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See also Children's Rights in the Human Rights section and search for child* in OBL

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict - Burma/Myanmar page
Date of publication: 01 May 2013
Description/subject: Press Releases, UN reports and actions and other documents and updates from 2003 on children and armed conflict in Myanmar...includes links to Security Council material
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://watchlist.org/
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2015

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar children* (video)
Description/subject: About 661,000 results
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2017

Title: Children/Youth (Category Archive from Burmanet News)
Description/subject: Articles on this category from the collections of Burmanet News
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burmanet News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 February 2016

Title: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers - Burma/Myanmar page
Description/subject: Reports (text and video), international standards.... "Children in Myanmar have been widely used in armed conflict by both state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Despite a minimum age of 18 for military recruitment, over the years many hundreds of boys have been recruited, often forcibly into the national army (Tatmadaw Kyi) and deployed to areas where state forces have been fighting armed opposition groups. Border guard forces, composed of former members of armed opposition groups and formally under the command of the Myanmar military, also have under-18s in their ranks. In June 2012, after protracted negotiations with the UN, the Myanmar government signed up to an action plan under which it has committed to release all under-18s present from Tatmadaw Kyi and border guard forces. Child recruitment and use by armed opposition groups is also reported. These include: the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), Kachin Independence Army (KIA), Karen National Union/Karen National Liberation Army (KNU/KNLA), Karenni National Progressive Party/Karenni Army (KNPP/KA), Shan State Army South (SSA-S), United Wa State Army (UWSA). The KNU/KNLA and KNPP/KA have sought to conclude action plans on child soldiers with the UN, but the UN has been prevented from doing so by the Government of Myanmar. "Our current work in Myanmar aims to: Identify legal, policy and practical measures needed to end child recruitment and use by Tatmadaw Kyi and border guard forces, and to advocate for full and effective implementation of the action plan. Seek tangible progress on armed opposition groups’ compliance with international standards on child soldiers..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.child-soldiers.org/
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2015

Title: Migrant children on the Burma-Thailand border - schools, orphanages
Description/subject: Link to the OBL Migrant section
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012

Title: UNICEF Country Statistics
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: UNICEF Myanmar Page
Description/subject: The most substantial material on the site is in the Media Centre, and includes: a pdf document in Burmese: "Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS"... "The State of the World's Children 2005 - Children under threat" in English, (and in the same box a link to what should be a Burmese version, but since this is 56 pages rather than the 164 of the English, I have doubts)... "Progress For Children A Child Survival Report Card" in English, with The Foreword, Child Survival, and the East Asia and Pacific sections in Burmese... a "Myanmar Reporter's Manual" (65 pages)in English and Burmese versions: "This manual provides instruction on international-standard reporting skills, child-focused reporting and ethics for Myanmar journalists in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child." then there is a glossy, 28-page "UNICEF in Myanmar - Protecting Lives, Nurturing Dreams" in English.....In the For Children and Youth section is an illustrated and simplified aticle-by-article version of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and a couple of illustrated online books for young children and their families in English and Burmese. Under Youth Web Links there English language animations (I suppose) called "Top 10 Cartoons for Children's Rights" but I could not get them to work. Also links to several other UNICEF and UN young people's sites. The "Activities" and "Real Lives" sections deal with UNICEF's activities in the country.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: UNICEF Myanmar pages
Description/subject: News stories, reports.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: United Nations Childrfen's Fund (UNICEF)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2016

Title: UNICEF Myanmar Resources
Description/subject: Has UNICEF reports on Myanmar for the last few years
Language: English and Myanmar
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018

Title: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - Myanmar search
Description/subject: These results are for 2015. Change search options in column on the left...Search for Myanmar. 464 results (November 2001). 819 in May 2005, 1749 in 2015. Images and substantial documents.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2015

Individual Documents

Date of publication: August 2018
Description/subject: FOREWORD: "One year ago this week, a startled international community watched a dramatic humanitarian crisis unfold on the north-eastern edge of the Bay of Bengal. In a matter of weeks, hundreds of thousands of desperate and terrorized people – 60 per cent of them children – poured across the border from Myanmar into Bangladesh, bringing with them accounts of the unspeakable violence and brutality that had forced them to fl ee. Twelve months on, memories of those experiences remain raw among the roughly one million Rohingya refugees – including many from previous cross-border infl uxes – who live in cramped and primitive shelters inside the congested and often insanitary camps of Cox’s Bazar. The unstinting support of local Bangladeshi communities, and a multi-national aid effort led by the Government, has averted the more dire fears for the Rohingyas’ safety and well-being. Disease outbreaks have been largely kept at bay and famine has been averted. Safe water, sanitation, nutrition and other basic services have been installed, even if large gaps remain. For about one third of children up to the age of 14, a network of learning centres and child-friendly spaces offer a chance to begin healing, and a respite from their harsh surroundings. A semblance of normality has descended on the camps and the neighbouring communities, but it’s a normality that cannot last indefi nitely. The refugees live on a knife-edge, gripped by uncertainty about their future, and still traumatized by their experiences in Myanmar. Their homes – many built on precarious hillsides -- risk being washed away by the monsoon rain, or destroyed by a cyclone. A cholera or measles epidemic remains a real possibility. With no end in sight to their bleak exile, despair and hopelessness are growing among the refugees, alongside a fatalism about what the future has in store. Older children and adolescents who are deprived of opportunities to learn or make a living, are at real risk of becoming a “lost generation”, ready prey to traffi ckers and those who would exploit them for political or other ends. This UNICEF Child Alert calls for a concerted effort to build a new foundation for the rights and opportunities of Rohingya children over the longer term. By taking resolute action together, we – the international community as well as the Governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar – can give Rohingya children’s lives a stability and sense of hope that is currently absent. At the same time, we can strengthen the solidarity between Rohingya children and those living in host communities (whose situation is often not much better than that of the refugees). Central to our call is the promise of a quality, multi-lingual education, built around the acquisition of essential life-skills, and competencies in literacy, language and numeracy. Of course, a lasting solution to the plight of the Rohingya requires tackling the root causes of the Rohingya crisis inside Myanmar itself. The refugees cannot and will not agree to return home until the discrimination and violence that they have experienced for decades are ended, until their basic rights -- to citizenship, free movement, health, education, and jobs – have been established, and their property restored. But it is not only in Myanmar that diffi cult choices are needed. As our Call to Action makes clear, Bangladesh and the international community have critical responsibilities to address. This is a crisis that will require a complex, multilayered approach underpinned by long-term fi nancial resources and infrastructural development, and bold political will. Given the untenable situation in which the refugees fi nd themselves, and its implications for both countries, this is a challenge that must be addressed, and rapidly. The Rohingya – and their children especially – demand and deserve nothing less."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (3.26MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2018

