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Humanitarian Assistance to Burma/Myanmar
The term "humanitarian" is used in a broad sense to cover assistance in conflict zones as well as natural disasters and other situations which produce health, livelihood and other crises.

  • Humanitarian assistance

    • Humanitarian assistance, international standards and principles

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response
      Description/subject: The Charter sets out ... what people affected by disasters have a right to expect from humanitarian assistance ... based on the principles and provisions of international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, and on the principles of the Red Cross and NGO Code of Conduct. It describes the core principles that govern humanitarian action and asserts the right of populations to protection and assistance. The Charter is followed by minimum standards in five core sectors - water supply and sanitation, nutrition, food aid, shelter and site planning, and health services.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Sphere Project, http://www.sphereproject.org
      Format/size: html, pdf (2.45 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/RefugeeHealthCare/PDFs/SphereProjectHandbook.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Supporting IDP resistance strategies
      Date of publication: 23 April 2008
      Description/subject: "...Whether in hiding or living under military control, displaced villagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burma have shown themselves to be innovative and courageous in responding to and resisting military abuse. They urgently need increased assistance but it is they who should determine the direction of any such intervention. This article, co-authored by two KHRG staff members, appears in issue number 30 of the journal Forced Migration Review (FMR), issued in April 2008 and is available on both the KHRG and FMR websites..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Articles & Papers (KHRG #2008-W1)
      Format/size: pdf (109 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w1.html
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


    • Humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar -- guidelines, regulations etc.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: NGO Law Monitor: Myanmar (Burma)
      Date of publication: 02 August 2014
      Description/subject: Introduction | At a Glance | Key Indicators | International Rankings | Legal Snapshot | Legal Analysis | Reports | News and Additional Resources Last updated: 2 August 2014
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The International Center for Not-for-Profit Law
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014


      Title: Local Resource Centre [Myanmar]
      Description/subject: "Shortly following Cyclone Nargis, a large number of national and international NGOs established LRC to assist local communities and civil society groups in the collective effort for relief and rehabilitation. 
The Burnet Institute led the establishment of LRC in collaboration with a broad partnership of organizations, including: World Concern, the HIV/AIDS Alliance, The Capacity Building Initiative (CBI and Oxfam. LRC was launched on May 15, 2008 to enable better coordination between local and international implementers, advocate on behalf of local groups, ensure access to capacity development services and ultimately strengthen the collaborative response to Cyclone Nargis between local and international organizations. Following the Nargis Phase of operation (May 2008 – September 2010), LRC shifted its focus from disaster response to the holistic development of indigenous CSOs. LRC officially registered as a local NGO in May 2012.".....Top Downloads: How To Succeed In Your Work... LNGO Directory 2012 (English)... INGO Directory 2012 (English)... Network Directories 2012 (English)... Leadership Styles of Civil Society Organizations in Myanmar... Annex A People In Need Small Grants Application Form ... Network Directories 2012 (Myanmar)... Bridging the gap between donor community and local organizations in Myanmar ... DAP Application Form Template ... A Handbook Of NGO Governance... NGO Registration Press Release May30... People In Need Guidelines For Small Grant Proposals ... LNGO Directory 2012 (Myanmar)... Annex B People In Need Small Grants Budget Form ... Executive Summary(Myanmar).
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Local Resource Centre
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Guidelines for UN Agencies, International Organizations and NGO / INGOs on Cooperation Programme in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 07 February 2006
      Description/subject: This is the official English version issued by the Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development to UN agencies, international and non-governmental organisations.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
      Format/size: pdf (26K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


      Title: Guidelines for Systematic and Smooth Implementation of Socio-Economic Development Activities in Cooperation with UN Agencies, International Organizations and NGOs/INGOs
      Date of publication: February 2006
      Description/subject: This is the Burmese version of the text, which differs somewhat from the official English version. An unofficial English version of this text can be found alongside this one in the Online Burma/Myanmar Library.
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
      Format/size: pdf (196K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


      Title: Guidelines for Systematic and Smooth Implementation of Socio-EconomicDevelopment Activities in Cooperation with UN Agencies, International Organizations and NGOs/INGOs
      Date of publication: February 2006
      Description/subject: This is the unoffical translation of the Burmese version of the document issued to UN agencies, international and non-governmental organisations by the Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
      Format/size: pdf (36K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


      Title: JOINT PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (INGOs) PROVIDING HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE IN BURMA/MYANMAR, JUNE 2000
      Date of publication: June 2000
      Description/subject: "1. Humanitarian Imperative: INGOs recognise that the right to receive humanitarian assistance, and to offer it, is a fundamental humanitarian principle that should be enjoyed by all citizens of all countries. When we give humanitarian assistance it is not a political or partisan act and should not be viewed as such. Our primary motivation for working in this country or in any other country in which we work is to improve the human condition and alleviate human suffering... 2. Non-discrimination: INGOs follow a policy of non-discrimination regarding ethnic origin, sex, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, political orientation marital status or age in regard to the target populations with whom we work..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma/Myanmar-based NGOs
      Format/size: pdf (85K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 June 2006


      Title: Caveats, Cautions and Stringent Conditions
      Date of publication: August 1995
      Description/subject: (On the suggestion that NGOs should go into Burma) "SLORC's shift into longer-term planning has not changed its basic military logic. The military no doubt hopes that NGO involvement in Burma will further its Low-Intensity Conflict strategy, whose final goal is control over all the "liberated areas" currently administered by the non-burman ethnic groups. Hard collective bargaining with SLORC and insistence on specific conditions will reduce this danger... NGOs should not go into Burma at this time. If they do decide to go in, however, they should negotiate collectively with SLORC, and stick to firm guidelines as suggested in this memo..." Burma Peace Foundation April 1994/August 1995
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Peace Foundation
      Format/size: html (78K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • The discussion on humanitarian assistance to Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: Views from the Ground and the International Community
      Date of publication: 08 May 2009
      Description/subject: On May 8th, 2009 the Atlantic Council of the United States, the US-ASEAN Business Council and NBR in cooperation with Refugees International convened this forum to inform policymakers about the situation in Burma/Myanmar and the international response. Representatives of the international community, humanitarian workers with on-the ground experience, experts, and the policy community in Washington D.C. joined together for an off-the record discussion. Experts and aid workers addressed questions about the humanitarian situation, which is on the verge of crisis, highlighting what programs are successful and where the needs are greatest. Members of the international community shared their approaches and explored avenues for better international coordination. FORUM INFORMATION AND MATERIALS * "Burma/Myanmar: Views from the Ground and the International Community Project Report," by Catharin Dalpino, Georgetown University * "Setting the Scene: Lessons from Twenty Years of Foreign Aid," by Morten B. Pedersen * "What to do for Burma’s children?" by Andrew Kirkwood * "Strategy and Priorities in Addressing the Humanitarian Situation in Burma," presented by Richard Horsey * "Singaporean Perspectives and Approaches," presented by HE Ambassador Chan Heng Chee * "Japanese Perspectives and Approaches," presented by Keiichi Ono * "Norwegian Perspectives and Approaches," presented by HE Ambassador Wegger Christian Strommen * "The High Costs of Non-Solutions in Burma/Myanmar," by Khin Zaw Win * Forum Agenda and Participant Biographies FORUM PROCEEDINGS Welcome/Opening Remarks
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: National Bureau of Asian Research
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2009


      Title: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents
      Description/subject: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents... Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process - Challenges and Opportunities... Brussels, Tuesday 5th April 2005... Most of the papers and reports focus on the "Independent Report" written for the conference by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen. They range from macroeconomic critique to historical and procedural comment.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: European Commission
      Format/size: html, Word
      Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


      Individual Documents

      Title: Conflict and Survival: Self-protection in south-east Burma
      Date of publication: 21 September 2010
      Description/subject: "...Threats to civilian populations in south-east Burma include murder, rape, torture, looting, forced labour and arbitrary taxation, hunger, land confiscation, and the destruction of entire villages. People living in conflict zones are often subject to 'multiple masters', paying taxes (or other forms of ‘tribute’ – such as labour, or the conscription of their sons) to two or more armed groups. Protection against hunger is also a major concern. For vulnerable communities, the distinction between livelihoods and other forms of security is minimal. People manage or avoid these risks through a variety of strategies, including trade-offs, some of which may appear very negative. Often, people have to balance risks against each other, and choose the ‘least-worst option’. Individuals, families and communities’ limited selfprotection options depend on the resources available, including money, relationships, and information. The standing and quality of community leaders also appear to be crucial. Particularly important is the development of protective ‘social capital'. In the absence of protection by the state or international agencies, community-based organizations play important roles in providing limited amounts of assistance to vulnerable communities in south-east Burma. Civil society networks operating cross-border from Thailand include a range of CBOs, some of which can be characterized as the welfare wings of armed ethnic groups. These organizations provide often life-saving assistance to IDPs and other vulnerable civilians, with funds provided by many of the same donors who also support the refugee regime along the border. Monitoring of these relief activities is very tight and little, if any, cross-border aid is diverted to insurgent organizations. However, the close association between several of the more prominent cross-border aid groups and the armed conflict actors with which they work serves to legitimize the latter, who are involved in the distribution of internationally funded relief supplies.44 Humanitarian donors and organizations must ensure that their interventions ‘do no harm’ to intended beneficiaries. Discussion of the relationships between aid and conflict has not been prominent within humanitarian networks along the Thailand-Burma border.45 Such caveats notwithstanding, locally designed and led humanitarian activities can help to mobilize communities. Local (especially faith-based) leaders do often help to build trust and ‘social capital’. International donors can and should do more to engage positively with such initiatives..."
      Author/creator: Ashley South with Malin Perhult and Nils Carstensen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chatham House
      Format/size: pdf (551K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 September 2010


      Title: "I Want to Help My Own People" State Control and Civil Society in Burma after Cyclone Nargis
      Date of publication: 29 April 2010
      Description/subject: Cyclone Nargis struck southern Burma on May 2-3, 2008, killing at least 140,000 people and bringing devastation to an estimated 2.4 million people in the Irrawaddy Delta and the former capital, Rangoon. The Burmese military government’s initial reaction to the cyclone shocked the world: instead of immediately allowing international humanitarian assistance to be delivered to survivors, as did countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) prevented both foreign disaster relief workers and urgently needed relief supplies from entering the delta during the crucial first weeks after the cyclone. The military government blocked large-scale international relief efforts by delaying the issuance of visas to aid workers, prohibiting foreign helicopters and boats from making deliveries to support the relief operation, obstructing travel by aid agencies to affected areas, and preventing local and international media from freely reporting from the disaster area. Rather than prioritizing the lives and well-being of the affected population, the military government’s actions were dictated by hostility to the international community, participation in the diversion of aid, and an obsession with holding a manipulated referendum on a longdelayed constitution. “I Want to Help My Own People” 8 In the face of the government’s callous response, Burmese civil society groups and individuals raised money, collected supplies and traveled to the badly affected parts of the Irrawaddy Delta and around Rangoon to help survivors in shattered villages. Many efforts were spontaneous, but as the relief and recovery efforts gained pace, dozens of communitybased organizations and civil society groups organized themselves and gained unprecedented experience in providing humanitarian relief and initiating projects. Access for United Nations agencies and international humanitarian organizations improved starting in late May 2008 after UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited the delta, and the UN and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) brokered a deal with the Burmese government. They established the Tripartite Core Group (TCG), which became the central vehicle for coordinating aid, improving access for humanitarian organizations to the delta, and carrying out the ensuing recovery efforts. The two years since Cyclone Nargis have seen an unprecedented influx of humanitarian assistance to the delta, with a visible presence of local and international aid workers and improved access to provide humanitarian relief. While this opening has been rightly welcomed, it has not been the unmitigated success that many Burma analysts have portrayed it to be. Humanitarian access to the delta improved significantly by Burma standards following the establishment of the TCG mechanism, but it has remained far short of international standards. And partly because of the access restrictions imposed by the SPDC, humanitarian funding has not been sufficient to meet the needs of people in the cyclone-affected zones. As a result, two years after the cyclone, the recovery of many communities in the delta remains limited, particularly communities far from the towns where most relief efforts were organized. Such communities face continuing hardships and difficulties obtaining clean water and adequate sanitation, health resources, needed agricultural support, and recovery of livelihoods. Had the SPDC not continued to place unnecessary restrictions on the humanitarian relief effort in the delta, the cyclone-affected population would be much farther down the road to recovery. The Burmese government has failed to adequately support reconstruction efforts that benefit the population, contributing only paltry levels of aid despite having vast sums at its disposal from lucrative natural gas sales. Although the government has not announced total figures dedicated for cyclone relief and reconstruction, it allocated a mere 5 million kyat (US$50,000) for an emergency fund immediately after the storm. It is clear that its subsequent spending has also not been commensurate with available resources. Burma’s government is estimated to have more than US$5 billion in foreign reserves and receives an 9 Human Rights Watch │April 2010 estimated US$150 million in monthly gas export revenues. The Burmese government channels the limited assistance it does provide through its surrogates and contracts awarded to politically connected companies, in an effort to maintain social control. In addition, the government’s distribution of aid has been marred by serious allegations of favoritism. In most areas of Burma outside of the cyclone-affected areas, international humanitarian access is much more limited than in the delta, despite significant levels of preventable disease, malnutrition, and inadequate water and sanitation, particularly in the central dry zone and the ethnic minority areas of the border states. All of the UN staff, Burmese aid providers, and international humanitarian organization representatives Human Rights Watch spoke with in Burma in early 2010 praised the humanitarian opening in the delta, but then added that humanitarian space in the rest of Burma remains a major challenge. As one senior aid official told us: “We were all hoping that the Nargis experience would be the wedge to open a lot of things, but this hasn’t happened.” The statistics speak for themselves: approximately one-third of Burmese citizens live below the poverty line. Most live on one to three US dollars a day, and suffer from inadequate food security. Maternal mortality is the worst in the Asian region after Afghanistan. While the economies of many of its neighbors rapidly develop, the people of Burma continue to suffer. The SPDC fails to invest its own available resources to address urgent social and economic needs and blocks the humanitarian community from doing all it can to help meet those needs in other parts of the country. A number of humanitarian aid experts we spoke with were hopeful that after national elections scheduled for the end of 2010 are completed, they will then be able to build on what was achieved in cyclone-affected areas, and expand the delivery of humanitarian aid to other areas in Burma where it is desperately needed. While the record of the Burmese government to date suggests this will be an uphill battle at best, the UN, ASEAN, and other influential international actors in Burma should make it a priority to continue to press for such expanded access. Natural disasters can sometimes work as a catalyst for peace-building and reform in conflict wracked societies, as occurred in Aceh, Indonesia, following the 2004 tsunami. In Burma, the military government is stronger and more confident two years after the cyclone, but it is no more accountable or respectful of basic rights...Finally, this reports details an under-appreciated positive legacy of the cyclone response: the development of a group of new, truly independent and experienced civil society organizations in Burma, which now seek to use their skills to address other humanitarian and development challenges in the country..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/29/i-want-help-my-own-people
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2010


