VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > The UN System and Burma/Myanmar > Other UN entities working on Burma (Myanmar)
Hide Links
Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Other UN entities working on Burma (Myanmar)
See also the Human Rights section for human rights standards and UN mechanisms in several areas (discrimination, children, labour rights, freedom of expression etc.) as well as reports of human rights violations. Also use the alphabetical list and Search function...N.B. many UN web pages require disablement of your firewall oo access documents.

  • United Nations General Assembly (GA)

    • Reports to the UN General Assembly by the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar

      • Informes al AG del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Español)

        Individual Documents

        Title: AG 2014 (69me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, Sra. Yanghee Lee (Español)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: Resumen: "El importante proceso de transición y las amplias reformas que se están llevando a cabo en Myanmar son dignos de elogio. Sin embargo, se debe hacer frente a cualquier posible señal de retroceso para no echar por tierra los avances conseguidos. En el pr esente informe se describen los principales ámbitos preliminares de atención y las recomendaciones de la Relatora Especial, que tienen como objetivo contribuir a los esfuerzos de Myanmar para respetar, proteger y promover los derechos humanos y lograr la d emocratización, la reconciliación nacional y el desarrollo."
        Author/creator: Sra. Yanghee Lee
        Language: Español, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas. Asamblea General (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (391K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/28/pdf/N1454528.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: AG 2013 (68me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Español)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: Resumen: "En el presente informe, el Relator Especial expone que las reformas que se están llevando a cabo en Myanmar siguen generando la perspectiva de que la situación de los derechos humanos en el país va a mejorar de un modo sustancial. Entre los principales acontecimientos ocurridos durante el período objeto de informe figuran la liberación constante de presos de conciencia, la mejora del respeto del derecho a la libertad de opinión y de expresión, y los avances en pos de un acuerdo nacional de cesación del fuego. El Relator Especial subraya, no obstante, los peligros de restar importancia a las carencias existentes en la esfera de los derechos humanos, o de dar por supuesto que dichas carencias se abordarán inevitablemente gracias al impulso de las reformas actuales. El autor del informe advierte de que, si no se abordan ahora esas deficiencias, se irán acentuando progresivamente en ámbitos como la rendición de cuentas sobre las violaciones de los derechos humanos, los derechos de las minorías étnicas y religiosas, los derechos de libertad de reunión y de asociación pacífica, la representación de las mujeres en puestos de adopción de decisiones, los derechos sobre la tierra y los derechos humanos y el desarrollo. Además, si no se afrontan de conformidad con las normas internacionales de derechos humanos, es posible que minen el proceso mismo de reforma. El Relator Especial concluye que el reto, ya planteado desde el inicio del proceso de reforma, es conseguir pasar de la mentalidad militar predominante en el seno del Gobierno a una concepción democrática que defienda los derechos humanos."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Español, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas. Asamblea General (A/68/397)
        Format/size: pdf (243K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/68/397&Lang=S
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: AG 2012 (67me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar ( Español)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: Resumen: "Durante el período al que se refiere el informe han vuelto a registrarse en Myanmar rápidos y significativos cambios, que pueden seguir mejorando la situación de los derechos humanos en el país, aunque la persistencia de problemas que son motivo de inquietud desde hace tiempo sigue suponiendo un riesgo para el proceso de reforma."..... Índice: Página I. Introducción... II. Situación de los derechos humanos: A. Presos de conciencia; B. Condiciones de detención y tratamiento de los reclusos; C. Otras cuestiones relativas a los derechos civiles y políticos; D. Sociedad civil; E. Derechos económicos, sociales y culturales... III. Situación de las minorías étnicas... IV. Situación en el estado de Rakhine... V. Transición democrática y establecimiento del estado de derecho... VI. Verdad, justicia y rendición de cuentas... VII. Conclusiones ... VIII. Recomendaciones.