Title: UNICEF Annual Report 2016 - Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2017
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The context within which progress is made for children under the programme of cooperation between the Government of Myanmar and UNICEF remains promising overall , yet still challenging. UNICEF continued to provide strong support to the development of national policies and strategies in sector s highly relevant to children – education, health, child protection , social protection , and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) . Implementation of activities was some what delayed and decreased as a new a dministration and a new Parliament came to power. Yet, UNICEF's engagement with multiple actors across the political spectrum since 2012, and with a particular intensity during the 2015 elections, helped preserve the initial investment in policy reforms and systems strengthening in 2016, and helped its work with the new Government . More than 100 children and young people were released from the armed forces, bringing the total to 800 since the signing of the Joint Action Plan in 2012. In targeted townships, the number of children aged 3 – 5 years accessing early childhood facilities reached close to 155,000, an increase of 50 per cent compared wit h 2015. Five hundred newborn health corners were established and investment in cold chain strengthening this year represented 65 per cent of the p ast..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (500K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2017

Title: UNICEF Annual Report 2015 - Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 June 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In 2015, Myanmar wrote new important chapters in its history: the Government and eight ethnic armed groups signed a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA), and successfully held elections that saw a landslide victory for the National League for Democracy. Despite progress, children in Myanmar continue to suffer from higher levels of mortality and malnutrition, lower enrolment and completion of primary education; and higher risks to trafficking, labour, violence and recruitment and use by armed forces, than children in the region. In this year's context, cooperation between Myanmar and UNICEF has been driven by three main considerations: turning policies and plans into changes in children’s lives, as longer-term reforms proceed; responding to humanitarian needs arising from both protracted situations and massive floods and landslides, while further mainstreaming risk reduction into development plans; and placing children at the centre of determining factors for Myanmar’s sustainable development – peace, social cohesion and human rights. The programme delivered direct results. More than 95 per cent of children 9 months to 15 years old were protected from measles and rubella through vaccination campaigns. In targeted townships, the proportion of children 3–5 years old accessing early childhood facilities doubled between 2014 and 2015, and hundreds of thousands of children benefited from child-centred teaching methodologies applied for the first time by more than 14,000 primary school teachers. Approximately 280,000 children in 27 townships benefited from the first-ever deployment of social case management workers. The proportion of children under 5 registered continued to increase, to reach 79 per cent this year. Releases of children and young people from the armed forces have continued, with an additional 146 released, falling one child short of the 700 mark since the signing of the Joint Action Plan in 2012. Under its four-theme advocacy strategy (children affected by armed conflict; children in Rakhine; public finance for children; and the first 1,000 days), UNICEF contributed to building an environment more supportive of child rights. Parties to NCA committed to protect children in armed conflicts, and negotiations are well advanced towards the signing of an Action Plan with two listed major ethnic armed groups; joint interventions in Kachin and the South-East allowed actors across ethnic lines to deliver better health care and nutrition to children; in the election campaign, the Union Electoral Commission, UNICEF and a coalition of Child Rights organizations convinced political parties to prioritize children. Those who did gained most of the votes, making children a clear winner of these elections. Amid inter-communal and religious tensions, the religious leaders of the four main faiths issued joint calls to respect religious diversity. In Rakhine, UNICEF's pioneering approach to reach all children through combined humanitarian assistance, development work, promotion of social cohesion, and advocacy against targeted discrimination is now making consensus among international development partners..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Childrfen's Fund (UNICEF)
Format/size: pdf (373K)
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2016

Title: Ongoing Underage Recruitment and Use by the Myanmar Military and Non - State Armed Groups
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: [Briefing for the UN Secretary General’s Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict - March 2016] "Myanmar’s November 2015 Parliamentary election resulted in a sweeping victory for the National League of Democracy (NLD), generating hopes that the new NLD-led government will bring about a demonstrable improvement in the country’s human rights situation. Child Soldiers International has documented the widespread recruitment and use of children as soldiers in Myanmar for over a decade, and believes that the new government needs to make a renewed commitment to ensure that the Tatmadaw Kyi (Myanmar military) becomes a child-free army. Almost four years since the UN and the Myanmar government signed a Joint Action Plan (JAP) to end the recruitment and use of children in June 2012, children continue to be present in the ranks of the Tatmadaw Kyi as well as non-state armed groups (NSAGs), although recent trends indicate that active recruitment of children by the Tatmadaw kyi appears to have significantly reduced. The Tatmadaw Kyi discharged 146 children in three separate releases in 2015, and a further 46 on 12 March 2016, bringing the total number of children discharged since the signing of the JAP to 745. Due to an absence of comprehensive monitoring, it is not currently possible to determine the number of children present in the ranks of the Border Guard Forces (BGF). However, the BGF discharged one child in 2015, indicating that other children may also remain in the ranks. Nonetheless, children continue to be unlawfully recruited into the Tatmadaw Kyi; 210 cases of “suspected minors” were reported by the Country Task Force for Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) for age verification in 2015. The CTFMR received complaints on these cases through its public phone line, the forced labour complaint mechanism of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and community monitoring initiatives. Ongoing armed conflict in Kachin and Shan states, related insecurity and high levels of attrition have ensured that the Tatmadaw Kyi is under pressure to maintain its troop strength, thereby necessitating ongoing recruitment, including of children. Child Soldiers International also received reports of increased recruitment by NSAGs, including of children, in the backdrop of escalating conflict between the Tatmadaw Kyi and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), Shan State Progressive Party / Shan State Army North, and the Palaung State Liberation Front / Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA); and between joint Myanmar military-Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army South forces and the TNLA since September 2015. This ‘recruitment economy’ has contributed to the creation of a network of informal recruitment agents (civilian brokers), who receive payments for delivering new recruits to the Tatmadaw Kyi. Over the course of 2015, the use of civilian brokers continued to be reported with no movement to clarify the legal avenues to hold civilian brokers accountable. It has also generated pressure on 2 recruiting officers to ignore national legal restrictions of the minimum recruitment age, in a context where adults are unwilling to volunteer and where accountability mechanisms designed to deter underage recruitment have been lax. Despite welcome measures to spread greater awareness about the unlawfulness of underage recruitment, including through the operationalising of a more centralised system for recruitment, children continue to be among those forcibly recruited, and remain easier to trick and more susceptible to pressure to enlist than adults. Where children from economically deprived or troubled backgrounds have volunteered for enlistment, the absence of rigorous enforcement of safeguards has facilitated their recruitment..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Child Soldiers International
Format/size: pdf (218K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.child-soldiers.org/research_report_reader.php?id=875
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2016

