have got no where else to go. Between 1998 and 2005 March, over one hundred Chin refugees have died in Malaysia. Of these numbers, only 20 of them have died of natural causes and illness. The rest of them died a violent death due to accidents in the worksite or while being chased by the police. There are about 400 Chin refugees who are in detention camp at the time this report is being prepared..." The smaller file (92K) is text only. The larger one (2.5MB) also contains photos.
    Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization
    Format/size: Word (92K), pdf (2.5MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Nowhere_to_Go_Chin_Refugees_in_Malaysia.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2005


    Title: No Asylum: Burmese in Malaysia
    Date of publication: June 2002
    Description/subject: "Malaysia�s stringent anti-migrant policies are making life unbearable for refugees from Burma, including those recognized by the UNHCR. Tens of thousands of immigrants put themselves into the hands of human traffickers each year to arrange for their illegal entry into Malaysia. Among them are thousands of Burmese immigrants who have bought their way into the country�not so much in search of a high-paying job as to escape persecution in their own country. However, the strict policy of the Malaysian government against any form of unauthorized immigration does not draw distinctions between the immigrants� circumstances. When arrested, even genuine Burmese asylum seekers are deported back to Thailand, where many end up back in the hands of traffickers...."
    Author/creator: Mun Ching
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 5, June 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Malaysia/Burma: Living in Limbo
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Burmese Rohingyas in Malaysia. Contains a good discussion of the Rohingyas' de facto statelessness under the 1982 Citizenship Law as well as background material on the Rohingyas' situation in Burma.."Burmese authorities bear responsibility for the Rohingya's flight. Burma's treatment of the Rohingya is addressed in the background section of the report, and the report offers specific recommendations to the Burmese government. The focus of this report, however, is on what happens to Rohingya when they reach Malaysia. There, they are not treated as refugees fleeing persecution who should be afforded protection, but as aliens subject to detention or deportation in violation of Malaysia's international human rights obligations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Refugees and immigrants in Thailand - Thailand's international treaty obligations and relevant Thai legislation

    Individual Documents

    Title: Thailand's Child Protection Act of 2003 (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2003
    Description/subject: Unofficial translation (by UNICEF)
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Government of Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (112K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 January 2013


    Title: Thailand's Child Protection Act of 2003 (English)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2003
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Government of Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (172K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2009


    Title: Thailand's Child Protection Act of 2003 (Thai)
    Date of publication: 24 September 2003
    Language: Thai
    Source/publisher: Government of Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (228K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2009


    Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: "Chapters inside include Article (1) to (40) of Convention on the Rights of the Child which are divided roughly four sections like: survival rights, Development rights, Protection rights and Participation rights of child."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
    Format/size: pdf (1.49MB)
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2005


    Title: Thailand's Nationality Act
    Date of publication: 1992
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: “Nationality & Statelessness” Vol. II, IBHI Humanitarian Series, 1996
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2005


    Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
    Date of publication: 20 November 1989
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989; entry into force 2 September 1990. For the jurisprudence of the Convention, visit the site of CRC Committee. Myanmar accession: 15 July 1991.
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Thailand's Immigration Act 1979 (B.E. 2522)
    Date of publication: 30 May 1979
    Description/subject: Comment (by UNHCR): This is an unofficial translation. This Act was published in the Government Gazette Vol. 96, Part 28, Special Issue, p. 45, dated 1 March 1979. Translated and published on the website of the Royal Thai Police.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf, html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46b2f9f42.html

    http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/type,LEGISLATION,,THA,46b2f9f42,0.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
    Date of publication: 16 December 1966
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Karen and other refugees from Burma in Thailand - general reports and articles

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Riders
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Burmariders ist eine Hilfsaktion mit interaktiver Website und dem Ziel, auf die Notsituation der Menschen entlang der thailändisch-burmesischen Grenze aufmerksam zu machen. Die Burmariders Florian Fischer und Florian Niethammer fuhren ab 19.06. 2007 insgesamt 1.200 Kilometer mit Fahrrädern im unwegsamen Gebiet entlang der thai-burmesischen Grenze. Sie besuchten in rund vier Wochen sieben Flüchtlingslager. Das Team sammelte Informationen, Stimmen und Eindrücke unter den Flüchtlingen und berichtete per Webcast: Aktuelle Filmberichte wurden schon Minuten später im Internet veröffentlicht. Ethnische Minderheiten; Karen; Ride along the thai-burmese border; ethnic minorities; humanitarian situation; political situation in Burma; refugees in Thailand; Karen
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Burma Riders
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2007


    Title: "Thailand" from drop-down menu on Refworld
    Description/subject: [Holdings, January 2009]: * Country Information (355)... * Legal Information (26)... * Policy Documents (3)... * Reference Documents (10)...... [Holdings, September 2012]: *Country Information (757) *Legal Information (36) *Policy Documents (5) *Reference Documents (37)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


    Title: Die Burma-Fluechtlingshilfe: Mae Tao Clinic
    Description/subject: Medizinische Grundversorgung unter den Fl�chtlingen an der thail�ndisch-burmesischen Grenze. Die Klinik wurde von Dr. Cynthia gegr�ndet. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Ausbildung von medizinischen Hilfskr�ften und Hebammen sowie Kurse in Gesundheitslehre f�r die M�tter und ihre Kinder, ein mobiler medizinischer Hilfsdienst, der Gebiete Burmas besucht, die keine eigene medizinische Versorgung haben, sowie ambulante und station�re medizinische Versorgung der Klinik. keywords: primary health care, IDP in Burma, education of health care personnel.
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees International Thailand page
    Description/subject: Short summary of the refugee situation in Thailand, plus Field Reports; In-Depth Reports; Letters & Testimonies
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


    Title: TBC's camp population figures
    Description/subject: Figures back to December 1998
    Language: nglish
    Source/publisher: The Border Consortium (TBC)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Ad Hoc and Inadequate - Thailand’s Treatment of Refugees and Asylum Seekers
    Date of publication: 13 September 2012
    Description/subject: Summary: "Despite decades of experience with hosting millions of refugees, Thailand’s refugee policies remain fragmented, unpredictable, inadequate and ad hoc, leaving refugees unnecessarily vulnerable to arbitrary and abusive treatment. Thailand is not a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Refugee Convention) or its 1967 Protocol. It has no refugee law or formalized asylum procedures. The lack of a legal framework leaves refugees and asylum seekers in a precarious state, making their stay in Thailand uncertain and their status unclear. Burmese refugees in Thailand face a stark choice: they can stay in one of the refugee camps along the border with Burma and be relatively protected from arrest and summary removal to Burma but without freedom to move or work. Or, they can live and work outside the camps, but typically without recognized legal status of any kind, leaving them at risk of arrest and deportation. It is a choice refugees should not be compelled to make. Many of those who decide to live in the camps do so without being formally registered or recognized. And many of those living outside the camps find the process of applying for and gaining migrant worker status to be prohibitively expensive and out of reach, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation, arrest, and deportation. This report looks at the lives both of refugees inside the camps on the Thai-Burma border as well as of Burmese living outside of the camps, many of whom are, in fact, refugees, even though they have not been officially recognized as such, in large part because they are precluded from lodging refugee claims with the government or with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). This report also looks at the situation of refugees and asylum seekers from other nationalities and their difficulties in finding predictable and sufficient protection in Thailand. Finally, the report looks at the situation of all migrants in Thailand, including refugees and asylum seekers, in their encounters with police and other authorities, including when faced with being detained in Thailand’s Immigration Detention Centers (IDCs) and with deportation or expulsion from the country..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.82K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


    Title: Karen Community-Based Organizations’ Position on Refugees’ Return to Burma
    Date of publication: 11 September 2012
    Description/subject: Today a grouping of Karen Community Based Organizations (KCBOs) released their collective position in response to recent news about the repatriation of refugees. The position paper outlines the pre‐conditions and processes necessary for a successful and voluntary return of refugees from several camps along the Thai‐Burma border, back to Karen areas. Repatriation without these pre‐conditions and processes will be against the will of the refugees and will not respect their right to return voluntarily in safety and with dignity. “We are encouraged by the changes in Burma but there are many improvements that would need to happen before refugees would be safe to return,” said Dah Eh Kler from the Karen Women’s Organization (KWO).“We fled the fighting and the abuse by the Burma Army. We know the ceasefires are still fragile and do not yet include an enforceable code of conduct; the troops are still all around our former villages, along with land mines and other dangers. We hope that we can go home one day soon, but it is just not possible under the current conditions in Karen areas. The position paper is a comprehensive view of what the Karen community needs in order to go home. It outlines several pre‐conditions that must be met before refugees return to Burma, including: achievement of a political settlement between ethnic armed groups and the Burma government, agreement on a nationwide ceasefire, guaranteed safety and security for the people, clearance of land‐mines, withdrawal of all Burma Army and militia troops, end of human rights violations, abolishment of all oppressive laws and resolution of land ownership issues. “We have learned from the UNHCR that the Burma government has already planned the locations to which refugees will be repatriated. KCBOs were very surprised to hear this as we and the refugees themselves have not been consulted properly on where, when and how they will be repatriated. Refugees have the right to make free choices on where, when and how they will return to their homeland,” said Ko Shwe from the Karen Environment and Social Action Network (KESAN). In order to make their own choices about their return, the KCBOs have outlined specific processes that must take place, including defining how consultations with refugees and affected communities must be conducted and how refugees and KCBOs must take part in the decision‐making process at all stages, including in preparation, implementation and post‐return phases. For the full list of pre‐conditions and necessary processes, please see the attached position paper......Burma, Karen, myanmar, refugee, repatriation, return, thailand
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (142K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 September 2012


    Title: Rethinking the ‘Refugee Warrior’: The Karen National Union and Refugee Protection on the Thai–Burma Border
    Date of publication: 06 March 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Well-founded fears that ‘refugee warriors’ will use refugee camps as a base for military operations, exploit a wider refugee population, or misuse international aid have led to the development of policies intended to ensure the separation of combatants and civilian refugee populations. However, a dogmatic approach to that policy goal may miss the true complexity of both refugee protection and the relationships between a refugee population and a military group. This article examines an alternative possibility, that a non-state armed group may be a potential partner in refugee protection and welfare promotion. It draws on the experiences of refugees from Burma living in camps in Thailand, where there has been a long-standing connection between camp governance structures and a political/military organization movement, the Karen National Union/Karen National Liberation Army. While camp governance activities have been flawed, they have also displayed a high level of integrity. It is argued that in such a situation, where there is a proven record of working to improve civilian welfare, international organizations might usefully explore possibilities of engagement with non-state armed groups as partners in refugee protection, with the specific goal of encouraging a more representative, accountable, and democratic approach to governance."... Keywords: armed groups; forced migration; militarization of refugee camps; refugee protection; refugee self-governance
    Author/creator: Kirsten Mcconnachie
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Human Rights Practice
    Format/size: pdf (216K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://jhrp.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/03/06/jhuman.hus005.full.pdf+html
    Date of entry/update: 15 December 2012


    Title: Here, We Are Walking on a Clothesline: Statelessness and Human (In)Security Among Burmese Women Political Exiles Living in Thailand
    Date of publication: 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "An estimated twelve million people worldwide are stateless, or living without the legal bond of citizenship or nationality with any state, and consequently face barriers to employment, property ownership, education, health care, customary legal rights, and national and international protection. More than one-quarter of the world’s stateless people live in Thailand. This feminist ethnography explores the impact of statelessness on the everyday lives of Burmese women political exiles living in Thailand through the paradigm of human security and its six indicators: food, economic, personal, political, health, and community security. The research reveals that exclusion from national and international legal protections creates pervasive and profound political and personal insecurity due to violence and harassment from state and non-state actors. Strong networks, however, between exiled activists and their organizations provide community security, through which stateless women may access various levels of food, economic, and health security. Using the human security paradigm as a metric, this research identifies acute barriers to Burmese stateless women exiles’ experiences and expectations of well-being, therefore illustrating the potential of human security as a measurement by which conflict resolution scholars and practitioners may describe and evaluate their work in the context of positive peace."
    Author/creator: Elizabeth Hooker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Portland University (MS thesis)
    Format/size: pdf (588K)
    Alternate URLs: http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds?utm_source=pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu%2Fopen_acc...
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2013


    Title: The world's longest ongoing war (video)
    Date of publication: 11 August 2011
    Description/subject: "For more than 60 years, Karen rebels have been fighting a civil war against the government of Myanmar...In February 1949, members of the Karen ethnic minority launched an armed insurrection against Myanmar's central government. In pictures: Sixty years of war. Over 60 years later, the conflict continues, with more than a dozen ethnic rebel groups waging war against the army in their fight for self-rule. Now, the war is entering a new and bloody stage. Myanmar is the only regime still regularly planting anti-personnel mines. But it is not only the army that uses them. Rebel groups also regularly use homemade landmines or mines seized from the military. As the conflict escalates, civilians are trapped in the middle of some of the worst fighting in decades. 101 East travels to Myanmar, home to the world's longest running civil war."
    Language: English, Karen (English sub-titles)
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


    Title: A HUMAN SECURITY ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE AND LEGAL PROTECTION SITUATION OF DISPLACED PERSONS ALONG THE THAI-MYANMAR BORDER
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: Sustainable Solutions to the Displaced Person Situation On the Thai-Myanmar Border.....EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:- "The study investigates the social welfare and social security situation of displaced persons (DP) living in the temporary shelters along the Thai-Myanmar border. The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) estimates that 142,653 people were living in these temporary shelters as of February 2011. Displaced persons are essentially dependent on external assistance for the funding of basic needs and services through provision of food and non-food items as well as support for education, healthcare and justice administration services. In order to find alternative and sustainable solutions to the current situation, the study first assesses the availability of existing welfare services (food/shelter, education, healthcare) and legal protection for displaced persons, and evaluates the extent to which these services are meeting the needs of displaced persons. It then examines the potential implications and sustainability of access to local Thai education, health, and judicial services. In addition, the study identifies possible social tension and conflict between displaced persons and local communities in relation to access to social welfare services. The research uses a triangulation method which utilizes more than one research technique to verify information and cross-check different sources. Research methods employed include documentary analysis and both quantitative and qualitative fieldwork. Field data was collected between March 2010 and February 2011 focusing on three temporary shelters and surrounding local communities: Tham Hin/Ratchaburi Province; Mae La/Tak Province; and Ban Mai Nai Soi/Mae Hong Son Province. The study applies the Human Security framework and the Right to Education framework to analyze findings from both the documentary and field research..."
    Author/creator: Naruemon Thabchumpon, Bea Moraras, Jiraporn Laocharoenwong, Wannaprapa Karom
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (2.18MB-original; 1.5MB-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Social_%20Welfare_and_Social_Security.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: ANALYSIS OF DONOR, INGO/NGO AND UN AGENCY DELIVERY OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO DISPLACED PERSONS FROM MYANMAR ALONG THE THAI‐MYANMAR BORDER
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: Sustainable Solutions to the Displaced Person Situation on the Thai-Myanmar Border...Executive Summary: "One of six diverse studies examining durable solutions to the displaced persons (DP) situation along the Thai-Myanmar border, this study analyzes the role of donors, international organizations and non-government organizations (NGOs). It examines the rationale behind international intervention, funding policies and organizational mandates; implementation strategies and the dynamics of cooperation among stakeholders including the Royal Thai Government (RTG); as well as the operating environment and impacts of this for effective intervention. ... Findings will be applied to facilitate the design of an improved strategy to implement policy and to advocate for a change in policy towards sustainable and long-term solutions for the protracted displacement situation along the Thai-Myanmar border..."
    Author/creator: Dares Chusri, Tarina Rubin, Ma. Esmeralda Silva, Jason D. Theede, Sunanta Wongchalee, Patcharin Chansawang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-original; 875K-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Analysis_of_Donor_etc_delivery.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: ANALYSIS OF ROYAL THAI GOVERNMENT POLICY TOWARDS DISPLACED PERSONS FROM MYANMAR
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: "...RTG policy has been largely responsive to the DPs issue, rather than proactive, and the RTG still has no formal asylum law. This has led to practical difficulties in dealing with the DPs, and has also enabled the RTG to maintain an apparent ambivalence to the situation in public. In particular, the RTG has maintained that the DPs are a national security issue, which has led to reluctance to consider certain solutions. In addition, the DPs issue has been made more complex by the 2 million migrant workers from Myanmar that work in Thailand, and by Thailand’s strategic relationship with the government of Myanmar. The lack of clear and open policy on the DPs has meant that they are usually considered first and foremost as potential illegal immigrants; the DPs have been given long-term sanctuary and protection from refoulement, but within closed settlements which iii have created conditions of dependence and have severely limited self-reliance in contrast to international standards on treatment of refugees. The internal factors influencing the RTG policy include concerns about the security of its sovereignty, local resistance, negative public attitude and other priorities that remains difficult to resolve; management of migrant workers. Thailand’s relationship with Myanmar and its commitments to various international conventions are the external factors that affect RTG policy towards displaced person from Myanmar..."
    Author/creator: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Graham Bennett, Chanarat Poomkacha, Waranya Jitpong, Kamonwan Reungsamran
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (829K-original; 723K-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Analysis_RTG_Policy.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES/LABOUR MARKET IN THE TEMPORARY SHELTERS AND SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: Sustainable Solutions to the Displaced Person Situation On the Thai-Myanmar Border.....Executive Summary: "This study presents an overview of livelihood opportunities of displaced persons in temporary shelters and of the surrounding communities. It explores labour market conditions and provides recommendations aimed at improving the livelihoods opportunities of the displaced persons notably. Three temporary shelters were selected for study; Ban Tham Hin (Ratchaburi province), Ban Mai Nai Soi (Mae Hong Son province) and Ban Mae La (Tak province). In each shelter, a variety of research methods was used to analyse livelihoods and labour market opportunities of displaced persons. Data was collected by surveys, focus group discussion, indepth interviews and literature review. Respondents included displaced persons, staff members of NGOs working in shelters areas, local authorities and local entrepreneurs. According to the agreement of working group, the study assessed the pilot projects which are implemented by Non Government Organizations instead of creating new pilot project..."
    Author/creator: Yongyuth Chalamwong and the Thailand Development Research Institute team
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 4.67MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.arcmthailand.com/documents/publications/01_LIVELIHOOD%20OPPORTUNITIES.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: THE IMPACT OF DISPLACED PEOPLE'S TEMPORARY SHELTERS ON THEIR SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This study presents an overview of environmental issues and impacts associated with displaced peoples’ temporary shelters along the Thai-Myanmar border, and formulates recommendations aimed at improving the environmental conditions in and around the settlements. Out of nine such temporary shelters, three were selected for detailed study: Ban Tham Hin (Ratchburi province), Ban Mai Nai Soi (Mae Hong Son province) and Ban Mae La (Tak province). In each of these shelters a variety of research methods was used to assess the environmental conditions, analyze displaced peoples’ way of living and use of resources, and disclose displaced peoples’ perceptions of the environmental conditions they face. Data was collected by means of observation (field trips were made to each of the shelters), surveys, in-depth interviews, focus group meetings and desk research. Respondents included the displaced people themselves and staff members working in the shelter areas. Whenever relevant and possible, the scope of the research was not restricted to the shelters alone. Efforts were made to also assess environmental impacts produced by the presence of the shelters in the surrounding areas, amongst other by hearing officials and representatives from these areas in focus group meetings and through interviews..."
    Author/creator: Suwattana Thadaniti, Kanokphan U-Cha, Bart Lambregts, Jaturapat Bhiromkaew, Vullop Prombang, Suchoaw Toommakorn, Saowanee Wijitkosum
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 16MB-original --higher resolution)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.arcmthailand.com/documents/publications/03_Environment%20.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: The Process and Prospects for Resettlement of Displaced Persons on the Thai-Myanmar Border
    Date of publication: July 2011
    Description/subject: Sustainable Solutions to the Displaced Person Situation On the Thai-Myanmar Border.....Conclusion: Resettlement operations within the shelters in Thailand have now been ongoing continuously for more than 5 years with over 64,000 departures completed as of the end of 2010. However, despite the large investment of financial and human resources in this effort, the displacement situation appears not to have diminished significantly in scale as of yet. While no stakeholders involved with the situation in Thailand are currently calling for an end to resettlement activities, there has been little agreement about what role resettlement actually x serves in long-term solutions for the situation. For the most part, the program has been implemented thus far in a reflexive manner rather than as a truly responsive and solutions-oriented strategy, based primarily upon the parameters established by the policies of resettlement nations and the RTG rather than the needs of the displaced persons within the shelters. Looking towards the future, it appears highly unlikely that resettlement can resolve the displaced person situation in the border shelters as a lone durable solution and almost certainly not if the status quo registration policies and procedures of the RTG are maintained. All stakeholders involved with trying to address the situation are currently stuck with the impractical approach of attempting to resolve a protracted state of conflict and human rights abuses within Myanmar without effective means for engaging with the situation in-country. Neither stemming the tide of new displacement flows nor establishing conditions that would allow for an eventual safe return appear feasible at this time. Within the limitations of this strategy framework, a greater level of cooperation between resettlement countries, international organizations, and the RTG to support a higher quantity of departures for resettlement through addressing the policy constraints and personal capacity restrictions to participation appears a desirable option and might allow for resettlement to begin to have a more significant impact on reducing the scale of displacement within Thailand. However, realistically this would still be unlikely to resolve the situation as a whole if not conducted in combination with more actualized forms of local integration within Thailand and within the context of reduced displacement flows into the shelters. The overall conclusion reached about resettlement is that it continues to play a meaningful palliative, protective, and durable solution role within the shelters in Thailand. While it is necessary for resettlement to remain a carefully targeted program, the stakeholders involved should consider expanding resettlement to allow participation of legitimate asylum seekers within the shelters who are currently restricted from applying because of the lack of a timely status determination process. Allowing higher levels of participation in resettlement through addressing this policy constraint, as well as some of the more personal constraints that prevent some families within the shelters from moving on with their lives, would be a positive development in terms of providing durable solutions to the situation. In conjunction with greater opportunities for local integration and livelihood options for those who cannot or do not wish to participate in resettlement, the program should be expanded to make the option of an alternative to indefinite encampment within the shelters in Thailand available to a larger group of eligible displaced persons..."
    Author/creator: Ben Harkins, Nawita Direkwut, and Aungkana Kamonpetch
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (1.54MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-Resettlement_Study_Final_Report.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: Three villagers killed, eight injured during fighting in Kyaikdon area
    Date of publication: 17 May 2011
    Description/subject: "Research submitted by a KHRG field researcher indicates that fighting between DKBA and Tatmadaw troops between April 22nd and April 30th 2011 in Kya In Township has left at least three civilians dead and eight injured. The indiscriminate firing of mortars and small arms in civilian areas by armed groups involved in the conflict, and conflict related abuse including an explicit threat by Tatmadaw forces to burn civilians' homes, caused at least 143 villagers from Gkyaw Hta, Khoh Htoh, T'Aye Shay and Mae Naw Ah villages to seek refuge in the Ra--- area of Thailand between April 22nd and 30th 2011. As of May 13th 2011, KHRG confirmed that the firing of mortars and small arms was ongoing in the areas of K'Lay Kee and Noh Taw Plah, and that some villagers continued to seek refuge at discreet locations in Thailand."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (503K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b6.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Pa'an interviews: Conditions for villagers returned from temporary refuge sites in Tha Song Yang
    Date of publication: 06 May 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcripts of seven interviews conducted between June 1st and June 18th 2010 in Dta Greh Township, Pa'an District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed seven villagers from two villages in Wah Mee Gklah village tract, after they had returned to Burma following initial displacement into Thailand during May and June 2009. The interviewees report that they did not wish to return to Burma, but felt they had to do so as the result of pressure and harassment by Thai authorities. The interviewees described the following abuses since their return, including: the firing of mortars and small arms at villagers; demands for villagers to porter military supplies, and for the payment of money in lieu of the provision of porters; theft and looting of villagers' houses and possessions; and threats from unexploded ordnance and the use of landmines, including consequences for livelihoods and injuries to civilians. All seven interviewees also raised specific concerns regarding the food security of villagers returned to Burma following their displacement into Thailand."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (836K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b5.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Thai 'solution' may worsen situation
    Date of publication: 22 April 2011
    Description/subject: "The uncertain plight of more than 140,000 refugees living in camps along the Thai-Myanmar border has become even more precarious. On April 11, Thailand's National Security Council chief Tawin Pleansri announced that the closure of the refugee camps was imminent. He added that the National Security Council, the institution that has overall authority over refugee issues, is in discussions with the Myanmar government and in contact with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) about repatriating the refugees to Myanmar. This is disconcerting news to those living in the nine official refugee camps dotted along the porous border between Myanmar and Thailand. They fled from armed conflict and structural violence in the Karen, the Karenni and the Shan states on the eastern border as well as other parts of Myanmar. They had been exploited for their labour, food and money by the Myanmar military and its allied groups, which have been waging a long-standing campaign against ethnic insurgent groups since the 1960s..."
    Author/creator: Su-Ann Oh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Straits Times"
    Format/size: pdf (55K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 July 2011


    Title: Thailand: No Safe Refuge
    Date of publication: 24 March 2011
    Description/subject: "The eruption of conflict between the Burmese military and an ethnic rebel faction in eastern Burma has forced over 30,000 people to flee to Thailand since November 2010. Skirmishes are ongoing and both parties have planted landmines in people’s villages and farmlands. While the Thai government has a long-standing policy of providing refuge for “those fleeing fighting,” the Thai army is pressuring Burmese to return prematurely and restricting aid agencies. Unless the Thai Government strengthens its policy to protect those fleeing fighting and persecution, current and future refugees will have no choice but to join the ranks of millions of undocumented and unprotected migrant workers in Thailand..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: pdf (93K, html)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/policy/field-report/thailand-no-safe-refuge
    Date of entry/update: 24 March 2011


    Title: CHILDREN CAUGHT IN CONFLICT: CASE STUDY OF THAI-MYANMAR BORDER
    Date of publication: November 2010
    Description/subject: Table of Contents:- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... FOREWORD... CHAPTER 1 CONFLICT: THE ROOT CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 1.1 Ethnic diversity and protracted armed conflict; 1.2 Forced out of homes, internally displaced persons; 1.3 Forced out of the land: asylum seekers across the border... CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STUDY AREAS: 2.1 Mae La shelter, Tak province; 2.2 Ban Pang Kwai - Pang Tractor shelter, Mae Hong Son province; 2.3 Shan communities, Chiang Mai province... CHAPTER 3 LIFE OF CHILDREN BEFORE DISPLACEMENT: 3.1 Children in Kayin state; 3.2 Children in Kayah state; 3.3 Life of Children in Shan State; 3.4 Protection for children in Myanmar... CHAPTER 4 LIFE AS ASYLUM SEEKER: 4.1 Children in Mae La shelter; 4.2 Children in Mae Hong Son shelter; 4.3 Life of children outside the temporary shelter; 4.4 Protection of children in Thailand... CHAPTER 5 ARMED CONFLICT SITUATION: IMPACT ON CHILDREN: 5.1 Children from Kayin State; 5.2 Children in Karenni shelter; 5.3 Children in non-shelter area... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... RECOMMENDATIONS... REFERENCES.
    Author/creator: PREMJAI VUNGSIRIPHISAL, SUPANG CHANTAVANICH, SUPAPHAN KHANCHAI, WARANYA JITPONG, YOKO KUROIWA
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ASIAN RESEARCH CENTRE FOR MIGRATION INSTITUTE OF ASIAN STUDIES, CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY Bangkok, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (630K-OBL version; 1MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/ARCM-CHILDREN_CAUGHT_IN_CONFLICT.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    Title: Portraits from the Border
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: Every Burmese refugee has his or her own story of escape—from political persecution, from economic hardship, from the violence of civil war... "Driven more by fear and hardship than by hope, they come here to escape the ravages of war and repression in Burma, not knowing what awaits them when they cross the border into Thailand. Whether they are subsistence farmers or highly educated professionals, rebels or ordinary citizens, their lives are suspended—often for years or decades—between a traumatic past and an uncertain future..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


