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Human geography

  • Demography

    • Census

      • 2014 Census

        Individual Documents

        Title: Ethnicity without Meaning, Data without Context - The 2014 Census, Identity and Citizenship in Burma/Myanmar
        Date of publication: 24 February 2014
        Description/subject: Conclusions and Recommendations: "The 2014 Population and Housing Census is likely to undertake the most significant ethnic and political boundary making in the country since the last British census in 1931. However, by using flawed designations that date from the colonial era and ignoring the considerable complexity of the present political situation in Myanmar, the census is likely to raise ethnic tensions at precisely the moment that peace negotiations are focused on building trust. Ethnic politics, democratic reform and conflict resolution are at a critical juncture. If carried out in an inclusive, transparent and ethically implemented fashion, a census could support national reconciliation and momentum towards reform. Instead, many ethnic groups fear that its timing, format and methodology, with an unwarranted array of questions and overseen by law enforcement officers, will further diminish and marginalise the political status of non- Bamar groups. Citizenship rights for some people could even be under threat, based on census results. The timing of the census in the year before a key general election raises additional concerns. Statistical reports that result from it could have confusing and negative impact on political debate and ethnic representation in the legislatures, as defined by the 2008 constitution. There are many communities and internallydisplaced persons in the conflict zones of the ethnic borderlands who will not be properly included as well as others with marginal legal status who would prefer to disappear in an official counting exercise. Through inclusive dialogue, planning and timing, many of these controversies could have been addressed. The UNFPA and Western government donors, with a projected US$74 million budget, have a special responsibility to ensure accurate research, definitions, data collection and inclusion in any process of this magnitude. Difficulties have been treated purely as technical problems with simple, “one-sizefits- all” solutions, rather than as fundamentally political and ethnic challenges that need resolution. Instead of creating the opportunity to improve inter-ethnic understanding and citizenship rights, the census promises to compound old grievances with a new generation of complexities"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI), Burma Centrum Nederland
        Format/size: pdf (661K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 February 2014

        Title: Burma’s Census: Not Worth Dying For
        Date of publication: 19 February 2014
        Description/subject: "At the end of March, Burma is due to hold its first official census for almost thirty years. The census is being carried out by the government of Burma in conjunction with the United Nations and with significant other international technical and financial support, including more than sixteen million dollars from the British government. On the face of it, holding a census is an obvious and important step to take. The information it provides will be important in making future economic plans, developing infrastructure, allocating resources for public services, and prioritising international aid. Furthermore, some ethnic and religious minorities who have been suffering repression and discrimination see the census as an opportunity to be officially recognised, seeing this as a step towards asserting their status and rights. However, in the current Burma context, the census could also lead to violent attacks against religious minorities, increase ethnic tensions, and provide inaccurate data. On balance, the potential risks appear to outweigh the potential benefits. As a result, Burma Campaign UK believes the census should be postponed to avoid these very real risks, which could include conflict and loss of life..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK (Burma Briefing No. 32)
        Format/size: pdf (345K)
        Date of entry/update: 19 February 2014

        Title: Myanmar Conflict Alert: A Risky Census
        Date of publication: 12 February 2014
        Description/subject: "The nationwide census planned for 30 March to 10 April 2014 risks inflaming tensions at a critical moment in Myanmar’s peace process and democratic transition. The census process should be urgently amended to focus only on key demographic questions, postponing those which are needlessly antagonistic and divisive – on ethnicity, religion, citizenship status – to a more appropriate moment. By doing so, the government, United Nations and donors can demonstrate that they are sensitive to the serious risks presented by the census as currently conceived, and that they are willing to respond to the deep reservations expressed by many important groups in the country..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2014

        Title: Burma's Senseless Census
        Date of publication: 19 December 2013
        Description/subject: "Burma's census disregards the complex ethnic identities of its people. Could this breathe new life into sectarian conflict? .... Next year, Burma will embark on its first census-taking process in more than three decades. It's an opportunity, but it's also a significant risk. One the one hand, the census could compel the state to finally recognize long-excluded people and foster a better collective understanding of the daily struggles that most Burmese face. But on the other, the census is set up to obscure Burma's incredible diversity by requiring that Burmese people choose just one ethnic identity, even if they identify with many ethnicities. This comes at a dangerous point in Burma's simmering ethnic conflict, especially since nationalists are now using conceptions of exclusive and timeless ethnicity to justify violence against populations suddenly deemed irrevocably "foreign."..."
        Author/creator: Elliott Prasse-Freeman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy" - Democracy Lab
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 20 December 2013