Title: Childhoods in Burma/Myanmar and Tibet
Date of publication: 28 October 2015
Author/creator: Karl Dorning, Nicola Yelland
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Studies of Childhood (Sage Publications)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2043610615612944
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2017

Title: UNICEF: Humanitarian Situation Report #8 (as of 24 Sep 2015)
Date of publication: 24 September 2015
Description/subject: Situation Overview: "As sporadic flooding continues in some areas of Myanmar, the number of people termporarily or still displaced since July continues to grow. As of 21 September, nearly 1.7 million people, including over 578,000 children, have been displaced by flooding and landslides across Myanmar. The risk of seasonal flooding will continue through the end of the rainy season in mid-October, with compounded risks of flooding, landslides and strong winds possible during October and November, when cyclones most often hit Myanmar. Supported by UNICEF, the Government of Myanmar is leading the recovery process to ensure short, medium, and long-term support to flood affected areas, including elements of disaster risk reduction and a focus on building back better to ensure that infrastructure is resilient to future hazards. Myanmar is at highest risk for hazards in the Asia-Pacific region, and UNICEF is fully supportive of Government’s emphasis on ensuring that response and recovery programming aims to reduce these risks, especially for the most vulnerable including children, persons with disabilities, and the poor..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF via ReliefWeb
Format/size: pdf (426K)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2015

Title: Children for Hire - a portrait of child labor in Mon areas
Date of publication: November 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The growing domestic and international attention being paid to child labor in Burma, also known as Myanmar, signals a vital step in the country’s reform and development process. The advent of new funding to research the scope of the problem, proposed amendments to labor laws, and popularized documentaries exposing the lives of working children have indicated fresh interest in revealing and reducing the incidence of child labor. However, the catalyst for this report was sparked by observations that these proliferating activities and discussions are often largely restricted to urban areas, particularly regarding the well-known prevalence of Burma’s “teashop boys.” While urban forms of child labor warrant immediate and effective interventions, the ambiguity that shrouds less visible forms of the practice, especially occurring in rural ethnic villages and communities tucked against the country’s vast borderline, necessitates targeted illumination. During several interviews conducted for this report, civil society members and child protection officers described child labor in Burma as vastly under-researched, and said that accurate data from the country’s peripheral areas is almost nonexistent. Almost half of the occurrences of child labor documented for this report were found in agricultural practices, primarily on rubber plantations and betel nut farms. An equivalent number of children interviewed were working in furniture factories, waiting tables or washing dishes in small restaurants, or searching garbage for recyclables to redeem. Others still were engaged as day laborers, piecing together daily wages by clearing weeds on plantations, gathering grasses to make brooms, or working as cowhands or woodcutters. Income scarcity and food insecurity were central themes collected in many family narratives, but were also often rooted in other fundamental social issues. Poverty was not necessarily the sole cause of child labor, but rather the two were jointly symptomatic of poor access to education and healthcare, landlessness, migration, and the effects of decades of armed conflict and human rights abuses. Children, and particularly young girls, were also subject to social and gender norms that contributed to their entry into the workforce. The reduced likelihood that working children will complete their education and the increased risks associated with labor performed during children’s early developmental stages were found to feed directly back into these same family burdens that led to child labor. In short, the many interconnecting social issues, economic and labor policies, and community histories surrounding child labor in rural areas are beyond the scope of this report to fully catalogue or evaluate. Instead, the research presented herein telescopes in on a very small but highly underreported area of child labor, and aims to amplify the voices and cast a light on the experiences of rural working children in Mon areas."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Woman and Child Rights Project (WCRP)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB-reduced version; 3MB-original))
Alternate URLs: http://www.rehmonnya.org/reports/childrenforhire.pdf'>http://www.rehmonnya.org/reports/childrenforhire.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2013

Title: From Natural Resources to Human Capital: Practical, feasible, immediate resourcing solutions for Myanmar’s children
Date of publication: August 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar has embarked upon an ambitious reform package characterised by people-centred participation, development and inclusion. The task is ambitious and presents real opportunities for a successful transition from a heavily natural resource-reliant economy to an economy that leverages the skills and expertise of its human capital. As a newcomer to the ‘Asian Century’, Myanmar is geographically well positioned to transition into an ‘Asian Tiger’ economy personified by fast-paced growth and innovation. One of the key lessons learnt globally when transitioning from a lower to middle income country and upwards to an advanced economy is that successful countries do not first become wealthy and then decide to invest in human capital rather they become wealthy by investing in both physical and human capital simultaneously. Equitable access to quality social services is both good for people and for the economy. For mineral-rich countries, investing natural resource revenues in expanded health and education services and social transfers - including pensions, family allowances a nd social assistance – is fundamental. Such investments build human capital and generate e mployment. They reduce distributional conflicts, enhance social cohesion, and lessen gender, ethnic and regional disparities. Myanmar is blessed with an abundance of natural resources which can be turned into meaningful, sustainable, impactful social investments right now, starting with children. At this pivotal moment in the nation’s history, the good news is Myanmar could enjoy a high level of human capital return for a relatively small amount of fiscal spend. For example: * Less than 9 days of natural gas revenues would be n eeded to ensure one teacher per each primary school grade; * A 0.57% increase in the actual tax collected on har dwood extraction would secure the annual salary of 6,000 social workers; * 0.87% of revenues from new natural gas projects wou ld provide for the purchase of all the vaccines needed annually in Myanmar; * One extra dollar in tax collected for each kilogram of jade could have built 14,596 classrooms over the last 9 years; and * Just over one quarter of Myanmar’s 2010 sales from the auction of precious and semi- precious stones could have provided for a universal child benefit of 15,000 Kyat per month for all Myanmar children under 5. UNICEF encourages the Myanmar Government to actively explore such options as part of the next 30 months of socio-economic reform. The time for enhanced social investment is now and if done right, will dramatically propel Myanmar along its transition to becoming the next economic ‘Asian Tiger'..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (231K-reduced version; 673K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/From_Natural_Resources_to_Human_Capital.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014