    Title: Entangled in Red Tape
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: The jobs are waiting for Burmese refugees, but the road to them is full of obstacles... "While working on a university graduation thesis at Mae La refugee camp in Thailand’s Tak Province, Burmese student Moe Zaw Oo interviewed a 20-year-old woman resident who ventured outside every day to earn 50 baht (US $1.50) laboring on a nearby farm. “When she returned to the camp in the evening she also had to sell vegetables for the farmer. She was expected to sell them all or lose her job,” said Moe Zaw Oo. Unknown numbers of refugees slip out of Mae La and other camps in this way to work illegally on Thai farms and estates for as little as 40 baht ($1.20) a day, risking arrest and deportation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=16910
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: Homesick
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: Most Karen refugees hope to return to Burma one day... "Holding the youngest of her four grandchildren in her arms, 60-year-old Bi Mae said: “If there is peace again, we will go back to our village.” Bi Mae and the four children fled to Thailand in July to escape the fighting in her Karen homeland, together with more than 500 other refugees. Their home now is a makeshift bamboo hut in a temporary refugee camp at Tha Song Yang near the Thai-Burmese border. Since the beginning of June, fierce clashes between a joint force of Burmese government troops and their local allies, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), and their traditional foe, the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), have forced around 4,000 Karen villagers to flee to Thailand. A Karen woman brings her children to a ceremony marking International Refugee Day at Mae La Oon camp. (Photo: MASARU GOTO/TBBC) They boosted the number of refugees admitted to camps along the Thai-Burmese border to 134,000. A further 50,000 have been resettled in the US and other Western countries. Most of those still in the camps dream of being able to return home to Burma one day..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: Thailand: New Problems Challenge Old Solutions
    Date of publication: 30 September 2009
    Description/subject: "Burmese refugees have been living in Thailand for more than two decades. The situation is fluid: resettlement programs have provided tens of thousands of people with new lives, while a new wave of conflict in Burma is changing the political landscape and forcing thousands of new refugees to flee into Thailand. While the Royal Thai Government should be commended for its willingness to host new arrivals, it must also respond to the fact that ongoing conflict in neighboring Burma will prevent refugees from going home anytime soon. To address the regional challenges of the conflict in Burma, the Thai government needs to implement a more progressive refugee policy and the U.S. and other donor governments must provide flexible funding for Burmese humanitarian assistance."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: pdf (127K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2009


    Title: Security concerns for new refugees in Tha Song Yang: Update on increased landmine risks
    Date of publication: 22 September 2009
    Description/subject: "At least 4,862 refugees from the Ler Per Her IDP camp and surrounding villages in Pa’an District remain at new arrival sites in Thailand. Though the fighting that precipitated the flight of many of these refugees in June has decreased, the area from which they fled continues to be unsafe for them to return. This bulletin provides updated information on landmine risks for refugees who may return, or who have already returned, including the maiming of a 13-year-old resident of the Oo Thu Hta new arrival site who returned to visit his village to tend livestock. Refugees face other threats to safe return as well, including widespread conscription as forced labourers, porters and “human minesweepers” by the SPDC and DKBA, as well as forced military recruitment by the DKBA and potential accusation and punishment as “insurgent supporters.”"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group News Bulletin (KHRG #2009-B10)
    Format/size: pdf (356K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


    Title: Abuse in Pa'an District, Insecurity in Thailand: The dilemma for new refugees in Tha Song Yang
    Date of publication: 08 September 2009
    Description/subject: "This report presents information on abuses in eastern Pa'an District, where joint SPDC/DKBA forces continue to subject villagers to exploitative abuse and attempt to consolidate control of territory around recently taken KNLA positions near the Ler Per Her IDP camp. Abuses documented in this report include forced labour, conscription of porters and human minesweepers as well as the summary execution of a village headman. The report also provides an update on the situation for newly arrived refugees in Thailand's Tha Song Yang District, where at least 4,862 people from the Ler Per Her area have sought refuge; some have been there since June 2nd 2009, others arrived later. This report presents new information for the period of June to August 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F14)
    Format/size: pdf (860 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f14.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 October 2009


    Title: Exploitation and recruitment under the DKBA in Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 29 June 2009
    Description/subject: "While recent media attention has focused on the joint SPDC/DKBA attacks on the KNLA in Pa'an District and the dramatic exodus of at least 3,000 refugees from the area of Ler Per Her IDP camp into Thailand, the daily grind of exploitative treatment by DKBA forces continues to occur across the region. This report presents a breakdown of DKBA Brigade #999 battalions, some recent cases of exploitative abuse by this unit in Pa'an District and a brief overview of the group's transformation into a Border Guard Force as part of the SPDC's planned 2010-election process, in which the DKBA has sought to significantly expand its numbers. Amongst those forcibly recruited for this transformation process was a 17-year-old child soldier injured in the fighting at Ler Per Her, whose testimony is included here..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F11)
    Format/size: pdf (549 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f11.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 October 2009


    Title: Life in Exile: Burmese Refugees along the Thai-Burma Border
    Date of publication: 26 February 2009
    Description/subject: 2009 will mark 25 years since the first refugees arrived in Thailand. An entire generation has arisen who know nothing but confinement and seclusion, as all Burmese refugees in Thailand are officially required to stay within camp boundaries. Currently, 135,000 refugees reside in nine camps in Thailand and they are almost entirely dependent on international assistance. Refugees have no official access to employment opportunities, external education or the right of movement, if caught outside the camps they are liable to arrest and deportation. As the security situation in Burma continues to deteriorate, new asylum seekers continue to arrive in the camps. Camp boundaries have long been demarcated, resulting in overcrowding. Although conditions vary considerably among camps, in several camps housing standards are significantly below UNHCR minimum standards. Long-term confinement in the camps is having serious and negative psychological impact on camp residents, resulting in an increasing number of suicides and serious mental health problems. As a new generation of refugees grows up entirely within a camp environment, the need to address the special health and social requirements of the young is particularly acute. Protection concerns within the camps is now alarming, the levels of extreme violence, crime and other forms of abuse and exploitation are rising..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rescue Committee (IRC)
    Format/size: pdf (41K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.theirc.org/help/take-action/resources/irc_thailandadvocacypaper_february2009.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 May 2009


    Title: UNHCR Atlas map of Myanmar, July 2008
    Date of publication: 07 July 2008
    Description/subject: Shows refugee camps, UNHCR offices, main towns and villages etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (2.05MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/44103c910.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


    Title: Myanmar-Thailand border: Age distribution of refugee population
    Date of publication: 21 May 2008
    Description/subject: Shows refugee camps with pie charts of age distribution plus location of UNHCR offices, main towns and villages etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (1.29 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/4416887e0.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


    Title: UNHCR map of Myanmar-Thailand border: refugee population by gender
    Date of publication: 21 May 2008
    Description/subject: Pie gender charts of refugee camps plus UNHCR offices etc. Figures as at end April 2008
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR via ReliefWeb
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/fullmaps_sa.nsf/luFullMap/94E1ED96A53ABCD8C125748E0036D8B4/$File/unhcr_IDP_mmr080521.pdf?OpenElement
    Date of entry/update: 12 January 2011


    Title: A sense of home in exile
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Material objects and the physical actions of making and using them are a fundamental part of how forced migrants, far from being passive victims of circumstance, seek to make the best of – and make a home in – their displacement.
    Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 240K, English, 400K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/23-24.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Access to justice and the rule of law
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Due to the nature of displacement and encampment – entailing resource scarcity, geographic isolation, restricted mobility and curtailed legal rights – refugee victims of crime often have inadequate legal recourse.
    Author/creator: Joel Harding, Shane Scanlon, Sean Lees, Carson Beker and Ai Li Lim
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 438K, Burmese, 257K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/28-30.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Burmese asylum seekers in Thailand: still nowhere to turn
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Until the Thai authorities and UNHCR can provide an asylum process that is systematic and fair, as opposed to one that is conditional on particular events and dates, the current asylum system will offer nothing more than pot luck.
    Author/creator: Chen Chen Lee and Isla Glaister
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 293K, Burmese, 189K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/33-34.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Community-based camp management
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: "...Community-based camp management has focused on keeping refugees in control of their own situation and as autonomous as possible. It has moved from complete ‘hands off’ to compliance with international standards and procedures. Systems continue to evolve. The NGO community needs to build on the incredible coping skills that refugees possess. With appropriate support the communities will continue to address the daily realities of camp life where the possibility of return is unlikely in the near future and where new arrivals continue to crowd into the already overcrowded camps."
    Author/creator: Sally Thompson
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (440K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/26-28.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: IRC is concerned that there are significant numbers of Burmese living in Thailand who qualify for and deserve international protection and assistance but who do not have access to proper registration processes. Without a transparent, humane and lawful asylum policy for Burmese people entering Thailand, it is impossible to estimate the percentage of bona fide refugees within the group of migrants who have left Burma for other reasons. The lack of systematic data to document the reasons people flee Burma provides the Thai authorities with the excuse to treat those Burmese living outside the refugee camps as mere economic migrants, subject to deportation. It also weakens the leverage that agencies working with the Burmese living in Thailand have to advocate on their behalf.
    Author/creator: Margaret Green, Karen Jacobsen and Sandee Pyne
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 398K, Burmese, 285K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/31-33.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Neglect of refugee participation
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: "The participation of affected populations in planning or implementation of humanitarian aid in conflict or postconflict situations has too often been neglected...There has been a notable progression to systematic aid dependency among the Myanmar refugees living in nine camps along the Thai-Myanmar border. Refugee participation shifted from self-reliance for shelter and food to the current situation in which the refugees have become fully dependent on the international community for their living in Thailand, tempered by partial self-management of their own health care, education services and food distribution..."
    Author/creator: Marie Theres Benner, Aree Muangsookjarouen, Egbert Sondorp and Joy Townsend
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 77K; English, 227K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/25.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Invisible in Thailand - Documenting the need for international protection for Burmese
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: Tufts-International Rescue Committee Survey of Burmese Migrants in Thailand..."FIC researcher Karen Jacobsen helped IRC design a survey that documented the experiences of Burmese people living in border areas of Thailand, and explored whether their experience in Burma might mean that they merited international protection as refugees. The data reveals significant differences in the demographic and socioeconomic makeup of the three sites, as well as differences in the reasons the respondents left Burma. Our findings suggest that a great number of currently unprotected Burmese in Thailand, possibly as many as fifty percent, merit further investigation as to their refugee status; and that only a small number of Burmese who warrant refugee status and attendant services actually receive any aid or protection either from the Thai government or from international aid agencies."
    Author/creator: Margaret Green-Rauerhorst, Karen Jacobsen, and Sandee Pyne with the International Rescue Committee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rescue Committee, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University
    Format/size: i-paper, pdf (492K)
    Alternate URLs: http://fic.tufts.edu/?pid=76
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Tales from the Land in Between - a review of Richard Humphries' "Frontier Mosaic"
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: "Frontier Mosaic: Voices from the Lands in Between", by Richard Humphries. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 2007. P181... "The border frontier is a sanctuary for homeless refugees, Burmese spies, traders and people who dream of a better life... In recent weeks, the world’s attention has focused on events in Burma. The interest in the for now failed saffron revolution was so great it pushed the news from Iraq off the front pages of America’s newspapers for the first time since the 2003 invasion. But for decades, people living along the border areas have been brutally beaten down by the regime—mostly out of the glare of media attention..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: Burma Army
    Date of publication: 15 July 2007
    Description/subject: Die Armee der SPDC Militärdiktatur ist mittlerweile auf eine Truppenstärke von 500.000 Soldaten angewachsen und jetzt selbst nur noch durch ein System der Angst zu kontrollieren. Fast jeder hat einen Vorgesetzten und die Exekution ist nur einen Schuß entfernt. Der militärische Geheimdienst ist überall und selbst die höheren Ränge werden oft ‘Reinigungen’ nach sowietischem Vorbild unterzogen. Karen; Flüchtlinge; Burma Army; Refugees
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Burma Riders
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


    Title: Schicksale - Die Waisenkinder von Loi Kaw Wan
    Date of publication: 31 May 2006
    Description/subject: Ein ausführlicher Bericht über das Schicksal von Waisenkinder an der thailändischen Grenze, sowie die Organisation und der Tagesablauf des Waisenhauses in Loi Kaw Wan; organisation and daily life in an orphanage in Loi Kaw Wan;
    Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan
    Format/size: Html (25kb)
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


    Title: "Give These Refugees a Voice!"
    Date of publication: April 2006
    Description/subject: A Cambodian MP looks at Burma's growing refugee population... "Recently, I had the opportunity to visit a refugee camp on the Thai-Burmese border with my fellow Asean parliamentarians who, like me, went because they were concerned about the situation in Burma. It was a journey that evoked overpowering emotions that I had perhaps not anticipated. Having supported the movement for democracy in Burma, I was humbled and moved to tears to witness at first hand the plight of these innocent and brave people..."
    Author/creator: Son Chhay
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


    Title: Mae Sot under the Microscope
    Date of publication: February 2006
    Description/subject: Australian journalist looks closely at life in a Thai border town... "Restless Souls. Refugees, Mercenaries, Medics and Misfits on the Thai Burma Border, by Phil Thornton, Asia Books, Bangkok; 2005. P240 Borders everywhere attract their fair share of humanitarians, traders, mercenaries, messiahs, opportunists and loons. The beautiful, rugged and long-suffering Burma-Thailand frontier region seems to have exceeded its quota of all of them some time ago, and the Thai border town of Mae Sot is now clogged with foreigners existing as a sort of parallel species to Thai, Burmese, Karen and Muslim inhabitants. Such is its fascination as the entrepôt for trade, refugees, drugs and conflict over the border that Mae Sot and its surroundings represent a microcosm of the deep malaise of Burma. Phil Thornton is an Australian journalist who has lived in Mae Sot for more than five years, working with a range of Karen groups and collecting stories of everyday survival. Restless Souls is a painfully authentic tour through the lives of ordinary people living in a zone of low-intensity conflict in the world’s longest and most ignored civil war, the 58-year struggle of the Karen people against the Burmese military..."
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: A Pregnant Problem
    Date of publication: November 2005
    Description/subject: Young women trapped by dogma and the generation gap... "It’s only a couple of years ago that young people living in and around the Karenni refugee camp at Ban Tractor in Thailand’s Mae Hong Son Province were able to help themselves to free condoms from boxes attached to trees and wayside posts. It was the idea of the camp health department director, Say Reh, who had been growing increasingly concerned about the rising numbers of young unmarried women becoming pregnant and also about the risk of HIV/AIDS in the community. But it was a short-lived idea. Say Reh had to abandon his solo birth-control effort after three months because of strong opposition from many of the camp residents and Catholic and Protestant church ministers. “Older people here believe that distributing condoms and organizing sex education encourages young people to indulge in sex,” says Say Reh. Although he’s abandoned his free condoms initiative, Say Reh and some of his co-workers still hold occasional sex education classes for the young people of Ban Tractor, under the watchful eye of disapproving elder members of the community. “The problem is that parents are sensitive on sex issues and many are illiterate, so they don’t know how to educate their children and guard them from unwanted pregnancies,” he says..."
    Author/creator: Louis Reh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: A Life in Hiding
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Karen Internally Displaced Persons wonder when they will be able to go home... "Sitting in his new bamboo hut in Ler Per Her camp for Internally Displaced Persons, located on the bank of Thailand’s Moei River near the border with Burma, Phar The Tai—a skinny, tough-looking man of 60 who used to hide in the jungles and mountains of Burma’s eastern Karen State—waits for the time when he can return home. “We are living in fear all the time,” he says about the lives of IDPs. His words reflect the general feeling among IDPs from Karen State, which has produced the largest number of displaced people in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Limbo Land
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Thailand’s new refugee rules leave thousands in fear and suspense... "When Sandar Win, a former activist in Burma’s opposition National League for Democracy, fled to neighboring Thailand in January she hoped to continue her political struggle there. But she hadn’t kept up with events in Thailand and had certainly not read Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s refugee policy statement, made in June 2003: “Thailand will not allow any groups to use our territory for political activities against neighboring countries.” Instead of finding asylum as a political refugee under the protection of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sandar Win stepped into limbo. Thaksin had followed up his foreboding message by introducing new regulations curtailing the UNHCR’s power to grant refugee status to new arrivals from Burma. Sandar Win is one of about 9,000 who now have no UNHCR protection and are technically illegal immigrants..."
    Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Terminal Sanctuary
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border keep many safe from persecution at home, but Thailand’s restrictive administrative policies offer little hope for the future... "When Karen refugees first began trickling across the Burmese border into Thailand, they were put into “temporary” refugee camps administered by the Bangkok government. Now, 20 years on, they have been joined by thousands more, and while the string of border camps are still called temporary, with fighting still raging across the border there seems no end in sight..."
    Author/creator: Edward Blair
    Language: Englilsh
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Farewell to the “Liberated Area”
    Date of publication: February 2005
    Description/subject: Democracy activists take the safe option... "“It’s as if brains have been infected by malaria.” Kyaw Thura invoked a common Burmese expression to vent his frustration over the increasing numbers of dissident exiles who are turning their backs on comrades in the so-called “Liberated Area” and seeking new lives elsewhere..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2005


    Title: THAILAND/BURMA HEALTH AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES REVIEW HEALTH ACTIVITIES FINAL REPORT
    Date of publication: December 2004
    Description/subject: Table Of Contents: Acronyms ... Map of Border Provinces and Nine Refugee Camp Locations ... Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2. Situation Assessment 2.1 Camp Refugees 2.2 Migrants 2.3 Cross-border humanitarian programs (IDPs) 2.4 Coordination 2.5 Repatriation – Contingency plans 3. Conclusions and Recommendations 3.1 Camp Refugee health programs 3.2 Migrants 3.3 Cross-border Programs (Burmese IDPs) 3.4 Coordination 3.5 Repatriation – Contingency Plans Appendix 1: Persons Interviewed Appendix 2: Documents Reviewed Appendix 3: Draft RFA Appendix 4: NGO Organizational Chart Appendix 5: CCSDPT Coordination of Burmese Refugee Activities Appendix 6: Morbidity and Mortality Statistics Appendix 7: Refugees and Migrants Appendix 8: Coordination
    Author/creator: Donald W. Belcher
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: USAID, MSI
    Format/size: pdf (545.45 K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


    Title: Burma's Dirty War - The humanitarian crisis in eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 24 May 2004
    Description/subject: "Up to a million people have fled their homes in eastern Burma in a crisis the world has largely ignored. Burma's refusal to release Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, and the boycotting of the constitutional convention this month by the main opposition, has thrust Burma into the spotlight again. But unseen and largely unremarked is the ongoing harrowing experience of hundreds of thousands of people in eastern Burma, hiding in the jungle or trapped in army-controlled relocation sites. Others are in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. These people are victims in a counterinsurgency war in which they are the deliberate targets. As members of Burma's ethnic minorities - which make up 40 per cent of the population - they are trapped in a conflict between the Burmese army and ethnic minority armies. Surviving on caches of rice hidden in caves, or on roots and wild foods, families in eastern Burma face malaria, landmines, disease and starvation. They are hunted like animals by army patrols and starved into surrender. In interviews... refugees told Christian Aid of murder and rape, the torching of villages and shooting of family members as they lay huddled together in the fields. They recalled farmers who had been blown up by landmines laid by the army around their crops. This report, based on personal testimonies from refugees, tells the story of Burma's humanitarian crisis. On the brink of the Burmese government's announcement of a 'roadmap to democracy' for a new constitution, Burma's Dirty War argues that any new political settlement must include the crisis on the country's eastern borders. Burma's refusal to free Aung San Suu Kyi promises more intransigence and an even slower pace of change - with predictable human costs. This report calls on the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN to use what opportunity remains from the roadmap to democracy to press for an end to the conflict in negotiations with ethnic minorities. It also argues that the UN must gain access to the areas in crisis - despite the Burmese government ban on travel there by humanitarian agencies. Key recommendations include: * that the Burmese government cease human rights abuses, allow access to eastern Burma by humanitarian agencies including UN special representatives, and engage in dialogue with ethnic minority representatives * that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN fund work with displaced people inside Burma and continue to support refugees in Thailand * that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and UN Security Council condemn Burma's human rights abuses against ethnic minorities, demand that it protect civilians from violence and insist that Burma allow access to humanitarian agencies The report argues that governments must seize the opportunity presented by the roadmap to push for genuine negotiations between the government, the National League for Democracy and ethnic minority organisations which can bring out a just and lasting peace..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Christian Aid
    Format/size: pdf (760K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2010


    Title: NGO Statement on Asia and the Pacific
    Date of publication: 11 March 2004
    Description/subject: to the UNHCR Standing Committee, 9-11 March 2004. The statement contains references to Burmese refugees in Thailand and Bangladesh and to the recent agreement that UNHCR should have a presence in eastern Burma. Also references to the Rohingyas.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ICVA
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 March 2004


    Title: Zwischen den Fronten. Unterricht für Flüchtlingskinder aus Burma
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: Eine Schule insbesondere für Shan-Kinder in einem Tempel in Nordthailand, Interview mit einer Lehrerin über ihre Erfahrungen als Kindersoldatin bei den Shan-Rebellen und dem Abt des Tempels. education for Shan children, childsoldiers, Shan refugees in Thailand
    Author/creator: Ralf Willinger
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
    Date of entry/update: 19 May 2005


    Title: Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Thai Policy toward Burmese Refugees and Migrants
    Date of publication: 25 February 2004
    Description/subject: "The report, Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Thai Policy toward Burmese Refugees, documents Thailand’s repression of refugees, asylum seekers, and migrant workers from Burma. "The Thai government is arresting and intimidating Burmese political activists living in Bangkok and along the Thai-Burmese border, harassing Burmese human rights and humanitarian groups, and deporting Burmese refugees, asylum seekers and others with a genuine fear of persecution in Burma..." 1. Introduction... 2. New Thai Policies toward Burmese Refugees and Migrants: Broadening of Resettlement Opportunities; Suspension of New Refugee Admissions; The “Urban” Refugees; Crackdown on Burmese Migrants; Forging Friendship with Rangoon; History of Burmese Refugees in Thailand... 3. Expulsion to Burma: Informal Deportees Dropped at the Border; The Holding Center at Myawaddy; Into the Hands of the SPDC; Profile: One of the Unlucky Ones—Former Child Soldier Deported to Burma; Increasing Pressure on Migrants... 4. Protection Issues for Urban Refugees:- Impacts of the Move to the Camps; Profile: Karen Former Combatant; Suspension of Refugee Status Determination; Security Issues for Refugees in Bangkok... 5. Attempts to Silence Activist Refugees... 6. New Visa Rules: Screening Out the “Troublemakers”... 7. Conclusion... 8. Recommendations: To the Royal Thai Government; To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); To Donor Governments; To the Burmese Authorities... 9. Appendix A: Timeline of Arrests and Intimidation of Burmese Activists in 2003 (3 page pdf file)... 10. Appendix B: Timeline of Harrassments of NGOs in 2003 (2 page pdf file)... 11. Appendix C: Timeline of Arrests and Harrassment of Burmese Migrant Workers in 2003 (2 page pdf file)...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (244K, 1MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://hrw.org/reports/2004/thailand0204/profiles.pdf (refugee profiles)
    http://hrw.org/reports/2004/thailand0204/thailand0204.pdf (printer-friendly)
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


    Title: Broken Trust, Broken Home
    Date of publication: February 2004
    Description/subject: "Fifty-five years of civil war have decimated Burma’s Karen State, forcing thousands of civilians to flee their homes. Most would like to return—by their own will when the fighting stops. By Emma Larkin/Mae Sot, Thailand When Eh Mo Thaw was 16 years old, a Burmese battalion marched into his village in Karen State and burned down all the houses. Eh Mo Thaw and his family were herded into a relocation camp where they had to work for the Burma Army, digging ponds and growing rice to feed the Burmese troops. They had no time to grow food for themselves and many were not able to survive. Villagers caught foraging for vegetables outside the camp perimeter were shot on sight. "Many people died," says Eh Mo Thaw. "I also thought I would die." Eh Mo Thaw managed to escape from the camp with his family. For 20 years, he hid in the jungle, moving from place to place whenever Burmese troops drew near. Eventually he found himself on the Thai border and, when Burmese forces stormed the area, he had no choice but to cross the border into Thailand and enter a refugee camp..."
    Author/creator: Emma Larkin
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 12, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


    Title: Fertility and abortion: Burmese women's health on the Thai-Burma border
    Date of publication: January 2004
    Description/subject: "In Thailand's Tak province there are 60,520 registered migrant workers and an estimated 150,000 unregistered migrant workers from Burma. Fleeing the social and political problems engulfing Burma, they are mostly employed in farming, garment making, domestic service, sex and construction industries. There is also a significant number of Burmese living in camps. Despite Thailand�s developed public health system and infrastructure, Burmese women face language and cultural barriers and marginal legal status as refugees in Thailand, as well as a lack of access to culturally appropriate and qualified reproductive health information and services..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton and Cynthia Maung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forced Migration Review No. 19
    Format/size: pdf (110K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 June 2004


    Title: UNHCR map of Thailand-Myanmar border, end September 2003
    Date of publication: 15 October 2003
    Description/subject: Refugee camps with populations, refugee population distribution graph, UNHCR offices, towns, villages etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2004


    Title: Shan Refugees: Dispelling the Myths
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: "...Since 1996, the people of Shan State have been particularly targeted for persecution by the military regime in order to stop the resistance efforts of the Shan State Army and to secure control over the state's rich natural resources. Over 300,000 Shan and other ethnic people have been forced from their homes in central Shan State by the Burmese military, including from lands needed to build a largescale hydropower dam on the Salween river. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has worked in Thailand, with the consent and cooperation of the government for over 28 years, during which time assistance has been provided to more than 1.3 million refugees. In recognition of the fact that many people from Burma have been forced to flee from armed conflicts they face in their country, Thailand has been providing refugee camps for people from Burma since 1984 and has allowed international NGOs to provide support to the refugees. Thailand has allowed the UNHCR to have a limited protection role in these camps since 1998. The people of Shan State, unlike the Karen and Karenni from Burma, are not recognised as asylum seekers in Thailand and are not provided safe refuge and humanitarian assistance. As they are unable to seek refuge, the Shan people are forced to either live in hiding as illegal persons on the Thai-Burma border or seek work as migrant workers, in low-paid, low-skilled jobs such as construction workers, factory workers or domestic workers. The absence of refuge and services particularly impacts on the more vulnerable Shan asylum seekers such as pregnant women, children, elderly and disabled persons who are unable to fend for themselves in the jungle or on work sites. The Shan asylum seekers in Thailand live in precarious situations as they live in constant fear of being arrested and deported to Burma, where they face ongoing persecution in the forms of torture, rape and death on their return to Burma. This fear has increased after the implementation of an agreement between Thailand and Burma on the repatriation of migrant workers since August 2003. Why is it that while asylum seekers from other Burmese ethnic groups have been recognised as refugees and been provided refuge in camps in Thailand, the Shan asylum seekers continue to not be accepted or supported in Thailand?..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Shan Women's Action Network
    Format/size: pdf (112K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


    Title: Charting the Exodus from Shan State: Patterns of Shan refugee flow into northern Chiang Mai province of Thailand 1997-2002
    Date of publication: May 2003
    Description/subject: "This report gives quantitative evidence in support of claims that there has been a large influx of Shans arriving into northern Thailand during the past 6 years who are genuine refugees fleeing persecution and not simply migrant workers. This data was based on interviews with 66,868 Shans arriving in Fang District of northern Chiang Mai province between June 1997 and December 2002, The data shows that almost all the new arrivals came from the twelve townships in Central Shan State where the Burmese military regime has carried out a mass forced relocation program since March 1996, and where the regime's troops have been perpetrating systematic human rights abuses against civilian populations. Higher numbers of arrivals came from townships such as Kunhing where a higher incidence of human rights abuses has been reported. Evidence also shows increases in refugee outflows from specific village tracts directly after large-scale massacres were committed by the regime's troops..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation via Shan Herald Agency for news
    Format/size: pdf (896K) 14 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/view-3471.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 December 2010