      Title: Listening Project Field Visit Report: Myanmar/Burma
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: The Myanmar Listening Project was a joint venture between CPCS, Nyien/Shalom Foundation of Myanmar and CDA Collaborative Learning Projects of the United States. It sought to listen to recipients and deliverers of international assistance as a means of improving international assistance practices.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies. Shalom Foundation
      Format/size: pdf (684K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Listening_Project_Report_-_Myanmar.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2010


      Title: The Dynamics of Conflict in the Multiethnic Union of Myanmar
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: * Crucial developments are taking place in Burma / Myanmar's political landscape. Generation change, the change of the nominal political system, and the recovery from a major natural disaster can lead to many directions. Some of these changes can possibly pave the way for violent societal disruptions. * As an external actor the international community may further add to political tensions through their intervening policies. For this reason it is very important that the international community assesses its impact on the agents and structure of conflict in Burma / Myanmar. * This study aims at mapping the opportunities and risks that various types of international aid interventions may have in the country. * The study utilizes and further develops the peace and conflict impact assessment methodology of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
      Author/creator: Timo Kivimaki & Paul Pasch
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (PCIA - Country Conflict-Analysis Study)
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 May 2010


      Title: MYANMAR: Beyond the delta, aid projects miss out
      Date of publication: 19 March 2009
      Description/subject: "YANGON, 19 March 2009 (IRIN) - The positive aspects of the Cyclone Nargis response in the Ayeyarwady Delta have yet to translate into better access or more funds for aid operations in the rest of Myanmar, where needs are great and often unmet, according to aid workers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IrinNews (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2009


      Title: Burma: Capitalizing on the Gains
      Date of publication: 18 March 2009
      Description/subject: In the past year, humanitarian assistance to Burma has been primarily focused on victims of Cyclone Nargis, which struck the Irrawaddy delta on May 2, 2008. Though the initial delivery of assistance was hampered by government obstruction, the aid programs that have since developed in the delta have benefited from an ease of operations unseen in other parts of the country. Relief work in the delta is progressing smoothly, but attempts to expand access to the rest of the country are struggling. Nonetheless, to capitalize on the existing gains, the U.S. should provide significant funding for programs throughout the country....Policy Recocommendations: "...The United States should join other donor nations in making a significant appropriation for humanitarian aid in Burma. It should allocate $30 million for FY10, with plans to increase its contribution to $45 million in FY11 and $60 million in FY12. * The United Nations should strengthen its support for the Burma Country team by hiring a Senior Humanitarian Advisor to work with the RC/HC and ensure that teams in Bangkok and New York are providing adequate guidance and support. *ASEAN should look to apply the Tri-Partite Core Group model for use in the discussion of other issues of concern with Burma, such as the Rohingya. In the past year, humanitarian assistance to Burma has been primarily focused on victims of Cyclone Nargis, which struck the Irrawaddy delta on May 2, 2008. Though the initial delivery of assistance was hampered by government obstruction, the aid programs that have since developed in the delta have benefited from an ease of operations unseen in other parts of the country. Relief work in the delta is progressing smoothly, but attempts to expand access to the rest of the country are struggling. Nonetheless, to capitalize on the existing gains, the U.S. should provide significant funding for programs throughout the country..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Refugees International
      Format/size: pdf (132K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2009


      Title: Burma/Myanmar after Nargis: Time to Normalise Aid Relations
      Date of publication: 20 October 2008
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS: "The massive devastation caused by cyclone Nargis has prompted a period of unprecedented cooperation between the government and international humanitarian agencies to deliver emergency aid to the survivors. The international community should seize this opportunity to reverse longstanding, counterproductive aid policies by providing substantial resources for recovery and rehabilitation of the affected areas and, gradually, expanding and deepening its engagement in support of sustainable human development countrywide. This is essential for humanitarian reasons alone, but also presents the best available opportunity for the international community to promote positive change in Myanmar. The government's initial response to the cyclone, which hit Myanmar on 2 May killing over 100,000 people in the Ayeyarwady delta, shocked the world. International agencies and local donors were stopped from delivering aid, putting the lives and welfare of hundreds of thousands of people in jeopardy. But internal factors, along with international and particularly regional pressure and diplomacy, had their effect, and developments since then show that it is possible to work with the military regime on humanitarian issues. Communication between the government and international agencies has much improved. Visas and travel permits today are easier and faster to get than before. Requirements for the launch of new aid projects have been eased. By and large, the authorities are making efforts to facilitate aid, including allowing a substantial role for civil society. In late July, UN Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes declared, "This is now a normal international relief operation". The lead given by ASEAN in coordinating and fronting international aid efforts has been, and will continue to be, of particular importance. Political reform remains vital and should continue to be the subject of high-level international diplomacy and pressure. But it is a mistake in the Myanmar context to use aid as a bargaining chip, to be given only in return for political change. The military rulers have shown repeatedly that they are prepared to forego any aid that comes with political strings attached. Aid should rather be seen by international policymakers as valuable in its own right as well as a way of alleviating suffering, but also as a potential means of opening up a closed country, improving governance and empowering people to take control of their own lives. It will take years, and sustained international support, for the worst-hit areas to recover. Moreover, the massive damage to Myanmar's food bowl will worsen the already dire humanitarian situation in the country at large. Growing impoverishment and deteriorating social service structures have pushed millions of households to the edge of survival, leaving them acutely vulnerable to economic shocks or natural disasters. If not addressed, the increasing levels of household insecurity will lead to further human suffering, and could eventually escalate into a major humanitarian crisis. Government repression, corruption and mismanagement bear primary responsibility for this situation. But Western governments – in their attempt to defeat the regime by isolating it – have sacrificed opportunities to promote economic reform, strengthen social services, empower local communities and support disaster prevention and preparedness. Their aid policies have weakened the West's ability to influence the changes underway in the country. As the regime moves ahead with its "seven-step roadmap", there is an acute danger that the international community will remain relegated to a spectator role. Twenty years of aid restrictions – which see Myanmar receiving twenty times less assistance per capita than other least-developed countries – have weakened, not strengthened, the forces for change. Bringing about peace and democracy will require visionary leaders at all levels, backed by strong organisations, who can manage the transition and provide effective governance. These are not common attributes of an isolated and impoverished society. As the country's socio-economic crisis deepens and its human resources and administrative capacity decline, it will become harder and harder for any government to turn the situation around. While "humanitarian" aid is a reasonable response to a temporary emergency, the deepening structural crisis in Myanmar demands a response of a different type and magnitude. The international community should commit unequivocally not only to helping Myanmar recover from the destruction of Nargis, but also to making up for years of neglect and helping move the country forward. This means much more aid. Equally importantly, it means different aid, aimed at raising income and education as well as health levels, fostering civil society, improving economic policy and governance, promoting the equality of ethnic minorities and improving disaster prevention and preparedness. This shift will not be easy. The military leadership will need to be convinced that increased international development efforts do not threaten national sovereignty and security; donors must be ensured that aid is not abused or wasted; and implementing agencies will have to substantially enhance their capacity for development work, something for which the current aid structure in country is ill-equipped. Myanmar is not an easy place to do aid work. Government restrictions and intrusiveness, red tape and corruption hamper activities, as in many developing countries. But agencies with a longstanding presence on the ground have proved that, despite the difficulties, it is possible to deliver assistance in an effective and accountable way. If the current opening can be used to build further confidence and lay the basis for a more effective aid structure, it may be possible not only to meet the immediate needs, but also to begin to address the broader crisis of governance and human suffering. Aid alone, of course, will not bring sustainable human development, never mind peace and democracy. Yet, because of the limited links between Myanmar and the outside world, aid has unusual importance as an arena of interaction among the government, society and the international community."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
      Format/size: pdf (818K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/161_burma_myanmar_after...
      Date of entry/update: 09 August 2010


      Title: The 'everyday politics' of IDP protection in Karen State
      Date of publication: 20 October 2008
      Description/subject: "...While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politically-averse intervention which marginalizes local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the 'everyday politics' of rural villagers. The present article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritize a form of State-centric 'neutrality' and marginalize the 'everyday politics' through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights. (This working paper was presented on the panel 'Migration within and out of Burma' as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference in DeKalb, Illinois in October 2008.)..." A working paper by Stephen Hull, Karen Human Rights Group, for presentation on the panel ‘Migration within and out of Burma’ as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference DeKalb, Illinois, October 2008
      Author/creator: Stephen Hull
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
      Format/size: pdf (84 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w2.html
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


      Title: New Approach Needed for Aid to Burma
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Burma urgently needs humanitarian assistance; the country’s HIV/AIDS sufferers are dying and require medical attention. But the generals who rule the country are not ready to acknowledge the humanitarian crisis facing the country. Worse still, they prevent aid workers from delivering assistance to the needy. Burma’s political prisoners—including Buddhist monks and nuns—are denied proper medication and food. The International Committee for the Red Cross ceased prison visits in 2005 due to persistent restrictions imposed on them by the regime..."
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html (219K), pdf (12.3MB), Word (290K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Obscuring Burma's Humanitarian Crisis
      Date of publication: May 2007
      Description/subject: "A former program monitor looks at how restrictions on aid agencies in Burma hide the true extent of the country's needs... Soe Khine - not his real name - was ordered to appear immediately at a local police station. The NGO township monitor had committed no crime, but he did hold a meeting with local residents in a township in Mon State to discuss an HIV prevention and education project designated for the area. As a monitor of project implementation in Mon State, Soe Khine had forgotten that in Burma, monitors must also have their monitors..."
      Author/creator: Htet Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2007


      Title: Media release – response to UN statement on KHRG report
      Date of publication: 26 April 2007
      Description/subject: "(Bangkok, April 26th 2007) – On Wednesday April 25th 2007, the United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator in Myanmar released a statement in response to KHRG’s recently released report Development by Decree: The politics of poverty and control in Karen State. KHRG welcomes the UN’s response and appreciates the Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator’s acknowledgement that it agrees with the report’s findings on the problems confronting the delivery of humanitarian aid in Burma. KHRG is encouraged about the possibility for greater openness and discussion regarding the methods used by aid agencies in the implementation of their programmes. However, a number of points in the UN’s media statement need clarification..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Commentaries (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (49KB)
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2007


      Title: Media Release - Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 25 April 2007
      Description/subject: Response by the Office of the (UN) Humanitarian Coordinator in Myanmar to the report, "Development by Decree: The politics of poverty and control in Karen State" published by the Karen Human Rights Group on 24 April 2007.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Information Centre, Yangon
      Format/size: pdf (9.7K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2007


      Title: Development by Decree: The politics of poverty and control in Karen State
      Date of publication: 24 April 2007
      Description/subject: "In pursuit of domestic submission and international recognition of its legitimacy the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) currently ruling Burma pronounces daily on the manifold military-implemented development programmes initiated across the country which, it argues, are both supported by and beneficial to local communities. Villagers in Karen State, however, consistently reject such claims. Rather, these individuals describe a systematic programme of military expansionism with which the junta aims to establish control over all aspects of civilian life. In the name of development, the regime's agenda in Karen State has involved multifarious infrastructure and regimentation projects that restrict travel and trade and facilitate increased extortion of funds, food, supplies and labour from the civilian population, thereby exacerbating poverty, malnutrition and the overall humanitarian crisis. Given the detrimental consequences of the SPDC's development agenda, villagers in Karen areas have resisted military efforts to control their lives and livelihoods under the rubric of development. In this way these villagers have worked to claim their right to determine for themselves the direction in which they wish their communities to develop. Drawing on over 90 interviews with local villagers in Karen State, SPDC order documents, official SPDC press statements, international media sources, reports by international aid agencies and academic studies this report finds that rather than prosperity, the SPDC's 'development' agenda has instead brought increased military control over civilian lives, undermined villagers' rights and delivered deleterious humanitarian outcomes contradictory to the very rhetoric the junta has used to justify its actions."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG 2007-01)
      Format/size: pdf (English: 5MB - OBL version; 9MB - original; Karen, 6.9MB)), html (intro and executive summary)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg0701_burmese.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Development_by_decree(Karen).pdf
      http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg0701.html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2007


      Title: International Organizations: Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma
      Date of publication: 06 April 2007
      Description/subject: GAO Report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives... International Organizations... Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma...What GAO Found: " United States Government Accountability Office Why GAO Did This Study Highlights Accountability IntegrityReliability April 2007 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Assistance Programs Constrained In Burma Highlights of GAO-07-457, a report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives The United Nations and other international organizations have undertaken numerous efforts aimed at addressing Burma’s most pressing problems, which include forced labor, harsh prison conditions, ethnic conflict, an HIV/AIDS epidemic, and poverty. The International Labor Organization (ILO) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have sought to monitor forced labor and prison conditions in Burma by allowing victims to voice their complaints without interference from the regime. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and ICRC seek to assist populations in conflict areas near Burma’s border with Thailand. International organizations also attempt to provide food to vulnerable populations, promote local economic development, improve health conditions, and strengthen the Burmese educational system. For example, several UN entities provide assistance to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and drug abuse, as well as to improve reproductive health. Burma’s military regime has blocked or impeded activities undertaken by many international organizations in Burma over the past 3 years. In 2004, the regime distanced itself from these organizations and began adopting increasingly restrictive policies. In 2006, it published formal guidelines to restrict international activities in Burma. These guidelines, which have yet to be fully implemented, contain provisions that UN officials consider to be unacceptable. The regime’s restrictions have had the greatest impact on international efforts to monitor prison conditions, investigate claims of forced labor, and assist victims of ethnic conflict. The regime has blocked ICRC efforts to monitor prison conditions and, until recently, ILO efforts to address forced labor. The regime has also restricted UNHCR and ICRC efforts to assist populations living in areas affected by ethnic conflict. To a lesser degree, the regime has impeded UN food, development, and health programs by restricting their ability to (1) move food and international staff freely within the country and (2) conduct research needed to determine the nature and scope of some of Burma’s problems. Despite these restrictions, several international organization officials told us they are still able to achieve meaningful results in their efforts to mitigate some of Burma’s humanitarian, health, and development problems..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United States Government Accountability Office (GAO-07-457)
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 April 2007