    • Ethnic Groups in Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: 135: Counting Races in Burma
      Date of publication: 25 September 2012
      Description/subject: "...135 ethnic groups put up by the SPDC have 76 ethnic groups that are repeatedly counted or fabricated and only 59 ethnic groups actually exist. However, this does not imply Burma has exactly 59 ethnic groups. There are some ethnic groups left out of SPDC list such as Taman, Tai-Lian, etc. And among those 59 ethnic groups some are nearly extinct or existing only in few hundreds, for example Yabein, Danau and Khamu. Besides, there might be some who wish or do not wish to acquire a separate racial identity. If, for instance, some Tai (Shan) ethnic groups choose a common identity, the above list could get even shorter. Whatever the case, the number of Burma's ethnic groups do not come to 70 or more. Nevertheless, the SPDC would just impose military dictatorship on various excuses even if the number hits less than ten. The SPDC list is merely an evidence of its lack of credibility and incompetence in counting the ethnic groups of the country it is governing"....Originally published in 2005
      Author/creator: Gamanii
      Source/publisher: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 December 2013

    • Population figures and analyses

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar: historical population statistics
      Description/subject: SEARCH FOR MYANMAR...Growth of the population per country in a historical perspective, including administrative divisions and principal towns: historical demographical data of the whole country; historical demographical data of the administrative divisions; historical demographical data of the urban centers.
      Author/creator: Jan Lahmeyer
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

  • Land use

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma (Myanmar) Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The University of Texas at Austin
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010

    Title: Burma Land Use
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Central Intelligence Agency
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.indexmundi.com/burma/#Geography
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010

    Title: Geography of Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Climate... 2 Mountains - 2.1 Main peaks... 3 Rivers... 4 Maritime claims - 4.1 Islands... 5 Land use and natural resources... 6 Natural hazards... 7 Environment... 7.1 Environment - international agreements... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010

    Individual Documents

    Title: Land Use in Myanmar with a Case Study in Southern Shan State
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract;General aspects of land use in Myanmar were evaluated according to the statistical data issued from FAO. Following it, features of land use in Southern Shan State situated in the eastern hilly region were described as a case study. Ten types of land use were recognized in Southern Shan State. Major land use type was upland field which occupied about 50% of the cultivated area in Southern Shan State, followed by paddy field. Characteristics of individual land use type were discussed. (author abst.)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: J Fac Agric Kyushu Univ_VOL.51;NO.2;PAGE.383-387(2006)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010

    Title: Control of Land and Life in Burma.
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: Abstract: The most significant land problems in Burma remain those associated with landlessness, rural poverty, inequality of access to resources, and a military regime that denies citizen rights and is determined to rule by force and not by law. A framework to ensure the sustainable development of land is needed to address social, legal, economic and technical dimensions of land management. This framework can only be created and implemented within and by a truly democratic nation. Keywords: Agriculture and state -- Burma; Land use, Rural -- Burma; Land use, Rural -- Government policy -- Burma; Agricultural policy -- Burma; Land administration -- Burma.
    Author/creator: Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Myo Nyunt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin - Madison
    Format/size: PDF (431K)
    Alternate URLs: http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/22009
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010

    Title: Land Use /Land Cover Classifications and Monitoring of Myanmar Using by Remote Sensing Data and GIS
    Date of publication: 1997
    Description/subject: Abstract Knowledge of land use and land cover is important for many planning and management activities concerned with the surface of the earth. The term land cover relates to the type of feature present on the surface of the earth and the term land use relates to the human activities associated with a specific piece of land. The study of the land use patterns and the monitoring of changes are very important for economic planning and country development. By using of Remote Sensing methods are becoming increasingly in land use land cover studying that is important for images of large area can be acquired rapidly and low cost. In this paper we would like to present study objectives, study overview and study flow diagram.
    Author/creator: Ko Ko Lwin and Ryosuke Shibasaki
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010