    Title: Protecting Burmese Refugees in Thailand
    Date of publication: 24 January 2003
    Description/subject: Advocate Veronika Martin and human rights lawyer Betsy Apple conducted an assessment mission to the Thai-Burmese border in September 2002. "Each month an estimated two to three thousand Burmese enter Thailand, adding to the approximately two million already living there. While many of them are seeking economic opportunity in the Thai economy, many are fleeing gross human rights abuses, including rape, torture, extrajudicial execution, forced labor, and forced relocations, committed by the army of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Burmese seeking refuge in Thailand, primarily ethnic minority peoples from eastern Burma, have had limited or no access to a status determination process for the past year, and thus no legal access to refugee status or protection. The Royal Thai Government classifies all Burmese newly entering Thailand as "illegal migrants," leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and forced relocation back to Burma..."
    Author/creator: Veronika Martin, Betsy Apple
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html (1 page)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Report on the latest field trip to Mae Khong Kha Refugee Camp
    Date of publication: 13 January 2003
    Description/subject: "Members of Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J) visited Mae Khong Kha Camp in December 2002 to get first hand information of the flood that occurred in September of that year. Soon after the news of the flood came, BRC-J began to raise fund for the rehabilitation of camp facilities and emergency aid through Japanese media and via Internet. The gathered donation was sent to the refugee camp in several installments by BRC-J. On this visit BRC-J was briefed by local camp staffs about the rehabilitation process and how their money was used." Note: Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J) is a non-governmental organization based in Osaka, Japan. The organization has been working for refugees and affected people along the Thai-Burma border area since 1988. Contact address is at brcj@syd.odn.ne.jp
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/brcj/ (BRC-J wensite)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Pushing Past the Definitions: Migration From Burma to Thailand
    Date of publication: 19 December 2002
    Description/subject: Important, authoritative and timely report. I. THAI GOVERNMENT CLASSIFICATION FOR PEOPLE FROM BURMA: Temporarily Displaced; Students and Political Dissidents ; Migrants . II. BRIEF PROFILE OF THE MIGRANTS FROM BURMA . III REASONS FOR LEAVING BURMA : Forced Relocations and Land Confiscation ; Forced Labor and Portering; War and Political Oppression; Taxation and Loss of Livelihood; Economic Conditions . IV. FEAR OF RETURN. V. RECEPTION CENTERS. VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.... "Recent estimates indicate that up to two million people from Burma currently reside in Thailand, reflecting one of the largest migration flows in Southeast Asia. Many factors contribute to this mass exodus, but the vast majority of people leaving Burma are clearly fleeing persecution, fear and human rights abuses. While the initial reasons for leaving may be expressed in economic terms, underlying causes surface that explain the realities of their lives in Burma and their vulnerabilities upon return. Accounts given in Thailand, whether it be in the border camps, towns, cities, factories or farms, describe instances of forced relocation and confiscation of land; forced labor and portering; taxation and loss of livelihood; war and political oppression in Burma. Many of those who have fled had lived as internally displaced persons in Burma before crossing the border into Thailand. For most, it is the inability to survive or find safety in their home country that causes them to leave. Once in Thailand, both the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and the international community have taken to classifying the people from Burma under specific categories that are at best misleading, and in the worst instances, dangerous. These categories distort the grave circumstances surrounding this migration by failing to take into account the realities that have brought people across the border. They also dictate people’s legal status within the country, the level of support and assistance that might be available to them and the degree of protection afforded them under international mechanisms. Consequently, most live in fear of deportation back into the hands of their persecutors or to the abusive environments from which they fled..." Additional keywords: IDPs, Internal displacement, displaced, refoulement.
    Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette and Mary E. Pack
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International and Open Society Institute
    Format/size: html (373K) pdf (748K, 2.1MB) 37 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Caouette&Pack.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Report on fund-raising effort for emergency aid at Mae Khong Kha camp
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "The violent flood hit Mae Khong Kha Refugee Camp in September 2002 which left 26 victims and caused great damage. Soon after the news came, Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J) began to raise fund for rehabilitation of camp facilities and emergency aid through Japanese media and via Internet. In this report the organization thanked the individuals and groups that donated money and clothing, and cited letters from local Karen Women's Organization that explained that their money arrived there and that it was used to help the affected people." Note: Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J) is a non-governmental organization based in Osaka, Japan. The organization has been working for refugees and affected people along the Thai-Burma border area since 1988. Contact address is at brcj@syd.odn.ne.jp
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: Burmese Relief Center - Japan (BRC-J)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/brcj/ (BRC-J website)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma�s Internally Displaced: No Options for a Safe Haven
    Date of publication: 10 October 2002
    Description/subject: "Refugees International Advocate Veronika Martin and human rights lawyer Betsy Apple recently completed an assessment mission to the Thai-Burmese border. There are few fates worse than being an internally displaced person (IDP) in Burma. IDPs inside Burma are divided into two categories: those living under the strict control of the Burmese government in �relocation sites,� and those living in hiding in the jungle from the Burmese army. Both options present a high risk of human rights abuses, a lack of food, and limited or no access to healthcare and education. According to a recent report compiled by the Burma Border Consortium (BBC), more than 2,500 villages have been either destroyed, relocated, or abandoned, affecting 633,000 individuals over the last five years in eastern Burma. Since 1996, an estimated minimum of one million people living in the ethnic states that border Thailand have been displaced. This year has seen a marked increase in the frequency of counter-insurgency operations in ethnic minority areas, leading in turn to an increase in the level of internal displacement..."
    Author/creator: Veronika Martin, Betsy Apple
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International via Asian Tribune
    Format/size: html (1 page)
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    Title: Post Abortion Care: Who Cares?
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "This article is intended to give health workers an introduction into the individual implications of pregnancy loss as well as local issues on the Thai-Burma border and broader South-east Asian regional issues. I want to focus on the gender and social features rather than pure biomedical information, although this is of course highly important but is covered in other parts of this magazine. I will talk about some women�s stories that were collected in 2002 to outline typical cases, the reasons why the woman chose to end the pregnancy and impact on women�s lives. I will also present some findings from a medical records review conducted with the Mae Tao Clinic and discuss some findings from research in the international arena. So should we care about post abortion care? I hope to show that we should, as not only can it be a life threatening event for the woman but it reflects certain aspects about the communities we live in, social conditions, legal and religious norms, how we value human rights and the status of women..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Health Messenger
    Format/size: html (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


    Title: Report on the damage caused by the flood at Mae Khong Kha camp and emergency aid activities
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: Detailed report with photos on the damage caused by the flood at Mae Khong Kha refugee camp on 2 September, 2002, as well as the distribution of emergency aid goods by SVA. SVA works for the library project in Karen refugee camps along the border. One of their libraries at Mae Khong Kha was also destroyed. Note: Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA): A non-governmental organization (NGO) with the purpose of international cooperation, supporting the educational and cultural activities in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. With the authorization as an incorporated organization from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, name was changed from Sotoshu Volunteer Association to the current name. Sotoshu, or Soto Zen School is the largest Buddhist Zen school in Japan.
    Author/creator: Mae Sot office of Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA)
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.sva.or.jp/ (SVA website)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas
    Date of publication: 17 July 2002
    Description/subject: "...In February and March 2002 Amnesty International interviewed some 100 migrants from Myanmar at seven different locations in Thailand. They were from a variety of ethnic groups, including the Shan; Lahu; Palaung; Akha; Mon; Po and Sgaw Karen; Rakhine; and Tavoyan ethnic minorities, and the majority Bamar (Burman) group. They originally came from the Mon, Kayin, Shan, and Rakhine States, and Bago, Yangon and Tanintharyi Divisions.(1) What follows below is a summary of human rights violations in some parts of eastern Myanmar during the last 18 months which migrants reported to Amnesty International. One section of the report also examines several cases of abuses of civilians by armed opposition groups fighting against the Myanmar military. Finally, this document describes various aspects of a Burmese migrant worker's life in Thailand..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced labour, refugees, land confiscation, forced relocation, forced removal, forced resettlement, forced displacement, internal displacement, IDP, extortion, torture, extrajudicial killings, forced conscription, child soldiers, porters, forced portering, house destruction, eviction, Shan State, Wa, USWA, Wa resettlement, Tenasserim, abuses by armed opposition groups.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: PDF version (126K) 48pg
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2002/en
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/007/2002/en/7471b112-d81a-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/asa1... (French)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: "If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced and Post-conflict Settings. A Global Overview. 2002" (Extract on Burma and Thailand)
    Date of publication: June 2002
    Description/subject: This extract offers a brief overview of gender-based violence in Burma and among Burmese refugees in Thailand. "...Women have been victims of the well-documented and pervasive human rights abuses also suffered by men, including forced labor on government construction projects, forced portering for the army, summary arrest, torture and extra-judicial execution. These and other human rights violations are committed sometimes in the course of military operations, but more often as part of the army's policy of repression of ethnic minority civilians. Women and girls are specifically targeted for rape and sexual harassment by soldiers. Many of the areas in Burma where soldiers rape women are not areas of active conflict, though they may have large numbers of standing troops. There has been little action on the part of the state to reduce the prevalence of sexual abuse by its military personnel or ensure that the perpetrators of these crimes are brought to justice..." For the full report, covering most parts of the world, follow the link below.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Rescue Committee, Women's Commission on Refugee Women and Children
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Lady's Love Powder
    Date of publication: June 2002
    Description/subject: This article appeared in Burma - Women's Voices for Change, Thanakha Team, Bangkok, published by ALTSEAN in 2002... "...Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are problems that many Burmese women face with little support and a poverty of health resources. Of course it is difficult to quantify such statements in light of the limited sharing of information that occurs between the Burman military government and the rest of the world. One informed source, Dr Ba Thike (1997), a doctor working in Burma, reported that in the 1980s abortion complications accounted for twenty percent of total hospital admissions and that for every three women admitted to give birth, one was admitted for abortion complications...The records at the Mae Tao Clinic in Thailand, a health service that offers reproductive health services to women coming from Burma as day visitors or as longer-term migrant workers, reflects a crisis in women�s health. In 2001, the Mae Tao Clinic documented 185 abortion complication cases (Out Patients Department) and 231 cases that needed to be admitted into the In-patients Department with complications such as sepsis, dehydration, haemorrhage and shock from abortions and miscarriage..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton (Ma Suu San)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma - Women's Voices for Change (publ. ALTSEAN)
    Format/size: html (24K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


    Title: Out in the Cold
    Date of publication: January 2002
    Description/subject: " The closure of the Maneeloy holding center for Burmese dissidents has chilled hopes of a rapid resettlement for those left behind..."
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 1
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Ein Sommer voller Angst und Verzweifelung: Burmesische Flüchtlinge im thailändisch-burmesischen Grenzgebiet
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: Karen refugees in the thai-burmese border area. Halockani refugee camp run by the Mon National Committee. Mit dem Beginn der großen Militäroffensive burmesischer Truppen gegen die bewaffneten Guerillabewegungen der nationalen Minderheiten haben seit Anfang dieses Jahres nun auch immer mehr Angehörige der Karen Volksgruppe im thailändischen Grenzgebiet Zuflucht gesucht. Das vom Mon National Committee unterhaltene Halockani-Flüchtlingslager der Mon-Volksgruppe hat daher seine Tore im Sommer auch für Karen-Flüchtlinge geöffnet und Versorgungsgüter zur Verfügung gestellt.
    Author/creator: Hans-Günther Wagner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Aid Game
    Date of publication: December 2001
    Description/subject: "The Thai-Burma border has become a breeding ground for poorly conceived aid projects, leaving the real needs of refugees and exiles unattended... Relief agencies first began working on the Thai-Burma border in 1984 to support nearly ten thousand ethnic Karens who had fled from persecution by the Burmese army. Four years later, as Burmese activists, politicians and intellectuals began fleeing to Burma’s borders with Thailand and India to escape a brutal crackdown on the nationwide democracy uprising of 1988, the need for emergency assistance increased dramatically. Now, with an ethnic refugee population in Thailand that numbers over 135,000, and another 100 Burmese dissidents also believed to be sheltering in the country, Burma’s displaced persons have become one of the region’s major targets of relief efforts...
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw and John S. Moncrief
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The repatriation predicament of Burmese refugees in Thailand: a preliminary analysis
    Date of publication: July 2001
    Description/subject: "...The problem of Burmese refugees in Thailand will persist while the underlying factors conducing displacement continue in the sending state. So long as fear and insecurity exists in Burma, Thailand is bound to receive forced migrants across its western border. Meanwhile, it is necessary to approach an understanding of appropriate forms of protection responsive to the specific realities of displacement. Thailand also should be persuaded to continue its adherence to the broad principles of refugee protection. And the difficult question of 'under what conditions should the refugees return in the future?' remains open to discussion and hinges on developments conducing a durable solution within Burma..."
    Author/creator: Hazel Lang (Australian National University)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR ("New Issues in Refugee Research" Working Paper No. 46)
    Format/size: PDF (370K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Thailand's Least Wanted
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: The "Safe Area" for Burmese student activists has long been regarded by exilesand Thais alike as one of most dangerous places in Thailand. But for many who still reside in the camp, recent calls for its closure have raised fears about their future in a country where they are clearly not wanted. Neil Lawrence reports from Ban Maneeloy.
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
    Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Freedom from Racial Discrimination
    Date of publication: 09 March 2001
    Language: English, French, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR41/003/2001http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR41... (French)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR41/003/2001/en/f813e644-dc2f-11dd-9f41-2fdde0484b9c/ior4... (Spanish)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/IOR41/003/2001/en
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
    Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
    http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Celebration, Affirmation and Transformation: a "Traditional" Festival in a Refugee Camp in Thailand
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "In 1996, approximately 1500 people lived in Camp 5, a refugee camp located in the jungle on the Thai-Burmese border. The camp was open and self-administered, with refugee-run schools, two churches, and one Buddhist monastery. Though unavoidably and significantly influenced by displacement, cultural life in Camp 5 was vibrant. Refugees were able to celebrate annual festivals in the camps; for many internally displaced persons inside Burma, such celebrations have been impossible for some years. One such festival is diy-kuw. The people living in Camp 5 call themselves Karenni and have fled from Kayah State (referred to by the Karenni as "Karenni State"). Kayah is Burma's smallest state, bordering Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son..."
    Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Pa-O Relocated to Thailand: Views from Within
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "The Pa-O are one of the ethnic minorities of Burma. They live primarily in the Taunggyi area of southwestern Shan State. A smaller number live in the Thaton area of Mon State in Lower Burma. The Pa-O in the Thaton area have become "Burmanized" -- like their neighbors the Mon and Karen, they have adopted Burmese language, dress and customs. The Pa-O in southwestern Shan State have learned to speak Shan, but have maintained their own distinct language and customs, including their traditional dark blue or black dress. Among the earliest Pa-O arrivals in Thailand may have been slaves captured by the Karenni and sold into Siam in the mid and late 1800s. During the 1880s, the Shan States were in chaos, the local princes at war with each other. Large numbers of people fled, many into northern Thailand, very likely including some Pa-O. The Pa-O also went to Thailand as traders of cattle as well as herbal medicines and other trade goods. More recently they have gone as refugees. Forced relocations have been particularly sweeping in Mon, Karen and Shan States -- those states where most of the Pa-O live. The Pa-O Nationalist Army signed a ceasefire with SLORC in 1991, but because the Pa-O live in many of the areas where other rebel groups are still active they have been swept up in the forced relocations and human rights abuses for which the ruling junta has become infamous. These are their stories..."
    Author/creator: Russ Christensen and Sann Kyaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 December 2010


    Title: Refugees Still at Risk
    Date of publication: October 2000
    Description/subject: Nearing the end of her decade-long tenure as the UN's High Commissioner for Refugees, Sadako Ogata recently made what may have been her last stand on behalf of refugees fleeing from conflict in Burma. Saying that she was "shocked" by conditions at the Tham Hin camp on the Thai-Burma border, Ogata irked Bangkok but won a measure of respect from those who have long decried the treatment ofrefugees sheltering on Thai soil.
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Exodus from the Shan State
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Civilians in the central Shan State are suffering the enormous consequences of internal armed conflict, as fighting between the tatmadaw, or Myanmar army, and the Shan State Army-South (SSA-South) continues. The vast majority of affected people are rice farmers who have been deprived of their lands and their livelihoods as a result of the State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC, Myanmar's military government) counter-insurgency tactics. In the last four years over 300,000 civilians have been displaced by the tatmadaw, hundreds have been killed when they attempted to return to their farms, and thousands have been seized by the army to work without pay on roads and other projects. Over 100,000 civilians have fled to neighbouring Thailand, where they work as day labourers, risking arrest for "illegal immigration" by the Thai authorities.
    Language: English, Français
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/11/00)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/011/2000/en/ed5dfc36-deb1-11dd-8e92-1571ae6babe0/asa1... (French)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/011/2000/en
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2010


    Title: Internal Displacement and Refugees
    Date of publication: 01 June 2000
    Description/subject: (from Photoset 2000-A of June 2000)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: jpeg, html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Fear and Hope: Displaced Burmese Women in Burma and Thailand
    Date of publication: March 2000
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The impact of decades of military repression on the population of Burma has been devastating. Hundreds of thousands of Burmese have been displaced by the government�s suppression of ethnic insurgencies and of the pro-democracy movement. As government spending has concentrated on military expenditures to maintain its control, the once-vibrant Burmese economy has been virtually destroyed. Funding for health and education is negligible, leaving the population at the mercy of the growing AIDS epidemic, which is itself fueled by the production, trade and intravenous use of heroin, as well as the trafficking of women. The Burmese people, whether displaced by government design or by economic necessity, whether opposed to the military regime or merely trying to survive in a climate of fear, face enormous challenges. Human rights abuses are legion. The government�s strategies of forced labor and relocation destroy communities. Displacement, disruption of social networks and the collapse of the public health systems provide momentum for the spreading AIDS epidemic�which the government has barely begun to acknowledge or address. The broader crisis in health care in general and reproductive health in particular affects women at all levels; maternal mortality is extremely high, family planning is discouraged. The decay�and willful destruction�of the educational system has created an increasingly illiterate population�without the tools necessary to participate in a modern society. The country-wide economic crisis drives the growth of the commercial sex industry, both in Burma and in Thailand. Yet, international pressure for political change is increasing and nongovernmental organizations and some UN agencies manage to work within Burma, quietly challenging the status quo. The delegation met with Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of the National League for Democracy, who is considered by much of the international community as the true representative of the Burmese people. Despite her concerns that humanitarian aid can prop up the SPDC, she was cautiously supportive of direct, transparent assistance in conjunction with unrelenting international condemnation of the military government�s human rights abuses and anti-democratic rule. The delegation concluded that carefully designed humanitarian assistance in Burma can help people without strengthening the military government. And, until democracy is restored in Burma, refugees in Thailand must receive protection from forced repatriation, and be offered opportunities for skills development and education to carry home. On both sides of the border, women�s groups work to respond to the issues facing their communities; they are a critical resource in addressing the critical needs for education, reproductive health and income generation." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women's Commission on Refugee Women and Children
    Format/size: pdf (182.54 K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Thailand at a glance
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: "Main Objectives and Activities: Ensure that the fundamentals of international protection, particularly the principles of asylum and nonrefoulement, are respected and effectively implemented; ensure that refugee populations at the Thai- Myanmar border are safe from armed incursions, that the civilian character of refugee camps is maintained and that their protection and assistance needs are adequately met; promptly identify and protect individual asylum-seekers; promote the development of national refugee legislation and status determination procedures consistent with international standards. ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNHCR
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/27437918/UNHCR-Global-Report-2000
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    Title: "Traditional" culture and refugee welfare in north-west Thailand
    Date of publication: December 1999
    Description/subject: "The effects of displacement on culture can have significant impacts on the psychological and physical welfare of individual refugees and on the social dynamics within a refugee population. Yet, refugees and relief agencies alike often underestimate or feel too overworked to incorporate the importance of cultural factors in assistance programmes. Potential cultural conflicts between refugee communities, host communities and relief agencies are of course important. Less often recognised, however, is the importance of cultural variation and tension within the refugee community. This article argues that if relief agencies develop a greater awareness of cultural patterns and potential cultural conflict within as well as between communities, their assistance programmes may be more effectively and appropriately designed and implemented...This article is based on anthropological field research, conducted by the author at the request of the NGO concerned during the course of wider field research conducted in 1996-7 and 1998, with Karenni refugees living in camps on the Burmese border, in Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son. Karenni people have been fleeing from Karenni (Kayah) State in eastern Burma and seeking refuge on the Thai side of the border for some years, the first significant numbers arriving in 1989..."
    Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 6
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Central Karen State: Villagers Fleeing Forced Relocation and Other Abuses Forced Back by Thai Troops
    Date of publication: 29 September 1999
    Description/subject: KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #99-U4)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Central Karen State
    Date of publication: 27 August 1999
    Description/subject: New Refugees Fleeing Forced Relocation, Rape and Use as Human Minesweepers. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma/Thailand: Unwanted and Unprotected: Burmese Refugees in Thailand
    Date of publication: September 1998
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: From village to camp: refugee camp life in transition on the Thailand-Burma Border
    Date of publication: August 1998
    Description/subject: "The Karen, Mon and Karenni refugee camps along Thailand's border with Burma(1) have traditionally been small, open settlements where the refugee communities have been able to maintain a village atmosphere, administering the camps and many aspects of assistance programmes themselves. Much of this, however, is changing. Since 1995, the 110,000 ethnic minority refugees from Burma have faced new security threats and greater regulation by the Royal Thai Government (RTG). An increasing number of the refugees now live in larger, more crowded camps and are more dependent on assistance than ever before. At the beginning of 1994, 72,000 refugees lived in 30 camps, of which the largest housed 8,000 people; by mid 1998, 110,000 refugees lived in 19 camps, with the largest housing over 30,000 people..."
    Author/creator: Edith Bowles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 2
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ATTACKS ON KAREN REFUGEE CAMPS: 1998 (Information Update)
    Date of publication: 29 May 1998
    Description/subject: "In March 1998, three Karen refugee camps in Thailand were attacked by heavily armed forces that crossed the border from Burma. Huay Kaloke camp was burned and almost completely destroyed, killing four refugees and wounding many more; 50 houses and a monastery were burned in Maw Ker camp, and 14 were wounded; and Beh Klaw camp was shelled, though the attackers were repelled. The attacks were carried out by the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), backed by troops and support of the State Peace & Development Council (SPDC) military junta currently ruling Burma ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #98-04)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: USCR Welcomes Thai Government's Decision to Permit Formal Unhcr Role at Burma Border
    Date of publication: 05 May 1998
    Description/subject: Emphasizes Need for Protection Focus
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees Press Release
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees Caught in the Crossfire
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: A Karen man from Huay Kalok, refugee camp whose house was the first set ablaze by rebel troops from Burma recalled, "When I looked out there [to the rice field], I saw some people coming toward my house. I suddenly realize they were enemies so I screamed and ran. Then they started shooting." Around 1 am on March 11 the Rangoon-backed Karen guerrillas known as the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army DKBA began pounding the camp with mortar shells before they moved in. Approximately 200 troops attacked the refugees, armed with M-79 machine guns.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma/Thailand: No Safety in Burma, No Sanctuary in Thailand
    Date of publication: July 1997
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Attacks on Karen Refugee Camps
    Date of publication: 18 March 1997
    Description/subject: "This report covers 4 of the main attacks on Karen refugee camps in Thailand which occurred in January 1997: the burning and destruction of Huay Kaloke and Huay Bone refugee camps on the night of 28 January, the armed attack on Beh Klaw refugee camp on the morning of 29 January, and the shelling of Sho Kloh refugee camp on 4 January. These attacks left several people dead and about 10,000 refugees homeless and completely destitute. Even now, Huay Kaloke and Huay Bone remain nothing but open plains of dust and ash under the hot sun. No one feels safe to remain in these places, but the Thai authorities are forcing them to.Huay Bone's over 3,000 refugees have either fled to Beh Klaw or have been forced to move to Huay Kaloke, and the Thai authorities still have a plan to move Sho Kloh's over 6,000 refugees to Beh Klaw, which is unsafe and already overcrowded with over 25,000 people. Refugees in other camps are also living in fear; Maw Ker refugee camp 50 km. south of Mae Sot has been constantly threatened with destruction, as has Mae Khong Kha refugee camp much further north in Mae Sariang district. People in these camps often end up spending their nights in the forests or countryside surrounding their camps, not daring to sleep in their homes at night..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #97-05)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Use of UNHCR guidelines for the protection of refugees from Burma: a more practical collaboration with NGOs needed
    Date of publication: October 1996
    Description/subject: "Thailand has hosted refugees from Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Burma for more than 20 years. While refugees from Indochina have remained the dominant caseload, a continual influx of refugees from Burma, particularly since 1988, has demanded an increasing degree of attention from the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and international humanitarian organisations. In contrast to the Indochinese refugee caseload, the RTG has refused to authorise the official presence on the Burma border of the usual `protector of refugees', UNHCR. As a consequence, the refugees have been denied the international protection and assistance to which they are entitled under the United Nations 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees [1]. By 1996, the Burma border caseload had grown to 98,000 refugees living in more than 25 refugee camps and includes three major ethnic groups spread along the 1,500 kilometre Thailand/Burma border: the Mon in the south, the Karen in the central and the Karenni in the north. In the enforced absence of UNHCR, in 1984 a consortium of NGOs, the Burmese Border Consortium, was invited by the RTG to provide temporary emergency relief assistance to 9,000 ethnic minority refugees from Burma..."
    Author/creator: Jennie McCann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugee Studies Centre - RPN 22
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 July 2003