      Title: Crisis Group response to OSI critique of Asia Briefing No. 58, Myanmar: New threats to humanitarian aid
      Date of publication: 20 January 2007
      Description/subject: "1. On December 8, the International Crisis Group issued a “Briefing” entitled, “Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid.” A main focus of the Briefing was a decision in August 2005 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to withdraw a grant of $98 million over five years for Burma after, according to ICG, “intense pressure from U.S.-based groups undermined sensitive negotiations with the government over operational conditions.” The consequence, said the Crisis Group “was a serious setback, which put thousands of lives in jeopardy.” The report bears a dateline of Yangon/Brussels and was written by a consultant for ICG who conducted research in Yangon (or Rangoon) but, it appears, not elsewhere. Crisis Group Comment: ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) via ReliefWeb
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2007


      Title: Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid
      Date of publication: 08 December 2006
      Description/subject: "The delivery of humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar is facing new threats. After a period in which humanitarian space expanded, aid agencies have come under renewed pressure, most seriously from the military government but also from pro-democracy activists overseas who seek to curtail or control assistance programs. Restrictions imposed by the military regime have worsened in parallel with its continued refusal to permit meaningful opposition political activity and its crackdown on the Karen. The decision of the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to withdraw from the country in 2005 was a serious setback, which put thousands of lives in jeopardy, although it has been partly reversed by the new Three Diseases Fund (3D Fund). There is a need to get beyond debates over the country's highly repressive political system; failure to halt the slide towards a humanitarian crisis could shatter social stability and put solutions beyond the reach of whatever government is in power..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group -- Asia Briefing N°58
      Format/size: pdf (199K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b58_myanmar___new_threa...
      Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


      Title: Pro-Aid, Pro-Sanctions, Pro-Engagement - Position Paper on Humanitarian Aid to Burma
      Date of publication: 28 July 2006
      Description/subject: "Over the years there have been attempts to portray key Burma campaign organisations and indeed Burma’s National League for Democracy (NLD) as opposed to humanitarian assistance to Burma. This position paper, supported by the undersigned, has been drafted so that no further confusion should arise. This amounts to clarification of a long-held policy position and does not signify any change in policy on the part of the undersigned. ‘Agencies’ is used throughout this document to refer collectively to United Nations (UN) agencies, Donor Governments and national/international non- Government Organisations (NGO/INGOs). Summary We the undersigned share the concerns of the United Nations (UN) and the international community regarding the humanitarian situation in Burma. We are concerned about the long-term consequences for the country and believe the situation needs immediate attention. Recognising the urgency of the situation, especially with regard to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria, in addition to high malnutrition and child mortality rates and emerging health threats such as avian influenza, we support and encourage the provision of humanitarian assistance to Burma. There must however be transparency, accountability and monitoring of all aspects of the provision of this assistance in order that it reaches intended recipients and does not benefit the military authorities. (See ‘The Right Kind of Aid’ below). In addition, Burmese nationals employed by agencies operating in the country, must be afforded protection from any reprisals by the regime for working on assistance or development programmes. In supporting humanitarian assistance we emphasise that it is the lack of accountable governance in Burma that is at the heart of the current crisis. It is therefore imperative that humanitarian assistance complements and does not replace or undermine political pressure for democratic change. Both are essential and must be pursued simultaneously. Although not always appropriate for the same actors to pursue both strategies (for the UN and Donor Governments this is imperative), it’s vital that all agencies recognise the political roots of the humanitarian crisis. We ask agencies to be vigilant in avoiding indirect and inadvertent contribution to the root of the problem and to be respectful to the perspectives of those working towards political solutions. Mutual respect for and support of both strategies is of paramount importance. We encourage all agencies to creatively explore opportunities for supporting the promotion of democracy both directly and across their projects. A democratic society in Burma is vital to ensuring truly effective humanitarian assistance that directly benefits all Burma’s people. 5 We support the suspension of all non-humanitarian and development aid to Burma with certain exceptions (See ‘Non-Humanitarian and Development Aid’ below). The principles that should be adopted for administration of effective aid in these exempted areas should mirror those proposed for strictly humanitarian assistance. Our position on humanitarian aid complements our policy on effectively targeted economic sanctions. We continue to advocate for ‘smart’ sanctions as called for by the National League for Democracy - that target the regime and its support base but not ordinary Burmese people. We do not support the introduction of former Iraqi-style sanctions that would impact negatively on Burma’s people. Nor do we call for the broader isolation of Burma. Our position on humanitarian assistance reflects that of the National League for Democracy, National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma) and 88 Generation Students..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign UK
      Format/size: pdf (570K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 July 2006


      Title: Ending the Waiting Game: Strategies for Responding to Internally Displaced People in Burma
      Date of publication: June 2006
      Description/subject: "Ending the Waiting Game: Strategies for Responding to Internally Displaced People in Burma" argues that the crisis in Burma has reached a point where displaced people and other vulnerable populations simply cannot wait any longer for outside assistance, including health services, education, food production and building the capacity of civil society organizations in the country. U.S. sanctions against Burma's military regime currently prevent the provision of significant humanitarian aid."...Table of Contents Executive Summary i Introduction 1 Types of Displacement and Conditions of the Displaced Population 4 Displacement Resulting from Counter-insurgency 5 Displacement in Ceasefire Areas 6 Development-induced Displacement 7 Urban Displacement 7 Summary of Displacement by Geographic Area 8 Displacement as a Consequence of Economic Vulnerability 10 Conditions of the Displaced Population 10 Humanitarian Response Inside Burma 13 The Government of Burma 13 Burma-based Agencies 13 Thailand-based Agencies 17 The Debate Over Aid and Engagement 19 The Aid Dilemma 19 Concern about Aid Reaching People in Need 21 Sanctions vs Engagement 23 The International Community's Response to Burma 24 Rationale for International Assistance Inside Burma 31 Towards a More Effective Response to Internal Displacement 34 Burma-based Agencies 34 Thailand-based Agencies 36 The Government of Burma 37 Refugees International's Recommendations 38
      Author/creator: Kavita Shukla
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Refugees International
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/policy/in-depth-report/ending-waiting-game-strategies-respondi...
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: “Northern Arakan/Rakhine State: a Chronic Emergency”
      Date of publication: 29 March 2006
      Description/subject: "Northern Arakan State is one of the main pockets of acute poverty and vulnerability in Burma. This region, adjacent to the border with Bangladesh, experiences what many refer to as a “chronic emergency” and there is an absolute consensus among the local population as well as humanitarian actors that international aid is, despite its limited impact, essential to avert a new mass outflow of refugees to Bangladesh..."
      Author/creator: Chris Lewa
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
      Format/size: pdf (102K)
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008


      Title: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma. Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe im autoritären System
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: Der Abzug der Gelder des UN Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria stellt einen schweren Einschnitt in die Gesundheitsversorgung Burmas dar. Laut öffentlicher Aussage des Global Fund sind die Rahmenbedingungen für eine effektive Implementierung der Programme aufgrund zunehmender Restriktionen des Regimes nicht mehr gegeben. Gleichzeitig soll der Global Fund jedoch von den USA und dortigen Menschenrechtsorganisationen unter massivem politischem Druch zum Rückzug aus Burma bewegt wroden sein. Unter internationalen Akteuren im humanitären Bereich besteht noch immer keine Einigkeit darüber, ob in Burma humanitäre Hilfe geleistet werden soll und - wenn ja - in welcher Form. keywords: UN Global Fund, humanitarian aid, AIDS, NGOs
      Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 65-71
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: A Former Student Leader Speaks Out - An Interview with Min Ko Naing
      Date of publication: November 2005
      Description/subject: "Burmese pro-democracy advocate and former student leader Min Ko Naing was last month named one of this year’s winners of the Civil Courage Prize, awarded annually by the New York-based Northcote Parkinson Fund. The Fund is a private foundation that supports economic and political liberalism and honors “steadfast resistance to evil at great personal risk.” Min Ko Naing—nom de guerre of Paw Oo Htun—was arrested in March 1989 and served more than 15 years of a 20-year prison sentence. He declined his share of the Civil Courage Prize—US $25,000—saying he wants the money to be used for humanitarian aid for his country. In a phone interview with The Irrawaddy, Min Ko Naing talked about the current situation in Burma...We need to understand the root cause and immediate context of the problems. We need to clearly examine these two factors; we shouldn’t pretend that we don’t recognise these issues. It is important to accept the reality of our country. In this country, crisis has existed for many years, while the change of democratic reform is delayed. All these things are related to international events. We will continue to endure the current crisis as long as Burma is rejected by the international community and under an economic situation of non-cooperation. Consequently, we will see massive unemployment problems, some people will lose their jobs and many will face everyday hardships. That is why I would like to urge the present government, the political forces and civil society to discuss together how to work towards a solution..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: The Bonfire of the Vanities
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: What do opposing academic views on Burma achieve?... "...academics should work with organizations, journalists, aid workers, activists, and grass-roots groups in exchanging ideas, sharing information and suggesting strategy to contribute to debates. Many toil away without involving themselves in public debate, they just provide another perspective. So why then are some so prominent? Because they choose to be...Take the European Commission’s recent “Burma Day.” Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen were commissioned to write a report based on their credibility as academics: Taylor as a semi-retired professor from London University and Pedersen as an analyst with the International Crisis Group and PhD student. The report was designed to avert further EU sanctions and increase aid to Burma. What resulted was a crescendo of disapproval by many observers who accused both authors of being pro-engagement apologists for military rule..."
      Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


      Title: The ICG, Burma, and the Politics of Diversion
      Date of publication: October 2004
      Description/subject: "More aid to Burma’s border regions is a good idea, but not when the International Crisis Group is only telling half the story... By making the case for increasing aid to Burma,the ICG stands accused of using dirty tactics. ... The report, Myanmar: Aid to Border Areas, advocates increased development projects in predominantly ethnic border regions, often in ceasefire zones or post-conflict areas, by depoliticizing aid and appealing to the immense humanitarian crisis facing Burma. By obscuring the junta that is largely responsible for the country’s socio-economic atrophy, the Brussels-based think tank is promoting more engagement isolated from Burma’s complex political impasse. Utilizing the vague SPDC term “Border Areas”, the report outlines a strategy for “the empowerment of ordinary people.” It details ways for international non-governmental organizations, or INGOs, to nurture networks of community-based organizations, or CBOs, religious groups and other civil society networks in more “bottom-up” development methods, and away from authoritarian “top-down” projects..."
      Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


      Title: MYANMAR: AID TO THE BORDER AREAS
      Date of publication: 09 September 2004
      Description/subject: Yangon/Brussels, 9 September 2004: "International assistance to Myanmar's Border Areas is needed to consolidate peace and lay the foundations for a more open, democratic system. Despite continuing state repression in Myanmar and widespread international unwillingness to deal directly with the regime, properly targeted developmental and humanitarian aid can and should be given to help a limited and particular part of the country. Myanmar: Aid to the Border Areas,* the latest report from the International Crisis Group, lays out in detail why the Border Areas are different and discusses how expanded international assistance could be implemented without strengthening the present government. "The international community has tended to disregard the needs of the Myanmar's desperately poor ethnic minority communities", says Robert Templer, Asia Program Director at ICG. "Foreign aid for the Border Areas should be seen as complementary to diplomatic efforts to restore democracy." The remote, mountainous areas along the borders with Thailand, Laos, China, India and Bangladesh, largely populated by ethnic minorities, have long suffered from war and neglect, which have undermined development. Extreme poverty is widespread, though the area contains more than a third of the country's population and most of its natural resources. The Border Areas also link to some of the world's fastest growing economies. The prospects for Myanmar's peace, prosperity and democracy are thus closely tied to the future of these regions. International assistance could also reduce refugee flows and the dangers from cross border threats such as the spread of drugs and AIDS, and environmental damage from deforestation. Much of the world has been reluctant to have any direct dealings with the regime. The political stalemate which has prevailed since the military suppression of the pro-democracy movement in 1988 continues unabated. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi remains in custody, and there is no sign that the National Convention reconvened in May 2004 will produce any meaningful change. Without movement on these two fronts a comprehensive way forward that steers a course between sanctions and over-eager engagement will have few attractions for the international community. "But if it can overcome its distaste somewhat and at least agree to work with local authorities to a limited extent, the outside world can play a very positive, perhaps even catalytic, role inside this particular region of Myanmar", says Templer. "Although the linkages between peace, prosperity and democracy are complex, international help for the Border Areas provides an important organising principle and practical means for their realisation."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
      Format/size: pdf (410K)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/082_myanmar_aid_to_the_border_areas.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2004