Title: Making Public Finance Work for Children in Myanmar (Burmese)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) 1, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) outlined the need to increase public expenditure in the social sector and for infrastructure to support economic growth and fight poverty. FESR also stated that government expenditure on health and education will increase, whilst defence expenditure will decline. Therefore, the United Nations Children Fund Myanmar, (UNICEF) in collaboration with the Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) have developed this report examining current social sector expenditure and the fiscal space available to increase this spending. In order to understand how public finance could be better oriented towards children, the objectives of this paper were: • To identify and highlight trends in terms of public sector expenditures, their allocation and growth rates, especially those related to the “social sector”; • To assess the overall impact of State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs) on the budget; • To examine the fiscal flow to the states/regions; and • To analyse trends in revenue and expenditure. Key Findings from this report include: • The Government has made commitments to reduce Myanmar’s fiscal deficit, with projections currently suggesting it will decline to 5 per cent of GDP by 2014-15, from 9 per cent in 2012- 13. However, it is still uncertain to what extent the supplementary budget might impact the final figure. • SOE’s make significant contributions to government revenue and expenditure. Although their net contribution to the fiscal balance varies between SOEs, many are increasingly being exposed to market forces, which is expected to improve their overall impact on the fiscal balance and potentially increase fiscal space for children • Social sector spending (health, education and social welfare) has increased since 2011-12, averaging between 5-9 per cent of total expenditure, compared to defence which still absorbed 13-15 per cent of total expenditure over the same period. Despite this, the proportion of expenditure allocated to defence has declined since 2011-12. • Budget allocations for education rose from just under 4 per cent of the budget in 2011-12 and is projected to reach nearly 6 per cent in 2014-15. • Expenditure on health tripled, from 1 per cent in 2011-12 to 3 per cent of the budget in 2012-13. • Allocations for social welfare have declined from under 0.2 per cent of expenditure in 2011- 12 to 0.1 per cent in 2014-15. Despite this, social welfare expenditure in absolute terms is at approximately the same level in 2014-15 as it was in 2011-12..."
Author/creator: Dr Zaw Oo, Dr. Aniruddha Bonnerjee, Phoo Pwint Phyu, Giles Dickenson-Jones and Paul Minoletti
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: UNICEF via Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB-reduced version; 3.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/2012-Making_Public_Finance_Work_for_Children_in_Myanmar-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016

Title: Making Public Finance Work for Children in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) 1, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) outlined the need to increase public expenditure in the social sector and for infrastructure to support economic growth and fight poverty. FESR also stated that government expenditure on health and education will increase, whilst defence expenditure will decline. Therefore, the United Nations Children Fund Myanmar, (UNICEF) in collaboration with the Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) have developed this report examining current social sector expenditure and the fiscal space available to increase this spending. In order to understand how public finance could be better oriented towards children, the objectives of this paper were: • To identify and highlight trends in terms of public sector expenditures, their allocation and growth rates, especially those related to the “social sector”; • To assess the overall impact of State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs) on the budget; • To examine the fiscal flow to the states/regions; and • To analyse trends in revenue and expenditure. Key Findings from this report include: • The Government has made commitments to reduce Myanmar’s fiscal deficit, with projections currently suggesting it will decline to 5 per cent of GDP by 2014-15, from 9 per cent in 2012- 13. However, it is still uncertain to what extent the supplementary budget might impact the final figure. • SOE’s make significant contributions to government revenue and expenditure. Although their net contribution to the fiscal balance varies between SOEs, many are increasingly being exposed to market forces, which is expected to improve their overall impact on the fiscal balance and potentially increase fiscal space for children • Social sector spending (health, education and social welfare) has increased since 2011-12, averaging between 5-9 per cent of total expenditure, compared to defence which still absorbed 13-15 per cent of total expenditure over the same period. Despite this, the proportion of expenditure allocated to defence has declined since 2011-12. • Budget allocations for education rose from just under 4 per cent of the budget in 2011-12 and is projected to reach nearly 6 per cent in 2014-15. • Expenditure on health tripled, from 1 per cent in 2011-12 to 3 per cent of the budget in 2012-13. • Allocations for social welfare have declined from under 0.2 per cent of expenditure in 2011- 12 to 0.1 per cent in 2014-15. Despite this, social welfare expenditure in absolute terms is at approximately the same level in 2014-15 as it was in 2011-12..."
Author/creator: Dr Zaw Oo, Dr. Aniruddha Bonnerjee, Phoo Pwint Phyu, Giles Dickenson-Jones and Paul Minoletti
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF via Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://mdricesd.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/public-finance-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016

Title: Accountability Matters in Emergencies - Listening to children and responding to their feedback during Save the Children’s humanitarian response in Myanmar (Burma)
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: "This case study was written to share our experience of setting up information centres in Myanmar (Burma) after Cyclone Nargis struck in May 2008. We wanted to capture the lessons learned, and share practical suggestions with other programme staff and practitioners. Here, we describe what we did, how we did it, and some of the key considerations involved. We also describe what we achieved, and the lessons we learned through our accountability self-assessment. We piloted a number of approaches to making our emergency response more accountable and, ultimately, more effective. First, we set up information centres linked to food distribution points. Then, we set up an information centre that worked closely with peer educators, who used creative ways of promoting children’s participation and finding out their views. Based on our experience with these two pilots, we developed a ‘general information centre’ model. The idea was that children and adults in a given village (whether individuals or representatives from other organisations) could give us feedback about any of our activities, across all sectors: education, child protection, health, nutrition, livelihoods, and disaster risk reduction. We also developed a clear procedure for handling complaints from project beneficiaries. We hope this case study answers some of the key questions about how we become a more accountable organisation. We also hope it inspires others to find the best ways of improving their accountability to children and their communities, whatever the context..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Ko Thet, Ei Ei Khin and Ei Thant Khing
Language: English
Source/publisher: Save the Children
Format/size: pdf (456K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/Accountability_Matters_in_emergencies.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010