    Title: Shelling Attack on Sho Kloh Refugee Camp (Information Update)
    Date of publication: 19 June 1996
    Description/subject: "At 6:10 p.m. on Thursday June 13, DKBA/SLORC on the Burma side of the Moei River commenced shelling Sho Kloh refugee camp, home to about 10,000 Karen refugees 110 km. north of the Thai town of Mae Sot. The camp is about 1 km. inside Thai territory. Over the space of 20 minutes, the attackers fired 4 to 6 mortar shells, later identified as Chinese 60mm. shells (which are part of SLORC's armoury but not of opposition groups). The shells were aimed at the centre of the camp. The first impacted by a stream towards one side of the camp, and the following shells were 'walked in' (target adjusted step by step) until they hit near the hospital (the hospital was also the target of a previous armed DKBA assault against the camp). Another shell exploded close to the Buddhist temple..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees from Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 18 March 1996
    Description/subject: "The descriptions below were given by recently arrived refugees from southern Pa'an District in central Karen State, interviewed in refugee camps in Thailand in February 1996. For background on this area, the reader should see 'SLORC / DKBA Activities in Kawkareik Township' (KHRG #95-23, 10/7/95) and other related KHRG reports. The refugees in this report are all from the area around Bee T'Ka, north of Kawkareik towards Hlaing Bwe. In this area, SLORC and DKBA are ruling in tandem, with a limited presence of KNLA still in the area. Villagers are finding that now they have to pay fees and provide forced labour for both SLORC and DKBA, and that the DKBA have no qualms about handing over villagers to be tortured or executed by SLORC. Two names which always occur in the testimony of villagers, and have appeared in KHRG reports before, are Pa Tha Dah (aka Pa Tha Da, Kyaw Tha Da, Saw Tha Da) and his brother Nuh Po (aka Kyaw Nuh Po, Saw Nuh Po). They are two former Bee T'Ka farmers who joined DKBA for the power it gives them, and have become even more notorious than SLORC in the area for their looting, torture, and gratuitous abuse of villagers. As a result, SLORC had them promoted to officer rank in the DKBA..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-13)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Update on Karen Refugee Situation
    Date of publication: January 1996
    Description/subject: ""Burma has agreed to allow over 70,000 of its citizens who have taken refuge in camps along the border to return home. An agreement was reached at yesterday’s meeting in Myawaddy of the Joint Local Thai-Burmese Border Committee, according to Col. Suvit Maen-muan. At the meeting, Col. Suvit and a team of five officials met the team of Lt. Col. Kyaw Hlaing, and the latter accepted a proposal on the return of over 70,000 refugees. A list has been drawn up of over 9,000 refugees at Sho Klo camp in Tha Song Yang who are to be voluntarily repatriated as soon as Burma is ready, Col. Suvit said."..."
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Murder of a Refugee by SLORC
    Date of publication: 24 May 1995
    Description/subject: "This report documents the death of Saw Tha Po, age 41 and father of 3, a Karen Buddhist refugee in Huay Bone (Don Pa Kiang) refugee camp 20 km. north of the Thai town of Mae Sot. On March 25, 1995 he crossed the Moei River to gather charcoal and never came back, shot dead by SLORC troops only 500 m. from the border. He and a friend were ambushed by 7 soldiers from SLORC Light Infantry Battalion #9, part of #44 Light Infantry Division. They were commanded by Company Commander Khine Zaw Lin. If refugees cannot even get 500 m. into Burma without being shot, it is horrifying to think what will happen to many of them when the Thai Army hands them over directly into the hands of SLORC forces..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #95-18)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: New Attacks on Karen Refugee Camps
    Date of publication: 05 May 1995
    Description/subject: Camps: Mae Ra Mu Klo (Mae Ra Ma Luang) camp, Baw Noh (Meh Tha Waw) camp, Kamaw Lay Ko camp "This report provides details of the attacks on Mae Ra Ma Luang, Baw Noh and Kamaw Lay Ko refugee camps. It has 2 parts: Summary of Attacks, which describes the events, and Interviews with some of the refugees who were there. Names which have been changed to protect people are denoted by enclosing them in quotation marks. Some camps go by several names: Mae Ra Ma Luang is the official Thai name of the camp Karens call Mae Ra Mu Klo (this camp was called Mae Ma La Luang in the KHRG report "SLORC's Northern Karen Offensive"). Baw Noh is the common name for the camp officially known as Meh Tha Waw. In the interviews, many people refer to the DKBA soldiers as "Yellow Headbands" ("ko per baw" in Karen) because of the yellow headbands they wear - this name has become common usage among Karens. Please feel free to use this report in any way which may help stop the suffering of the people of Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #95-16)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC Shootings & Arrests of Refugees
    Date of publication: 14 January 1995
    Description/subject: Karen State. Aug-Nov 94. Karen Men, women, children. List of people killed, wounded, arrested, disappeared, by SLORC. Killings; wounding; EO; ransoming; looting, pillaging; forced portering; torture; arbitrary detention; extortion; inhuman treatment (beating); forced labour.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #95-02)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: MON - Die vergessenen Flchtlinge in Thailand
    Date of publication: 1995
    Description/subject: Mon - the forgotten refugees in Thailand Das Volk der Mon ist die Urbevlkerung im heutigen Kernland von Thailand, im Gebiet von Bangkok in Richtung burmesische Grenze (Kanchanaburi Provinz) sowie im benachbarten burmesischen Bergland und im Kerngebiet des heutigen Burma mit seiner Hauptstadt Rangoon. Einst Trger einer frhen und hochentwickelten buddhistischen Kultur, wurden sie in den vergangenen Jahrhunderten von anderen, aus Norden eindringenen Vlkern immer mehr verdrngt. Sie stellen heute sowohl in Thailand wie in Burma eine stark benachteiligte ethnische Minderheit dar. Die Mon in Burma fhren seit Jahrzehnten zusammen mit zahlreichen anderen ethnischen Minderheiten einen Kampf um ihre Unabhngigkeit und eigenstndige Entwicklung. Diese Bestrebungen werden von der Militrjunta mit einem systematischen Vernichtungsfeldzug beantwortet.
    Author/creator: Hans-Gnther Wagner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
    Alternate URLs: http://cscmosaic.albany.edu/~gb661/moncamps.html (Photos of the refugee camps at Halockhani and Lohloe -- 1994?)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Interview with an IDC deportee
    Date of publication: 27 September 1994
    Description/subject: Burma/Thailand Mon girl (14 yrs old). rape; extortion; inhuman treatment(beating). Thailand’s Immigration Detention Centres (IDC's) have become internationally notorious for squalid conditions and robbery, rape, and beatings by Thai police guards. They are built like high-security prisons: concrete cells, heavy bars, and armed guards. But the people in these cells are not dangerous criminals - they are mostly economic and political refugees from neighbouring countries and as, the following account shows, young children. This is the true underbelly of Thailand's "constructive engagement" policy with SLORC. Any refugee at any age who is caught outside of a refugee camp can end up here, whether a Karen farmer who fled being taken as a SLORC porter, a pro-democracy Burmese student who fled to Thailand after the 1988 massacres, a Shan girl was lured into Thailand by a brothel procurer's promise of a good job only to end up a brothel slave, or a labourer who fled Burma’s ruined economy seeking a better chance in Thailand's "economic miracle". Thai police put all such people in IDC cells until they can be deported back into the hands of SLORC. If SLORC gets them, they are usually put in another cell until they either pay a heavy bribe or are sent to be frontline porters and human minesweepers for the military.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC Officers Talk About Forced Labour & Refugees
    Date of publication: 25 September 1994
    Description/subject: Transcript of part of a recorded conversation, southern Burma, mid-94. Insight into attitudes regarding villagers, NGOs, forced labour etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Last Minute Update on the Situation of Refugees at Halockhani
    Date of publication: 13 September 1994
    Description/subject: Refoulement of the Mon refugees by the Thai military (they starved them back).This is an update to information contained in the KHRG report "SLORC's Attack on Halockhani Refugee Camp", 30/8/94, which reported that four to six thousand Mon refugees had fled a Burmese Army attack on their camp at Halockhani, just on the Burma side of the border, where they had been forcibly repatriated by Thai authorities at the beginning of 1994. The refugees fled back to the Thai side of the border after #62 Infantry Battalion of the Burmese Army attacked their camp on July 21 and were huddled in shelters around a Thai Border Patrol Police post, while Thai authorities used every trick they could think of to force them back across into Burma again. When the KHRG report was printed the refugees were still refusing to return and staying on the Thai side. Thai authorities had cut off all further food and medical supplies to them, and all foreigners and aid officials had been barred from the area. The refugees were surviving on existing rice stocks in their rice store, which was just across on the Burma side of theborder (but at the end of the old camp closest to the Thai border).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC's Attack on Halockhani Refugee Camp
    Date of publication: 30 August 1994
    Description/subject: On July 21, 1994 SLORC troops from Infantry Battalion 62 shocked the world by attacking a Mon refugee camp at Halockhani. Worst of all for SLORC, it happened just as its representatives were going to attend the annual Foreign Ministers’ meeting of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Bangkok for the first time. This report attempts to describe the attack through the eyes of some of its victims.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees at Klay Muh Hta
    Date of publication: 24 June 1994
    Description/subject: "(later corrected to "Klay Muh Klo") This is a refugee camp set up on the Burma side of the border North of Mae Sot, after Thailand refused entry to more refugees. In 3 months it grew to 5000 before the rainy season reduced the flow. The Thais have said that supplies for more than 5000 will not be allowed. If implemented, this policy will precipitate a crisis when the dry season begins, as it now has (Nov 94). Pa'an and Thaton Districts, March-June 94. Karen, Burman men, women, children; Rape; forced labour; inhuman treatment (deprivation of food, beating sometimes ending in death); extortion; decimated village; rape; forced marriage; pregnant women beaten, miscarry; villagers made to plant trees for SLORC profit; mine-sweeping; killing; forced portering,incl. children; inhuman treatment during portering; depletion of villages, eg one from 150 to 20 families; another from 100 to 10, largely on account of forced labour; no time to do their own work; economic oppression..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: New Refugees from Karen Areas
    Date of publication: 17 February 1994
    Description/subject: "Thaton, Pa'An & Papun Districts. Late 93, early 94. Karen, Burman men, women, children: Forced labour incl. forced portering; Human shields; looting; killing; torture; rape of children; extortion; inhuman treatment (beating); mine-sweeping; old women, children and pregnant women taken as porters; different types of portering; beating to death; killing of children, incl in reprisal; pillaging; forced relocation; reprisals. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Statements by Karenni Refugees
    Date of publication: 12 June 1992
    Description/subject: "Statement by Karenni refugees fleeing a SLORC ultimatum to all villagers in a large part of the State where the Karenni opposition is strong to leave their villages or die. Their statements describe some of the SLORC army’s activities in civilian villages of western Karenni..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The War is Growing Worse and Worse: Refugees and Displaced Persons on the Thai-Burmese Border
    Date of publication: 1990
    Description/subject: Short ad for the sales item: Following a bloody crackdown on pro-democracydemonstrations in September 1988, nearly 7,500 students and activists fled to the Thai border. The report focuses on the Burmese students and ethnic minorities who have crossed the border and sought aid and protection in Thailand, while documenting human rights abuses in Burma.
    Author/creator: Court Robinson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Karens of Burma: Thailand's Other Refugees
    Date of publication: 1986
    Description/subject: Short ad for the sales item. The report discusses the affects of the fall of the Karen government, and how they unwillingly became incorporated into the modern nation state of Burma. Recommendations and requests are offered within this report on how the Karen situation may be improved.
    Author/creator: Hiram Ruiz
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmesische Kinder im Flüchtlingslager
    Description/subject: Durch Zwangsarbeit, gezielte Menschenrechtsverletzungen und gewaltsame Umsiedlung versucht die burmesische Regierung, die ethnische Gruppe der Karenni im Osten Burmas unter Kontrolle zu halten und von den Karenni-Widerstandsgruppen zu trennen. Knapp die Hälfte der etwa 200.000 Bewohner des Kayah-Bundesstaates sind inzwischen vertrieben – in staatlichen Lagern oder in den endlosen burmesischen Wäldern. Flüchtlings-Leben in Thailand; Karenni Ethnic children in refuge camps; Life of refugees in Thailand
    Author/creator: Michaela Ludwig
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tdh.de/medien/1_2005/leben_im_lager.htm
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


    Title: Flüchtlinge aus dem Shan Staat: Schluss mit den Mythen
    Description/subject: Übersetzung des Berichts: "Dispelling the Myth" Im Folgenden sollen die neun am weitesten verbreiteten Mythen über Asyl suchende Shan durch die Darstellung der tatsächlichen Fakten entkräftet werden und damit zu einem verbesserten Verständnis für die Situation der Shan beitragen.
    Author/creator: The Shan Women's Action Network
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 March 2005


    Title: Jenseits der Minenfelder. Eine Klinik fluechtlinge aus Burma
    Description/subject: Situation der Fluechtlingslager an der thailändisch-burmesischen Grenze, Klinik Dr. Cynthia Maung. Unterstützung durch terre des hommes. Dr. Cynthia Maung nimmt die Reise zu den Flüchtlingen in Burma regelmäßig auf sich. Additional keywords: humanitarian assistance, health care, refugees in Thailand, IDPs
    Author/creator: Ralf Willinger
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
    Date of entry/update: 19 May 2005


  • Threatened return of Burmese asylum-seekers from Thailand to Burma
    See also Refoulement, push-backs and rejection at borders

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Non-refoulement
    Description/subject: Non-refoulement is a principle of the international law, i.e. of customary and trucial Law of Nations which forbids the rendering a true victim of persecution to their persecutor; persecutor generally referring to a state-actor (country/government). Non-refoulement is a key facet of refugee law, that concerns the protection of refugees from being returned to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened. Unlike political asylum, which applies to those who can prove a well-grounded fear of persecution based on membership in a social group or class of persons, non-refoulement refers to the generic repatriation of people, generally refugees into war zones and other disaster areas. Non-refoulement is a jus cogens (peremptory norm) of international law that forbids the expulsion of a refugee into an area, usually their home-country, where the person might be again subjected to persecution.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return
    Date of publication: 02 June 2013
    Description/subject: Bridging the HLP Gap - The Need to Effectively Address Housing, Land and Property Rights During Peace Negotiations and in the Context of Refugee/IDP Return: Preliminary Recommendations to the Government of Myanmar, Ethnic Actors and the International Community.....Executive Summary: "Of the many challenging issues that will require resolution within the peace processes currently underway between the government of Myanmar and various ethnic groups in the country, few will be as complex, sensitive and yet vital than the issues comprising housing, land and property (HLP) rights. Viewed in terms of the rights of the sizable internally displaced person (IDP) and refugee populations who will be affected by the eventual peace agreements, and within the broader political reform process, HLP rights will need to form a key part of all of the ongoing moves to secure a sustainable peace, and be a key ingredient within all activities dedicated to ending displacement in Myanmar today. The Government Myanmar (including the military) and its various ethnic negotiating partners – just as with all countries that have undergone deep political transition in recent decades, including those emerging from lengthy conflicts – need to fully appreciate and comprehend the nature and scale of the HLP issues that have emerged in past decades, how these have affected and continue to affect the rights and perspectives of justice of those concerned, and the measures that will be required to remedy HLP concerns in a fair and equitable manner that strengthens the foundations for permanent peace. Resolving forced displacement and the arbitrary acquisition and occupation of land, addressing the HLP and other human rights of returning refugees and IDPs in areas of return, ensuring livelihood and other economic opportunities and a range of other measures will be required if return is be sustainable and imbued with a sense of justice. There is an acute awareness among all of those involved in the ongoing peace processes of the centrality of HLP issues within the context of sustainable peace, however, all too little progress has thus far been made to address these issues in any detail, nor have practical plans commenced to resolve ongoing displacement of either refugees or IDPs. Indeed, the negotiating positions of both sides on key HLP issues differ sharply and will need to be bridged; many difficult decisions remain to be made..."
    Author/creator: Scott Leckie
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Displacement Solutions
    Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://displacementsolutions.org
    http://displacementsolutions.org/landmark-report-launch-bridging-the-housing-land-and-property-gap-in-myanmar/
    Date of entry/update: 17 June 2013


    Title: Karen Refugees Committee’s 10 points to repatriation
    Date of publication: 26 March 2013
    Description/subject: The KRC’s statement said that 10 key points had to be met in order for a repatriation process to be put in place that did not undermine the lives of refugees: (1) Nationwide ceasefire should be observed, (2) There should be sustainable peace and political conflicts should be settled, (3) Provision of universal human rights must be respected, (4) Relocated areas should be freed from land mines and security should be given a priority, (5) The relocated areas should be suitable for one to support their livelihood; favourable land should be provided adequately for one family, (6) Health certificates, education certificates received should be recognised by the government, (7) We will not tolerate force repatriation; it should be one’s own decision or voluntary return, (8) Adequate preparation should be given to return, (9) Right should be given to the Committee concerned regarding repatriation and allow them to inspect location and collect necessary information, (10) The repatriation can only take place when the concerned organisations, KRC, INGOs, NGOs, UNHCR, and CBOs agree that there is a genuine peace in Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: KRC via KIC via BNI
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2013


    Title: Thai authorities say 700 Rohingya who entered Thailand illegally will be sent back to Myanmar
    Date of publication: 11 January 2013
    Description/subject: "...Thai authorities said Friday that about 700 people from Myanmar’s beleaguered Rohingya minority who had entered Thailand illegally were found in two separate raids in the country’s south and that they would be sent back to Myanmar. Police and government officials found 307 Rohingya asylum seekers during a search Friday at a warehouse in Sadao district in Songkhla province, police Maj. Col. Thanusin Duangkaewngam said. On Thursday, nearly 400 Rohingya were found in a raid in the same district..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: AP via "Washington Post"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 January 2013


    Title: Position on the Repatriation of Refugees from Burma
    Date of publication: 12 December 2012
    Description/subject: "After the Karenni Refugee Committee (KnRC) organized three workshops on September 20-21st, November 9th and October 8-10th, attended by representatives of KnRC, Karenni community based organizations and religious leaders, the groups agreed on a common position paper on refugees’ repatriation as follow. Although the situation in Burma has improved and democratic reforms have taken place in the last year and a half, the changes seem to be reversible. There is no political stability due to ongoing conflict in some ethnic areas, no rule of law, no security for refugee returnees, and more importantly, a genuine peace hasn’t been established in the country. Thus, it is obvious that this is not the time for the refugees to return yet. The repatriation of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) must be in line with international principle; the return must be voluntary in “conditions of safety and dignity.” Before the refugees return to Burma, the following pre-conditions must be in place:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karenni Refugee Committee and Karenni Community Based Organizations
    Format/size: pdf (438K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2012


    Title: The Situation of Refugees on the Thai-Burma Border
    Date of publication: 11 December 2012
    Description/subject: "Since the initiation of President Thein Sein’s limited reforms in Burma and the signature of preliminary ceasefires agreements with some of the ethnic armed groups, the issue of refugee return is becoming increasingly prominent. According to The Border Consortium (formerly the Thailand Burma Border Consortium) there are approximately 160,000 refugees on the Thai-Burma border. The governments of Thailand and Burma have made no illusions as to their aims: to repatriate the refugees as soon as possible. Donors and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) have already started preparing refugees’ return while community-based organizations (CBOs) that constitute and represent refugees are trying to bring the refugees’ voices to the decision makers. The refugees themselves are suffering from a lack of information and clarity as to their own future and as such, tension and anxiety have been building in the refugee camps..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
    Format/size: pdf (138K-OBL version; 700K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Refugee-Background-Paper.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 December 2012


    Title: Nothing About Us Without Us - Refugees' Voices About Their Return to Burma (video)
    Date of publication: 10 December 2012
    Description/subject: A powerful video made up of interview clips, mainly with refugees, as well as UNHCR, TBC and other Thailand-based refugee and human rights organisations about the proposed repatriation of Burmese refugees in Thailand back to Burma. The film is especially critical of the lack of consultation by the UNHCR, Burmese and Thai Government with the refugees and community-based organisaations......"Burma Partnership is pleased to announce the launch of a short documentary entitled "Nothing About Us Without Us". The film highlights refugees' voices about repatriation from camps along the Thailand border back into Burma. Featuring interviews with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, leading academics, representatives from civil society organizations and the refugees themselves, the film shows the lack of information currently available to most refugees and outlines the necessity of including refugees in the decision-making and planning processes related to their return to Burma."
    Author/creator: Timothy Syrota
    Language: Adobe Flash (18 minutes, 40 seconds)
    Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


    Title: KRC ATTITUDE AND PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS REPATRIATION (English and Karen)
    Date of publication: 03 October 2012
    Description/subject: "After the transition from military government to civilian government in Burma, most of the people hope that a positive change could take place. If a genuine and realistic change indeed does take place, then another step in the repatriation process for the people to resettle to their own land would definitely follow. However, the arrangements of any refugee's return should comply according to the standard of international law. KRC, as the main supervisory body, represents 7 camps, approximately 150,000 refugees, and administers all the affairs of the camps’ management and programmes. Thus, KRC has the responsibility to take the lead on developing any plan for repatriation and for co-ordinating with organizations such as NGOs/INGOs and CBOs in this process. In this way, regarding the repatriation, KRC will stand for firstly, the choice of the individual refugee to make their own decision and secondly, the changes in Burma need to be legitimately recognized and recommended by the international communities. Therefore, under the management of KRC - EC, some conditions required as below have been laid down..."
    Language: Englsh and Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Refugee Committee (KRC)
    Format/size: pdf (99K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


    Title: Karen Community-Based Organizations’ Position on Refugees’ Return to Burma
    Date of publication: 11 September 2012
    Description/subject: Today a grouping of Karen Community Based Organizations (KCBOs) released their collective position in response to recent news about the repatriation of refugees. The position paper outlines the pre‐conditions and processes necessary for a successful and voluntary return of refugees from several camps along the Thai‐Burma border, back to Karen areas. Repatriation without these pre‐conditions and processes will be against the will of the refugees and will not respect their right to return voluntarily in safety and with dignity. “We are encouraged by the changes in Burma but there are many improvements that would need to happen before refugees would be safe to return,” said Dah Eh Kler from the Karen Women’s Organization (KWO).“We fled the fighting and the abuse by the Burma Army. We know the ceasefires are still fragile and do not yet include an enforceable code of conduct; the troops are still all around our former villages, along with land mines and other dangers. We hope that we can go home one day soon, but it is just not possible under the current conditions in Karen areas. The position paper is a comprehensive view of what the Karen community needs in order to go home. It outlines several pre‐conditions that must be met before refugees return to Burma, including: achievement of a political settlement between ethnic armed groups and the Burma government, agreement on a nationwide ceasefire, guaranteed safety and security for the people, clearance of land‐mines, withdrawal of all Burma Army and militia troops, end of human rights violations, abolishment of all oppressive laws and resolution of land ownership issues. “We have learned from the UNHCR that the Burma government has already planned the locations to which refugees will be repatriated. KCBOs were very surprised to hear this as we and the refugees themselves have not been consulted properly on where, when and how they will be repatriated. Refugees have the right to make free choices on where, when and how they will return to their homeland,” said Ko Shwe from the Karen Environment and Social Action Network (KESAN). In order to make their own choices about their return, the KCBOs have outlined specific processes that must take place, including defining how consultations with refugees and affected communities must be conducted and how refugees and KCBOs must take part in the decision‐making process at all stages, including in preparation, implementation and post‐return phases. For the full list of pre‐conditions and necessary processes, please see the attached position paper......Burma, Karen, myanmar, refugee, repatriation, return, thailand
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (142K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 September 2012


    Title: Shan community groups: Don’t push refugees back into active war zone (Press release)
    Date of publication: 27 August 2012
    Description/subject: Shan community groups are gravely concerned about imminent repatriation of over 500 refugees from a camp on the northern Thai border into an area of active conflict.
    Language: Burmese, English, Shan, Thai
    Source/publisher: Shan groups via Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
    Format/size: pdf (109K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shanhumanrights.org/images/stories/Action_Update/Files/press%20release%20by%20shan%20com...
    Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


    Title: "Burma Issues" July - August 2012 Volume 25 Number 15/16 (Special issue on the threat of involuntary return of refugees from Thailand to Burma)
    Date of publication: August 2012
    Description/subject: The Repatriation Issue By Saw David... Looking Forward To “Living In My Village Without Any Fear” By Saw David... “Not Ready To Return” By Eh Klo Dah... “If They Have No Plan For This, Many Will Die Of Starvation” By Saw David... “I Dare Not To Go Back Home As Long As The Burmese Army Still Fortifies” By Eh Klo Dah... “Perhaps I will Run Away” By Saw David “Just Words, No Action Makes Us Distrustful” By Eh Klo Dah...By Saw David...News in Brief... Karen Women Organisation’s Opinion
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Issues"/Peace Way Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (612K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/images/stories/newsletters/july%20august.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 January 2013


    Title: HM (Risk factors for Burmese citizens) Burma CG [2006] UKAIT 00012
    Date of publication: 23 January 2006
    Description/subject: Final result of the litigation in the United Kingdom on risks to Burmese asylum-seekers from the way in which they may be removed to Burma, including the experiences of Mr Stanley Van Tha. The decision of the UK's Asylum & Immigration Tribunal, issued on 23 January 2006.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal
    Format/size: pdf (97K), html (190K), Word
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ait.gov.uk/Public/Upload/j1862/00012_ukait_2006_hm_burma_cg.doc
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/00012_ukait_2006_hm_burma_cg-1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 16 April 2006


  • Muslim refugees in Thailand

    Individual Documents

    Title: 3 sides to every story - A profile of Muslim communities in the refugee camps on the Thailand Burma border
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: "...The social dynamics of the refugee camps along the Thailand Burma border have shifted considerably in the past several years to the point where they now display significant diversities in ethnicity, religion and cultural practices. In order to better inform itself of these changing dynamics, in 2009 TBBC undertook research to gain a fuller understanding of one of the more distinct groups within this shifting landscape – that of the Muslim communities. This report is the result of that process, and provides analysis and ways forward to ensure the programme reflects sensitivities to their practices and preferences. The Muslim sector of the refugee populations along the Thailand Burma border is a significant and distinct minority centred, for the most part, in the Tak camps – namely, Mae La (ML), Umpiem Mai (UM) and Nu Po (NP); with a very small community also in Mae Ra Ma Luang (MRML). The population consists of three main sub-sects, representing divergent relations to the wider refugee community – both in terms of geographical origin, political persuasion and social inclusion. A singular classification of the root causes and motivations for their entry into the camps is not possible – as they range from genuine cases of asylum to the capitalisation on economic opportunities – although one summarising their lifestyle practices and preferences is more feasible, as specific and wide-ranging commonalities exist across the communities..."
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
    Format/size: pdf (1,2MB - English; 1.6MB - Thai)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/resources/muslim-edit-Eng.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/2010-09-muslim-profile(th)-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


  • Shan refugees in Thailand

    Individual Documents

    Title: Shan Human Rights Monthly Newsletter - August 2012 - Why people still flee Shan State and seek refuge in other countries
    Date of publication: August 2012
    Description/subject: Commentary: Why people still flee Shan State and seek refuge in other countries... Contents: Themes & Places of Violations reported in this issue... MAP... Situation of people fleeing their native places in Kae-See... Land confiscation and mining project causing people to flee, in Murng-Su... Military operation, forced labour and extortion, causing people to flee, in Murng-Kerng... Continuing forced labour, forced recuruitment and extortion causing people to flee, in Lai-Kha... Forced recruitment causing people to flee, in Kung-Hing... Military and police persecution causing people to flee, in Nam-Zarng... Forced relocation and land confiscation causing people to flee, in Murng-Nai... Beating and intimidation causing people to flee, in Larng-Khur...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 January 2013


    Title: Blending In
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: Most ethnic minorities fleeing from eastern Burma are recognized as refugees in Thailand, but the Shan are afforded no such status... "Occupying Burma’s largest state and with a population of about 5 million, the Shan, or Tai Yai, share a close cultural and historical identity with their Thai neighbors—the languages are similar and many Shan are able to assimilate easily within Thailand. In fact, many Shan people do not, or refuse to, speak Burmese. One million Shan currently live in Thailand, mostly in Chiang Mai Province and the northern region, where they have a reputation for being independent and hard working. After a drunk government soldier murdered her husband, Par Yuan and her childern fed to Thailand. (Photo: The Irrawaddy) The Thai authorities’ official explanation as to why the Shan are not granted refugee status is that they have not fled war and persecution as entire communities. However, many observers say the real reason is to avoid opening the floodgates to an influx of Shan..."
    Author/creator: Ko Htwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=16904
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    Title: Do dreams come true? ‘Illegal’ young female Shan refugees in Northern Thailand: coping with contradicting (in)securities.
    Date of publication: June 2009
    Description/subject: "...This thesis consists out of seven chapters. The next chapter on theory will address important political and theoretical debates within the arena of displacement and refugee studies. Chapter three will present the methodological approach taken within the research. Chapters four and five are the data chapters of this thesis addressing various layers of insecurities through thematic chapters. The chapters are based on the most important themes that arose during fieldwork. How young Shan women first reacted to state terror, and the impact of this on their daily lives, is highlighted in chapter four. Chapter five will explain what it means to be a young Shan female, revealing the daily life practices and the influences they have on life chances and future aspirations. Finally, I shall conclude by referring to the debates discussed within the theory chapter. The key words of this research are displacement, young female Shan refugees, future aspirations and human (in)security..."
    Author/creator: Ursula Cats
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Masters Thesis - Social and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
    Format/size: pdf (4.9 - original version; 2.4 - OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/MASTER-THESIS-Final-version1-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2010


  • Women refugees in Thailand

    Individual Documents

    Title: Do dreams come true? ‘Illegal’ young female Shan refugees in Northern Thailand: coping with contradicting (in)securities.
    Date of publication: June 2009
    Description/subject: "...This thesis consists out of seven chapters. The next chapter on theory will address important political and theoretical debates within the arena of displacement and refugee studies. Chapter three will present the methodological approach taken within the research. Chapters four and five are the data chapters of this thesis addressing various layers of insecurities through thematic chapters. The chapters are based on the most important themes that arose during fieldwork. How young Shan women first reacted to state terror, and the impact of this on their daily lives, is highlighted in chapter four. Chapter five will explain what it means to be a young Shan female, revealing the daily life practices and the influences they have on life chances and future aspirations. Finally, I shall conclude by referring to the debates discussed within the theory chapter. The key words of this research are displacement, young female Shan refugees, future aspirations and human (in)security..."
    Author/creator: Ursula Cats
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Masters Thesis - Social and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
    Format/size: pdf (4.9 - original version; 2.4 - OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/MASTER-THESIS-Final-version1-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2010