      Title: Burma's Dirty War - The humanitarian crisis in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 24 May 2004
      Description/subject: "Up to a million people have fled their homes in eastern Burma in a crisis the world has largely ignored. Burma's refusal to release Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, and the boycotting of the constitutional convention this month by the main opposition, has thrust Burma into the spotlight again. But unseen and largely unremarked is the ongoing harrowing experience of hundreds of thousands of people in eastern Burma, hiding in the jungle or trapped in army-controlled relocation sites. Others are in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. These people are victims in a counterinsurgency war in which they are the deliberate targets. As members of Burma's ethnic minorities - which make up 40 per cent of the population - they are trapped in a conflict between the Burmese army and ethnic minority armies. Surviving on caches of rice hidden in caves, or on roots and wild foods, families in eastern Burma face malaria, landmines, disease and starvation. They are hunted like animals by army patrols and starved into surrender. In interviews... refugees told Christian Aid of murder and rape, the torching of villages and shooting of family members as they lay huddled together in the fields. They recalled farmers who had been blown up by landmines laid by the army around their crops. This report, based on personal testimonies from refugees, tells the story of Burma's humanitarian crisis. On the brink of the Burmese government's announcement of a 'roadmap to democracy' for a new constitution, Burma's Dirty War argues that any new political settlement must include the crisis on the country's eastern borders. Burma's refusal to free Aung San Suu Kyi promises more intransigence and an even slower pace of change - with predictable human costs. This report calls on the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN to use what opportunity remains from the roadmap to democracy to press for an end to the conflict in negotiations with ethnic minorities. It also argues that the UN must gain access to the areas in crisis - despite the Burmese government ban on travel there by humanitarian agencies. Key recommendations include: * that the Burmese government cease human rights abuses, allow access to eastern Burma by humanitarian agencies including UN special representatives, and engage in dialogue with ethnic minority representatives * that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and the UN fund work with displaced people inside Burma and continue to support refugees in Thailand * that the UK and Irish governments, the EU and UN Security Council condemn Burma's human rights abuses against ethnic minorities, demand that it protect civilians from violence and insist that Burma allow access to humanitarian agencies The report argues that governments must seize the opportunity presented by the roadmap to push for genuine negotiations between the government, the National League for Democracy and ethnic minority organisations which can bring out a just and lasting peace..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Christian Aid
      Format/size: pdf (760K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 November 2010


      Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
      Date of publication: 03 March 2004
      Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
      Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
      Format/size: pdf (261K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


      Title: Conflict, discrimination and humanitarian challenges
      Date of publication: 08 October 2003
      Description/subject: Delivered at the EU – Burma Day 2003 Conference..."In contrast to the Thai-Burma border, very little international attention has been given to conditions on the Bangladesh-Burma border. Consequently, Arakan State has remained a largely ignored region of Burma. Awareness is generally limited to the cycle of exodus and repatriation of Rohingya refugees. But Arakan is no less than a microcosm of Burma with its ethnic conflicts and religious antagonisms, and is by far the most tense and explosive region of the country. The refugee outflow to Bangladesh does not result from counter-insurgency strategies to undermine ethnic armed resistance, as it is the case for the Shan, Karen and Karenni along the Thai-Burma border, but is the outcome of policies of exclusion against the Rohingya community..."
      Author/creator: Chris Lewa
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Forum Asia
      Format/size: html (100K), Word
      Date of entry/update: 23 October 2003


      Title: Humanitarian Assistance to Burma: How to establish good governance in the provision of humanitarian aid - ensuring aid reaches the right people in the right way
      Date of publication: December 2002
      Description/subject: Research Paper by the Burma UN Service Office - New York, December 2002 (published, March 2003)... Executive Summary: "The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma’s (the NCGUB) position on humanitarian aid is that the dire humanitarian situation should be one of the first items on the agenda of a substantive dialogue between the SPDC and the NLD. Joint consultative mechanisms should be established to ensure that aid reaches the right people in the right way. The objective of these mechanisms would be to ensure transparency and accountability and independent monitoring of the provision of humanitarian aid to the most vulnerable populations in Burma. Once these modalities are agreed upon, humanitarian aid by the international community should increase. Initially, to ensure the implementation and enforcement of the joint mechanisms, the NCGUB would prefer funds to finance small-scale projects managed by international NGOs." ... Contents: Executive Summary;The General Humanitarian Situation in Burma: Poverty; health; HIV/AIDS; education; food insecurity; displacement; landmines. Why is there a Humanitarian Crisis in Burma? Economic mismanagement; oppression of civil society; ongoing conflict, displacement, human rights abuses and access. The National League for Democracy’s Position; ; Current Humanitarian Assistance in Burma: Specific challenges faced by international aid agencies; past incidences of concern involving international aid agencies; building the capacity of civil society; the joint principles of operation/code of conduct for INGOs. Humanitarian Cease-fires: Potential Peace-Building Tool; Potential Institutional Processes for the Provision of Humanitarian Assistance; A Possible Humanitarian Assistance Model for Burma ; ANNEXES: Annex I: Summary of UN Agencies and Projects Inside Burma; Annex II: List of International NGOs Inside Burma; Annex III: Joint Principles of Operation of International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) Providing Humanitarian Assistance in Burma/Myanmar; Annex IV: The Sphere Project – Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response; Annex V: Case Studies of Humanitarian Intervention; Annex VI: Guidelines Table for the Arrangement of Humanitarian Cease-Fires;
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma UN Service Office - New York/Burma Fund
      Format/size: html (646K) Several boxes only work with Internet Explorer, Word (454K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Hum-assistance.doc
      Date of entry/update: May 2003


      Title: Aiding Burma
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: Since her release in May this year, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi has become more pragmatic in dealing with Burma�s medieval generals as well as in her outlook on the country�s problems. Immediately after being freed, Suu Kyi was confronted by the humanitarian crisis wracking the country and its citizens. She did not deny the enormity of existing problems, and quickly affirmed that as long as aid reaches people in need, she has no objections. But she also called for transparency, accountability and independent monitoring of assistance given to Burma.
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: A Peace of Pie? - Burma's Humanitarian Aid Debate
      Date of publication: 13 October 2002
      Description/subject: A PEACE OF THE PIE? AID & POLITICS: PEACEBUILDING & NATIONAL RECONCILIATION: National Reconciliation, Humanitarian Aid & �Neutrality�, From �Secret Talks� To Tripartite Dialogue; THE HUMANITARIAN 'CRISIS': Taking The Politics Out Of Aid, Leaked UN Memo; �BETTER GOVERNANCE IS THE ANSWER� - Transcript Of Interview With Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, August 2002; THE DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT; THE ETHNIC NATIONALITIES: The �No AID� Position; THE SPDC; WHOSE RESONSIBILITY?: Causes Of Humanitarian problems in Burma, Oppression Of Civil Society, SPDC Society, Armed Conflict, Human Rights Violations, Killings, Forced Labour, Rape, Food Security, Forced Relocation & Dislocation, Economic Mismanagement, The Way Forward; ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT AID: Building Civil Society And Pluralism, Gongos, Independence Of Ingos, Reducing Conflict, Assistance To The Most Needy, Strengthening State Capacity For Responsibility, Lack Of Expertise, Aid Cannot Wait, Witnessing Human Rights, Corruption, Complementary Work, Bums-On-Seats; �THE RIGHT WAY�: Transparency, Accountability, Monitoring, The Role Of Aid Agencies, Donors and The International Community; CHRONOLOGY; APPENDIX 1: NGOS & DONORS IN BURMA: International Ngos In Burma, Donors, Donor/Government Policies, Multilateral Organisations, Corporate; APPENDIX II: POLITICAL & NATIONAL RECONCILIATION by Dr. Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe; APPENDIX III: Myanmar: a silent humanitarian crisis in the making; APPENDIX IV: DCI � SPDC�s newest weapon; BIBLIOGRAPHY; RESOURCES FROM ALTSEAN-BURMA.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
      Format/size: html (928); Word (394K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/peaceofpie.doc
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Who is Aiding Who?
      Date of publication: August 2002
      Description/subject: Who�s Aiding Who? After meeting with visiting Japanese foreign minister Yoriko Kawaguchi in Rangoon this past August, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi softened her stance by announcing that she now welcomes foreign aid.
      Author/creator: Editorial
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 6, July-August 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis
      Date of publication: 02 April 2002
      Description/subject: "HIV prevalence is rising rapidly in Burma/Myanmar, fuelled by population mobility, poverty and frustration that breeds risky sexual activity and drug-taking. Already, one in 50 adults are estimated to be infected, and infection rates in sub-populations with especially risky behaviour (such as drug users and sex workers) are among the highest in Asia. Because of the long lag time between HIV infection and death, the true impact of the epidemic is just beginning to be felt. Households are losing breadwinners, children are losing parents, and some of the hardest-hit communities, particularly some fishing villages with very high losses from HIV/AIDS, are losing hope. Worse is to come, but how much worse depends on the decisions that Myanmar and the international community take in the coming months and years... Myanmar stands perilously close to an unstoppable epidemic. However large scale action targeted at helping those most at risk protect themselves could still make a real difference. Action on the scale necessary will inevitably involve working through government institutions, possibly in partnership with NGOs. The international community, and bilateral donors in particular, should look for ways to channel resources to Myanmar in ways that encourage political commitment and capitalise on the emerging willingness to confront the HIV epidemic..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
      Format/size: pdf (125K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: The Politics of Humanitarian Aid
      Date of publication: 02 April 2002
      Description/subject: "Myanmar's military government has long been treated as a pariah with which most Western governments, non-governmental organisations and human rights groups have maintained minimal contact. The country's humanitarian crisis and the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS are now so serious, however, that a significant increase in international assistance is needed. Widespread concern that such re-engagement in Myanmar could undermine the quest for political change is misplaced and should not block increased humanitarian aid. International donors, the government and the NLD should recognise that the country's pressing humanitarian problems cannot wait for the slow political process to work itself out..." This well-researched and -argued report challenges international NGOs, international donors, the UN system, the Burmese military, the National League for Democracy and the overseas supporters of the Burmese democracy movement.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N° 32)
      Format/size: pdf (388K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inside INGOs: Aiding or Abetting?
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "INGOs inside Burma are trying to keep a humanitarian crisis at bay. But what can they accomplish with such a controlling and corrupt regime still firmly in place? Burma is facing a dire humanitarian crisis and without the proper assistance the situation is going to get worse before it gets better. The nostrum of increasing international aid is decidedly more complex than it initially seems, especially for the International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) already working in Burma. With the secret talks in Rangoon between Burma’s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi entering their second year, the answer to the question of increasing aid is still not clear..."
      Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Aid Game
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "The Thai-Burma border has become a breeding ground for poorly conceived aid projects, leaving the real needs of refugees and exiles unattended... Relief agencies first began working on the Thai-Burma border in 1984 to support nearly ten thousand ethnic Karens who had fled from persecution by the Burmese army. Four years later, as Burmese activists, politicians and intellectuals began fleeing to Burma’s borders with Thailand and India to escape a brutal crackdown on the nationwide democracy uprising of 1988, the need for emergency assistance increased dramatically. Now, with an ethnic refugee population in Thailand that numbers over 135,000, and another 100 Burmese dissidents also believed to be sheltering in the country, Burma’s displaced persons have become one of the region’s major targets of relief efforts...
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw and John S. Moncrief
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: BURMA: COMPANIES, NGOs AND THE NEW DIPLOMACY
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: "Burma, also known as Myanmar, is an important case study in wider international debates on the politics of sanctions versus constructive engagement, and the role of companies and NGOs in controversial states. Since 1962 Burma has been ruled by a succession of military and quasi-military regimes. All the main political actors, including the armed forces, agree that it should eventually return to some form of democratic rule. The questions are: when and by what route? And how, if at all, can the international community assist? One of the most important features of the Burma debate is the role played by non-state actors – particularly NGOs, but also companies. A loose coalition of advocacy groups has put pressure on Western governments to impose sanctions on Burma, and on companies to withdraw from the country. Petroleum companies, in particular, have been accused of collaborating with an illegitimate regime. But such campaigns raise further questions: what role should advocacy groups play in foreign policy-making? And what are the real responsibilities of international companies in controversial states?..."
      Author/creator: John Bray
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Royal Institute for International Affairs (Briefing Papers, New Series No. 24)
      Format/size: pdf (68 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/11176.html
      Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


      Title: The Aid Debate Rages On
      Date of publication: July 2001
      Description/subject: A letter written by representatives of United Nations agencies in Rangoon has brought the debate over giving aid to Burma back into the international spotlight... "The debate over humanitarian assistance to military-ruled Burma has been around ever since the army seized power after gunning down students and pro-democracy activists over a decade ago. The issue is a very sensitive one. And every time it has surfaced, the international community—United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, labor and human rights groups, as well as the exiled community—remained as divided as ever on the matter. A recent controversial letter calling for more aid, signed by all nine UN representatives in Rangoon, is a case in point. In the letter, the nine UN representatives collectively called on their respective headquarters and the international community for a "dramatic overhaul of the budget allocations" for Burma because the country is "on the brink of a humanitarian crisis". The letter, dated June 30, 2001, and distributed to the agencies’ heads throughout the world, was leaked to the press in early August..."
      Author/creator: Don Pathan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