Title: Displaced Childhoods
Date of publication: April 2010
Description/subject: Preface: "On 17 January 2010, Burma Army Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) number 367 initiated a fresh round of attacks on several villages in Karen State’s Nyaunglebin District in eastern Burma, killing three villagers, burning down houses, and committing atrocities against civilians. Over a two-day period, the attacks forcibly displaced over 1,000 villagers, including hundreds of children. These children are now living in uncertain conditions, hiding from further military attacks with little more than the clothes on their backs. They are at extreme risk of continued human rights violations, malnourishment, and serious health problems. Such attacks are common in military-ruled Burma. A generation of the country’s children have been scarred by death, destruction, loss, and neglect at the hands of Burma’s military. For over four decades, Burma’s military government has forced children from their homes and villages, subjected them to extreme human rights violations, and largely left them to fend for their survival in displacement settings without access to basic provisions or humanitarian services. Since 2002, Free Burma Rangers (FBR) has independently documented over 180 incidents of displacement, and for the last 14 years both Partners and FBR have provided lifesaving humanitarian service to thousands more. From 2002 to the end of 2009, more than 580,000 civilians, including over 190,000 children, have been forcibly displaced from their homes in Eastern Burma alone. An estimated one to three million people live as internally displaced persons (IDPs) throughout Burma. As many as 330,000 to 990,000 of the displaced are children..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers. Partners Relief & Development
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.partnersworld.org/usa/images/stories/downloads/Displaced_Childhoods.pdf
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2010

Title: When Hard Times Hit, Some Children Go to Factories
Date of publication: 16 February 2010
Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 16, 2010 (IPS) - Fifteen-year-old Cho Cho Thet knows little about the world outside of the garments factory where she works. Thet works 14 hours each day – from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. – seven days a week, but receives a salary of only 35,000 kyat (35 U.S. dollars) a month. The factory owner provides free accommodation and meals that include rice and vegetables. "Working under a roof is better than working in the rice field under the sun or the rain. I don’t feel tired at all here," Thet told IPS. The girl was recently promoted from helper to operator after two years.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010

Title: FEELING SMALL IN ANOTHER PERSON’S COUNTRY - The situation of Burmese migrant children in Mae Sot Thailand
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: "...There are an estimated 200,000 Burmese children living in Thailand, many of whom are working, with 20% of the migrant workforce thought to consist of children aged 15 to 17 years of age. It was seen to be a standard practice for parents to send children out to work, especially once they have reached the age of 13 years and seen to be physically capable of bringing in extra income for the family. Children may voluntarily leave or be taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factory or fields, as domestics or as service workers in shops and restaurants. Researchers have found that children working in Mae Sot factories and the agricultural area are subject to the worst forms of child labour, working long hours and being exposed to hazardous chemicals and conditions that are in direct violation of Thai labour law. The difficulty of obtaining registration and the work permit makes for a tenuous existence. Consequently, young people can be coerced or forced into bad employment situations... As parent’s lives are consumed by the need to work and make money, children can be denied the love, care and guidance essential to their healthy growth and development and may be separated from or even abandoned by parents. Some parents abuse and exploit their children by telling them not to come back home if they cannot earn a fixed amount per day. Consequently these children go out on the streets looking for daily work to survive; this can include begging, collecting recyclable rubbish and carrying heavy loads. This pressure is seen to change the moral character of children with some turning to stealing. Children who are unemployed, neglected, abandoned, or orphaned can end up permanently on the streets. Being out of school and on the streets increases the risk of being trafficked and recruitment by gangs, who physically threaten and may even kill children who try to escape... Statelessness is a real risk for children who are unable to receive identity registration in Burma and for those born in Thailand of migrants, especially unregistered parents. Despite the ratification of conventions, such as the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), and the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that stipulate birth registration of all children born in Thailand, in reality only registered migrants who hold a work permit can register their child’s birth. A change in the Civil Registration Act, effective from the 23rd August 2008, will allow all children born on Thai soil, regardless of their status, to register their births and obtain a birth certificate; however it remains to be seen how this will be implemented. In the meantime the Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma) (CPPCR), a Burmese CBO established in 2002, provides a registration service for children from Burma that in some cases, has been recognized by some Thai schools and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma)
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2009

Title: Spare the Child
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "Burma’s military government pays lip service to the rights of children, but still allows child labor and recruits underage soldiers..."
Author/creator: Aung Thet Wine
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008

Title: Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 - Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 May 2008
Description/subject: Thousands of children continued to be recruited and used in the Tatmadaw Kyi (army) and in armed political groups, as the army continued its expansion drive and internal armed conflict persisted in some areas of the country. Although the government took some steps to address the issue, a formal disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) program was not in place.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,CSCOAL,,MMR,,486cb11dc,0.html
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008

Title: Stanley Van Tha ist zurück in der Schweiz â�" in Burma geht die Repression weiter.
Date of publication: 18 February 2008
Description/subject: Die allgemeine Lage in Burma hat sich seit den Protesten signifikant verschlechtert. 80 Prozent der Anführer der Mönche und der Studentengruppen, welche die Proteste anführten, sind im Gefängnis, der Rest ist auf der Flucht. Die burmesische Militärdiktatur schreckt vor ausgiebiger Folter nicht zurück, um sich durch das Aktivistennetzwerk zu arbeiten und auf ebenso brutale Art und Weise wurden weitere Proteste auf der Strasse umgehend unterdrückt. Im Januar wurden neue Bemühungen unternommen, den Internetzugang in Burma zu erschweren. Rolle von burmesischen Kindern; schweizer Asylpolitik; Stanley Van Tha; role of burmese children; suisse asylum policy;
Author/creator: Nina Sahdeva
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.fairunterwegs.org/aktuell/news/article/stanley-van-tha-ist-zurueck-in-der-schweiz-in-bur...
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008