  • Burmese refugees in Thailand - education
    See also the Education section in Main Library

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Books for Burmese Refugees
    Description/subject: The blog dedicated to our educational aid project benefiting a children's home in Nu Po Camp, one of nine Burmese refugee camps in the border area of Thailand
    Language: English, Francais, French,
    Source/publisher: Books for Burmese Refugees
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://books-for-burmese-fr.blogspot.com/
    Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


    Title: Help Without Frontiers
    Description/subject: "Help without frontiers is a voluntary association. The objectives of the organization are to help the Burmese refugees. It was founded by some young and enthusiastic people who want to help, without geographic and also without mental frontiers. The primary objective of the organization is to alleviate the suffering of the Burmese refugees who have had to flee their homeland because of brutality and inhuman treatment carried out by the Burmese government. We are currently helping the refugees, mainly from the ethnic minority of the Karen, on the Thai-Burmese border near the city of Mae Sot which is located about 500km North West of Bangkok..."
    Language: English, Deutsch, German, Italian, Italiano
    Source/publisher: Help Without Frontiers
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: Evaluation of a nursery school program in long-term Karen refugee camps in Thailand
    Date of publication: November 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand due to ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative, learning-friendly environment. Psychosocial development and potentially concerning behaviors of two- to five-year old children in nursery schools were examined using a psychosocial checklist. The results showed that psychosocial development of the children increased with age, with a majority of five year olds being proficient in playing cooperatively with other children. A third of the children showed sadness or emotional outbursts. Difficulty separating from parents was also observed. The results also showed that children who attended the nursery schools for more than a year were better at playing cooperatively with other children and were more aware of their own and others’ feelings. On the other hand, children who were newer to the nursery schools were more polite and better at following rules and controlling their feelings when frustrated. The results indicate that nursery schools can be a promising practice to promote healthy psychosocial development of children in protracted refugee situations."
    Author/creator: Akiko Tanaka
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (357K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 November 2011


    Title: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand, Education Survey 2010
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: "The ZOA Education Survey 2010 is the fourth of a series of surveys on the education in refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The purpose of the education survey is to • document the provision of education in the camps • provide background information on a sample of residents • make systematic comparisons across time, and • generate discussions and recommendations for future education provision strategies. The Education Survey in 2009 was conducted using set questionnaires with 3,910 respondents1. This was supplemented by focus group interviews with particular groups of camp residents. The survey was conducted between June and November 2009 in seven refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border: Mae La, Umphiem-Mai, Nu Po, Mae La Oon, Mae Ra Ma Luang, Ban Don Yang and Tham Hin. Refugees from Burma in Thailand The profile of the respondents showed that there have been changes since 2005. With regards to education, the levels of attainment in 2009 are about the same as the 2005 cohort. However, there is a significant difference in that the percentage of people with Standard 10 qualifications is much higher than it was in 2005. The levels of literacy of the respondents in 2009 were much lower than that of their counterparts in 2005, but women who used Skaw Karen as the home language had higher levels of literacy than those in the sample in 2005. The percentage of respondents in different income categories has become more spread out than in 2005, meaning that there are many more respondents earning incomes across the spectrum rather than clustering in the lower levels..."
    Author/creator: Su-Ann Oh With Supee Rattanasamakkee (Say Naw), Phanu Sukhikhachornphrai (Chai), Somchat Ochalumthan and Simon Purnell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (742K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2011


    Title: Exploring Paradoxes around Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand
    Date of publication: 01 September 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This literature-based study explores three main paradoxes underlying Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations both theoretically as well as in relation to the case of Burmese refugees in Thailand. Firstly, the study will explore the paradox of basic relief for refugees on the one hand and developmental efforts for higher education on the other. Secondly, the issue of higher education and the nation-state will be addressed in relation to refugees’ perceived liminality in the national world order. The last paradox to resolve revolves around ways refugees are commonly perceived as victims of war and conflict who are unable to cope with the challenges of higher education. Following a rights-based approach and adopting post-structural theories, this dissertation demonstrates how dominant educational discourse emphasises externalities and thereby neglects the individual’s right to higher education from permeating into practice while powerful narratives of refugees as dependent victims have shaped reality in justifying mechanisms for international protection and incapacitating refugees. The study concludes that higher education could be both a means and an end to refugee empowerment."
    Author/creator: Barbara Zeus
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Education University of London
    Format/size: pdf (1.46MB)
    Date of entry/update: 31 July 2011


    Title: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand: 2009 Annual Report
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This annual report of ZOA Thailand provides the information related to the overall aspects of the organization and the implementation of its programme and projects in 2009. The report starts with the financial overview – sources of income, donor information, funding by sources, funding per project and expenditures per project. Additionally, the graphs of expenditures per project show the comparative overview of yearly spending during 3 years: 2007, 2008 and 2009. In the second chapter information regarding Burmese refugees, migrants in Thailand, internally displaced Burmese as well as the general information on the refugee camps and populations is provided. The third chapter describes the project update presenting an outline of the work and the size of the projects as carried out in each of three area offices and at the country office in Mae Sot. In the country office section, general information on the work done and work results in 2009 is provided according to the following structure • the Basic Education Project, • the Education Materials Development Project, • the Vocational Training Project, • the Non-formal Project, • the Higher Education Project, • the Competence Development and Capacity Building Project and • the Livelihoods Project The strategic planning for ZOA Thailand set in 2009 is shown in chapter four. The main information providing five core strategies of the organisation as well as the programmatic results, which shows the overview of the strategic planning per sub-sector is also provided. The fifth chapter provides the readers with the information on management, human resources and partnering. The information on staffing, functions of each office, organisational structure and development of human resources policy and procedures are included to give an overall picture of internal organisation. The final chapter looks at challenges and sustainability in relation to the ZOA Thailand programme. The main issue here is the challenge of resettlement and the impact that this has on the programme. The sustainability section looks at this challenge against various other factors. These are conflict and sustainability, environmental factors and sustainability, social factors and sustainability, financial and economic factors and sustainability as well as institutional factors and the topic of sustainability."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2011


    Title: Teaching training: Systemic issues and challenges
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: "This paper outlines some of the current issues affecting teacher training in seven refugee camps - Mae La, Nu Po, Umpiem-mai, Mae La Oon, Mae Ra Ma Luang, Ban Don Yang and Tham Hin - along the Thai-Burmese border. It describes the current teacher training system and highlights the positive outcomes and challenges involved in implementing a teacher training system in difficult geographical, political and administrative circumstances..."
    Author/creator: Janet Steadman; Series editor: Su-Ann Oh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand (Issue Paper No. 3)
    Format/size: pdf (238K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 November 2011


    Title: Educational change in a protracted refugee context
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: The provision of education in the refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border has evolved over 20 years, adapting its purpose, expanding its reach and improving its quality and relevance.
    Author/creator: Marc van der Stouwe and Su-Ann Oh
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 406K; Burmese, 250K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/47-49.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: The Learning Landscape: Adult learning in seven refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This assessment set out to 1 map the learning landscape in the seven refugee camps served by ZOA, showing points of learning, and if and how they are connected and/or integrated; 2 identify learning needs and interests of the camp communities, including but not exclusively literacy, foreign language learning and resettlement needs; 3 understand the barriers that learners face in gaining access to learning.... Fieldwork was conducted in the seven camps served by ZOA. The sample of respondents was selected using both random and snowball sampling. The provision of adult learning activities: The bulk of learning activities available are languages (English and Thai), technical skills training (agriculture automechanics, sewing), professional development and community issues. There is some provision for literacy, numeracy, and basic and continuing education for adults but that is patchy... Learning needs and interests: Refugees in the camps need literacy, numeracy, workplace skills and general education to upgrade their basic skills and to enable them to grasp and master technical and craft skills, English for resettlement and Thai for possible integration. The majority of respondents were interested in learning English, Thai, computing, agriculture and sewing... Barriers to learning: The most common barriers to learning were misconceptions about the content, form and relevance of learning programmes, the scheduling of the programmes and the lack of widely available course information... Recommendations: It is recommended that ZOA: A uses current provision more efficiently and effectively; B adds literacy, numeracy and workplace skills to current provision; C expands basic and general education provision for adults and young people.
    Author/creator: Su-Ann Oh with Toe Toe Parkdeekhunthum
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care
    Format/size: pdf (558K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2008


    Title: Having Their Say: Refugee camp residents and inclusive education - ZOA's commitment to educational inclusion
    Date of publication: May 2007
    Description/subject: A ZOA Position Paper..."In the context of its Karen Education Project (KEP), ZOA has begun the process of developing specific strategies to address the issue of ‘inclusive education’ (or inclusion in education). During a staff workshop held in June 2006, we began this process by discussing the concepts of exclusion and inclusion, and the situation in the education sector in the refugee camps. The staff also openly discussed ZOA’s role in encouraging (and sometimes discouraging) an inclusive approach to education. The main theme that cut across this workshop was that inclusion goes beyond the principle of non-discrimination in service delivery. It is about ‘actively helping the disadvantaged to become less disadvantaged, the excluded to be included, and the voiceless to have a voice’. Another important issue was that inclusion should not be seen as a separate project: it cuts across all our activities and needs to be mainstreamed in these activities. The ZOA inclusion initiative is also very much about ‘awareness’. We asked ourselves to what extent we are aware of our attitudes and behaviour, and the (positive or negative) impacts these might have on the participation of particular groups of people in the activities that we organize. Being aware of the impact of our own attitudes and actions is seen as a crucial starting point in promoting the inclusion of marginalized groups in the camp communities. ZOA is committed to move this process forward, and we have begun by: • carrying out a participatory assessment of the current situation with regards to inclusion in the education sector, i.e., analyzing existing practices and gaps • defining specific strategies to promote inclusive education on the basis of the assessment • translating the strategies into activities to be included in ZOA Activity Plans for 2007 and 2008..."
    Author/creator: Liberty Thawda, Marc Van der Stouwe, Say Naw, Su-Ann Oh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (472K)
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2007


    Title: ZOA Refugee Care, Thailand, Education Survey 2005
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: "...This Education Survey 2005 is the third update on the educational situation in the Karen camps. As in the previous surveys, it provides a general picture of the camp education sector, including demographic indicators, data on enrolment, dropout, and parental involvement, as well as a range of other topics. However, in this survey we wanted to go beyond the execution of just “another survey”. First of all, we decided to include a broader range of topics in the survey in order to obtain a more complete picture of the camp education system. Secondly, in relation to the strategic direction that ZOA has decided to go in the context of KEP, we wanted a stronger focus on including data in relation to the quality of education. Finally, as far as the process is concerned, we focused on ensuring maximum community involvement in the data collection and analysis process, and making the survey a learning experience for ZOA staff as well as community members. In that sense, the education survey does not only provide a basis for determining capacity-building activities in the future; it has also been a capacity-building intervention in its own right. We believe the survey has contributed to the acquisition of research and analysis skills among local staff as well as camp communities..."
    Author/creator: Su-Ann Oh, with, Somchat Ochalumthan, Saw Pla Law La, Johnny Htoo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (863K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2006


    Title: Top of Their Class
    Date of publication: May 2005
    Description/subject: Karen kids seek good education in refugee camp schools... "Students in developing countries often look to distant lands to fulfill their dreams of a good education and a brighter future. A growing number of young people in Burma’s Karen State, however, find that schools operating in refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border offer them the best chance of achieving these goals. Noh Poe refugee camp in Thailand’s Tak province is one of them..."
    Author/creator: Shah Paung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: ZOA Refugee Care, Thailand, Education Survey 2002
    Date of publication: December 2002
    Description/subject: "In the Karen refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border, some 34,000 Karen students are in school every day. About 1,100 Teachers and Trainers join hands together daily in order to educate the Karen youth. The Karen are the second largest ethnic group in Burma. For decades they have been involved in an armed struggle for a degree of autonomy and self-determination inside Burma. As a result, today almost 110,000 of the Karen people live in 7 refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border, located in four provinces. Education is highly valued by the Karen people. It is a key factor in the day to day survival in the refugee camps. The education in the camps, is predominantly the result of the efforts of the Karen refugees themselves. This Education Survey is following two surveys that were conducted respectively in 1995/1996 by the CCSDPT, and in 2000 by ZOA Refugee Care. The main objective of the survey is to describe existing education services provided to the camps. Furthermore the survey intends to identify existing gaps in the education services. Where relevant, the outcomes of this survey will be compared to the results of the previous education survey. In this survey, special attention is given to the perspective of students. Their ideas and opinions are of importance in the effort to form a picture of the current education that is offered in the camps. The interviews for this survey were held between March and August 2002 in all 7 Karen refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The Karen people make up more than 80% of the total refugee population living in the camps along the Thai Burma border..."
    Author/creator: Jan Lamberink
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ZOA Refugee Care, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2007


  • Burmese refugees in Thailand -- The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) and CCSDPT

    • Articles on the TBBC

      Individual Documents

      Title: A Sad, Sad Celebration
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Twenty-five years of challenges and achievements for the Thailand Burma Border Consortium—and no end in sight... "When 10,000 Karen refugees fled a widening conflict along Burma’s eastern border into neighboring Thailand in early 1984, it was generally expected that they would return home in a few months with the onset of the rains and the withdrawal of Burmese government troops from the jungle. The anticipated withdrawal never came, however. Government army units established supply lines, maintaining and consolidating their positions. The uprooted refugees stayed in Thailand. Nine refugee camps are now home to more than 140,000 refugees who have fed war and terror in Burma. (Photo : TBBC) Every dry season that followed brought fresh offensives by the Burma regime forces and new waves of refugees into Thailand. The fighting and regime abuses only grew in intensity—and 25 years later there are more than 140,000 Burmese refugees in nine camps along Thailand’s border with Burma. The number is steadily growing—despite an ambitious program of resettlement in the US and other Western countries. In 1984, Thailand already had its hands full with a refugee crisis on its eastern borders. Foreign aid workers helping to care for Vietnamese, Lao and Cambodian refugees interrupted their relief efforts there and moved to the far west of the country to assist Thai authorities tackle what they were told would be only a temporary problem on the Thai-Burmese border. An Englishman, Jack Dunford, was among that vanguard of relief workers. He helped set up a consortium of nongovernmental agencies to provide food to the refugees on a short-term basis. Dunford soon found himself dealing with a long-term task, and the fledgling organization, the Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC), took over his life..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


    • TBBC website and mixed documents

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: The Border Consortium - TBC (formerly Thailand Burma Border Consortium - TBBC)
      Description/subject: Very useful site, well-structured, with lots of material on IDPs and refugees... "TBBC is a registered charity in England and Wales, a consortium of nine international NGOs from seven countries providing food, shelter and non food items to refugees and displaced people from Burma. TBBC also engages in research on the root causes of displacement and refugee outflows. Programmes are implemented in the field through refugees, community based organisations and local partners. With increased focus on a rights based approach, the organisation is committed to meeting international humanitarian best practices.. The organisation is based in Bangkok, Thailand with field offices in Mae Hong Son, Mae Sariang, Mae Sot and Sangklaburi. "
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: The Border Consortium -TBC (formerly the Thailand Burma Border Consortium - TBBC)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 July 2006


    • CCSDPT documents on resettlement

      Individual Documents

      Title: PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE: THE IMPACT OF RESETTLEMENT ON THE REMAINING CAMP POPULATION
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: MAP OF THAI-BURMESE BORDER CAMPS; ACRONYMS. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .. vi 1. INTRODUCTION .1 2. METHODOLOGY 2 3. CURRENT CONTEXT OF RESETTLEMENT ..3 4. IMPACT OF RESETTLEMENT: OVERALL OBSERVATIONS..4 4.1 Factors influencing depletion of skilled workers .5 4.2 Limited labour pool and the difficulty of replacement..6 4.3 Mood in the camps in the context of resettlement ..8 5. EDUCATION .8 5.1 Overall Impact on Education Sector...8 5.2 Actual and Anticipated Consequences of Resettlement on the Education Sector .11 5.3 Current and Possible Programmatic Responses to Resettlement: Coping Strategies ...12 5.4 Sectoral Recommendations for Education ...13 6. HEALTH14 6.1 Overall Impact on the Health Sector 14 6.2 Actual and Anticipated Consequences of Resettlement on the Health Sector...17 6.3 Current and Possible Programmatic Responses to Resettlement: Coping Strategies ...18 6.4 Sectoral Recommendations 19 7. CAMP ADMINISTRATION ...21 7.1 Overall findings ...21 7.2 Camp Committees ..22 7.3 CBOs..22 7.4 CBO and Camp Committee Recommendations ...25 8. OTHER RESETTLEMENT-AFFECTED GROUPS..25 8.1 Extremely Vulnerable Individuals (EVIs) ..25 8.2 Separated Children .26 9. POSITIVE IMPACTS ..26 10. FINANCIAL COSTS OF RESETTLEMENT..27 11. RECOMMENDATIONS TO KEY STAKEHOLDERS...27 11.1 NGOs and CBOs...27 11.2 UNHCR, IOM, OPE...29 11.3 Resettlement Countries.30 11.4 Royal Thai Government.31 11.5 Donors ..31 11.6 All Stakeholders 31 12. APPENDICES .32 Appendix A: Resettlement Activity vs. Education Level ..32 Appendix B: Guidelines and Procedures for the Identification of Myanmar .35 Refugees for Resettlement Submission.35 Appendix C: Camp-based workers, Education Level, and Projected Resettlement .39 Appendix D: Camp-Specific Data ..42 Appendix E: Financial Costs of Resettlement 49 Appendix F: List of Stakeholders Interviewed 51
      Author/creator: DR. SUSAN BANKI AND DR. HAZEL LANG
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: CCSDPT
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


    • TBBC 6-monthly Programme Reports

      Individual Documents

      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July-December 2009
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "With funding becoming increasingly difficult to sustain, 2009 never promised to be an easy year for the Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) or for the hundreds of thousands of refugees and internally displaced people either side of the Thailand Burma border. Humanitarian actors were increasingly becoming operational inside the country to seize whatever new opportunities might emerge after the 2010 General Election and there was a danger that ethnic conflict in the border areas, remote from Rangoon, might increasingly become the ‘side-show’. But the ethnic issue is unfinished business. Armed ethnic conflict has dragged on for more than 60 years and, although both cease-fire and non-ceasefire ethnic groups have limited resources, they remain major obstacles to the State Peace and Development Council’s (SPDC) aim for complete control. Whilst everyone hopes that the General Election will indeed lead to meaningful change, the new constitution does not address ethnic aspirations and conflict could go on for many more years to come. There remains the possibility of a major emergency should SPDC decide to push for an early military solution. Against this backdrop of uncertainty, 2009 in fact turned out in many ways to be a good year for TBBC. Donor interest remained high: twelve governments were represented at TBBC’s annual meetings in Chiang Mai and funding needs were met. TBBC was able to sustain all of its regular activities, supplying 22,130 MT of rice, 5,454 MT of other food and 12,894 MT of charcoal to an average 138,000 refugees, but also was able to invest time and resources in strengthening its programme and planning new initiatives whilst playing a leading role in putting forward strategic options for change to the Royal Thai Government (RTG). TBBC is grateful to all of its Donors, large and small for the support and encouragement it received. This report provides details of the programme during the second half of 2009, and presents an operating budget of baht 1,230 million (USD 37 million or EUR 27 million) for 20101. Whilst primarily targeted at Donors, this report also aims to provide information and analysis useful to other concerned observers and practitioners interested and involved in the situation in Burma and along the Thailand Burma border... Refugee situation: TBBC’s 2009 annual report on displacement in eastern Burma showed how threats to civilian safety and livelihoods have grown even worse during the past five years as the Burmese army has gradually increased its presence and control in the border areas. At least 75,000 people were displaced from their homes between August 2008 and July 2009 and although many of these remain inside Burma, others joined the steady flow of new refugees into Thailand. The attack by the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and SPDC against the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) opposite Tha Song Yang District in June reported last time, was seen as a likely prelude to an ongoing offensive in Karen State. It also illustrated the way similar emergencies might develop on other parts of the border if other cease-fire groups acceded to SPDC’s orders to form border guard forces (BGFs) and joined offensives against the remaining non-ceasefire groups. Some 4,000 refugees fled into Thailand. But so far there have been no major new military operations along the border and, although several deadlines have passed, the other main cease-fire groups have still refused to form BGFs. It remains to be seen whether SPDC will attempt to force the issue before the General Election, which could still precipitate a major emergency, or whether it will back away from direct confrontation, settling instead to break down ethnic resistance over the longer run. Either way, it is far more likely that there will be more refugees coming into Thailand in 2010 than any of them going home. As this report is being finalised there is much speculation about the 3,000 refugees still living in very temporary shelters in Tha Song Yang District following the June offensive. Whilst most of them express a desire to go back, the threat of landmines and ongoing conflict make this a very dangerous proposition at the present time. The Thai authorities insist that they will not send anyone back against their will, but reports of intimidation persist. Since services are difficult to sustain in the temporary locations, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Committee for Coordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand (CCSDPT) have recommended that the refugees should be offered the option of moving to Mae La camp. TBBC’s new population database and ration book system which has gradually been introduced since 2007 is now fully functional, providing accurate information on refugee numbers and tight control of ration distributions. TBBC has been able to physically verify and photograph everyone eligible for assistance and the requirement for every individual to personally collect his/her ration against a photo ID has led to greatly improved efficiencies. Apart from an estimated 7,600 in Mae La, all unregistered people in the camps have now been through the verification process and the verified caseload at 31st December was 139,366 comprising 94,298 registered refugees and 45,038 unregistered people. Since some people work for short periods outside the camps, on average about 96% of the verified caseload actually show up to collect their rations, meaning that the current actual feeding figure is about 133,500. Results of the Royal RTG pilot pre-screening process in four camps have yet to be finalised and no announcement has yet been made whether, how or when this will be extended to the other camps. Hopefully this will occur during the first half of 2010 and, if successful, would mean that TBBC could then exclude “screened out” persons from ration distributions. TBBC’s verification process has in fact already excluded some who have been pre-screened. Almost 17,000 refugees left for resettlement to third countries in 2009 bringing the total to over 53,000 since 2005. Numbers leaving are expected to start declining in 2010 and so, allowing for babies born in the camps and a ‘normal’ influx of new arrivals, TBBC is basing its budget for 2010 on an end of year case load of 136,000... Funding situation: 2009 was a satisfactory year financially. Expenses totalled baht 1,108 million and income was baht 1,137 million giving a small surplus of baht 29 million. This small reserve will be important in 2010 since the budget of baht 1,230 million, is 11% higher than last year, mainly due to higher commodity prices, but also because of planned new initiatives. Although some Donors have yet to confirm their funding intentions, the projected income for 2010 is baht 1,083 million, 5% lower than 2009 and this would result in a shortfall of baht 149 million for the year. TBBC’s funding position is very sensitive to exchange rates and commodity price fluctuations, both of which are going the wrong way at present. The Thai baht has strengthened 20% against Donor currencies over the last 5 years and commodity prices are rising. It is essential therefore that additional funds are raised. The TBBC programme is still remarkably efficient with the cost of supporting one refugee for a whole year just baht 8,500 (USD 250, EUR 185) and all staff, management and governance costs amount to less than 9% of the budget... Strategic planning: The struggle to sustain adequate funding for refugee support after 25 years has added pressure for a change in the current model of encampment, with refugees almost entirely aid-dependent. Following up on advocacy initiatives launched in 2005, CCSDPT and UNHCR drew up a draft five-year Strategic Plan during 2009 to promote the ideas of increasing refugee self-reliance and bringing refugee services under the RTG system where possible, with greater freedom for refugees to move outside the camps being an important requirement. It was presented to RTG representatives and Donors at a seminar in Chiang Mai in November. Whilst the RTG is sympathetic to refugees having more productive lives, concerns about national security, the impact on Thai communities and the fear of creating a pull factor for new refugees, have so far weighed against any change in the policy of encampment. This means that although progress can be made in certain areas, the strategy as whole is currently unattainable. The directions of the Strategic Plan remain valid and although the scope for creating sustainable livelihoods within camps is very limited, TBBC is pursuing new initiatives. For 2010, new and expanded livelihood opportunities are planned in agriculture, weaving, shelter construction and small business enterprises such as sewing, carpentry and shops. These projects will equip refugees to take advantage of new economic opportunities as they arise but they are likely to create only limited opportunities for reducing basic humanitarian support under current conditions. Even though large numbers of small businesses are common in long-term refugee camps, sometimes visitors to the camps (usually Mae La) are surprised at the number of shops, concluding that the refugees must be relatively ‘well-off’. A survey conducted by consultants commissioned and funded by the European Commission (DG ECHO) during the period found that one third of the population are ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ with an average household (5.7 people) income less than baht 500 per month (USD 15, EUR 11), whilst ‘better-off’ households earning more than 2,200 baht per month (USD 66, EUR 48) were no more than 9% of the population. Their conclusion was that this provided little scope for reducing assistance and demonstrated the need to encourage and expand entrepreneurial activity in the camps. Support for livelihood activities will encourage self-reliance but all stakeholders must remain committed to finding ways of improving refugee mobility if assistance needs are to be reduced significantly..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf - 7.3MB; zip - 7.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/resources/2009-6-mth-rpt-jul-dec.zip
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January-June 2009
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) has been working with refugees from Burma for 25 years this year, a cause more for sadness than celebration, but also a triumph for hope and perseverance. 25 years has been a long time for TBBC to maintain interest and support, and a long time to test the patience and goodwill of Thailand, the reluctant host. But it has been an eternity for the refugees who have lost their homes and loved ones, continue to live in exile and yearn to go home. The Thailand-Burma border is at the same time beautiful and exotic, dangerous and tragic but, to most of the world, still largely unknown. The 25th anniversary would probably even have gone un-noticed were it not for TBBC’s archives and so to mark this moment in history for posterity TBBC is publishing a border “Scrapbook” in which refugees, exiles, aid workers, journalists, and diplomats; anyone who has lived, worked or visited the border over the last 25 years; will share their memories and experiences to help paint the amazing tapestry that is the Thailand Burma border: A permanent record that will hopefully be looked back on before too long as a fading memory. The TBBC story is well documented in six-month reports going right back to the early days and this latest report describes the programme during the first half of 2009, presenting a preliminary budget of baht 1,213 million (USD 36 million or EUR 26 million) for 20101... Refugee situation: After 25 years there is still no end in sight to the refugee situation. For 25 years the Burmese Army has gradually overrun ethnic territory displacing more than a million people from their homes. It has brought terror to the people as villages have been destroyed or relocated, land confiscated, roads driven through, military bases established and the natural resources exploited. This is vast and remote territory and the Burmese Army has yet to take total control, but during these last few months it appears that another concerted effort has perhaps begun. In the run-up to Burma’s promised General Election in 2010, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) is attempting to convert the ethnic cease-fire armies into Border Guard Forces (BGFs) under Burmese Army command. Most are opposed to the idea but some, including the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) are cooperating and helping SPDC launch a renewed offensive against the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA). Since early June at least 4,000 new refugees have crossed the border into Tak Province. These latest arrivals still hope to go home and are being supported on a temporary basis. They are not included in TBBC’s current feeding figure of 134,000. Neither are the majority of the large numbers of new arrivals into the Tak camps since the end of 2007 who are still being verified. It is estimated that currently around 17,000 unregistered people are not receiving rations. The good news is that the long anticipated pilot pre-screening process undertaken by the Royal Thai Government (RTG) to “screen out” those “without a manifestly just claim to asylum” is now well underway. It is possible that by early next year the entire unregistered population will have been screened. This will make the ongoing determination of feeding figures much more straightforward. It will also probably result in an increase in TBBC’s feeding figures. For budgeting purposes TBBC is assuming that about two-thirds of the unregistered will be “screened in” which is the main reason why the 2010 preliminary budget is around 5% higher than in 2009. Although resettlement to third countries continues, with about 17,000 expected to leave this year and around 15,000 projected for 2010, these will be outnumbered by the unregistered “screened in”, together with new arrivals and new births. After another full year of resettlement, the feeding figure at the end of 2010 is projected to be 138,000 people... Funding situation: After experiencing repeated funding shortages over the last few years it is a relief to report that TBBC is currently expecting to more or less break even in 2009. Revised projected expenditures of baht 1,153 million (USD 34 million or EUR 25 million) are expected to be nearly covered by grants thanks to fairly stable prices and exchange rates, and a generous response from TBBC’s Donors. The situation for next year is less certain however. At this stage TBBC has only two committed grants for 2010 and much work needs to be done before the Donors Meeting in November if the preliminary budget of baht 1,213 million (USD 36 million or EUR 26 million) is to be achieved. The budget is very sensitive to commodity prices, exchanges rates and feeding figures. A combination of increases or decreases of 20%, 10% and 10% in these variables respectively, would increase/ decrease funding needs by EUR 7.6 million or USD 10.8 million... Strategic planning: The main reason why it has been difficult to raise enough funds during the last few years is the fact that the situation has gone on for so long with little prospects for change and, in spite of the large third country resettlement programme, refugee numbers have not gone down. There has been a growing realisation that the current model of encampment, with refugees almost entirely aid-dependent, is neither desirable nor sustainable. Recent reports have documented advocacy with the RTG to allow refugees to be more self-reliant through improved skills training and education and by promoting income generation/ employment opportunities. Donors would like to see a clear medium term plan to this effect and have requested an all-stakeholders Workshop with the RTG to develop a shared strategy. The reality is that there are already embryonic programme activities attempting to challenge the status quo and during this period the Committee for Coordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand (CCSDPT) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) have begun drafting a five year Strategic Plan in which all service sectors share the common objectives of helping refugees become more self-reliant and, where possible, incorporating refugee services within the Thai system. Such a strategy will need commitment by all parties, and the necessary allocation of resources. TBBC has reoriented its own Strategic Plan for the next five years looking wherever possible to encourage refugee self-reliance. It represents a fundamental philosophical shift for the organisation from one of strengthening and sustaining services whilst waiting for change, to re-orientating all activities to promote change and durable solutions... TBBC programme: Promoting change has huge implications for TBBC’s human resources. In addition to the on-going challenge of meeting increasing Donor demands for monitoring and accountability, TBBC needs additional resources for research and the development of new activities. Several consultancies have already been undertaken this year, or are about to start, which will help guide the process. A study of TBBC’s building supplies has not only recommended many ways the programme can be improved, but also the potential for new livelihood opportunities in the shelter sector. Another consultancy funded by ECHO will look at current economic coping strategies in the camps to explore ways of expanding these and possible ways of more accurately targeting assistance. During this period TBBC has been recruiting new staff to help manage and monitor the “supply chain”, to expand its food security programme, develop livelihoods opportunities, and to build the capacity of refugee community organisations to take an increasing role in camp management. To deal with the management challenges of all these developments, TBBC will host a Data Management consultancy to review and improve the way TBBC manages its various databases and a TBBC Boardcommissioned Management Consultancy will review TBBC’s management structure and budgeting process... Prospects: The next year is an extremely critical one for Burma as it prepares for the General Election which the junta proclaims will herald a new era of “disciplined” democracy. The prospects, however, are not good with the SPDC showing no signs of making the process inclusive, totally defying the wishes of the international community and its own people. Around 2,100 political prisoners remain incarcerated and Aung San Suu Kyi has just been subjected to a farcical trial resulting in an extension of her house arrest for another 18 months. The election date and law governing it has yet to be revealed and it seems unlikely that the National League for Democracy, the main opposition party, or many of the ethnic nationality groups will participate. Attempts by the international community to reason with the regime are spurned, the UN Secretary General even being refused permission to meet with Aung San Suu Kyi. There is increasing concern about SPDC’s threat to regional peace and security, particularly after recent reports of growing military cooperation with North Korea and suggestions that Burma has ambitions to develop nuclear weapons. Meanwhile the dire humanitarian situation in Burma does not improve. Whilst there had been hopes that international access to the Delta post-Nargis might open up new opportunities for the humanitarian community to expand their programmes and improve access to other parts of the country, any progress is extremely slow and is unlikely to have any material impact at least until after the Election. A major potential destabilising factor is the way SPDC is attempting to deal with ethnic aspirations. The demand that the ethnic cease-fire groups form BGFs mentioned above is meeting resistance, and could result in conflict. All of this bodes ill for the Thailand Burma border. If SPDC is successful in further developing the BGFs along other parts of the border and in other ethnic areas, then the recent Tak emergency is likely to be repeated in the months to come. However, if the other cease-fire groups decide to defy SPDC, the ceasefire agreements might be broken and armed hostilities resumed. Either way, the stakes have been raised, the situation is very volatile and new refugee flows are a distinct possibility."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (5,7MB; zip 5.6MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/resources/2009-6-mth-rpt-jan-jun.zip
      Date of entry/update: 04 September 2010