      Title: Fear and Hope: Displaced Burmese Women in Burma and Thailand
      Date of publication: March 2000
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The impact of decades of military repression on the population of Burma has been devastating. Hundreds of thousands of Burmese have been displaced by the government�s suppression of ethnic insurgencies and of the pro-democracy movement. As government spending has concentrated on military expenditures to maintain its control, the once-vibrant Burmese economy has been virtually destroyed. Funding for health and education is negligible, leaving the population at the mercy of the growing AIDS epidemic, which is itself fueled by the production, trade and intravenous use of heroin, as well as the trafficking of women. The Burmese people, whether displaced by government design or by economic necessity, whether opposed to the military regime or merely trying to survive in a climate of fear, face enormous challenges. Human rights abuses are legion. The government�s strategies of forced labor and relocation destroy communities. Displacement, disruption of social networks and the collapse of the public health systems provide momentum for the spreading AIDS epidemic�which the government has barely begun to acknowledge or address. The broader crisis in health care in general and reproductive health in particular affects women at all levels; maternal mortality is extremely high, family planning is discouraged. The decay�and willful destruction�of the educational system has created an increasingly illiterate population�without the tools necessary to participate in a modern society. The country-wide economic crisis drives the growth of the commercial sex industry, both in Burma and in Thailand. Yet, international pressure for political change is increasing and nongovernmental organizations and some UN agencies manage to work within Burma, quietly challenging the status quo. The delegation met with Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of the National League for Democracy, who is considered by much of the international community as the true representative of the Burmese people. Despite her concerns that humanitarian aid can prop up the SPDC, she was cautiously supportive of direct, transparent assistance in conjunction with unrelenting international condemnation of the military government�s human rights abuses and anti-democratic rule. The delegation concluded that carefully designed humanitarian assistance in Burma can help people without strengthening the military government. And, until democracy is restored in Burma, refugees in Thailand must receive protection from forced repatriation, and be offered opportunities for skills development and education to carry home. On both sides of the border, women�s groups work to respond to the issues facing their communities; they are a critical resource in addressing the critical needs for education, reproductive health and income generation." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Women's Commission on Refugee Women and Children
      Format/size: pdf (182.54 K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Addressing Humanitarian Needs in Burma
      Date of publication: September 1999
      Description/subject: Several articles. Includes discussion on UN activities in Burma, food scarcity, HIV/AIDS and other health issues.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VI No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: NGOs in Burma:"No-Good Outsiders"?
      Date of publication: March 1999
      Description/subject: What can you learn from visiting the office of a foreign non-governmental organization NGO in Rangoon, capital of one of the world's most repressed nations? Not much, unless you happen to catch somebody eating lunch in their garden.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Remedy Temporary Relief
      Date of publication: March 1999
      Description/subject: The issue of giving humanitarian assistance to Burma has recently returned as a subject of discussion in the international media. In fact, the Japanese government has already resumed non-emergency humanitarian assistance to the Burmese regime, and some oil companies operating in the country are also funding development projects to counter criticism of their involvement with the junta. But now, there are some in the United States government who are questioning the wisdom of a ban on aid to Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: "Axe-handles or willing minions?" International NGOs in Burma
      Date of publication: 05 December 1997
      Description/subject: "The issue of how International Non Governmental organisations (INGOs) should approach operating in Burma is a thorny one. This was particularly so in the early 1990s. Many development workers and the expatriate democracy movement felt that an NGO presence would provide the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)[i], with much needed legitimacy. Warnings were sounded: INGOs would fall prey to the SLORC's manipulation, aid would be stolen and sold to profit the government, INGOs would be used in SLORC propaganda and meaningful development would not reach those it was intended for. They would become “willing minions” executing the SLORC’s agendas. INGOs were urged that their priority should be the large refugee populations in neighbouring countries who were the most visible and accessible victims of the SLORC's misrule. Despite the heat of the debate in 1993, some fifteen INGOs have entered Burma and more continue to arrive to explore the environment (and some have subsequently withdraw).[ii] What has their experience been? As Burma approaches its thirty-fifth year of military rule, what are the issues for INGOs wanting to work with Burmese? What possibilities could be explored for facilitating the growth of civil society? What attitude should INGOs adopt towards the democracy movement inside Burma? This paper examines these questions, with a focus on INGO experience, and begins by outlining a theoretical model for understanding the variety of INGOs and how their approach to operating in Burma might be categorised..."... This paper is one of four presented at the conference organised by TNI and the Burma Centrum Nederland on December 4 and 5, 1997 in the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 'Strengthening Civil Society in Burma. Possibilities and Dilemmas for International NGOs'. A book of the same name, containing edited versions of the papers, an introduction and notes on the authors was subsequently published by Silkworm Books, Chiangmai 1999.
      Author/creator: Marc Purcell, Australian Council for Overseas Aid
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Burma Centrum Nederland
      Format/size: html (267K), Word (167K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/purcellpaper.doc
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


      Title: A Void in Myanmar: Civil Society in Burma
      Date of publication: 05 December 1997
      Description/subject: "The term 'civil society' has been prominent in the history of Western intellectual thought for about two hundred years. Its con­notative vicissitudes, its origins and previous political uses from Hegel and Marx and beyond in a sense reflect a microcosm both of poli­ti­­cal and social science theory. For a period reflection on civil society was out of style, an anachronistic concept replaced by more fashionable intellectual formulations. Today, however, the term has once again come back into significance. Here, however, we are not concerned with its history, but rather with its contemporary use, as defined below, as one means to under­stand the dynamics of Burmese politics and society..."... This paper is one of four presented at the conference organised by TNI and the Burma Centrum Nederland on December 4 and 5, 1997 in the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 'Strengthening Civil Society in Burma. Possibilities and Dilemmas for International NGOs'. A book of the same name, containing edited versions of the papers, an introduction and notes on the authors was subsequently published by Silkworm Books, Chiangmai 1999.
      Author/creator: David Steinberg
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Burma Centrum Nederland
      Format/size: html (85K), Word (67K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Steinbergpaper.doc
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: ETHNIC CONFLICT AND THE CHALLENGE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN BURMA
      Date of publication: 05 December 1997
      Description/subject: "...The peaceful and lasting solution to the long-running ethnic conflicts in Burma is, without doubt, one of the most integral challenges facing the country today. Indeed, it can not be separated from the greater challenges of social, political and economic reform in the country at large. Since the seismic events of 1988, Burma has remained deadlocked in its third critical period of political and social transition since independence in 1948. However, despite the surface impasse, the political landscape has not remained static. During the past decade, the evidence of desire for fundamental political change has spread to virtually every sector of society, and, at different stages, this desire for change has been articulated by representatives of all the major political, ethnic, military and social organisations or factions. That Burma, therefore, has entered an era of enormous political volatility and transformation is not in dispute..."... This paper is one of four presented at the conference organised by TNI and the Burma Centrum Nederland on December 4 and 5, 1997 in the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 'Strengthening Civil Society in Burma. Possibilities and Dilemmas for International NGOs'. A book of the same name, containing edited versions of the papers, an introduction and notes on the authors was subsequently published by Silkworm Books, Chiangmai 1999.
      Author/creator: Martin Smith
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Burma Centrum Nederland
      Format/size: html (255K), Word (150K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/smithpaper.doc
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


      Title: No Room to Move : Legal Constraints on Civil Society in Burma
      Date of publication: 05 December 1997
      Description/subject: "The development and maintenance of civil society - that is, free associations of citizens joined together to work for common concerns or implement social, cultural or political initiatives which compliment, as well as compete with the state - depends upon the citizens of any state being able to enjoy fundamental freedoms: freedom of thought, opinion, expression, association and movement. Underscoring and defending these freedoms must be an independent judiciary and the guarantee of the rule of law. In Burma today, none of these conditions exist. There is no freedom of the press in Burma: government censorship is heavy-handed and pervasive. While the opening up of the economy since 1988 had lead to a proliferation of private magazines and access to affordable video and satellite equipment has also resulted in a massive expansion of small scale video companies and TV/Videos parlours around the country, the organs of state censorship have kept pace with these developments, and virtually every sentence and every image which is produced by the indigenous media has to passed by the government's censorship board, and all non-local media are also carefully monitored and controlled. The Burmese services of the BBC, VOA and the Oslo-based Democratic Voice of Burma are often jammed; CNN and World Service broadcasts which include issues sensitive to the government mysteriously loose sound. New laws have been promulgated to restrict access to the internet, and it has been reported that the government has also purchased technology from Israel which can monitor and censor e-mail messages, and other equipment from Singapore to monitor satellite phones...".... This paper is one of four presented at the conference organised by TNI and the Burma Centrum Nederland on December 4 and 5, 1997 in the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 'Strengthening Civil Society in Burma. Possibilities and Dilemmas for International NGOs'. A book of the same name, containing edited versions of the papers, an introduction and notes on the authors was subsequently published by Silkworm Books, Chiangmai 1999.
      Author/creator: Zunetta Liddell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Burma Centrum Nederland
      Format/size: html (90K), Word (71K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/liddellpaper.doc
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


      Title: Caveats, Cautions and Stringent Conditions
      Date of publication: August 1995
      Description/subject: (On the suggestion that NGOs should go into Burma) "SLORC's shift into longer-term planning has not changed its basic military logic. The military no doubt hopes that NGO involvement in Burma will further its Low-Intensity Conflict strategy, whose final goal is control over all the "liberated areas" currently administered by the non-burman ethnic groups. Hard collective bargaining with SLORC and insistence on specific conditions will reduce this danger... NGOs should not go into Burma at this time. If they do decide to go in, however, they should negotiate collectively with SLORC, and stick to firm guidelines as suggested in this memo..." Burma Peace Foundation April 1994/August 1995
      Author/creator: David Arnott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Peace Foundation
      Format/size: html (78K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Humanitarian assistance to Burma -- contact lists and mixed content

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Contact Lists of Humanitarian Partners in MYANMAR (and other Myanmar lists)
      Date of publication: 25 July 2014
      Description/subject: Excel file listing individual offices of organisations involved in humanitarian work in Burma/Myanmar. Some organisations have several offices (total 733). The organizations are categorised as: national NGOs (about 180), international NGOs/CBOs (88), embassies (15), international organisations, (2 - World Bank and IOM), UN (21), donors (12), Red Cross/Red Crescent (1), [research] institutions (1), companies (1), local companbies (2) and faith-based organisations (1)...The list has the Organization Name, Acronym, Organization Type, Sector Head/Field office, State/Region "Location (Town / Village) in which office is located", Address, Telephone, Fax, email, website...Myanmar Government departments are not listed here...The referring page lists office locations by State, Region & Township and UN offices on a map.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: Excel (1.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/contacts
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2014


      Title: 3W ‐ Organisations' Names and Acronyms as at 22 March 2012
      Date of publication: 22 March 2012
      Description/subject: [3W is short for Who does What Where] ...Lists 150 entities -- international and national NGOs, CBOs, embassies, Myanmar Government departments, Red Cross and other -- doing humanitarian (and other?) work in Myanmar...Compare this list with the Excel sheet which lists 733 entities (without Govt. departments)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: pdf (69K)
      Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


      Title: Burma Humanitarian Watch
      Description/subject: Focus on health and development issues...Mainly focussed on Cyclone Nargis. Not updated since 2010. Some useful links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Humanitarian Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: Network Myanmar's Aid, Relief and R2P page
      Description/subject: More than 100 useful items. Mixed source and content -- media, bilateral, multilateral...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2011


      Title: ReliefWeb Myanmar page
      Description/subject: Timely reports on the humanitarian situation in Myanmar - from UN, Government and media sources.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


    • Humanitarian assistance - emergencies

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: MIMU - Rakhine emergency page
      Date of publication: 01 August 2012
      Description/subject: Maps (General Rakhine Maps; IDP Location Map; Population Maps; Town Maps)... Sittwe, Maungdaw, Buthidaung Area Maps; OCHA Situation Reports (go to Reliefweb if the latest report is not on this page); Contact List; Initial Rapid Assessment Forms; Guidelines for Completion of the Rapid Needs Assessment; 3W (Who, What, Where); Data and Pcodes; GPS Usage
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: html. pdf, zip, Excel
      Date of entry/update: 01 August 2012


      Title: ReliefWeb Myanmar page
      Description/subject: Timely reports on the humanitarian situation in Myanmar - from UN, Government and media sources.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: MIMU - Kachin emergency page
      Description/subject: Maps; Baseline Data; Pcodes; Population; 3W (Who, What, Where)...See the Alternate link for UNOCHA Kachin situation reports -- only to 12 March but there are other reports there.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: html, pdf, zip,
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2873&lo=d&sl=0
      Date of entry/update: 01 August 2012


    • Bilateral humanitarian assistance

      • British humanitarian assistance

        Individual Documents

        Title: Mark My Words
        Date of publication: February 2009
        Description/subject: "British ambassador to Burma, Mark Canning, talks to The Irrawaddy about the role of the UN and Asean in Burma, the Cyclone Nargis relief effort and his expectations for the election in 2010..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


        Title: Tenth Report of the Select Committee on International Development
        Date of publication: 18 July 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: "One of the most shocking aspects of Burma's political and humanitarian crisis is the forced displacement of its own people. This crisis-stricken country, which suffers from immense poverty and pernicious human rights abuses, receives the lowest aid of all Least Developed Countries. We believe that this level of assistance is unacceptable and that international donors must find ways to increase funding to the growing numbers of very vulnerable people. In particular we believe that UK aid to Burma should be scaled up substantially, in addition to the existing planned increases in funding, given the UK's prominence in this area. Funding aid work in Burma is fraught with difficulties, but aid can be effectively targeted and implemented, and constraints addressed, if there is sufficient commitment by donors. DFID has quadrupled its budget for Burma over the last six years, from £2.3 million to £8.8 million, and should quadruple its overall aid budget to Burma again by 2013. As one of only four donors with a staffed office in Burma, DFID is in a leading position to assist Burmese Internally Displaced People (IDPs) and refugees. DFID's support to community-based organisations is particularly important in developing locally 'owned' responses to displacement, and this should be increased. The UK's expansion of aid for Burma should include specific funding for cross-border assistance. Whilst providing aid in this way is far from ideal in terms of neutrality or safety, it is the only way to reach very vulnerable IDPs located throughout Burma's conflict border zones, including those areas that border Thailand. DFID's plans fully to relocate management of its Burma programme from Bangkok to Rangoon will impair its work. We believe that, in order to work independently of the Burmese regime, to fulfil a co-ordination role, to support non-governmental organisations (NGOs) based in Thailand and to engage with cross-border and refugee assistance on the Thai-Burma border, at least two senior, full-time members of DFID staff should be retained within the Bangkok Embassy. An urgent priority is assessing where IDP needs are most critical. DFID needs to support the UN in carrying out a mapping exercise of gaps in the aid provided to IDPs. It should communicate better about its own programmes of support, and promote information-sharing and the development of robust co-ordination mechanisms. DFID must be a more visible presence at the Thai-Burma border and must engage far more with refugees' needs. The UK Government should step up negotiations with the Royal Thai Government (RTG) on education and employment opportunities for refugees, and with the RTG and third countries on resettlement policies."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: (UK) Select Committee on International Development
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 06 July 2008


      • European Union humanitarian assistance

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents
        Description/subject: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents... Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process - Challenges and Opportunities... Brussels, Tuesday 5th April 2005... Most of the papers and reports focus on the "Independent Report" written for the conference by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen. They range from macroeconomic critique to historical and procedural comment.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: European Commission
        Format/size: html, Word
        Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


        Individual Documents

        Title: Europe Plans More Engagement in Burma
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: "Sanctions will stay, but aid programs win support... Differences between the European Union and Asian governments over how best to deal with Burma’s military junta may soon be a distant memory. As Asean gets tougher with Burma’s generals, the EU is taking another look at its long-standing policy of isolating Rangoon. Demonstrators protest against the Burma Day meeting EU sanctions against the military rulers will stay in place. But the 25 nation bloc is also working on an unprecedented aid strategy for Burma, including funding for health, education and poverty alleviation projects. The EU’s determination to provide assistance for Burma’s long-suffering population was highlighted at a “Burma Day” meeting organized in Brussels by the European Commission in early April..."
        Author/creator: Shada Islam
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 13, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2005