Title: Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar
Date of publication: 16 November 2007
Description/subject: Summary: "The present report has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of resolution 1612 (2005). It is presented to the Security Council and its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict as the first country report pursuant to paragraphs 2, 3 and 10 of that resolution. The report, which covers the period from July 2005 to September 2007, provides information on the current situation regarding the recruitment and use of children and other grave violations being committed against children affected by armed conflict in the Union of Myanmar. While the monitoring and reporting structures as outlined in the mechanism endorsed by the Security Council in its resolution in 1612 (2005) are in place, the modalities of an effective mechanism, including security guarantees, access to affected areas and freedom of movement of monitors without Government escort, are lacking. This first report therefore sets forth the general scope of the situation based on the information available to the United Nations country task force on monitoring and reporting at the present time. Although there has been progress in terms of dialogue with the Government of Myanmar and two non-State actors, the report notes that State and non-State actors continue to be implicated in grave child rights violations. The Government of Myanmar has made a commitment at the highest level that no child under the age of 18 will be recruited. The Government has set up a high-level Committee for the Prevention of Military Recruitment of Underage Children and a working group for monitoring and reporting on the same issue. Further, there are Government policies and directives prohibiting underage recruitment. To date, the Government has not acceded to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (2000). Two non-State actors (the Karen National Union and the Karenni National Progressive Party) have signed Deeds of Commitment to cease the recruitment and use of children, to declare their adherence to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and have committed themselves to appropriate follow-up action. The Government has committed to bringing its current action plan on the prevention of the recruitment of children into its armed forces, the Tatmadaw Kyi, into line with international standards and to facilitate action plans with the United Wa State Army and other non-State actors. The Government of Myanmar has also recognized the need for the United Nations country task force in Myanmar to engage the Karen National Union and Karenni National Progressive Party in the development of action plans and monitor their compliance in accordance with Security Council resolution 1612 (2005). A principal difficulty with regard to monitoring grave violations of children’s rights remains the lack of access to some locations of concern. Access to conflict-affected areas is severely restricted by the Government, a situation that impacts greatly on monitoring and possible responses to child rights violations."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Security Council
Format/size: pdf (91K-English.) Avaiulable also in French(107.5K) , Russian(341.7K) , Spanish(102.9K) , Arabic(238.6K) , Chinese(263.2K)
Alternate URLs: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/574/91/PDF/N0757491.pdf?OpenElement
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2007

Title: Nirgendwo gibt es so viele Kindersoldaten
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Was die Ausbeutung Minderjähriger angeht, ist Myanmar die unangefochtene Nummer eins. Ein Gespräch mit Ralf Willinger, Referent für Kinderrechte bei terre des hommes, Rolle der Kindersoldaten bei den Aufständen 2007; Rekrutierung von Kindersoldaten; gesetzliche Regelungen zu Kindersoldaten; Interview with Ralf Willinger; Role of child-soldiers during the uprisings 2007; recruitment of child soldiers; laws and reglementations on child soldiers
Author/creator: Helen Sibum
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Amnesty International / Terre des Hommes
Format/size: Html (20kb)
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008

Title: Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: 31 October 2007
Description/subject: I Summary: The Government of Burma’s Armed Forces: The Tatmadaw; Government Failure to Address Child Recruitment; Non-state Armed Groups; The Local and International Response... II Recommendations 14 To the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) 14 To All Non-state Armed Groups 17 To the Governments of Thailand, Laos, Bangladesh, India, and China 18 To the Government of Thailand 18 To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 18 To UNICEF 19 To the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict 20 To Member States of the United Nations 20 To the UN Security Council 21 To the International Labour Organization 21 To the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar 21 III Methodology22 IV Background24 V The Tatmadaw: The State Military 29 The Tatmadaw’s Staffing Crisis29 Recruitment 32 Key Factors in Child Recruitment33 Children as Commodities: The Recruit Market 41 Recruitment of the Very Young 43 The Su Saun Yay Recruit Holding Camps45 Training 50 Deployment and Active Duty 56 Combat 60 Abuses against Civilians62 Desertion, Imprisonment, and Re-recruitment 63 The Future of Tatmadaw Child Recruitment68 The Government of Burma’s Response to the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers 68 The Committee for the Prevention of Military Recruitment of Underage Children 71 Demobilization73 Reintegration76 Measures for Raising Awareness77 Enforcement of Recruitment Laws and Regulations 81 Government Cooperation with International Agencies 84 VI Child Soldiers in Non-State Armed Groups 94 United Wa State Army 97 Karenni Army 98 Karen National Liberation Army 102 Shan State Army – South 105 Kachin Independence Army 107 Democratic Karen Buddhist Army 109 Kachin Defense Army 111 Mon National Liberation Army 112 Karenni Nationalities People’s Liberation Front 113 Shan Nationalities People’s Liberation Army 115 Rebellion Resistance Force116 KNU-KNLA Peace Council117 VII The International Response120 The United Nations Security Council 120 United Nations Country Team 122 UNICEF 123 ILO 124 Neighboring country and cross-border initiatives 125 VIII Legal Standards 129 Child Recruitment as a War Crime 130 International Standards on Demobilization, Reintegration, and Rehabilitation 131 Acknowledgements 132 Appendices 133 Appendix A: SPDC Plan of Action regarding child soldiers 133 Appendix B: Human Rights Watch letter to the UN Mission of Myanmar, August 22, 2007 137 Appendix C: Reply from the UN Mission of Myanmar, September 12, 2007 139 Appendix D: KNPP Deed of Commitment regarding child soldiers 142 Appendix E: KNLA Deed of Commitment regarding child soldiers 146
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB), html
Alternate URLs: http://hrw.org/reports/2007/burma1007/ (Full report, html, English. Link to Summary and Recommendations in Japanese);
http://hrw.org/french/docs/2007/10/31/burma17208.htm (Press release, French, Francais);
http://hrw.org/spanish/docs/2007/10/31/burma17207.htm (Press Release, Spanish, Espanol)
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2007