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July-December 2008
      Date of publication: March 2009
      Description/subject: "This report describes the Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) programme during the second half of 2008 and presents an operating budget of baht 1,130 million (USD 33 million or EUR 26 million) for 20091. It tells a remarkable story of how TBBC managed to maintain its services in a year of turmoil, but also describes the tough challenges ahead for 2009..." 1. Executive Summary..... 2. Refugee situation July to December 2008: a) Refugee populations... b) Planning initiatives and RTG policy... c) Migrant workers... d) Internally displaced: the situation in eastern Burma... e) Political developments..... 3. Programme July to December 2008:- 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food security programme: food, nutrition, and agriculture... b) Cooking fuel, stoves, utensils... c) Soap... d) Shelter... e) Clothing... f) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats... g) Procurement, quality control, distribution/ ration books, monitoring, stocks... h) Feeding fi gures... i) Logistics/ Supply chain management... j) Preparedness, new arrivals and vulnerable groups... k) Support to Mon resettlement sites... l) Safe house... m) Assistance to Thai communities... n) Coordination of assistance..... 3.2. Promoting livelihoods and income generation: a) CAN... b) Weaving project... c) Cooking stoves..... 3.3. Empowerment through inclusive participation: a) Camp management... b) Community liaison... c) Gender... d) Protection... e) Peace building, conflict resolution... 3.4 Strengthening advocacy..... 3.5 Developing organisational resources: a) Governance... b) Management... c) Communications... d) Resource Centre... e) Visibility... f) Strategic plan... g) Cost effectiveness... h) Funding strategy... i) Programme studies and evaluations..... 4. Finance: 4.1. Expenses... 4.2. Income... 4.3. Reserves and balance sheet... 4.4. Monthly cash flow... 4.5. 2008 grant allocations... 4.6. Sensitivity of assumptions....... THAILAND BURMA BORDER CONSORTIUM:- Appendices: TBBC: A) History and development, Organisational structure... B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme from 1984... C) Accounts..... The relief programme: background and description:- D) Programme constituents: 1.Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food security programme: food, nutrition and agriculture... b) Cooking fuel, cooking stoves, utensils... c) Building materials... d) Clothing... e) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats... f) Educational supplies... g) Emergency stock... h) Procurement procedures, tendering, transportation, receipt, storage, distribution, food containers... i) Quality control, monitoring... j) Logistics/ Supply chain management... k) Assistance to Thai communities..... 2.Promoting livelihoods and income generation" a) CAN... b) Weaving project... c) Stove making..... 3.Empowerment through inclusive participation: a) Camp management... b) Community liaison... c) Gender... d) Protection..... 4.Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities..... 5.Developing organisational resources: a) Strategic plan... b) Programme evaluation and review... c) Performance indicators... d) Cost effectiveness... e) Staff training... f) Sustainability and Contingency Planning... g) Continuum strategy (Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development)... h) Visibility ..... E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe:- Thailand-Burma border area: F) A brief history of the Thailand Burma border situation ... G) Internal displacement, vulnerability and protection in eastern Burma... Members and staff: H) TBBC member agencies, advisory committee, member representatives and staff, 1984 to February 2009... I) TBBC meeting schedule 2009... Abbreviations..... Maps: A) Burma states and divisions... B) Burmese ethnic groups... C) Displaced Burmese December 2008 ... D) Camp populations... E) CCSDPT services... F) Border situation 1984 to December 2008 151 G) IDP maps
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (6.6MB - full report; 339K - Burmese extracts)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/resources/2008-6-mth-rpt-jul-dec-burmese.pdf (extracts in Burmese)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/2008-6-mth-rpt-jul-dec.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 April 2009


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January-June 2008
      Date of publication: June 2008
      Description/subject: Includes 2009 preliminary budget.....Contents 1.Executive Summary... 2.Refugee situation January to June 2008: a) Refugee populations... b) Planning initiatives and RTG policy... c) Migrant workers... d) Internally displaced: the situation in eastern Burma... e) Political developments...... 3.Programme January to June 2008:- 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food security programme: food, nutrition, and agriculture... b) Cooking fuel, stoves, utensils... c) Soap... d) Shelter... e) Clothing... f) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats... g) Tendering, procurement, monitoring, stocks... h) Feeding figures... i) Preparedness, new arrivals and vulnerable groups... j) Support to Mon resettlement sites... k) Safe house... l) Assistance to Thai communities... m) Coordination of assistance... 3.2 Promoting livelihoods and income generation: a) Can... b) Weaving project... c) Cooking stoves... 3.3 Empowerment through inclusive participation: a) Camp management... b) Community liaison... c) Gender... d) Protection... e) Peace building, conflict resolution... 3.4 Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities... b) Internally displaced persons (IDPs)... 3.5 Developing organisational resources: a) Governance... b) Management... c) Communications... d) Resource Centre... e) Strategic plan... f) Cost effectiveness... g) Funding strategy... h) Programme studies and evaluations..... 4.Finance: 4.1 Expenses... 4.2 Income... 4.3 Reserves and balance sheet... 4.4 Monthly cash flow... 4.5 2007 grant allocations... 4.6 Sensitivity of assumptions..... Appendices:- TBBC: A) History and development, Organisational structure 51 B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme from 1984 58 C) Accounts 66... The relief programme: background and description: D) Programme constituents: 1. Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food security programme: food, nutrition and agriculture... b) Cooking fuel, cooking stoves, utensils... c) Building materials... d) Clothing... e) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats... f) Educational supplies... g) Emergency stock... h) Procurement procedures, transportation, delivery, storage, distribution, food containers... i) Quality control, monitoring... j) Assistance to Thai communities...... 2. Promoting livelihoods and income generation: a) Can... b)Weaving project... c) Stove making 79 3. Empowerment through inclusive participation: a) Camp management... b) Community liaison... c) Gender... d) Protection..... 4. Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities..... 5. Developing organisational resources: a) Strategic plan... b) Programme evaluation and review... c) Performance indicators... d) Cost effectiveness... e) Staff training... f) Sustainability and Contingency Planning... g) Continuum strategy (Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development)... h) Visibility...... E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe, Thailand-Burma border area..... F) A brief history of the Thailand Burma border situation...... G) Internal displacement, vulnerability and protection in eastern Burma 104 Members and staff...... H) TBBC member agencies, advisory committee, member representatives and staff, 1984 to July 2008...... I) TBBC meeting schedule 2008..... Abbreviations... Maps: A) Burma states and divisions... B) Burmese ethnic groups... C) Displaced Burmese June 2008... D) Camp populations... E) CCSDPT services... F) Border situation 1984 to June 2008... G) IDP maps.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July to December 2007
      Date of publication: 10 March 2008
      Description/subject: Contents: 1. Summary and appeal for funds... 2. Refugee situation July to December 2007: a) Refugee populations 2 b) Planning initiatives and RTG policy 6 c) Migrant workers 6 d) Internally displaced: the situation in eastern Burma 7 e) Political developments 8 3. Programme July to December 2007 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living a) Food security programme: food, nutrition, and agriculture 10 b) Cooking fuel, stoves, utensils 16 c) Soap 17 d) Shelter 18 e) Clothing 20 f) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats 21 g) Tendering, procurement, monitoring, stocks 21 h) Feeding figures 24 i) Preparedness, new arrivals and vulnerable groups 25 j) Support to Mon resettlement sites 27 k) Safe house 27 l) Assistance to Thai communities 28 m) Coordination of assistance 28 3.2 Promoting livelihoods and income generation a) Weaving project 28 b) Cooking stoves 29 c) Livelihoods 29... 3.3 Empowerment through inclusive participation a) Camp management 31 b) Community liaison 31 c) Gender 32 d) Protection 33 e) Peace building, conflict resolution 34 3.4 Strengthening advocacy a) Advocacy activities 35 b) Internally displaced persons (IDPs) 35 c) Website 36 d) TBBC brochure 36 3.5 Developing organisational resources a) Governance 36 b) Management 36 c) Resource centre 38 d) Communications officer 38 e) Strategic plan 38 f) Cost effectiveness 38 g) Funding strategy 38 h) Programme studies and evaluations... 4. Finance: 4.1 Expenses a) 2007 actual expenses 41 b) 2008 operating budget 42 4.2 Income a) 2007 43 b) 2008 43 4.3 Reserves and balance sheet 44 4.4 Monthly cash flow 45 4.5 2007 grant allocations 45 4.6 Sensitivity of assumptions 45 iii Appendices TBBC A) History and development, Organisational structure 57 B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme from 1984 66 C) Accounts 74 The relief programme: background and description D) Programme constituents: 1. Supporting an adequate standard of living a) Food security programme: food, nutrition and agriculture 78 b) Cooking fuel, cooking stoves, utensils 81 c) Building materials 81 d) Clothing 82 e) Blankets, mosquito nets and sleeping mats 82 f) Educational supplies 84 g) Emergency stock 84 h) Procurement procedures, transportation, delivery, storage, distribution, food containers 84 i) Quality control, monitoring 87 j) Assistance to Thai communities 88 2. Promoting livelihoods and income generation a) Weaving project 88 b) Stove making 88 3. Empowerment through inclusive participation a) Camp management 89 b) Community liaison 89 c) Gender 89 d) Protection 91 4. Strengthening advocacy a) Advocacy activities 91 5. Developing organisational resources a) Strategic plan 91 b) Programme evaluation and review 92 c) Performance indicators 92 d) Cost effectiveness 92 e) Staff training 93 f) Programme sustainability 93 g) Visibility 94 E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe 95 Thailand-Burma border area F) A brief history of the Thailand Burma border situation 116 G) Internal displacement, vulnerability and protection in eastern Burma 118 Members and staff H) TBBC meeting schedule 2008 122... Abbreviations 123... Maps: A) Burma states and divisions iv B) Burmese ethnic groups v C) Displaced Burmese December 2007 vi D) Camp populations 3 E) CCSDPT services 59 F) Border situation 1984 to December 2007 117 G) IDP maps 118
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (4.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 April 2008


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January to June 2007
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: Contents: 1. Summary and appeal for funds 1... 2. Refugee situation January to June 2007 a) Refugee populations 2 b) Planning initiatives and RTG policy relating to camp services 7 c) Migrant workers 8 d) Internally displaced: the situation in eastern Burma 9 e) Political developments 10... 3. Programme January to June 2007 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living a) Food security programme: food, nutrition, and agriculture 12 b) Cooking fuel, stoves, utensils 19 c) Soap 19 d) Shelter 20 e) Clothing 22 f) Blankets, bednets and sleeping mats 22 g) Tendering, procurement, monitoring, stocks 22 h) Feeding figures 26 i) Preparedness, new arrivals and vulnerable groups 26 j) Support to Mon resettlement sites 27 3.2 Working through partnerships a) Camp management 28 b) Gender 29 c) Protection 29 d) Safe House 30 e) Assistance to Thai communities 30 3.3 Building capacity a) Community liaison 31 b) Peace building, conflict resolution 33 c) Weaving project 33 3.4 Strengthening advocacy a) Advocacy activities 34 b) Internally displaced persons (IDPs) 34 c) Website 35 d) TBBC logo 35 e) TBBC brochure 36 3.5 Developing organisational resources a) Governance 36 b) Management 37 c) Resource centre 38 d) Strategic plan 38 e) Cost effectiveness 38 f) Funding strategy 38 g) Programme studies and evaluations 40... 4. Finance 4.1 Expenses a) 2007 January to June actual expenses 41 b) 2007 revised projection 42 c) 2008 preliminary budget 43 4.2 Income a) 2007 44 b) 2008 44 4.3 Reserves and balance sheet 44 4.4 Monthly cash flow 46 4.5 2007 grant allocations 46 4.6 Sensitivity of assumptions 46... Appendices: TBBC A) History and development, Organisational structure 54 B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme from 1984 64 C) Accounts 72 The relief programme: background and description D) Programme constituents: 1. Supporting an adequate standard of living a) Food security programme: food, nutrition and agriculture 76 b) Cooking fuel, cooking stoves, utensils 80 c) Building materials 81 d) Clothing 82 e) Blankets, bednets and sleeping mats 82 f) Educational supplies 84 g) Emergency stock 84 h) Procurement procedures, transportation, delivery, storage, distribution, food containers 84 i) Quality control, monitoring 87 2. Working through partnerships a) Camp management, representation 88 b) Gender policy 89 c) Protection 90 d) Assistance to Thai communities 90 3. Building capacity a) Community liaison 91 b) Weaving project 91 4. Strengthening advocacy a) Advocacy activities 91 5. Developing organisational resources a) Strategic plan 92 b) Programme evaluation and review 92 c) Performance indicators 92 d) Cost effectiveness 93 e) Staff training 93 f) Programme sustainability 93 g) Visibility 94 E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe 95 Thailand-Burma border area F) Brief history of the Thailand Burma border situation 116 G) Internal displacement, vulnerability and protection in eastern Burma 118 Members and staff H) TBBC meeting schedule 2007 122 Abbreviations 123... Maps A) Burma states and divisions iv B) Burmese ethnic groups v C) Displaced Burmese June 2007 vi D) Camp populations 3 E) CCSDPT services 57 F) Border situation 1984 to June 2007 117 G) IDP maps 118
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July to December 2006
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: Contents:- 1. Summary and funding appeal... 2. Refugee situation July to December 2006: a) Population trends; b) Displaced Mon and Shan; c) Camp situations; d) Ongoing initiatives; e) Trends/ Outlook... 3. Programme July to December 2006: 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food and nutrition; b) Cooking fuel, Stoves; c) Soap; d) Shelter; e) Clothing; f) Tendering, Procurement, Monitoring, Stocks; g) Preparedness, new arrivals and vulnerable Groups; h) Support to Mon resettlement sites... 3.2 Working through partnerships: a) Camp management; b) Gender; c) Protection; d) Safe House; e) Assistance to Thai communities... 3.3 Building capacity: a) Food security (CAN Project); b) Community liaison; c) Peace building, conflict resolution; d) Weaving project... 3.4 Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities; b) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs); c) Website; d) TBBC logo; e) TBBC brochure... 3.5 Developing organisational resources: a) Governance; b) Management; c) Resource centre; d) Strategic plan; e) Cost effectiveness; f) Funding strategy; g) Programme evaluations... 4. Finance: 4.1 2006 financial statements: a) 2006 actual expenses compared with revised projection; b) 2006 income; c) 2006 balance sheet and reserves; d) 2006 monthly cash flow; e) 2006 grant allocations... 4.2 2007 Budget: a) 2007 expense budget; b) 2007 income; c) 2007 balance sheet and reserves; d) 2007 monthly cash flow... 4.3 Sensitivity of assumptions... 4.4 2008 Indication: iii... Appendices: TBBC: A) History and development, Organisational structure... B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme: 1984 to December 2006... C) Accounts... The relief programme: background and description: D) Programme constituents: 1. Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food rations, Supplementary feeding; b) Cooking fuel, Cooking stoves, Utensils; c) Building materials; d) Clothing; e) Blankets, Bednets, Sleeping mats; f) Educational supplies; g) Emergency stock; h) Procurement procedures, Transportation, Delivery, Storage, Distribution, Food Containers; i) Quality control, Monitoring... 2. Working through partnerships: a) Camp management, Representation; b) Gender policy; c) Protection; d) Assistance to Thai communities... 3. Building capacity: a) Food security; b) Community liaison; c) Weaving project... 4. Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities... 5. Developing organisational resources: a) Strategic Plan; b) Programme evaluation and review; c) Performance indicators; d) Cost effectiveness; e) Staff training; f) Programme sustainability; g) Visibility... E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe Thailand-Burma border area... F) Brief history of the Thailand Burma border situation... G) Internal displacement, vulnerability and protection in eastern Burma... H) TBBC meeting schedule 2007... Abbreviations... Maps: A) Burma states and divisions; B) Burmese ethnic groups; C) Displaced Burmese 2006; D) Camp populations; E) CCSDPT services; F) Border situation 1984 to 2006; G) IDP maps.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2007


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January to June 2006
      Date of publication: September 2006
      Description/subject: Contents: 1. Summary and funding appeal... 2. Refugee situation January to June 2006: a) Population trends; b) Displaced Mon and Shan; c) Problematic camp situations; d) New initiatives; e) Trends/ Outlook... 3. Programme January to June 2006: 3.1 Supporting an adequate standard of living: a) Food and nutrition; b) Cooking fuel, Stoves; c) Shelter; d) Clothing; e) Tendering, Procurement, Monitoring, Stocks... 3.2 Working through partnerships: a) Camp management; b) Gender; c) Protection; d) Safe House; e) Assistance to Thai communities... 3.3 Building capacity: a) Food security (CAN Project); b) Community liaison. c) Weaving project... 3.4 Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities; b) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs); c) Website... 3.5 Developing organisational resources: a) Governance; b) Management; c) Strategic Plan; d) Cost effectiveness; e) Funding strategy; f) CCSDPT/ UNHCR Draft Comprehensive Plan; g) Programme evaluations ... 4. Finance: 4.1 2006 income and expenses: a) 2006 January to June actual expenses compared with budget; b) 2006 revised projection for expenses compared with operating budget; c) 2006 income; d) 2006 monthly cash flow; e) 2006 net movements in funds and reserves; f) 2006 grant allocations... 4.2 2007/2008 Budget: a) 2007 expense budget; b) 2007 income; c) 2008 Indication expenses... 4.3 Sensitivity of assumptions: ii; iii... Appendices: TBBC: A) History and development, Organisational structure; B) Summary of TBBC and NGO programme: 1984 to June 2006; C) Accounts; The relief programme: background and description; D) Programme constituents: 1. Supporting an adequate standard of living; a) Food rations, Supplementary feeding; b) Cooking fuel, Utensils; c) Building materials; d) Clothing; e) Blankets, Bednets, Sleeping mats; f) Education; g) Emergency stock; h) Procurement procedures, Delivery, Storage; i) Quality control, Monitoring... 2. Working through partnerships; a) Camp management, Representation; b) Gender policy; c) Protection; d) Assistance to Thai communities... 3. Building capacity: a) Food security; b) Community liaison; c) Weaving project... 4. Strengthening advocacy: a) Advocacy activities... 5. Developing organisational resources: a) Strategic Plan; b) Programme evaluation and review; c) Performance indicators; d) Cost effectiveness; e) Staff training; f) Programme sustainability; g) Visibility... E) Programme performance indicators including Logframe Thailand-Burma border area; F) Brief history of Thailand Burma border situation; G) Internal displacement in eastern Burma; Members and staff; H) Meetings scheduled for 2006.... Maps: A) Burma states and divisions; B) Burmese ethnic groups; C) Displaced Burmese 2006; D) Camp population; E) CCSDPT services; F) Border situation 1984 to 2006; G) IDP maps 106Contents.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (2.59MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2007


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July to December 2005
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: TBBC MEMBERS & REPRESENTATIVES; TBBC MISSION, VISION, VALUES, CONDUCT, GOAL, AIM, OBJECTS & STRATEGIC PLAN OBJECTIVES; BURMA STATES & DIVISIONS; MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS of BURMA; SUMMARY & EMERGENCY FUNDING APPEAL... REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2005: a) Feeding Figures b) Admissions to Asylum; c) Persons of Concern; d) Resettlement to Third Countries; e) Shan Refugees; f) Mon Resettlement Sites; g) Tham Hin; h) Mae La Oon; i) Migrant Workers; j) Internally Displaced; k) CCSDPT/ UNHCR Draft Comprehensive Plan & RTG/ NGO Workshop; l) Political Developments... TBBC PROGRAMME DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2005: a) TBBC Logframe & Programme Impact; b) Nutrition: Blended Food, Supplementary Feeding & Nutrition Education, Nursery School Lunches; c) Food Security: Home Gardens, CAN Handbook; d) Environment: Cooking Fuel, Cooking Stoves, Building Materials; e) Clothing; f) Procurement Procedures: Tendering, Quality Control; g) Monitoring; h) Warehouses & Stock Management; i) Camp Management; j) Community Liaison; k) Gender; l) Protection; m) Safe House; n) Assistance to Thai Communities; o) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs); p) Governance & Management; q) Strategic Plan ; r) TBBC Website ; s) Financial Control/ Accounts; t) Cost Effectiveness; u) Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative; v) Programme Evaluations; w) CCSDPT/ UNHCR Draft Comprehensive Plan for 2006/ Donors Meeting; x) Advocacy; y) Lessons Learned... TBBC INITIATIVES FOR THE NEXT SIX MONTHS: a) Nutrition; b) Food Security; c) Environment; d) Procurement; e) Monitoring; f) Warehouses & Stock Management; g) Camp Management; h) Community Liaison Activities; i) Gender; j) Protection; k) IDPs/ Displacement Research; l) Governance & Management; m) Strategic Plan; n) TBBC Web Site; o) Finance & Financial control; p) Evaluations; q) CCSDPT/ UNHCR Draft Comprehensive Plan; r) Advocacy... TBBC EXPENSES: 2005 ACTUAL & 2006 OPERATING BUDGET: a) Actual 2005 expenditures compared with Revised Projection; b) 2006 Operating Budget compared with 2006 Preliminary Budget; c) 2006 Refugee Caseload... TBBC FUNDING SITUATION: a) TBBC 2006 Funding Crisis; b) 2005 Actual & 2006 Funding Forecast; c) Monthly Cash-flow 2005 Actual & 2006 Forecast; d) Sensitivity of Assumptions... FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR 2005: a) The Accounts 45 b) Grant Allocations; c) Statutory Accounting & External Audits; d) Banking..... LIST OF APPENDICES: APPENDIX A: THE THAILAND & BURMA BORDER CONSORTIUM: a) 1984 Mandate/ Organisation; b) 1990 Expansion/ 1991 Regulations; c) 1994 Regulations; d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring & RTG Emergency Procedures; e) 1998/ 99 Role for UNHCR; f) CCSDPT/ UNHCR draft Comprehensive Plan, 2005 RTG/ NGO Workshop; g) TBBC Organisational Structure; h) TBBC Funding Sources; i) TBBC Bank Account; j) Financial Statements & Programme Updates; k) TBBC Mission Statement, Vision, Goal, Values, Aim & Objectives; l) Coordination with Refugee Committees... APPENDIX B: REFUGEE CAMP ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES: a) Authorities & Organisations; b) Selection Procedures... APPENDIX C: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE THAILAND BURMA BORDER SITUATION... 􀂃 APPENDIX D: INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT, VULNERABILITY & PROTECTION IN EASTERN BURMA... APPENDIX E: THE RELIEF PROGRAMME: a) Royal Thai Government Regulations; b) Refugee Demographics; c) Food Rations; d) Supplementary Feeding; e) Food Security; f) Environment: Environmental Impact, Cooking Fuel, Building Materials; g) Clothing; h) Blankets, Bednets & Sleeping Mats; i) Cooking Utensils; j) Educational Supplies; k) Emergency Stock; l) Assistance to Thai Communities; m) Procurement Procedures; n) Transportation; o) Delivery/ Storage; p) Quality Control; q) Distribution; r) Monitoring; s) Indicators; t) Camp Management; u) Protection; v) Gender/ Gender Policy; w) Cost Effectiveness; x) Programme Sustainability; y) Programme Evaluation; z) Staff Training; aa) Visibility... APPENDIX F: TBBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS... APPENDIX G: SUMMARY OF NGO & TBBC PROGRAMME 1984 TO DECEMBER 2005... APPENDIX H: TBBC ACCOUNTS BEING REVIEWED BY AUDITOR; 􀂃 APPENDIX I: TBBC MEMBER AGENCIES, ADVISORY COMMITTEE, MEMBER REPRESENTATIVES & STAFF 1984 to 2006... 􀂃 APPENDIX J: TBBC MEETING SCHEDULE 2006.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium
      Format/size: pdf (3.53MB)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2006