        Title: The Brussels Follies
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: "The European Commission raises eyebrows by commissioning two “Burma experts,” known for their military regime sympathy, to write a report for a Brussels meeting. European officials had to do a lot of not-so-nifty diplomatic footwork to explain a meeting in Brussels called “Burma Day 2005 (page 15).” It was an exercise in damage control in the face of a chorus of complaints by pro-democracy and human rights activists with other critics, who effectively thought it was more a Day of Shame. The meeting centered on a European Commission-commissioned report authored by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen, dubbed by the critics as Burmese regime apologists. The affair was supposed to dwell on humanitarian aid to Burma which, said EU officials, was why Taylor and Pedersen had been chosen to write the report, and why only “in-the-field” aid experts had been invited. Nonsense, retorted the uninvited critics: Taylor and Pedersen could in no way be described as aid experts, and nor could some of the other guests..."
        Author/creator: Bruce Kent
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2005


        Title: European Union gives $2.2m for aid projects
        Date of publication: 07 October 2001
        Description/subject: "The European Union has allocated more than US$2 million to Myanmar for health care and other projects which will benefit about half a million people. The donation of two-million euros (about $2.2 million) will be channelled through the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO) to non-government organisations in Myanmar during the next 12 months. It brings to more than $6 million the amount allocated by the EU to aid projects in Myanmar since 1996. The EU announced the latest allocation in a statement issued on September 21..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times", Volume 5, No.83, October 1 - 7, 2001
        Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    • UN System humanitarian assistance
      Most of the UNDP/UNOPS activities in Burma are described as "human development" projects. "Human Development" appears to be somewhere in between economic development and humanitarian assistance. Comments welcome.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Mapping Humanitarian Reach in South East Burma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 31 July 2012
      Description/subject: "To strengthen inter-agency coordination, TBBC and the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) have mapped organisational reach in South East Burma/Myanmar for the education, health care and livelihoods support sectors. Information collected by MIMU from agencies registered with the Government of the Union of Myanmar has been combined with information collected by TBBC from border-based agencies recognised by non-state armed groups. The result is a comprehensive mapping of organisational reach with input from 32 agencies funded through Rangoon/Yangon and 27 agencies funded along the border. However, due to protection and visibility concerns, the data does not include all relevant agencies. The maps highlight how aid agencies based along the border complement the efforts of agencies based in Rangoon/Yangon in responding to humanitarian needs. Given the scale of vulnerabilities and limited funding, the agencies active in each sector have been disaggregated to the township-level to facilitate information sharing and to promote a more coordinated response. While the border based responses are predominately managed by community-based organisations, the maps reflect how initiatives from Rangoon/Yangon are generally led by United Nations’ agencies and international non-governmental organisations. As the peace process evolves and opportunities to expand humanitarian access into conflict-affected areas increase, the challenge will be to ensure that international agencies build on the local capacities of these community-managed approaches."...6 MAPS -- 2 FOR EDUCATION (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE), 2 FOR HEALTH CARE (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE) AND 2 FOR LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE). THE MAPS ARE ABOUT 1.8MB EACH.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: TBBC, MIMU
      Format/size: pdf (about 1.8MB each)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-education-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-education-comparative.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-health-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-health-comparative.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-livelihoods-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-livelihoods-comparative.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


      Title: MIMU maps of Burma/Myanmar and lists of NGOs/agencies
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: These maps, profiles and lists cover the area affected by Cyclone Nargis as well as other parts of the country. The categories are: Affected Area Maps; Assessment Area Maps; Hazard Area Maps; Organizations Maps; Population Area Maps; Planning Maps; Snapshots Maps; Township Profiles Maps; Who, What, Where Maps & Reports.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2009


      Title: Reliefweb
      Description/subject: Projects and reports by various agencies, NGOs, governments etc...mostly dealing with Nargis and post-Nargis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2010


      Title: UN Offices in Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOPS
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: MYANMAR: Carving out humanitarian space post-Nargis
      Date of publication: 24 May 2010
      Description/subject: Two years after the destruction caused by Cyclone Nargis created a rare opening for foreign assistance into Myanmar, aid workers say they still face numerous operating challenges.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


      Title: Human Development Initiative 2010 (UNDP Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 2010
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTRE - MDG 1: Organized Initiatives for the most Vulnerable; Self-Reliance Groups in Action; Mentoring for Success; Community Leading Development... FINANCING RURAL DEVELOPMENT: Boosting Rural Finance; From Disaster, to a Hopeful Future; Every One Count... SOWING THE SEEDS OF LIVELIHOODS: Uniting Efforts for the Poores; Advancing Recovery; Rebuilding Livelihoods... REDUCING THE IMPACT OF DISASTERS: Preparation, Preparedness, and Response; Safe Shelter; Northern Rakhine State Flooding and Landslides; Cyclone Giri... ENSURING EQUALITY: Engendering Development; United against Discrimination; Living lives with Dignity; Youth Action... FOCUSING INTERVENTIONS: Sustainable Future; Healthy Lives; Education for All... UNITED PARTNERSHIPS... THE ROAD AHEAD... FINANCIAL BREAKDOWN BY PROJECT... FINANCIAL DETAILS.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
      Format/size: pdf (4.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 April 2012


      Title: Carving out humanitarian space
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displaced people work within an extremely constricted operational environment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carving out sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needs remains an uphill struggle.
      Author/creator: Jean-François Durieux and Sivanka Dhanapala
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 768K; Burmese, 580K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/13-15.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: Humanitarian aid to IDPs in Burma: activities and debates
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: Conclusion: Agencies working outside Burma, especially opposition groups in exile and their support and lobbying networks, should be encouraged to gain a better understanding of the important assistance and protection work undertaken – despite government restrictions – by local civil society actors in Burma. Organisations working from inside Burma cannot afford to be as bold in their advocacy roles as those based in Thailand and overseas. However, the presence of local and international agency personnel in conflict-affected areas can help to create the ‘humanitarian space’ in which to engage in behind-thescenes advocacy with national, state and local authorities.
      Author/creator: Ashley South
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 253K; Burmese, 127K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/17-18.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: Responses to eastern Burma’s chronic emergency
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: Humanitarian agencies and community-based organisations are working in partnership to assist remote communities in the most contested areas of eastern Burma...Humanitarian responses to this chronic emergency have come both from agencies based inside Burma and from agencies based in neighbouring countries and working discreetly across national borders. Government restrictions on programmes and travel by international staff in remote areas were formalised in a set of guidelines for humanitarian agencies in 2006. These government regulations have particularly restricted agencies that prioritise the field presence of expatriate staff as a protection strategy.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: The Thailand Burma Border Consortium via "Forced Migration Review" No. 30"
      Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 286K; English, 414K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/20-21.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


      Title: Search results for "Myanmar" on the ICRC site
      Date of publication: 29 June 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: UNDP Executive Board: Report on the second regular session 2001 (10-14 September 2001, New York)
      Date of publication: 08 February 2002
      Description/subject: First regular session 2002. 28 January - 8 February 2002, New York. Item 1 of the provisional agenda. Organizational matters. Including: Note by the Administrator on future assistance to Myanmar. 77. The Resident Representative introduced the note by the Administrator on UNDP continued assistance to Myanmar (DP/2001/27)... General comments on the note by the Administrator: 80. Seven delegations commended the high quality of the note and thanked the Resident Representative for a clear and informative presentation and the excellent work in Myanmar... :UNDP response 85. The Resident Representative thanked delegations for their positive comments and guidance... 90. The Executive Board adopted the following decision: 2001/15, Assistance to Myanmar The Executive Board 1. Takes note of the proposals presented in chapter III of document DP/2001/27 for future assistance to Myanmar; 2. Approves continued funding of UNDP project activities for Myanmar from target for resource assignment from the core funding (approximately $22 million) in the sectors previously outlined in Governing Council decision 93/21, and confirmed in Executive Board decisions 96/1 and 98/14 for the three-year programme-planning period (January 2002 to December 2004); 3. Authorizes the Administrator to approve, on a project-by-project basis, HDI project extensions up to $50 million in the event that additional funding becomes available from non-core resources as mentioned in chapter IV of document DP/2001/27; 4. Also authorizes the Administrator to mobilize non-core resources in order to supplement limited core resources for HDI activities proposed for the programme-planning period (2002-2004) to be implemented in accordance with the guidelines set out in Governing Council decision 93/21 and Executive Board decisions 96/1 and 98/14. 14 September 2001
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Executive Board, UNDP and UNPF
      Format/size: pdf (215K), Doc (182K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.undp.org/execbrd/word/dp02-1.DOC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Future Assistance to Myanmar: DP/2001/27
      Date of publication: 14 September 2001
      Description/subject: Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund Distr.: General 11 July 2001 Original: English Second regular session 2001. 10-14 September 2001, New York. Item 5 of the provisional agenda. Country cooperation frameworks and related matters. Future assistance to Myanmar. Note by the Administrator. Summary: The current phase of UNDP assistance to Myanmar is expected to be concluded at the end of 2001 in line with Executive Board decision 98/14. The present report is submitted in pursuance of decision 2001/7, in which the Board requested the Administrator, taking into account the findings of the independent assessment mission to Myanmar, to submit at the earliest possible date, a proposal for continued UNDP assistance to Myanmar in accordance with the guidelines provided in Governing Council decision 93/21 and Executive Board decisions 96/1 and 98/14. The attention of the Board is drawn in particular to chapter III, which provides an outline of proposals for Board action in relation to future assistance to Myanmar.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Executive Board of UNDP and UNPF
      Format/size: pdf (45K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.undp.org/execbrd/word/dp01-27.doc
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Community Development for Remote Townships
      Description/subject: A HDI project administered by UNOPS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOPS
      Format/size: PDF (1791K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Micro-Credit Project
      Description/subject: "...Sustainable Livelihoods through Micro-Credit for the Poorest is one of 10 projects under the United Nations Development Programme's multisectoral Human Development Initiative Extension (HDIE) programme in Myanmar. It provides credit and assistance in building small businesses to people in 11 of the poorest townships in Myanmar: three in the Delta (Ayeyarwady Division), five in Shan State, and three in the Dry Zone of central Myanmar. The Micro-Credit project targets especially those who would not normally qualify for credit through the banking system: women, the landless, and other marginalized groups. Experience elsewhere has shown that with the right types of support, these people are excellent credit risks; repayment rates often approach 100%. Overall, it is hoped to benefit about 30,000 of the poorest households (200,000 people) in the 11 townships..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOPS
      Format/size: pdf (122K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Shan State Food Security Project
      Description/subject: The Shan Plateau in eastern Myanmar is an extensive, mountainous upland ranging from 1000 to 2300 m in height. The area is undulating; areas that have been stripped of their natural forest are subject to severe erosion. The area covers the watersheds of four of Myanmar's most important reservoirs: Kinda, Inle, Paung Laung and Zawgyi. Erosion from the uplands threatens to clog these reservoirs with silt, endangering much of the country's hydropower production and irrigation water supplies for the lowlands. The main staple crop is rice, but many other crops are also grown, including wheat, maize, chili, cotton, potatoes, groundnuts, sesame, pulses, tea, tobacco and cabbages. The rainy season lasts from mid-April to mid- November. Farmers in Shan State face numerous problems. The soils are generally infertile, and crop and livestock yields are low. The area's isolation and lack of infrastructure make it difficult for farmers to sell any surplus produce at a profit. Landholdings are small, and population growth forces farmers to overexploit the natural resources: cutting more trees for fuelwood and clearing land on steep slopes for cultivation. This environmental degradation further reduces yields, reinforcing a vicious cycle of poverty.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
      Format/size: PDF (2243K) Excruciatingly long download for a short document
      Alternate URLs: http://www.mamud.com/
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: The Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOPS
      Format/size: PDF (2216K) Excruciatingly long download for a short document
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unops.org/english/whatwedo/Locations/AsiaPacific/Myanmar-Operations-Centre/Pages/Myanmar...
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Water treatment Projects
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOPS
      Format/size: pdf (532.27 K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unops.org/english/whatwedo/focus-areas/physical-infrastructure/experience-capacity/Pages...
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    • International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) present in Burma

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: MIMU maps of Burma/Myanmar and lists of NGOs/agencies
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: These maps, profiles and lists cover the area affected by Cyclone Nargis as well as other parts of the country. The categories are: Affected Area Maps; Assessment Area Maps; Hazard Area Maps; Organizations Maps; Population Area Maps; Planning Maps; Snapshots Maps; Township Profiles Maps; Who, What, Where Maps & Reports.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2009