Title: Terror
Date of publication: 14 July 2007
Description/subject: Am Montag, dem 24. Januar 2000 besetzen zehn burmesische Terroristen das Zentralkrankenhaus im thailändischen Ratchaburi unweit der Grenze und nehmen Belegschaft und Patienten als Geiseln. Schnell ist in der Presse ausgemacht, dass es sich um die ‘God’s Army’ Rebellen der Zwillinge Johnny und Luther Htoo handeln muß. In einer Kommandoaktion thailändischer Spezialeinheiten werden in der Nacht zum Dienstag alle Geiselnehmer erschossen. KNLA; God`s Army; Kindersoldaten, Child Soldiers
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Burma Riders
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007

Title: Children as Beneficiaries and Participants in Development Programs: A Case Study in Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: June 2007
Description/subject: Abstract: "This study seeks to understand the dynamics and processes of community development programs for children in Burma (Myanmar). It examines the ethical dimensions of children’s participation, critiques the extent of participation of young people in community development activity, explores the barriers and avenues for increased participation and presents recommendations based on lived experience which can be used to formulate policies that will enable/encourage greater participation. The development industry reaches to almost all areas of the globe and is not confined by national boundaries, ethnicity, age, gender or other social stratification. One of the most topical issues in contemporary development regards the rights of the child. It is an area of increasing interest to United Nations agencies and to human rights groups such as Amnesty International and the International Labour Organisation. In addition, a number of international programs have been created to focus upon improving the global situation of children, such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Mandela and Machel's "Global Movement for Children." Such interest in the situation of children, however, rarely includes discussion of the ethical issues involved in the construction of children as appropriate subjects of development. Even rarer is examination or discussion of the culturally and historically contingent nature of assumptions about children and childhood that are built into many programs that focus upon children. The implications of applying programs and techniques that incorporate "Western" or "generic" understandings of children and childhood upon children from non­ Western nations should be part of such discussions. Development programs increasingly employ national workers, not only as stakeholders and participants, but also as initiators of programs and as directors of resource allocation. However, with this growing trend of the participation of ‘beneficiaries’ of development programs in identifying needs and planning and implementing solutions, the voices of children have, until recently, been quiet."
Author/creator: Karl Goodwin-Dorning
Language: English
Source/publisher: Faculty of Arts Department of Social Inquiry & Community Studies Victoria University
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB-reduced version; 8.6MB-1st part of original; 5.2MB-2nd part of original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/Karl_Dorning-Thesis-Pt_A.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2017

Title: The Mekong Challence - Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: "Migrant children in Mae Sot are faced with excessive working hours, lack of time off, and unhealthy proximity to dangerous machines and chemicals. They also endure the practice of debt bondage and the systematic seizure of their identification documents. Indeed many of these children in Mae Sot can most accurately be described as enduring the "worst forms of child labour, prohibited by the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 182 - a Convention that the Royal Thai Government ratified in February, 2001. These child workers reported that they were virtually forced to remain at the factory due to restrictions placed on their movements by factory owners, and by threats of arrest and harassment by police and other officials if they were stopped outside the factory gates. Put succinctly, Mae Sot has perfected a system where children are literally working day and night, week after week, for wages that are far below the legal minimum wage, to the point of absolute exhaustion..."
Author/creator: Philip S. Robertson Jr., Editor
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
Format/size: pdf (4.45MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnigh...
Date of entry/update: 04 April 2007

Title: End the use of children as soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: June 2004
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
Format/size: pdf (2.97 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://books.equalitymyanmar.org/index.php/item/end-the-use-of-children-as-soldiers-in-burma
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2005

Title: Wenn sich die Militärjunta um das Wohl der Kinder kümmert
Date of publication: April 2004
Description/subject: "Myanmar gehört zu den Entwicklungsländern, die sich am meisten um das Wohlergehen der Kinder kümmern.“ Das Zitat stammt aus dem zweiten Bericht über die Situation der Kinder, welcher die burmesischen Behörden im kommenden Mai dem UN-Komitee über die Rechte des Kindes (CRC)vorlegen werden. Ganz offensichtlich scheuen sich die burmesischen Militärmachthaber, die das Land in Myanmar umgetauft haben, nicht vor dicken Lügen auf dem internationalen Parkett. Denn: Die Lage der Kinder und Jugendlichen in Burma ist katastrophal, meinten einhellig die Fachleute aus Kinderschutz- und Menschenrechtsorganisationen, die anfangs Februar 2004 in Genf darüber berieten, wie der zunehmenden Ausbeutung von Kindern in Burma ein Riegel geschoben werden kann.
Author/creator: Christine Plüss
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: akte
Format/size: html (5.52 KB)
Date of entry/update: 19 May 2004

Date of publication: November 2003
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report of Myanmar... Conclusion: "Rohingya children bear the full brunt of the military regime’s policies of exclusion and discrimination towards the Muslim population of Rakhine State. The combination of the factors listed above, which deny them fundamental human rights, gravely damage their childhood development and will affect the future of the Rohingya community. With regard to Rohingya children, the State Peace and Development Council has failed to implement most of the rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Myanmar ratified in 1991. The Government has also ignored the suggestions and recommendations provided by the Committee in 1997, in particular, paragraph 28 in which “The Committee recommends that the Citizenship Act be repealed” and paragraph 34 which stated: “In the field of the right to citizenship, the Committee is of the view that the State Party should, in light of articles 2 (non-discrimination) and 3 (best interests of the child), abolish the categorization of citizens …” and that “all possibility of stigmatisation and denial of rights recognized by the Convention should be avoided”"
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: pdf (151.35 KB) html (280K) , Word (224K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Lewa-CRC2004.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010

Date of publication: August 2003
Description/subject: The situation facing children after 41 years of military rule in Burma... Some facts and figures on Burma; Historical background: 41 years of dictatorship; Standard of living in Burma; Children in Burma: 1) Education; 2) Child labour; 3) Forced child labour 18; 4) Health 19: Burmese children in Thailand; 1) Burmese people in Thailand; 2) Education of Burmese children in Thailand; 3) Child labour; 4) Health; Burmese children in Bangladesh; Conclusions.
Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
Format/size: pdf (216K)
Date of entry/update: 23 August 2003