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January to June 2005
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: TBBC MISSION STATEMENT, GOAL, AIM AND OBJECTIVES; BURMA STATES and DIVISIONS; MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS of BURMA; LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS; 1. SUMMARY AND FUNDING APPEAL... 2. REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2005: a) Feeding Figures; b) Admissions to Asylum; c) Shan Refugees; d) Mon Resettlement Sites; e) Persons of Concern; f) Tham Hin; g) Resettlement to Third Countries; h) Mae La Oon; i) Mae Ra Ma Luang; j) Contingency Planning: Expanded Opportunities for Refugees; k) Migrant Workers; l) Internally Displaced; m) Political Developments... 3. TBBC PROGRAMME DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2005: a) TBBC Logframe and Programme Impact; b) Nutrition: Blended Food, Supplementary Feeding and Nutrition Education; Nursery School Lunches; c) Food Security: Training, Home Gardens; d) Environment: Cooking Fuel, Cooking Stoves, Building Materials; e) Clothing; f) Procurement Procedures: Tendering, Quality Control; g) Monitoring; h) Warehouses and Stock Management; i) Camp Management; j) Community Liaison; k) Gender; l) Protection; m) Safe House; n) Assistance to Thai Communities; o) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs); p) Governance and Management; q) Financial Control/ Accounts; r) Cost effectiveness; s) Strategic Plan; t) TBBC Website; u) Lessons Learned... 4. TBBC INITIATIVES FOR THE NEXT SIX MONTHS: a) Nutrition; b) Food Security; c) Environment; d) Procurement; e) Monitoring; f) Warehouses and Stock Management; g) Camp Management; h) Community Liaison Activities; i) Protection; j) IDPs; k) Governance and Management; l) Finance and Financial control; m) Strategic Plan; n) TBBC Web Site... 5. 2005 EXPENDITURES AND 2006 PRELIMINARY BUDGET... a) Actual 2005 6-month Expenditures compared with Operating Budget; b) Revised Expenditure Projection for 2005 compared with Operating Budget; c) 2006 Preliminary Budget... 6. TBBC FUNDING SITUATION ; a) Good Humanitarian Donorship (GHD) and a Comprehensive Plan; b) 2005 Funding Position; c) Cash-flow Situation; d) 2006 Funding Situation; e) Sensitivity of Assumptions... 7. FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR FIRST HALF OF 2005: a) The Accounts; b) Grant Allocations; c) Statutory Accounting and External Audits; d) Banking... LIST OF APPENDICES: a) 1984 Mandate/Organisation; c) 1994 Regulations 51 p) Quality Control 72 d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring and RTG Emergency Procedures e) 1998/99 Role for UNHCR 51 s) Indicators 75 f) TBBC Organisational Structure 51 t) Camp Management 76 g) TBBC Funding Sources 54 u) Protection 76 h) TBBC Bank Account 54 v) Gender/ TBBC Gender Policy 77 i) Financial Statements and Programme j) TBBC Mission Statement, Goal, Aim and Objectives and Guiding Philosophy k) Coordination with Refugee Committees... APPENDIX B: REFUGEE CAMP ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES: a) Authorities and Organisations; b) Selection Procedures... APPENDIX C: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE THAILAND BURMA BORDER SITUATION... APPENDIX D: INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT AND VULNERABILITY IN EASTERN BURMA...APPENDIX E THE RELIEF PROGRAMME: a) Royal Thai Government Regulations; b) Refugee Demographics; c) Food Rations; d) Supplementary Feeding; e) Food Security; f) Environment: Environmental Impact, Cooking Fuel, Building Materials; g) Clothing; h) Blankets, Bednets and Sleeping Mats; i) Cooking Utensils; j) Educational Supplies; k) Emergency Stock; l) Assistance to Thai Communities; m) Procurement Procedures; n) Transportation; o) Delivery/Storage; p) Quality Control; q) Distribution; r) Monitoring; s) Indicators; t) Camp Management; u) Protection; v) Gender/ TBBC Gender Policy; w) Cost Effectiveness; x) Programme Sustainability; y) Programme Evaluation; z) Staff Training...APPENDIX F: TBBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS...APPENDIX G: SUMMARY OF NGO AND TBBC PROGRAMME: 1984 TO JUNE 2005...Appendix H: Audit report...Appendix J: TBBC meetings for 2005.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (3.47MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 July 2006


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July to December 2004
      Date of publication: March 2005
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. SUMMARY AND FUNDING APPEAL... 2. REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2004: a) Admissions to Asylum; b) Shan refugees; c) Mon Resettlement Sites; d) Tham Hin; e) Mae La Oon; f) Political developments, KNU Cease-fire; g) Contingency Planning; h) Persons of Concern; i) Migrant Workers; j) Internally displaced... 3. TBBC PROGRAMME DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2004: a) TBBC Logframe and Programme Impact; b) Nutrition; c) Food Security; d) Environment: Cooking Fuel, Cooking Stoves, Building Materials; e) Clothing; f) Procurement Procedures: Tendering, Quality Control; g) Monitoring; h) Warehouses and Stock Management; i) Camp Management; j) Gender; k) Protection; l) Safe House; m) Assistance to Thai Communities; n) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs); o) Governance and Management; p) Financial Control/ Accounts; q) Cost effectiveness; r) TBBC 20th Anniversary; s) Strategic Planning; t) TBBC Website... 4. 2004 EXPENDITURES AND 2005 BUDGET: a) Actual 2004 expenditures Compared with August 2004 Projection; b) 2005 Expenditure Projection Compared with August Budget... 5. TBBC FUNDING SITUATION: a) 2004 Funding Situation; b) 2005 Funding Needs; c) Cash Flow Problems; d) 2006 Funding Situation; e) Sensitivity of Assumptions... 6. FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR SECOND HALF OF 2004: a) The Accounts; b) Grant Allocations; c) External Audits... LIST OF APPENDICES: APPENDIX A: THE THAILAND BURMA BORDER CONSORTIUM: a) 1984 Mandate/Organisation; b) 1990 Expansion/1991 Regulations; c) 1994 Regulations; d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring and RTG Emergency Procedures; e) 1998/99 Role for UNHCR; f) TBBC Organisational Structure; g) Funding Sources; h) TBBC Bank Account; i) Financial Statements and Programme Updates; j) Programme Philosophy; k) Coordination with Refugee Committees... APPENDIX B: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE THAILAND BURMA BORDER SITUATION... APPENDIX C: INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT AND VULNERABILITY IN EASTERN BURMA... APPENDIX D: THE RELIEF PROGRAMME: a) Royal Thai Government Regulations; b) Refugee Demographics; c) Food Rations; d) Supplementary Feeding; e) Food Security; f) Environment: Environmental Impact, Cooking Fuel, Building Materials; g) Clothing; h) Blankets, Bednets and Sleeping Mats; i) Cooking Utensils; j) Educational Supplies; k) Emergency Stock; l) Assistance to Thai Communities; m) Procurement Procedures; n) Transportation; o) Delivery/Storage; p) Quality Control; q) Distribution; r) Monitoring; s) Indicators; t) Camp Management; u) Gender/ TBBC Gender Policy; v) Cost Effectiveness; w) Programme Sustainability; x) Programme Evaluation; y) Staff Training; z) Visibility... APPENDIX E: TBBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS... APPENDIX F: SUMMARY OF NGO AND TBBC PROGRAMME 1984 TO DECEMBER 2004... APPENDIX G: TBBC MEETING SCHEDULE 2005.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (3.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2007


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January to June 2004
      Date of publication: September 2004
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. SUMMARY AND FUNDING APPEAL; 2. REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2004; 3. BBC PROGRAMME DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2004; 4. 2004 EXPENDITURES AND 2005 BUDGET; 5. BBC FUNDING SITUATION; 6. FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR FIRST HALF OF 2004... APPENDIX A: THE BURMESE BORDER CONSORTIUM: a) 1984 Mandate/Organisation; b) 1990 Expansion/1991 Regulations; c) 1994 Regulations 44 d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring and RTG Emergency Procedures; e) 1998/99 Role for UNHCR; f) BBC Organisational Structure; g) Funding Sources; h) BBC Bank Account; i) Financial Statements and Programme Updates; j) Programme Philosophy; k) Coordination with Refugee Committees... APPENDIX B: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BURMESE BORDER SITUATION.. APPENDIX C: THE RELIEF PROGRAMME: a) Royal Thai Government Regulations; b) Food Rations; c) Supplementary Feeding; d) Blankets, Bednets and Sleeping Mats; e) Cooking Utensils; f) Building Materials; g) Clothing; h) Cooking Fuel; i) Educational Supplies; j) Emergency Stock; k) Refugee Demographics; l) Assistance to Thai Communities; m) Procurement Procedures/Tendering; n) Transportation; o) Delivery/Storage; p) Distribution; q) Quality Control/Returns; r) Camp Administration; s) Monitoring; t) Indicators; u) Cost Effectiveness; v) Gender; w) Environmental Impact; x) Programme Sustainability; y) Programme Evaluation; z) Visibility; aa) Staff Training... APPENDIX D: BBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS... APPENDIX E: SUMMARY OF NGO AND BBC PROGRAMME 1984 TO JUNE 2004... APPENDIX F: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND AUDITOR’S REPORT TO 30 JUNE 2004... APPENDIX G: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (ACCRUALS BASIS)... APPENDIX H: BBC MEETING SCHEDULE 2004.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (4.04MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 July 2006


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, July to December 2003
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. SUMMARY AND FUNDING APPEAL 1 2. REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2003 2 3. BBC PROGRAMME DURING THE SECOND HALF OF 2003 8 4. 2003 EXPENDITURES AND 2004 BUDGET 22 5. BBC FUNDING SITUATION 26 6. FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR SECOND HALF OF 2003 29 APPENDIX A: THE BURMESE BORDER CONSORTIUM 38 a) 1984 Mandate/Organisation 38 b) 1990 Expansion/1991 Regulations 38 c) 1994 Regulations 39 d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring and RTG Emergency Procedures 39 e) 1998/99 Role for UNHCR 39 f) BBC Organisational Structure 39 g) Funding Sources 42 h) BBC Bank Account 42 i) Financial Statements and Programme Updates 43 j) Programme Philosophy 43 k) Coordination with Refugee Committees 43 APPENDIX B: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BURMESE BORDER SITUATION 44 APPENDIX C: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND RELOCATION SITES 46 APPENDIX D: RECLAIMING THE RIGHT TO RICE 49 APPENDIX E: THE RELIEF PROGRAMME 51 a) Royal Thai Government Regulations 51 b) Food Rations 51 c) Supplementary Feeding 52 d) Blankets, Bednets and Sleeping Mats 52 e) Cooking Utensils 53 f) Building Materials 53 g) Clothing 53 h) Cooking Fuel 54 i) Educational Supplies 54 j) Emergency Stock 55 k) Refugee Demographics 55 l) Assistance to Thai Communities 55 m) Procurement Procedures/Tendering 55 n) Transportation 54 o) Delivery/Storage 56 p) Distribution 58 q) Quality Control/Returns 58 r) Camp Administration 58 s) Monitoring 59 t) Indicators 61 u) Cost Effectiveness 61 v) Gender 61 w) Environmental Impact 62 x) Programme Sustainability 63 y) Programme Evaluation 63 z) Visibility 64 aa) Staff Training 64 APPENDIX F: ENERGY SUPPLY TO BURMESE REFUGEES – FOLLOWUP EVALUATION 65 APPENDIX G: BBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 69 APPENDIX H: SUMMARY OF NGO PROGRAMME 1984 TO DECEMBER 2003 76 APPENDIX I: BBC MEETING SCHEDULE 2004 81
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (4.7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


      Title: TBBC Programme Report, January to June 2003
      Date of publication: September 2003
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. SUMMARY AND FUNDING APPEAL 1 2. REFUGEE SITUATION DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2003 2 3. BBC PROGRAMME DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 2003 8 4. 2003 EXPENDITURES AND 2004 BUDGET 22 5. BBC FUNDING SITUATION 26 6. FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR FIRST HALF OF 2003 29 APPENDIX A: THE BURMESE BORDER CONSORTIUM 38 a) 1984 Mandate/Organisation 38 b) 1990 Expansion/1991 Regulations 38 c) 1994 Regulations 39 d) 1997 CCSDPT Restructuring and RTG Emergency Procedures 39 e) 1998/99 Role for UNHCR 39 f) BBC Organisational Structure 39 g) Funding Sources 42 h) BBC Bank Account 42 i) Financial Statements and Programme Updates 43 j) Programme Philosophy 43 k) Coordination with Refugee Committees 43 APPENDIX B: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BURMESE BORDER SITUATION 44 APPENDIX C: MINISTRY OF INTERIOR REGULATIONS MAY 1991 46 APPENDIX D: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND RELOCATION SITES 47 APPENDIX E: THE RELIEF PROGRAMME 50 a) Royal Thai Government Regulations 50 b) Food Rations 50 c) Supplementary Feeding 51 d) Blankets, Bednets and Sleeping Mats 51 e) Cooking Utensils 52 f) Building Materials 52 g) Clothing 52 h) Cooking Fuel 53 i) Educational Supplies 53 j) Procurement Procedures/Tendering 54 k) Transportation 54 l) Emergency Stock 56 m) Refugee Demographics 56 n) Assistance to Thai Communities 56 o) Delivery/Storage 57 p) Distribution 57 q) Quality Control/Returns 57 r) Camp Administration 57 s) Monitoring 58 t) Indicators 60 u) Cost Effectiveness 60 v) Gender 60 w) Environmental Impact 61 x) Programme Sustainability 62 y) Programme Evaluation 62 z) Visibility 63 aa) Staff Training 63 APPENDIX F: BBC PROGRAMME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 64 APPENDIX G: SUMMARY OF NGO PROGRAMME 1984 TO JUNE 2003 71 APPENDIX H: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND AUDITOR’S REPORT TO 30 JUNE 2003 76 APPENDIX I: BBC MEETING SCHEDULE 2003 81
      Language: Burmese/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (4.21 MB)
      Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


    • TBBC monthly camp population maps

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: TBBC monthly camp population maps
      Description/subject: TBBC's population figures for the camps on the Thailand-Burma border... Click on month to download a PDF map with camp populations... Jul 2011 Aug 2011 Sep 2011 Oct 2011 Jan 2011 Feb 2011 Mar 2011 Apr 2011 May 2011 Jun 2011 Jul 2010 Aug 2010 Sep 2010 Oct 2010 Nov 2010 Dec 2010 Jan 2010 Feb 2010 Mar 2010 Apr 2010 May 2010 Jun 2010 Jul 2009 Aug 2009 Sep 2009 Oct 2009 Nov 2009 Dec 2009 Jan 2009 Feb 2009 Mar 2009 Apr 2009 May 2009 Jun 2009 Jul 2008 Aug 2008 Sep 2008 Oct 2008 Nov 2008 Dec 2008 Jan 2008 Feb 2008 Mar 2008 Apr 2008 May 2008 Jun 2008 Jul 2007 Aug 2007 Sep 2007 Oct 2007 Nov 2007 Dec 2007 Jan 2007 Feb 2007 Mar 2007 Apr 2007 May 2007 Jun 2007 Jul 2006 Aug 2006 Sep 2006 Oct 2006 Nov 2006 Dec 2006
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) /UNHCR
      Format/size: html/pdf
      Date of entry/update: 24 November 2011


    • TBC/TBBC documents on internal displacement

      Individual Documents

      Title: POVERTY, DISPLACEMENT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH EAST BURMA / MYANMAR
      Date of publication: November 2013
      Description/subject: With Field Assessments by: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP); Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM); Karen Environment and Social Action Network (KESAN); Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG); Karen Office of Relief and Development (KORD); Karen Women Organisation (KWO); Karenni Evergreen (KEG); Karenni Social Welfare and Development Centre (KSWDC); Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNWO); Mon Relief and Development Committee (MRDC) Shan State Development Foundation (SSDF).....CONTENTS:- Context... Methodology... POVERTY: Physical Access... Shelter... Water Supply and Sanitation... Livelihoods and Food Security... Education.. Health Care.... DISPLACEMENT: Displacement ... Return and Resettlement... Principles for Return and Reintegration..... LOCAL GOVERNANCE: Civilian Protection... Village Leadership... Natural Resource Management... Conflict Transformation …APPENDICES: Surveyed Village List... 2013 Survey Framework... Acronyms and Place Names.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Border Consortium
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2013


      Title: Changing Realities, Poverty and Displacement in South East Burma/Myanmar - 2012 Survey (TBC)
      Date of publication: 31 October 2012
      Description/subject: "A significant decrease in forced displacement has been documented by community‐based organisations in South East Myanmar after a series of ceasefire agreements were negotiated earlier this year. While armed conflict continues in Kachin State and communal violence rages in Rakhine State, field surveys indicate that that there has been a substantial decrease in hostilities affecting Karen, Karenni, Shan and Mon communities. In its annual survey of displacement and poverty released today, the Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) estimates that 10,000 people were forced from their homes during the past year in comparison to an average of 75,000 people displaced every year during the previous decade. While there remain at least 400,000 internally displaced persons in rural areas of South East Myanmar, the tentative return of 37,000 civilians to their villages or surrounding areas reflects hope for an end to displacement. After supporting refugees and internally displaced persons for nearly three decades, TBBC’s Executive Director Jack Dunford is optimistic about the possibility of forging a sustainable solution but conscious that there are many obstacles still to come. “The challenge of transforming preliminary ceasefire agreements into a substantive peace process is immense, but this is the best chance we have ever had to create the conditions necessary to support voluntary and dignified return in safety”, said Mr Dunford. Poverty assessments conducted by TBBC’s community‐based partners with over 4,000 households across 21 townships provide a sobering reminder about the impact of protracted conflict on civilian livelihoods. The findings suggest that 59% of households in rural communities of South East Myanmar are impoverished, with the indicators particularly severe in northern Karen areas where there have been allegations of widespread and systematic human rights abuse. The Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in Myanmar reported to the United Nations General Assembly last month that truth, justice and accountability are integral to the process of securing peace and national reconciliation. Mr Dunford commented that “after all the violence and abuse, inclusive planning processes can help to rebuild trust by ensuring that the voices of those most affected are heard and that civil society representatives are involved at all stages”." (TBC Press Release, 31 October 2012)..... 9 documents: English full report (Zip-PDF: 22.5Mb); Burmese brochure (PDF: 8.25Mb); English brochure (PDF: 0.9Mb); English Exec Summ. (PDF: 270Kb); English-Chapter 1 (PDF: 800Kb); English-Chapter 2 (PDF: 7.9Mb); English-Chapter 3 (PDF: 9.7Mb); English-Chapter 4 (PDF: 5.6Mb); English-Appendices (PDF: 5.9Mb).....
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: The Border Consortium - TBC (formerly Thailand Burma Border Consortium - TBBC )
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2012-idp-en-press-release.pdf (press release)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/report-2012-idp-full-en-op-red.pdf (slightly reduced version of the full report)
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


      Title: Protracted Displacement and Chronic Poverty in Eastern Burma/Myanmar - 2010 Survey -TBBC (English, Burmese, Thai)
      Date of publication: October 2010
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 1. INTRODUCTION: 1.1 Humanitarian Flux in Burma / Myanmar*; 1.2 Methodology... 2. MILITARISATION AND DISPLACEMENT: 2.1 Militarisation and Vulnerability; 2.2 Scale and Distribution of Displacement... 3. CHRONIC POVERTY: 3.1 Demographic Pressures: 3.2 Housing, Water and Sanitation Conditions; 3.3 Education and Malnutrition Status of Children; 3.4 Agricultural Assets; 3.5 Household Income and Expenditures; 3.6 Food Security; 3.7 Livelihood Shocks, Debt and Coping Strategies... 4. EASTERN BURMA / MYANMAR SITUATION UPDATE: 4.1 Southern Shan State; 4.2 Karenni / Kayah State; 4.3 Northern Karen / Kayin Areas; 4.4 Central Karen / Kayin State; 4.5 Mon Areas; 4.6 Tenasserim / Tanintharyi Division... APPENDICES: 1. Internally Displaced Population Estimates (2010)... 2. Destroyed, Relocated or Abandoned Villages (2009-2010)... 3. Relocation Sites (2010)... 4. SPDC Military Command in Eastern Burma / Myanmar (2010)... 5. 2010 Survey Guidelines... 6. Acronyms and Place Names.
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (8MB - English; 10MB - Burmese; 9MB - Thai)
      Alternate URLs: http://tbbc.org/resources/resources.htm#idps
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/TBBC-IDPreport-2010(bu).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/TBBC-IDPreport-2010(th).pdf
      http://tbbc.org/idps/report-2010-idp-en.zip
      http://tbbc.org/idps/report-2010-idp-bu.rar
      http://tbbc.org/idps/report-2010-idp-th.rar
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


      Title: Protracted Displacement and Militarization in Eastern Burma- 2009 Survey -TBBC (English, Burmese, Thai)
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: "The main threats to human security in eastern Burma are related to militarisation. Military patrols and landmines are the most significant and fastest growing threat to civilian safety and security, while forced labour and restrictions on movement are the most pervasive threats to livelihoods. Trend analysis suggests that the threats to both security and livelihoods have increased during the past five years. Over 3,500 villages and hiding sites in eastern Burma have been destroyed or forcibly relocated since 1996, including 120 communities between August 2008 and July 2009. The scale of displaced villages is comparable to the situation in Darfur and has been recognised as the strongest single indicator of crimes against humanity in eastern Burma. At least 75,000 people were forced to leave their homes during this past year, and more than half a million people remain internally displaced. The highest rates of recent displacement were reported in northern Karen areas and southern Shan State. Almost 60,000 Karen villagers are hiding in the mountains of Kyaukgyi, Thandaung and Papun Townships, and a third of these civilians fled from artillery attacks or the threat of Burmese Army patrols during the past year. Similarly, nearly 20,000 civilians from 30 Shan villages were forcibly relocated by the Burmese Army in retaliation for Shan State Army-South (SSA-S) operations in Laikha, Mong Kung and Keh Si Townships. Thailand’s National Security Council recently acknowledged it was preparing for another mass influx of refugees due to conflict in Burma’s border areas leading up to the proposed elections in 2010. Conflict has already intensified in Karen State with over 4,000 Karen refugees fleeing into Thailand during June. The increased instability is related to demands that ethnic ceasefire groups transform into Border Guard Forces under Burmese Army command. Such pressure has already resulted in the resumption of hostilities in the Kokang region which caused 37,000 civilians to flee into China..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (5.6MB - English; 7.3MB - Burmese; 5.6MB - Thai))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/TBBCidp_report-2009(bu).pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/TBBCidp_report-2009(th).pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2009-idp-english.zip
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2009


      Title: Internal Displacement and International Law in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: October 2008
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Twenty years after the Burmese junta gunned down pro-democracy protesters, violations of human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma are more widespread and systematic than ever. Ten years after the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement were submitted, the international response in eastern Burma remains largely ineffective in dealing with a predatory governing regime. The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) has been collaborating with ethnic community-based organisations to document the characteristics of internal displacement in eastern Burma since 2002. During this period there has been increasing debate about whether violations of human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma constitute an international crime. So aside from updating information about the scale and distribution of internal displacement, this year's survey compiles abuses reported during 2008 in relation to the legal framework for crimes against humanity.Conflict-induced displacement remains most concentrated in the northern Karen areas, where armed skirmishes between the Burmese Army and the Karen National Union continued in the first six months of 2008. While the wet season was previously a time of respite from Burmese Army patrols, intensified troop deployments during the past couple of years mean that the occupation is now sustained all year. This has led to the displacement of 27,000 villagers in the four affected townships during the past year. The prevalence of military attacks targeting civilians has slightly decreased since the junta's offensive in 2006. However, the harassment of villagers perceived as sympathetic to the armed opposition is unrelenting. The four townships surrounding Laikha in southern Shan State are also of particular concern. Armed skirmishes and Burmese Army deployments have escalated in this area since a former battalion commander with the Shan State Army - South surrendered in 2006. The Burmese Army is attempting to assert its supremacy in the area by breaking communication links between the armed opposition to the south and ceasefire groups to the north. Over 13,000 civilians are estimated to have been displaced from their homes in this area during the past twelve months. TBBC has previously reported that more than 3,200 settlements were destroyed, forcibly relocated or otherwise abandoned in eastern Burma between 1996 and 2007. Such field reports have been corroborated by high resolution commercial satellite imagery of villages before and after the displacement occurred. During the past year, community organisations have documented the forced displacement of a further 142 villages and hiding sites. However, displacement is more commonly caused by coercive factors at the household level. The imposition of forced labour, extortion, land confiscation, agricultural production quotas, and restrictions on access to fields and markets has a devastating effect on household incomes and a destabilising impact on populations. During the past year, the prevalence of these factors has been exacerbated by hydro-electric projects in Shan and Karen States, mining projects in Shan and Karenni States and Pegu Division, the gas pipeline in Mon State as well as commercial agriculture and road construction in general.While the total number of internally displaced persons in eastern Burma is likely to be well over half a million people, at least 451,000 people have been estimated in the rural areas alone. The population includes approximately 224,000 people currently in the temporary settlements of ceasefire areas administered by ethnic nationalities. However, the most vulnerable group is an estimated 101,000 civilians who are hiding in areas most affected by military skirmishes, followed by approximately 126,000 villagers who have been forcibly evicted by the Burmese Army into designated relocation sites. An estimated 66,000 people were forced to leave their homes as a result of, or in order to avoid, the effects of armed conflict and human rights abuses during the past year alone. Despite concessions made in the Irrawaddy Delta after Cyclone Nargis, the junta's restrictions on humanitarian access continue to obstruct aid workers elsewhere in Burma, particularly in conflict-affected areas. The large scale of displacement and the obstruction of relief efforts are indicative of ongoing violations of human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma. International law recognises crimes against humanity as acts committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population. Attacks on civilians refer not only to military assaults but also to the multiple commission of acts such as murder, enslavement, forcible transfer of population, torture and rape when related to a State policy. This definition reflects customary international law binding on all states, including Burma. The evidence cited in this report appears to strengthen Amnesty International's recent assessment that the violations in eastern Burma meet the legal threshold to constitute crimes against humanity. Skeptics argue that raising allegations about crimes against humanity will merely frustrate the promotion of political dialogue. However, just as the provision of humanitarian assistance should not be dependent upon political reform, humanitarian protection and the administration of justice should not be sacrificed to expedite political dialogue. The reality is that the authorities have consistently refused to enter into a serious discussion of these abuses with a view to putting a stop to them. The threat of prosecution may actually increase the leverage of the diplomatic community and provide an incentive for the governing regime to end the climate of impunity. Given the impunity with which violations have been committed, and the Burmese junta's failure to implement recommendations formulated by relevant United Nations' bodies, the responsibility to protect shifts to the international community. The challenge remaining for the international community is to operationalise this responsibility in Burma and hold the junta to account."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium
      Format/size: pdf (10.33MB)
      Date of entry/update: 25 October 2008