      Title: Action Against Hunger/Action Contre la Faim
      Description/subject: Area(s) of Work Nutrition: * 2 Therapeutic Feeding Centers * 13 Supplementary Feeding Centers * Assessment and monitoring of nutrition and health conditions * Support in the promotion of nutrition practices Food Security: * Income-generating activities * Distribution of seeds and farming tools * Monitoring and analysis of the alimentary situation and its context Water & Sanitation: * Creation of water management committees * Construction of familiar and public (at schools) latrines * Creation of 16 water points * Hygiene training
      Language: English, Francais
      Source/publisher: ACF
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Australia Burma Community Development Network (ABCD)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Australia Burma Community Development Network
      Alternate URLs: http://www.abcdnetwork.org.au/AboutUs.htm
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Burmese Relief Center-USA
      Description/subject: 2128 Missouri Avenue, Flint, MI 48506-3797, U.S.A. Tel (+1-810) 341 6960 Fax (+1-810) 341 6989 Email burmese@brelief.net "BRC-USA provides encouragement and material support for pro-democracy activists and the hundreds of thousands of displaced civilians made homeless by the military junta's brutal campaigns of ethnic cleansing. BRC-USA seeks to combine consciousness raising with effective action to promote human rights and to raise funds for humanitarian assistance".
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CARE Myanmar
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar. "CARE has worked in Myanmar since 1995 with CARE Australia as the lead member. All of CARE's activities in Myanmar aim to directly involve the poorer sections of the community. The initial focus for activities has been on the health sector, especially HIV/AIDS. Other projects currently include community forestry in Rakhine and help for street children in Yangon." Projects (descriptions not available): HIV/AIDS Project (Mandalay, Monywa, Lashio, Muse); Rakhine Community Forestry Project; YMCA Childsafe Project for Street Children in Yangon.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Christian Aid in Burma_Burma cyclone
      Description/subject: In May 2008, Cyclone Nargis hit Burma’s Irrawaddy delta killing an estimated 140,000 people and severely affecting 2.4 million more. Thanks to your support, Christian Aid raised £3.4 million in response to the emergency and has been able to help nearly 200,000 people rebuild their lives.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Community Partners International
      Description/subject: A merger of Foundation for the People of Burma and GHAP (Global Health Access Program).....Our Mission: "We work with local partners to improve health and education through community-driven development led by and for the people of Burma/Myanmar. Partnership with local community-based organizations (CBOs) in Burma and along its borders is the core of our work. Together with local partners, we listen to local voices, build local capacity and support basic needs. Our long-term relationships develop the trust and experience vital to positive lasting change, and our extensive network encompasses diverse ethnicities, religions and languages. We believe in community driven development. We provide resources and technical support tailored to specific needs in villages, slums, migrant worker enclaves and refugee encampments, and our projects include an array of health and education initiatives. In addition to improving quality of life at home, many of our partners generate scientifically rigorous documentation to inform and influence public health and education policy globally and locally. No matter what the project, we focus on building the capacity of community leaders to assess their own needs and resources; manage, monitor and evaluate their own projects; and seek and exchange skills and resources with others. We believe this model promotes independence, strengthens communities from within and provides a unique local-global platform to develop long-term civil society in Burma.... HEALTH: We believe that healthy families build strong communities. Our support of community-based public health and clinical care in Burma and along its borders reaches more than one million people — many of them displaced and living in unstable conflict-affected zones with no other health care available. We focus on evidence-based public health and clinical care initiatives through innovative training and partnership with local health clinics, backpack medics and village-based health workers. Using a train-the-trainers model, we have partnered with more than 60 community-based organizations on malaria, tuberculosis, filariasis (elephantiasis), reproductive health, trauma care, health systems strengthening, childhood immunizations and child nutrition in a country where 1 in 3 children are malnourished. Through our health branch, the Global Health Access Program, we provide training, technical support and resources to help our partners implement a broad array of initiatives, including clean births and emergency obstetric care for mothers living in remote villages; malaria screening, treatment and prevention for villagers living in a country with the highest number of malaria deaths in Southeast Asia; trauma management in a country with one of the highest number of landmine injuries and deaths in the world; Vitamin A distribution to prevent blindness and help children survive and thrive; health systems strengthening to improve community-based infrastructure and assessment of health needs and services. EDUCATION Education goes far beyond the classroom for millions from Burma who are vulnerable because they’re illiterate, uprooted, marginalized and poor. Two-thirds of children in our project areas drop out of primary and middle school because books and fees are beyond their reach. Teenagers in places like remote Shan State have few options for their future because their villages don’t have high schools. With solid skills, people have a chance to find jobs, feed families, avoid abuse and rebuild communities. That’s why we invest in education, partnering with 62 local organizations to support more than 1,200 schools, 5,200 teachers and classrooms for more than 115,600 students. In remote villages and peri-urban slums, we support community-led programs that take children off the streets; counsel and retrain trafficked women and girls; train ethnic-minority villagers to farm organically and leverage group savings; teach migrant workers to calculate wages and advocate for rights; train leaders to assess and respond to community needs. Starting with preschools, our education outreach continues through primary school, middle school, high school, post-high school and includes an array of vocational and skills training opportunities for adults—including many who’ve never had formal schooling. We believe education is the cornerstone of civil society. In conflict and natural disaster zones, our local partners’ extensive network of schools offer uprooted villagers stability, hope and a chance to regroup."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Community Partners International
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 November 2011


      Title: Francois Xavier Bagnoud (FXB)_Myanmar page
      Description/subject: Works on HIV/AIDS and rehabilitation of Burmese sex workers. FXB's social and professional capacity-building program in Myanmar was launched in 1993 to reinforce the capacities of young women forced into commercial sex work and infected with AIDS. FXB aimed at enabling victims of human trafficking to regain a well-balanced and dignified life, and ultimately, become self-sufficient. The scope of the program has then widened to include street children, children infected and/or affected by HIV and AIDS, and AIDS orphans. Providing basic education and vocational training, FXB helps young people develop their skills and their economic status.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Association Francois Xavier Bagnoud
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fxb.org/fxb-action-myanmar.aspx?sflang=en
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Language: English
      Format/size: Search for Myanmar
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: International Federation of the Red Cross/Myanmar Red Cross
      Description/subject: Appeals, flood reports, Country Assistance Strategy, profile of Myanmar Red Cross.
      Language: English
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ifrc.org/where/
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Karen Emergency Relief Fund
      Description/subject: "The purpose of the Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is to provide humanitarian assistance, including food, shelter, medical and health supplies, and to provide educational and self-help projects for the Karen people. The Relief Fund recognizes that the Karens are an indigenous, ethnic minority group of about 11 million people who have lived in the mountainous region along the border of Burma and Thailand for many centuries. Due to the ongoing strife in Burma, it is estimated that there are more than 300,000 displaced Karens who have fled into the jungle and are living in huts and makeshift camps in the border area. Those who have escaped into Thailand have not been given official refugee status, consequently they receive no direct assistance from the United Nations or from the Red Cross. Alongside impoverished Karen organizations the Karen Emergency Relief Fund maintains an office in Mae Sot, Thailand. In 2000 K.E.R.F established a therapy program for the victims of rape and torture which is directed by a skilled and innovative psychotherapist. No other agency was addressing the consequences of these widespread and vicious crimes. The Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is recognized by the IRS as a non-profit, tax deductible organization, and has no paid employees. All funds raised are distributed to the Karens or to organizations acting on their behalf. The Board of Directors of the Karen Emergency Relief Fund Inc. is comprised of physicians, clergypersons and business professionals from Connecticut, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The organization was created on July 20, 1997. "
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Emergency Relief Fund
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Medecins du Monde
      Description/subject: MdM has been in Shan and Kachin States since 1991, working mainly on HIV/AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases (education and prevention) with vulnerable groups (sex workers and intravenous drug users). In 1994, it extended its programmes to the general population, and from 1996 began programmes with vulnerable groups in Rangoon.
      Language: Francais
      Format/size: Francais. Cliquer sur "Etranger" puis Birmanie
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
      Language: English
      Format/size: Search for Burma OR Myanmar
      Alternate URLs: http://www.msf.org/msfinternational/countries/asia/burma/index.cfm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: NGOs in the Golden Land of Myanmar
      Description/subject: "We are a group of former and current NGO workers from the Golden Land who would like to serve as a bridge between our social organizations and rest of the world. Organizations may differ in their visions and missions, however, the ultimate aim of reducing human sufferring is identical. Thus, we see no reasons why these organizations cannot work synergistically to help people in need of their services."...The site has a list of local and international NGOs working in Burm, a list of UN and donor acencies, and a Red Cross list. It also has lists of: funding sources for NGOs, conferences (mainly health-related), scholarships and internships, links (but not OBL), also a chat room.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NGOs in the Golden Land of Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2007


      Title: PACT "Building capacity worldwide"
      Description/subject: Search pactworld for Myanmar. Operations in Burma since the early '90s.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: People in Need (Gerhard Baumgard Stiftung)
      Description/subject: "A charitable foundation to help people in need... People In Need - Gerhard Baumgard Stiftung - (PIN) is a non-profit, charitable organization to help socially disadvantaged persons to cope with difficult situations in life and improve their livelihood...  Our main focus is to support education, development and training of orphans and poor children and youth in Myanmar (Burma)... Other projects in Myanmar include support for: HIV/AIDS patients; Leprosy villages; Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) as a result of civil war or natural disasters... About us: We are volunteers and we work through local non-governmental and non-profit organizations such as Christian Churches and Buddhist monks, and local charities..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: People in Need
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Title: Population Services International
      Description/subject: PSI/Myanmar was founded in 1995 with an early focus on HIV prevention that expanded into reproductive health and STI treatment. In 2001, PSI/Myanmar added malaria prevention products to its portfolio, which now also includes household water treatment, a pre-packaged diarrhea treatment kit, pneumonia treatment, tuberculosis treatment, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). PSI/Myanmar is based in the former capital of Myanmar and the country’s commercial center, Yangon, with eight project offices nationwide.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Salvation Army (Myanmar Command)
      Description/subject: The work of the Salvation Army commenced in Burma in 1915 under the administration of India. Thirteen years later it became a separate command. Despite restrictions on the entry of officers and lay workers from overseas, Myanmar Salvationists have continued to develop their witness and service in the nation, particularly in Upper Myanmar (Mizo-speaking). In 1994, the Myanmar Region became part of the Singapore, Malaysia and Myanmar Territory. The Region comes under the direction of a Regional Officer. There are four districts under the leadership of District Officers. Two Burmese districts are in Lower Myanmar, with headquarters in Yangon and Mandalay and two Mizo districts are located in Upper Myanmar with headquarters in Kalaymyo and Khampat. There is a School for Officer Training in Yangon which has facilities for training up to 14 future officers of the Salvation Army.
      Language: English
      Alternate URLs: http://www.salvationarmy.org/smm
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: Save the Children Fund, UK
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: World Concern Myanmar
      Description/subject: Many families have been uprooted in Myanmar because of thirty years of war. In their new homes, they have struggled to make a living through slash-and-burn agriculture. But poor harvests, lack of clean water and disease hold them back. In the Northern Shan States, Mon State and Kachin State, World Concern is using a comprehensive approach to help families escape poverty and resist the spread of disease, including HIV/AIDS. We are helping them to: ● Improve water sources ● Develop sustainable farming practices ● Prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases
      Language: English
      Format/size: Myanmar page not accessible, Sept. 2001
      Alternate URLs: http://www.worldconcern.org
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


      Title: World Vision
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: MYANMAR - WHO/WHAT/WHERE: Count of INGOs with Projects Under Implementation
      Date of publication: 10 November 2009
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 22 December 2009


      Title: The ICRC in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 October 2003
      Description/subject: The ICRC began working in Myanmar in 1986 providing physical rehabilitation for mine victims and other disabled people. From 1999 until the end of 2005, ICRC delegates carried out regular visits to detainees in prisons and labour camps but since 2006 the authorities have not permitted the organization to continue this activity according to its standard procedures applied worldwide. In addition, the authorities have imposed restrictions on the ICRC's ability to conduct assistance and protection activities on behalf of vulnerable people living in sensitive border areas. In Shan, Kayin and Mon states, where weakened infrastructure, isolation and the security situation make the population particularly vulnerable, the ICRC meets basic water and sanitation needs in selected villages, helps hospitals provide surgical care to the wounded and has stepped up dialogue with the governmental authorities on the protection of civilians in those sensitive areas.... The ICRC also works to improve coordination with the International Federation in an effort to enhance the effectiveness of the Myanmar Red Cross Society.... OPERATIONAL HIGHLIGHTS:- Between January and May 2003, the ICRC: * completed several water, sanitation and hospital rehabilitation projects, providing proper sanitary facilities and safe drinking water to approximately 10,000 beneficiaries in Shan, Kayin and Mon states * individually visited and registered more than 1,381 people deprived of their freedom * visited 40 places of detention (under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs) and provided assistance..." Contains link to map of ICRC ooperations in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Myanmar : getting closer to the victims
      Date of publication: 08 April 2003
      Description/subject: ICRC Operational update... "The ICRC has steadily expanded its activities in Myanmar, gaining greater access to the victims of conflict. It now has some 220 staff around the country, working from five bases. The ICRC began working in Myanmar in 1986, when it obtained the agreement of the authorities to start up a project to support the work of the National Rehabilitation Hospital in the capital. The aim was to bolster the work already being done by introducing affordable technology for artificial limbs and to upgrade the professional skills of local technicians and physiotherapists..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ICRC
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Myanmar: Appeal 2003-2004 (IFRC)
      Date of publication: 19 December 2002
      Description/subject: Appeal for the Myanmar Red Cross's work in the areas of: 1. Health and Care; 2. Disaster Management; 3. Humanitarian Values; 4. Organizational Development.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
      Format/size: pdf (129K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar - Update on the ICRC activities - February 2002
      Date of publication: 26 February 2002
      Description/subject: Sectors of Work : Protection of assistance to civilians, people deprived of their freedom and wounded & sick. Promotion of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and Red Cross Fundamental Principles (FP). Cooperation with the Federation to support the Myanmar Red Cross Society (MRCS) in tracing, dissemination of IHL and emergency preparedness activities. Year Started in Country : 1986 (orthopaedic program) Total number of staff (International, national combined): 155
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Myanmar - Field Activities in January 2002 (ICRC)
      Date of publication: 22 January 2002
      Description/subject: I. SOUTH-EASTERN REGION (MON AND KAYIN STATES): 1. Introduction; 2. Projects and Activities; 2.1. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Centre; 2.2. Water supply projects; 2.3. Protection of Civilian Population. II. SHAN STATE: 1. Introduction; 2. Projects and Activities; 2.1. Civilian Population and IDPs; 2.2. Health Promotion Pilot Project (HPPP). III. Detention: 1. Restoring Family Links; 2. Some Figures. IV. Orthopaedic Programme: 1. The Joint Programme; 2. Yenanthar Leprosy Hospital.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: The ICRC in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 22 January 2002
      Description/subject: Extract from the ICRC Annual Report 2000: Help for detainees; Assistance for internally displaced people and vulnerable groups; Speading awareness of humanitarian law; Working with Myanmar REd Cross Spociety.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: PDF (238K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: Cornerstones laid for limb-fitting centre
      Date of publication: 18 January 2002
      Description/subject: "A joyful celebration has launched construction of a new limb-production and -fitting centre in Hpa-An, the capital of Karen state, in south-east Myanmar. On January 14, representatives of the ICRC, the Myanmar Red Cross Society, the authorities and Buddhist clerics gathered to lay the cornerstone. The ceremony coincided with the Karen New Year and the ceremony was followed by traditional Karen dances performed by people in colourful local dress..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: Young Japanese travel upcountry to study NGO�s humanitarian activities
      Date of publication: 11 November 2001
      Description/subject: "A study group from Japan visited Myanmar earlier this year to inspect the humanitarian activities of a non-government organisation, AMDA International The 22-member group spent four days at Meiktila, in central Mandalay Division, where the Japanese-based AMDA (Association of Medical Doctors of Asia) has been assisting Myanmar people since 1995 in line with its mission to help underprivileged people in Asia and other parts of the world..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times", Vol. 5. No. 88, 5-11 November 2001.
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