Title: "MY GUN WAS AS TALL AS ME" - Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: 16 October 2002
Description/subject: "Burma is believed to have more child soldiers than any other country in the world. The overwhelming majority of Burma's child soldiers are found in Burma's national army, the Tatmadaw Kyi, which forcibly recruits children as young as eleven. These children are subject to beatings and systematic humiliation during training. Once deployed, they must engage in combat, participate in human rights abuses against civilians, and are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. Refused contact with their families and facing severe reprisals if they try to escape, these children endure a harsh and isolated existence. Children are also present in Burma's myriad opposition groups, although in far smaller numbers. Some children join opposition groups to avenge past abuses by Burmese forces against members of their families or community, while others are forcibly conscripted. Many participate in armed conflict, sometimes with little or no training, and after years of being a soldier are unable to envision a future for themselves apart from military service. Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), claims that all of its soldiers are volunteers, and that the minimum recruitment age is eighteen.4 However, testimonies of former soldiers interviewed for this report suggest that the vast majority of new recruits are forcibly conscripted, and that 35 to 45 percent may be children. Although there is no way to establish precise figures, data taken from the observations of former child soldiers who have served in diverse parts of Burma suggests that 70,000 or more of the Burma army's estimated 350,000 soldiers may be children..."
Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html (in sections); pdf (570K) 214 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/burma/Burma0902.pdf
http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/burma-1016.htm (press release and other links)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: MYANMAR: Statement by His Excellency Major-General Sein Htwa Minister for Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement and Leader of the Myanmar Delegation to The Twenty-seventh Special Session of the General Assembly on Children
Date of publication: 10 May 2002
Description/subject: "...The rights of the child have been given top priority in the global agenda since the World Summit for Children. The same is true with our national agenda. The Government of Myanmar is giving top priority to the children traditionally as well as legally. Since our accession to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, we have laid down and implemented programmes at the national level for the well-being and interests of children. On 14 July 1993, two years after the accession, we promulgated the Child Law. In September 1993, we formed a National Committee on the Rights of the Child to effectively and successfully implement the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Child Law..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: SPDC
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003

Title: Burmese Children in Thailand: Legal Aspects
Date of publication: December 2001
Description/subject: "People from Burma have become the major group of displaced persons in Thailand. Most of them are currently being sheltered along the Thai-Burma border, particularly in the Thai provinces of Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong. It is estimated that there are some 40,000 children from Burma under the age of 15 accompanying their parents. In addition, thousands of unaccompanied children are driven across the border by the desperate circumstances in Burma. ..."
Author/creator: Nyo Nyo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
Language: English
Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
Date of entry/update: May 2003

Title: Migrant Children in Difficult Circumstances in Thailand
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: * Summary of report; * Chapter 1: Migrant Children in Thailand - a Result of Globalisation... * Chapter 2: Migrant Child Labor in Thailand... * Chapter 3: Migrant Children in Prostitution in Thailand... * Chapter 4: Migrant Street Children in Thailand: * Indicators of Migrant Children in Thailand; * Links to organisations working with Migrant Children in Thailand.
Author/creator: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Siwaporn Auasalung, Supang Chantavanich
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Asian Research Center For Migration (ARCM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Format/size: pdf (147.99 KB)
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010

Title: No Childhood at All - Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: June 1997
Description/subject: "...The phenomenon of child soldiers in Burma can only be understood within the context of militarization of the society as a whole. War in Burma has affected every segment of society, its fallout having severest repercussions for the most disadvantaged groups. The political instability engendered by civil war has left the country in economic crisis and has isolated rural conflict areas from receiving badly-needed development assistance. NGO activities have been severely curtailed, mitigating most attempts to correct the situation. Consequently, many children in Burma are living in grinding poverty, uneducated and in poor health, with under-age labour one of their few choices to make ends meet. The everpresent reality of armed conflict is also deeply embedded in the consciousness of all Burma's peoples. With 36% of all Burma's inhabitants under the age of l5,1 most of the country's population have grown up under the shadow of civil war. The rapid expansion of the armed forces since 1988 has both forced and encouraged recruitment of minors into the ranks. Army entrance is sometimes perceived by children, especially orphans, as offering a protective haven from hunger and abuse. Many children therefore see joining the armed forces of any of the warring parties as their only means of survival. Unfortunately, research suggests that they are likely to find it just the opposite. While Burma has acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as yet there is little indication that its provisions are being followed in good faith, or that recruitment of children into the Tatmadaw has decreased..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Images Asia, Thailand
Format/size: pdf (513K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Krieg gegen Kinder in Burma
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: War against children in Burma. Additional keywords: forced relocation, forced labour, child soldiers. Zahlen und Fakten zu Burma mit Bezug zu Kindern, einschließlich Kinderarbeit, Zwangsrekrutierung, Prostitution, Links zu weiteren Themen der Kinderarbeit. Studie "No childhood at all" zum Runterladen.
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: terre des hommes
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: The Child Law - SLORC Law No. 9/93 (English)
Date of publication: 14 July 1993
Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Child Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 9/93)- The 11th Waning Day of 1st Waso, 1355 ME (14 July, 1993)
Language: English
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (285K, 110K) 21 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1993-SLORC_Law1993-09-The_Child_Law-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Jumping Rope on the Front LIne
Date of publication: September 1991
Description/subject: Children and teenagers of the Kachin State, Northern Burma. 36 interviews with children and teenagers of Kachin State.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: PDF (737K) 30 pages
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: It’s something deep inside your heart…When you see your children dying of hunger
Description/subject: "Thazun is a courageous, beautiful and talented young Arakanese woman who talks openly about her life and experiences. Spending her childhood under conditions that many people around the world would find hard to believe, Thazun has never given up hope for a better life. Her father is a politician and always on the run from Burmese authorities, while her mother worked away for years with hundreds of other forced labourers. When growing up, Thazun didn’t know her father, and for over two years, five-year-old Thazun and her sister and brothers were left to survive on their own without their mother or anyone to look after them. When their mother was able to visit them, she found her children almost starved to death. And yet Thazun’s mother had no choice but to leave, unable to help her children or even know if they were still alive. As heartbreaking as her story may be, Thazun shows how determination and hope can lead towards light. This is the first part of her story."..."Thazun’s story is based on an interview with Burma Link."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2016

Title: UNICEF reports on children in Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2018