      Title: Internal Displacement in Eastern Burma, 2007 Survey
      Date of publication: 19 October 2007
      Description/subject: The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) has been collaborating with ethnic community-based organisations to document the characteristics of internal displacement in eastern Burma since 2002. This year's research updates estimates of the scale and distribution of internal displacement, and documents the impacts of militarization and state-sponsored development, based on quantitative surveys with key informants in 38 townships. Trends relating to vulnerability, coping strategies and efforts at promoting protection were assessed by utilizing a multi-stage cluster sampling method to select and interview almost 1,000 households spread across six states and divisions. This year's survey has identified 273 infantry and light infantry battalions active in eastern Burma, representing more than 30% of the Burmese Army's battalions nationwide. These troops are generally controlled by the State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC's) Coastal Command based in Mergui, South Eastern Command in Moulmein, Southern Command in Taungoo, Eastern Command in Taunggyi and Triangle Area Command in Keng Tung. Documentation in this report reflects that human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army as part of their counter-insurgency strategy are tantamount to crimes against humanity and remain a key cause of displacement. However, even the SPDC's military hierarchy has admitted that poor troop management, inadequate rations and harsh conditions resulted in low morale and an 8% increase in desertion during the past year. Rather than alleviating poverty, state-sponsored development initiatives primarily facilitate the consolidation of military control over rural communities and induce displacement. Local livelihoods in areas surrounding proposed hydro-electric dams along the Salween River have been further undermined during the past year, with additional troop deployments to the Hutgyi dam site in Karen State during September particularly notable. Similarly, the livelihoods of Mon villagers continue to be undermined by the imposition of forced labour to secure the gas pipeline transporting electricity to Thailand. The government's promotion of castor oil plantations has become more systematic, with reports of land confiscation, extortion and forced cultivation especially significant in Southern Shan State. Palm oil and rubber plantations operated as joint ventures between local Burmese Army commanders and foreign investors have caused similar problems in Tenasserim Division, Meanwhile over 3,000 acres of farm land was confiscated in northern Karenni State to pave the way for an industrial estate. Approximately 76,000 people were forced to leave their homes as a result of, or in order to avoid, the effects of armed conflict and human rights abuses during the past year. The number of people displaced was slightly lower than last year, which was primarily related to a relaxation of restrictions in Tenasserim Division. Forced migration was most concentrated in northern Karen State and eastern Pegu Division where counter-insurgency operations displaced approximately 43,000 civilians. While the total number of deaths in these four townships is unknown, at least 38 villagers have been killed by the Burmese Army during 2007 in Thandaung township alone. TBBC has previously reported that more than 3,000 villages were destroyed, forcibly relocated or otherwise abandoned in eastern Burma between 1996 and 2006. These field reports have recently been corroborated by high resolution commercial satellite imagery taken before and after the villages were displaced. Visual evidence includes the removal of structures from villages that were forcibly relocated, and burn scars where destroyed villages used to be. During the past year, at least 167 more entire villages have been displaced. Internal displacement in eastern Burma, however, is more commonly associated with the coerced movements of smaller groups rather than entire villages. This relates to impoverishment and forced migration caused by the confiscation of land, asset stripping, forced procurement policies, agricultural production quotas, forced labour, arbitrary taxation, extortion and restrictions on access to fields and markets. The compulsory and unavoidable nature of these factors is distinct from the voluntary profit-oriented, "pull-factors" more commonly associated with economic migration. The total number of internally displaced persons who have been forced or obliged to leave their homes and have not been able to return or resettle and reintegrate into society is estimated to be at least half a million people. This displaced population includes 295,000 people currently in the temporary settlements of ceasefire areas administered by ethnic nationalities. A further 99,000 civilians are estimated to be hiding from the SPDC in areas most affected by military skirmishes, while approximately 109,000 villagers have followed SPDC eviction orders and moved into designated relocation sites. While the overall figures are comparable to last year, lower estimates for relocation sites primarily reflect villagers' attempts at returning to former villages or resettling nearby in Tenasserim Division and Shan State. However, it is not known how sustainable these movements will be, while SPDC campaigns to forcibly relocate and consolidate villages have intensified in northern Karen State, eastern Pegu Division and northern Mon state. Higher estimates for the internally displaced in ethnic ceasefire areas are largely attributed to the expansion of authority exercised by the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) and the newly formed KNU/KNLA Peace Council and subsequent instability in central Karen State. A slight population increase reported from hiding sites reflects the protracted emergency for the most vulnerable communities in eastern Burma A feature of this report is the inclusion of trend assessments which have been derived from comparisons to findings from previous household surveys conducted by TBBC and partner agencies over the past few years. In terms of vulnerability, the prevalence of threats to personal safety and security has increased, and in particular the incidence of arbitrary arrest or detention and forced conscription to porter military supplies. Indicators suggest that restrictions on movement to fields and markets have almost doubled to become the most pervasive threat to livelihoods, ahead of forced labour and arbitrary taxation. Violence against women, and in particular the threat of domestic violence and physical assault, was perceived as most prevalent in relocation sites and mixed administration areas where Burmese Army troops are in close proximity..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (8.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2007-idp-burmese.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2007-idp-thai.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/resources/resources.htm
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Internal Displacement in Eastern Burma, 2006 Survey
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: “Both tragedy and hope are reflected in this fifth annual survey of internal displacement in eastern Burma. The tragedy is that such systematic and widespread violations of human rights and humanitarian law continue to occur with national impunity and a largely ineffective international response. Yet it is the ongoing commitment and courage of ethnic community-based organisations to support grassroots coping strategies and document the impacts of conflict, violence and abuse which inspires hope for the future of Burma. The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) has been collaborating with ethnic community-based organisations to document the scale, distribution and characteristics of internal displacement since 2002. Collectively, these surveys have aimed to raise awareness about vulnerability in eastern Burma and inform the development of humanitarian protection strategies. Recognising that conditions for the internally displaced are always changing, this year's survey attempted to update population estimates and assess trends across different areas in more detail with higher resolution maps. TBBC and the participating community-based organisations designed the surveys collaboratively by drawing from the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. Although there were some changes for the sake of clarity, the questionnaire was similar to those used in previous years to facilitate trend analysis. Quantitative field surveys of the scale and distribution of internal displacement and the impacts of militarization and development have been based on interviews with key informants in 38 townships between June and August 2006. This has been complemented with qualitative field assessments about the causes and impacts of displacement which have been documented by community based organisations on an ongoing basis throughout the year. TBBC has previously reported that the Burmese Army has approximately doubled the deployment of battalions across eastern Burma since 1995. This survey has identified 204 infantry and light infantry battalions currently in eastern Burma, which represents approximately 40% of the government's frontline troops nation-wide. Such militarisation has facilitated the State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC's) counter-insurgency strategy which targets civilians in contravention of international humanitarian law. Accounts of such crimes against humanity have been documented by community based organisations in this report as contributing to conflict-induced displacement. State-sponsored development projects have done little to alleviate poverty in Burma, but have been significant causes of human rights abuses and displacement during the past year. The energy sector is Burma's largest recipient of foreign direct investment, but this report associates the gas pipeline in Mon State with forced labour, travel restrictions, and harassment. Similarly, proposed hydro-electric dams along the Salween River are linked with incidents of forced relocations, forced labour and the logging of community forests. Meanwhile commercial agriculture, and in particular the national development initiative to cultivate castor oil plants to produce bio-diesel, is reported to have induced widespread land confiscation, the imposition of procurement quotas and forced labour for the cultivation of seedlings. During the past year alone, this survey estimates that 82,000 people were forced to leave their homes as a result of, or in order to avoid, the effects of armed conflict and human rights abuses. These estimates are consistent with the annual average rate of displacement in eastern Burma since 2002, and reflect the SPDC's disregard for their responsibility to protect Burmese citizens from harm. While the distribution of forced migration during the past year was widespread, the most significant concentration was in northern Karen State and eastern Pegu Division. Counter-insurgency operations are reported to have killed at least 39 civilians and displaced over 27,000 others in this area during the past year. While the majority of people displaced during the past year fled in small groups, 232 entire villages were destroyed, forcibly relocated or otherwise abandoned. When combined with the findings of previous field surveys, 3,077 separate incidents of village destruction, relocation or abandonment have been documented in eastern Burma since 1996. Over a million people are understood to have been displaced from their homes in eastern Burma during this time. This reflects the cumulative impact of the Burmese Army's expanded presence and forced relocation campaign targeting civilians in contested areas. Some of these villages may have since been re-established, and indeed this survey has identified 155 villages that were at least partly repopulated during the past year. However, the sustainability of return and resettlement is restricted not only by livelihood constraints but also by the lack of official authorisation. Indeed, attempts to re-establish over 100 villages in previous years have already been thwarted by harassment leading to further rounds of displacement. The total number of internally displaced persons who have been forced or obliged to leave their homes and have not been able to return or resettle and reintegrate into society as of November 2006 is estimated to be at least 500,000 people. This population is comprised of approximately 287,000 people currently in the temporary settlements of ceasefire areas administered by ethnic nationalities, while 95,000 civilians are estimated to be hiding from the SPDC in areas most affected by military skirmishes and approximately 118,000 villagers have followed SPDC eviction orders and moved into designated relocation sites. These are conservative estimates for eastern Burma as it has not been possible to survey urban areas nor mixed administration areas. Overall this represents a decrease of approximately 40,000 internally displaced persons since October 2005. This is due to a decrease of 53,000 people in the estimates for ceasefire areas. Population movements have been recorded out of areas administered by the United Wa State Army (UWSA) due to lack of livelihood opportunities. Estimates in other ceasefire areas of Shan and Karenni states have also decreased, reflecting how the areas administered by non state actors have effectively been reduced by the expansion of SPDC control. While many of these villagers may remain internally displaced, it has not been possible to track their current status. Conversely, the number of people in relocation sites has increased by approximately 10,000 people. This is partly a result of broader survey reach in Tenasserim Division and partly due to new incidents of forced relocation in Shan State. However, a significant decrease has been recorded in Mon state, where restrictions on resettlement away from relocation sites have eased. Rather than reflecting increased freedom, this illustrates that as villagers in surrounding areas become resigned to complying with Burmese Army orders, the government's perceived need for relocation sites becomes redundant. While the overall estimates for people in hiding sites increased only slightly, there has been a significant increase in northern Karen State and eastern Pegu Division where approximately 55,000 villagers are currently hiding from government forces. This represents an increase of approximately 14,000 people since last year, and suggests that half of those displaced in the past year were previously living with the tacit approval of local SPDC authorities in mixed administration areas. These local arrangements offered little protection when the Southern and South Eastern Military Commands coordinated patrols by over 40 battalions to search for civilian settlements and destroy their means of survival..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB- ocr version; 2.864MB -- original and authoritative) 6.8, (Burmese) 7.9MB (Thai)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2006-idp-english.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2006-idp-burmese.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/idps/report-2006-idp-thai.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Internal Displacement and Protection in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: October 2005
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) first collaborated with communitybased organizations to document the scale and distribution of internal displacement in Eastern Burma during 2002. Two years later, another survey was coordinated to enhance understanding about the vulnerability of internally displaced persons. These assessments sought to increase awareness about the situation in conflict-affected areas which remain largely inaccessible to the international community. More communities have been displaced during the past year while others have attempted to return to former villages, resettle elsewhere in Burma or continue their journey of forced migration into Thailand. As the environment is constantly evolving, situation assessments also need to be regularly revised. Part of the purpose of this report is thus to update estimates of the scale and distribution of internally displaced persons in eastern Burma. Threats against conflict-affected populations in eastern Burma have been well documented by a range of independent institutions. However, there is little information on humanitarian efforts to stop existing patterns of abuse, mitigate the worst consequences, prevent emerging threats and promote judicial redress. A second key objective is therefore to inform the development of humanitarian protection strategies for internally displaced persons and other civilians whose lives and livelihoods are threatened by war, abuse and violence. This year's surveys were designed in partnership with ethnic community based organizations with reference to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and conducted between April and June 2005. Estimates for the scale and distribution of internal displacement have been compiled from interviews with key informants in 37 townships across the six states and divisions of eastern Burma. Analysis of issues relevant to humanitarian protection has been based around responses to 1,044 questionnaires with conflict-affected households spread evenly between hiding sites, government controlled relocation sites, ethnic administered ceasefire areas and mixed administration areas. These responses have been complemented by semistructured interviews with internally displaced persons, the four main non state actors in eastern Burma and ten humanitarian agencies based in Rangoon. During the past year it is estimated that a further 87,000 people were forced or obliged to leave their homes by the effects of war or human rights abuses. Border-wide, a further 68 villages were destroyed, relocated or otherwise abandoned during this period, including a number which had only recently been established by displaced persons. In the majority of cases, forced displacement was found to be caused by violence or abuse perpetrated by the armed forces of the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). This survey has also identified 88 previously abandoned villages which have been partially re-established during the past year. In this time, it is estimated that 40,000 people who had previously been displaced have returned to their homes or resettled elsewhere in eastern Burma. The total number of internally displaced persons in eastern Burma who have been forced or obliged to leave their homes over the past decade and have not been able to return or resettle and reintegrate into society is estimated to be at least 540,000 people. The population is comprised of 340,000 people currently in the temporary settlements of ceasefire areas administered by ethnic nationalities, while 92,000 civilians are estimated to be hiding from the Burma Army in areas most affected by armed conflict and approximately 108,000 villagers have followed eviction orders from the SPDC and moved into designated relocation sites. Overall this represents a slight increase of approximately 14,000 internally displaced persons since late 2004. This is attributed primarily to flight in Shan State away from SPDC patrols and into hiding, a significant inflow into Mon ceasefire areas, and methodological differences estimating populations in Tenasserim Division's relocation sites. These combined increases have outweighed reductions in the estimates for internally displaced populations hiding in Karen State as well as for ceasefire areas in Shan and Karen State. However, these population estimates are considered conservative as it has not been possible to include displaced persons in urban areas and rural mixed administration areas who may not have reintegrated into society but rather remain in a state of internal displacement. Patterns of insecurity, the coping strategies of survivors of abuse and violence, and attempts at engaging the humanitarian responsibility of relevant authorities were assessed to inform the development of protection strategies. The survey conclusively found that not only are soldiers from the Burma Army the primary perpetrators of abuse, but also that the Government of Burma is generally unable or unwilling to strengthen local coping strategies and protect civilians from harm. Legal insecurity is highlighted by findings that less than a quarter of the conflictaffected population own legal title deeds for land tenure while just 12% of civilians hiding from Burma Army patrols possess an identity card. The former reflects the threat of land confiscation while the latter increases vulnerability to extortion at checkpoints, harassment in contested areas, restricted access to markets and fields as well as another obstacle for the internally displaced against returning to former homes or resettlement elsewhere in Burma. Despite the range and severity of deliberate physical violence in conflict-affected areas, the prevalence of threats to civilian livelihoods is on a much greater scale. A third of households surveyed have been directly affected by arbitrary taxes and forced labour in the past year. During this period, the deliberate impoverishment and deprivation of civilians as a counter-insurgency strategy is reflected in 17% of households having had food supplies destroyed or confiscated. Similarly, a quarter of households in hiding and relocation sites reported having had housing destroyed or having been forcibly evicted during the past year. Although unable to stop or prevent violence and abuse, internally displaced and conflict-affected villagers have developed a range of coping strategies to resist threats and mitigate the worst consequences. Other civilians are the main source of early warning signals about approaching troops, which stresses the importance of building social capital, or networks of trust, within and between local communities for the development of a more protective environment. Hiding food supplies and preparing alternative hiding sites in case counterinsurgency patrols induce an emergency evacuation were the main approaches to coping with threats amongst households in hiding sites. Conversely, the main method of minimizing risks in relocation sites and mixed administration areas is reportedly to pay fines and follow orders. These findings suggest that abuses against civilians by government forces are motivated not only by retaliation against armed opposition patrols, but also by economic imperatives or greed. Six percent of households reported that they had at some point resorted to procuring a hand gun to minimize threats to safety and livelihoods. Given the threat of being suspected as either a rebel sympathizer by the SPDC or a government collaborator by the armed opposition, this gauge of the prevalence of assault weapons is considered high. Due to the breakdown in law and order and the ease of procurement, transport, concealment and use, the prevalence of small arms is in itself a significant threat of violent insecurity. Humanitarian responsibilities relate to ensuring that parties to a conflict respect human dignity and prevent harm from being inflicted on civilians. While it was beyond the possibility of this survey to engage Burmese national authorities, the views of non state actors were solicited. Humanitarian agencies based in Rangoon were also consulted about their experiences in dealing with the government. Non state actors acknowledged that the use of landmines was their main transgression in terms of threatening the safety and livelihoods of civilians. 86% of villagers surveyed were not aware of any signs on location warning about minefields, indicating that there is no systematic demarcation of minefields in eastern Burma. However the armed opposition authorities, and indeed a quarter of civilian households hiding in the most conflict-affected areas, perceived landmines as a necessary means of self-defense against the military might of the Burma Army. It was also admitted by non state actors that their protective capacities are limited. Authorities from ceasefire parties negotiated a cessation of hostilities ten years ago to reduce the deprivations suffered by the civilian population, but have still not been able to address ongoing human rights abuses. In areas of ongoing armed conflict, the non state actors responded that short term protection objectives are limited to deterring and delaying SPDC patrols, using radio communication to provide warnings to villagers of approaching troop movements, and securing access for local humanitarian agencies to provide relief aid. Humanitarian agencies based in Rangoon have managed to expand not only their access into eastern Burma but also the engagement of government authorities in policy-level dialogue during the past decade. However, United Nations (UN) agencies reported that since the purge of the former Prime Minister and his allies in October 2004, humanitarian agencies in Burma have either been disregarded or viewed with suspicion by the government. Unless the government is willing to engage in policy-level dialogue about protection concerns, it is recognised that the humanitarian space will contract further. At the same time humanitarian agencies increasingly feel squeezed by restrictions from donors who are worried that foreign aid may be prolonging the rule of an illegitimate government. A perceived concern is that humanitarian sanctions will further restrict contact with policy makers, and exacerbate the reluctance of the Burmese government to negotiate about protection concerns. The challenge for humanitarian responses is to promote protection oriented programming which includes assessment of the programme's impact on the conflict. These surveys sought to update estimates of internal displacement and inform the development of protection strategies for conflict-affected areas in eastern Burma. Recommendations are not presented, but it is hoped that this report will enlighten collaborative strategies to stop existing patterns of abuse and prevent emerging threats from harming internally displaced and other conflict-affected communities."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium
      Format/size: pdf (3.9MB, 4.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/TBBC-2005-ocr.pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/TBBC-Internal_Displacement_and_Protection_in_Eastern_Burma-2005.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Internal Displacement and Vulnerability in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: October 2004
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "In September 2002 the Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC), formerly the Burmese Border Consortium, compiled a report “Internally Displaced People and Relocation Sites in Eastern Burma”. The report was written because although the Royal Thai Government was reluctant to accept more refugees and believed repatriation should occur as soon as conditions were judged suitable, new refugees were still arriving in Thailand. Since most of the new arrivals reported that they had formerly been living as internally displaced persons, TBBC considered that it was important to understand what was happening in the border areas before any planning for repatriation could begin. Since that time, the nature and scale of internal displacement in eastern Burma has been generally acknowledged, and humanitarian agencies based in Burma have been increasingly requesting and gaining access to some border areas. In particular, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Myanmar has negotiated roving access to a number of townships of ‘potential refugee return’. UNHCR Thailand has also been engaging the Royal Thai Government, donors and non governmental organisations (NGOs) in a conceptual planning exercise for the eventual repatriation of the refugees. Much of Eastern Burma is, however, still inaccessible to international observers from inside the country and the initial steps being taken towards planning for repatriation make it even more important to understand what is happening in these areas. This report draws together the results of new surveys carried out by local community organisations who collectively have broad access to the border areas. Community organizations conducted field surveys across eastern Burma between April and July 2004.1 Population estimates have been gathered from key informants in 36 significant townships and cross-checked with estimates from other local humanitarian and human rights agencies wherever possible. Vulnerability indicators were also developed from a multi-stage cluster survey of 6,070 people and 1,071 households in 60 areas spread over six states and divisions. The sample population for this quantitative survey was distributed between internally displaced persons in free-fire areas, government relocation sites, ethnic ceasefire areas and mixed administration areas. Estimates recorded during this survey in 2004 indicate at least another 157,000 civilians have been displaced by war or human rights abuses since the end of 2002. This includes people from at least 240 villages which have been documented as completely destroyed, relocated or abandoned during the past two years. The current status of villages forcibly relocated prior to 2002 has not been comprehensively assessed, but attempts to return and re-establish more than 100 such villages in Tenasserim Division have been documented as thwarted by further displacement. Civilian displacement has continued at a high rate even though there has been a significant decrease in the number of villages forcibly relocated since the mid-late 1990s. This trend is indicative of the extent to which government troops had been deployed and villages forcibly evicted prior to 2002. Since then, the military government has been consolidating, rather than expanding, areas of control. High rates of civilian displacement in areas where forced village relocations have decreased are attributed to the harassment of people who had already deserted SPDC relocation sites to attempt returning to their village or resettlement nearby. The total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have been forced or obliged to leave their homes and have not been able to return or resettle and reintegrate into society as of late 2004 is estimated to be at least 526,000 people. The population consists of 365,000 people in the temporary settlements of ceasefire areas administered by ethnic nationalities, while 84,000 civilians are estimated to be hiding from the military-government in free-fire areas and approximately 77,000 villagers still remain in designated relocation sites after having been forcibly evicted from their homes. This represents a decrease since 2002 when 633,000 people were estimated to be internally displaced in hiding sites, temporary shelters and relocation sites. This decrease can be attributed to a mix of sustainable return or resettlement, forced migration into the fringes of urban and rural communities, flight into refugee and migrant populations in Thailand and methodological differences in data collection. Speculation remains as to how many people on the fringes of rural and urban communities have been obliged to leave their homes and are unable to resettle and reintegrate, but whose status as internally displaced persons can not be verified. Indicators of vulnerability for the internally displaced population reflect a critical situation. The survey found that more than half of internally displaced households have been forced to work without compensation and have been extorted of cash or property during the past year. While these and other human rights abuses were widespread and a lack of protection was common in all areas, people in relocation sites have reportedly been affected the most. Livelihoods in free-fire areas are demonstrated as largely dependent on subsistenceoriented slash and burn agriculture, yet still they are undermined by government patrols searching for and destroying crops. Conversely, less households were documented in relocation sites than elsewhere as being involved in any type of rice farming, indicating a lack of access to land and greater restrictions on movement. Yet the survey also found the highest rates of hunting and gathering were in densely populated ceasefire areas, which is indicative of the livelihood constraints of resettlement into these areas. This report presents indicators which suggest there is a public health emergency amongst internally displaced persons in eastern Burma. A third of households surveyed had not been able to access any health services during the past year, contributing to high mortality rates from infectious diseases which can be prevented and treated, such as malaria. Child mortality and malnutrition rates are double Burma’s national baseline rate and comparable to those recorded amongst internally displaced populations in the Horn of Africa. The population structure shows significantly more children dependent on a smaller proportion of working age adults compared to official data sources for Burma. This working age adult population consists of a high proportion of women representing greater rates of mortality, economic migration, flight from abuse and military conscription amongst young adult men. Low levels of access to durable shelter are recorded and associated not only with limited protection from the climate but also adverse impacts on health and human dignity. Similarly, low levels of educational attainment are likely to restrict the capacity of internally displaced persons to cope and recover from all of these aspects of vulnerability. The surveys demonstrate that the problem of forced migration in Eastern Burma remains large and complex and that internally displaced populations are extremely vulnerable. As in 2002, TBBC presents this compilation of data without making any recommendations. The intention is that policy makers and humanitarian organisations might be better informed in terms of preparing for refugee repatriation and addressing the situation of internal displacement itself."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thailand Burma Border Consortium (TBBC)
      Format/size: pdf (3.87MB, 4MB - Full, 1.7MB-Chs 1-3; 2.1MB - Chs 4-5)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/TBBC-IDPs2004-1-3 (Chapters 1-3)
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/TBBC-IDPs2004-4-5 (Chapters 4-5)
      http://www.tbbc.org/resources/resources.htm
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/TBBC-IDPs2004-full
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: RECLAIMING THE RIGHT TO RICE: FOOD SECURITY AND INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT IN EASTERN BURMA
      Date of publication: October 2003
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS:- 1. Food Security from a Rights-based Perspective; 2. Local Observations from the States and Divisions of Eastern Burma:- 2.1 Tenasserim Division (Committee for Internally Displaced Karen Persons); 2.2 Mon State (Mon Relief and Development Committee); 2.3 Karen State (Karen Human Rights Group) 2.4 Eastern Pegu Division (Karen Office of Relief and Development); 2.5 Karenni State (Karenni Social Welfare Committee); 2.6 Shan State (Shan Human Rights Foundation)... 3. Local Observations of Issues Related to Food Security:- 3.1 Crop Destruction as a Weapon of War (Committee for Internally Displaced Karen Persons); 3.2 Border Areas Development (Karen Environmental & Social Action Network); 3.3 Agricultural Management(Burma Issues); 3.4 Land Management (Independent Mon News Agency) 3.5 Nutritional Impact of Internal Displacement (Backpack Health Workers Team); 3.6 Gender-based Perspectives (Karen Women’s Organisation)... 4. Field Surveys on Internal Displacement and Food Security... Appendix 1 : Burma’s International Obligations and Commitments... Appendix 2 : Burma’s National Legal Framework... Appendix 3 : Acronyms, Measurements and Currencies.... "...Linkages between militarisation and food scarcity in Burma were established by civilian testimonies from ten out of the fourteen states and divisions to a People’s Tribunal in the late 1990s. Since then the scale of internal displacement has dramatically increased, with the population in eastern Burma during 2002 having been estimated at 633,000 people, of whom approximately 268,000 were in hiding and the rest were interned in relocation sites. This report attempts to complement these earlier assessments by appraising the current relationship between food security and internal displacement in eastern Burma. It is hoped that these contributions will, amongst other impacts, assist the Asian Human Rights Commission’s Permanent People’s Tribunal to promote the right to food and rule of law in Burma... Personal observations and field surveys by community-based organisations in eastern Burma suggest that a vicious cycle linking the deprivation of food security with internal displacement has intensified. Compulsory paddy procurement, land confiscation, the Border Areas Development program and spiraling inflation have induced displacement of the rural poor away from state-controlled areas. In war zones, however, the state continues to destroy and confiscate food supplies in order to force displaced villagers back into state-controlled areas. An image emerges of a highly vulnerable and frequently displaced rural population, who remain extremely resilient in order to survive based on their local knowledge and social networks. Findings from the observations and field surveys include the following:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burmese Border Consortium
      Format/size: pdf (804K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/BBC-Reclaiming_the_Right_to_Rice.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


      Title: Internally Displaced People and Relocation Sites in Eastern Burma
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "Perhaps one million people living in the States and Divisions of Burma adjacent to the Thailand border have been displaced since 1996. At least 150,000 have fled as refugees or joined the huge “illegal” migrant population in Thailand.[2] Countless others have moved away to other villages and towns in Burma. This report estimates that at least 632,978 displaced people are still currently either living in hiding (approximately 268,000 people), or in more than 176 forced relocation sites (approximately 365,000 people), in these border areas. It also identifies 2,536 ‘affected villages’, which are known to have been destroyed (usually burnt) and/ or relocated en masse, or otherwise abandoned due to Burmese Army (Tatmadaw) activity...The actual number of relocation sites and residents, and of IDPs in hiding, is probably significantly higher than that estimated here..." IDPs in Hiding or Temporary Settlements; Number of Relocation Sites; IDPs in Relocation Sites; Affected Villages (destroyed, abandoned, or relocated); Total IDP Population. Tenasserim; Mon State; Karen State; Karenni State; Shan State.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Compiled by Burma Border Consortium
      Format/size: html (main text 217K) 15 pages incl. maps; pdf (6.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/resources/2002-09-11-BBC-Relocation_Site_Report.pdf

      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/BBC_Relocation_Site%20Report_(11-9-02).doc (Original Word version -- no links to maps or photos)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003