      Title: On the Trail of Burma's Internal Refugees
      Date of publication: June 2001
      Description/subject: An American dentist travels deep into the world of Burma's Internally Displaced Persons, and discovers a people driven by fear into an uncertain future. Armed with a Colt .45, American dentist Shannon Allison is on a dangerous mission of mercy: to bring emergency medical assistance to Internally Displaced Persons inside Burma. Veteran photojournalist Thierry Falise reports from Burma's war-torn jungles on efforts to assist these victims of endemic conflict.
      Author/creator: Thierry Falise
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Cross-border assistance (border-based agencies)
      Increasingly seen as complementary to the INGOs registered with the Government

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Mapping Humanitarian Reach in South East Burma/Myanmar
      Date of publication: 31 July 2012
      Description/subject: "To strengthen inter-agency coordination, TBBC and the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) have mapped organisational reach in South East Burma/Myanmar for the education, health care and livelihoods support sectors. Information collected by MIMU from agencies registered with the Government of the Union of Myanmar has been combined with information collected by TBBC from border-based agencies recognised by non-state armed groups. The result is a comprehensive mapping of organisational reach with input from 32 agencies funded through Rangoon/Yangon and 27 agencies funded along the border. However, due to protection and visibility concerns, the data does not include all relevant agencies. The maps highlight how aid agencies based along the border complement the efforts of agencies based in Rangoon/Yangon in responding to humanitarian needs. Given the scale of vulnerabilities and limited funding, the agencies active in each sector have been disaggregated to the township-level to facilitate information sharing and to promote a more coordinated response. While the border based responses are predominately managed by community-based organisations, the maps reflect how initiatives from Rangoon/Yangon are generally led by United Nations’ agencies and international non-governmental organisations. As the peace process evolves and opportunities to expand humanitarian access into conflict-affected areas increase, the challenge will be to ensure that international agencies build on the local capacities of these community-managed approaches."...6 MAPS -- 2 FOR EDUCATION (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE), 2 FOR HEALTH CARE (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE) AND 2 FOR LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT (BASIC AND COMPARATIVE). THE MAPS ARE ABOUT 1.8MB EACH.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: TBBC, MIMU
      Format/size: pdf (about 1.8MB each)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-education-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-education-comparative.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-health-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-health-comparative.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-livelihoods-basic.pdf
      http://www.tbbc.org/announcements/2012-07-31-news-mimu-south-east-region-livelihoods-comparative.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: DO NO HARM: CROSS-BORDER AND THAILAND BASED ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES, IDPS AND MIGRANTS FROM BURMA/MYANMAR-REPORT ON FINDINGS FROM CONSULTANCY
      Date of publication: 27 April 2012
      Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "Norway has supported cross-border assistance to the Back Pack Health Worker Team since 1998 and Thailand-based humanitarian assistance to the Mae Tao Clinic since 2005. Such support has been consistent with Norway's commitments to advance humanitarian principles in conflict and disasters and to ensure that people in need receive necessary protection and assistance. In 2010, Norway decided to cut cross-border assistance citing accountability concerns and difficulties of monitoring such assistance. In 2012, NCA was informed by MFA of an impending cut in all cross-border and Thailand- based assistance, due to positive political changes in Burma/Myanmar and improved access from Yangon to border areas of Eastern Burma/Myanmar. NCA is concerned about the impact of such a decision. NCA therefore hired a consultant in order to verify the impact of a cut in assistance on access to services for rights holders in border areas and for local peace building efforts, and to assess whether such a cut stands at risk of violating humanitarian principles of Do No Harm. NCA further notes that other concerned parties, most recently the European Parliament, have instead called on the Burmese government to allow cross-border assistance to take place. NCA also has reason to believe that an abrupt cut in assistance to refugees, internally displaced people and migrants at this stage 1 would not be conducive to the ongoing peace making efforts of the Burmese government and ethnic armed groups in the country. Over a period of three weeks in April 2012, the consultant conducted 35 single interviews and/or group interviews with respondents in four locations (four in Bangkok, 18 in Yangon, seven in Mae Sot and six in Chiang Mai). Two additional sources were contacted by email. The respondents belonged to the following categories: (1) Representatives of the UN system in Burma/Myanmar, including the UN Resident Coordinator; (2) Representatives of INGOs working in Burma/Myanmar and/or along the border; (3) Representatives of national and local NGOs in Burma/Myanmar; (4) Representatives of FBOs/CBOS in Burma/Myanmar and along the border; (5) Representatives of ethnic health authorities in border areas; (6) Three medical doctors with experience working with border-based health providers including two doctors from the Thai healthcare system, and (7) One independent evaluator of one border-based health provider. The consultant also attended one meeting of the Coordinating Committee for Stateless and Displaced Persons in Thailand (CCSDPT) and one press conference on the situation in Kachin State organized by Human Rights Watch, both in Bangkok1. This report is a case study focusing primarily on the provision of healthcare services. However, NCA believes that many of the considerations and concerns raised in the report also apply to other service deliveries and that the potential consequences of a cut as described in this report would also apply to other sectors. By seeking to gain better understanding of current dynamics of aid in the political and peace reforms in Burma/Myanmar, NCA hopes this report will contribute to the transition towards peace and reconciliation for local communities in Burma/Myanmar..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Norwegian Church Aid (NCA)
      Format/size: pdf (175K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: Statement on Peace and Development in Burma
      Date of publication: 10 April 2012
      Description/subject: Statement edorsed by 35 humanitarian organisations (Burmese, Shan, Mon, etc.) working on the Burma-Thailand border... "With international donors preparing significantly increased humanitarian and development assistance in order to promote peace in Burma, we are very concerned that cross-border aid to marginalized and vulnerable populations is being limited or cut at this crucial time. Even while the cease-fire process is being carried out with separate ethnic armed groups, fighting is still taking place with the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), resulting in fresh displacement of tens of thousands of people internally and outside the country. Even though some level of agreement has been reached with some ethnic armed groups, human rights violations are continuing in all ethnic areas under the new Army-backed government of U Thein Sein, including land confiscation, forced relocation, forced labour, extortion, and restriction of movement, rape and intimidation..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ethnic Community Development Forum (ECDF) and 34 other groups
      Format/size: pdf (27K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


      Title: The Need for Border-based Aid
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Humanitarian agencies in Rangoon cannot supply aid to eastern Burma. Whether they like it or not, cross-border aid from Thailand must continue... "While Burma’s eastern border region remains embroiled in civil war, it is the rural villagers, especially those suspected of being sympathetic to ethnic insurgents, who bear the brunt of the conflict. Over the past 25 years, tens of thousands of Karen, Mon, Karenni and Shan villagers have fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Many more have remained in eastern Burma, but live in the jungle in temporary camps as internally displaced persons. Their numbers continue to grow every year. Fortunately, there are international agencies, local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based groups in the region that are actively involved in supporting those affected on both sides of the border. They often face unfair criticism from governments and international NGOs that believe humanitarian aid must be channeled through official lines inside Burma, usually through offices in Rangoon. Those agencies assert that being legally entitled to work they can help a greater number of people, including those in the Irrawaddy delta who were affected by Cyclone Nargis last year. Over the past 10 years, we have seen humanitarian aid, emergency relief and resources gradually moving away from the Thai-Burmese border and into Rangoon..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    • GONGOs (Government-Organised "NGOs")

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar Medical Association
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: MMA (GONGO)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association (MMCWA)
      Description/subject: THE SITE SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN OCCUPIED. I WILL CHECK IT FROM TIME TO TIME... The Director is the wife of the Head of Military Intelligence. "The MMCWA is a voluntary organization dedicated to serving the Myanmar society in promoting the health and well being of mothers and children with the aim to improving the quality of life of the people. Health education and dissemination of IEC materials. Provision of ante-natal, intra-natal and post-natal care. Exclusive breast feeding promotion. Birth Spacing counseling and services. Maternal and child immunization. Growth monitoring and health education or nutrition. Supplementary lunch programmes for under five children. Provision of child daycare centers for early childhood development and to enable mother to work. Provision of financial assistance (scholarship) to students to enable them to enroll and remain in school. Functional literacy programmes for children as well as adults. Income-generation programmes with provision of training, loans and supplies. Care of the elderly. Health education programmes for adolescenters and youth. Screening programmes for early detection of breast and uterine cancer. Training programmes for trainers at all levels of MMCWA." Section on Violence Against Women.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: MMCWA (GONGO)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Myanmar National Committee for Women's Affairs
      Description/subject: "The patron of the committee is the Secretary -1 of the State Peace and Development Council, Lt. General Khin Nyunt..." [the Committee] "was formed on 3rd July 1996, to systematically implement activities for the advancement of women. Subsequently, the Myanmar Nationaal Working Committee for Women's Affairs (MNCWA) was formed on 7 October 1996, to facilitate the activities. The government also designated the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement as the National Focal Point for Women's Affairs." Section on Violence Against Women.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SPDC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: USDA website
      Description/subject: THE FRONT PAGE SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN SQUATTED. THE OTHER PAGES LOOK USDESQUE...Fun site:- statements, organisational structure (in Burmese), 3 main national causes, 12 objectives, aims, flag, motto, bouncing bridges and flickering filmstars, events and activities, news articles, shopping guides, sport, astrology, photo gallery, business (mostly foreign), weather forecast, defence of Myanmar etc. Slow site.
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar Red Cross Society
      Description/subject: Home... About Us... How We Help... Media & Publications... Support MRCS... Volunteer... Contact Us... Links... MRCS Staff Email.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Red Cross Society
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/where-we-work/asia-pacific/myanmar-red-cross-society/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • LONGOs (Local NGOs)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Metta Development Foundation
      Description/subject: "Metta is a national NGO assisting communities in Myanmar recover from the impact of decades of civil conflict." Working initially (principally?) in Kachin State.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar Egress
      Description/subject: [Our Mission] Promoting and nurturing democracy through fenovation (sic) of highly intelligent and politically motivated citizenry of the country: Capacity Building & Supplier of change agents... Feeding related policy inputs to the governing body : Think-Tank... Public Opinion Shaping via public media and opinion polls... Promote issues on enviroment that in turn will serve the long-term benefit of the country.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Egress
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 March 2012


      Title: NGOs in the Golden Land of Myanmar
      Description/subject: "We are a group of former and current NGO workers from the Golden Land who would like to serve as a bridge between our social organizations and rest of the world. Organizations may differ in their visions and missions, however, the ultimate aim of reducing human sufferring is identical. Thus, we see no reasons why these organizations cannot work synergistically to help people in need of their services."...The site has a list of local and international NGOs working in Burm, a list of UN and donor acencies, and a Red Cross list. It also has lists of: funding sources for NGOs, conferences (mainly health-related), scholarships and internships, links (but not OBL), also a chat room.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NGOs in the Golden Land of Myanmar
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2007


      Individual Documents

      Title: THE POLITICS OF SILENCE - MYANMAR NGOS’ ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL AGENDA
      Date of publication: October 2011
      Description/subject: "...The emerging Myanmar civil society and NGOs, with few exceptions, still generally display an apolitical appearance. Yet, over time, some aim to help produce capable leaders and strengthen local governance structures, either by engaging with the state or with nonstate actors. The role of the youth has to be highlighted. New active generations, generally not involved in armed struggle, tend to have less resentment than the elders to the state and demonstrate more openness to consensus-building. They could be called upon to play a role in the future political landscape. It remains to be seen if NGOs are actually working in the direction of a power shared system. In spite of the values they promote, NGOs in some ways continue to rely on the current stable and rigid political regime. If political constraints were abruptly removed, their opposition role would be seriously destabilised as they are somehow dependant on the status-quo maintained by the current regime. As much as they are comfortable working around a deficient system, their ability to establish an efficient one today remains to be demonstrated. Nonetheless, in the more likely event of a progressive transition, NGOs might increasingly influence local politics and potentially gain expertise to influence higher levels in the government. Greater coherence among them would be strategic for NGOs to weigh in the new decision making processes. Myanmar NGOs’ creativity and capacity to adapt to challenges doesn’t need to be proven anymore. The latest trend among the NGOs is to federate various actors, generally alien to the NGO sector, who enjoy charisma, visibility and economic influence to get their messages heard. The recent collaborations with Buddhist monks’ networks during the Cyclone Nargis relief operations are also signs of a more mature understanding by NGOs of the need to evolve and to move beyond the traditional ethnic, religious and political lines that have been sustaining the rhetoric of conflict for decades. But will they be able to cement such a diverse society where coercive methods used by the Army for half a century haven’t succeeded?"
      Author/creator: Lois Desaine
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ’Irasec (Carnet de l’Irasec / Occasional Paper n°17)
      Format/size: pdf (
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


      Title: Humanitarian aid to IDPs in Burma: activities and debates
      Date of publication: 22 April 2008
      Description/subject: Conclusion: Agencies working outside Burma, especially opposition groups in exile and their support and lobbying networks, should be encouraged to gain a better understanding of the important assistance and protection work undertaken – despite government restrictions – by local civil society actors in Burma. Organisations working from inside Burma cannot afford to be as bold in their advocacy roles as those based in Thailand and overseas. However, the presence of local and international agency personnel in conflict-affected areas can help to create the ‘humanitarian space’ in which to engage in behind-thescenes advocacy with national, state and local authorities.
      Author/creator: Ashley South
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
      Format/size: pdf (English, 253K; Burmese, 127K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/17-18.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    • Private sector assistance

      Individual Documents

      Title: Private Sector and Humanitarian Relief in Myanmar
      Date of publication: October 2011
      Description/subject: A study of recent practices of business engagement in humanitarian relief to assess the potential, modalities and areas for future cooperation
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Trocaire
      Format/size: pdf (537K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012