        Language: Español, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas. Asamblea General (A/67/383)
        Format/size: pdf (214K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/520/51/PDF/N1252051.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: AG 2011 (66me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: Resumen: Este es un momento clave en la historia de Myanmar y existen oportunidades reales de lograr cambios positivos y significativos para mejorar la situación de los derechos humanos y profundizar la transición hacia la democracia. El nuevo Gobierno ha adoptado una serie de medidas para alcanzar estos fines. Sin embargo, sigue habiendo muchas cuestiones de derechos humanos pendientes que deben abordarse. El nuevo Gobierno debe redoblar sus esfuerzos para cumplir sus propios compromisos y sus obligaciones internacionales en materia de derechos humanos. La comunidad internacional debe mantener su compromiso y permanecer atenta a la evolución de las circunstancias. La comunidad internacional también debe apoyar y ayudar al Gobierno durante esta importante etapa. El Relator Especial reafirma su voluntad de trabajar de manera constructiva y cooperar con Myanmar para mejorar la situación de su pueblo en materia de derechos humanos.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Español, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas - Asamblea General (A/66/365 )
        Format/size: pdf (226K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: AG 2010 (65me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: Resumen: Este informe se presenta en cumplimiento de la resolución 13/25 del Consejo de Derechos Humanos y de la resolución 64/238 de la Asamblea General, y se refiere a la evolución de la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar desde el informe que presentó el Relator Especial al Consejo de Derechos Humanos en marzo de 2010 (A/HRC/13/48). El 13 de agosto de 2010, el Gobierno de Myanmar anunció, tras mucho tiempo de espera, que las elecciones nacionales se celebrarían el 7 de noviembre de 2010. El presente informe se centra en los derechos humanos en relación con las elecciones, y en el asunto de la justicia y la rendición de cuentas. En las actuales circunstancias, las condiciones para unas elecciones auténticas son limitadas, y la posibilidad de que estas elecciones conlleven un cambio significativo y una mejora en la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar continúa siendo incierto. En relación con el tema de la justicia y la rendición de cuentas, el Relator Especial observa que, si bien el Gobierno de Myanmar es el principal responsable de abordar el problema de las flagrantes y sistemáticas violaciones de los derechos humanos por todas las partes, dicha responsabilidad recae en la comunidad internacional si el Gobierno no la asume. El Relator Especial recomienda al Gobierno de Myanmar que respete la libertad de expresión y opinión, así como la de reunión y asociación, en el contexto de las elecciones nacionales; ponga en libertad a todos los prisioneros de conciencia; aborde el asunto de la justicia y la rendición de cuentas; aplique los cuatro componentes básicos de los derechos humanos detallados en sus informes anteriores; y facilite el acceso a la asistencia humanitaria y continúe aumentando su cooperación con el sistema internacional de derechos humanos.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas -- Asamblea General (A/65/368)
        Format/size: pdf (137K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/534/80/pdf/N1053480.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


        Title: AG 2009 (64me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: Resumen: "El presente informe se presenta en cumplimiento de la resolución 63/245 de la Asamblea General y la resolución 10/27 del Consejo de Derechos Humanos, y debe leerse junto con el informe del Relator Especial al Consejo de Derechos Humanos en su décimo período de sesiones (A/HRC/10/19), ya que se centra principalmente en los acontecimientos en materia de derechos humanos ocurridos en Myanmar después de la presentación de ese informe. En el período bajo examen el juicio de Aung San Suu Kyi fue el acontecimiento más importante. Los 18 meses adicionales de arresto domiciliario le impiden participar activamente en las elecciones de 2010. El Relator Especial considera que la continuación de su arresto domiciliario es un golpe a la hoja de ruta en siete etapas para la transición a la democracia del Gobierno y lamenta que el Gobierno de Myanmar haya perdido otra oportunidad de demostrar su compromiso con la celebración de unas elecciones no excluyentes, libres e imparciales. El informe se concentra en las cuestiones de la protección de los derechos humanos. En particular, destaca la situación de los presos de conciencia, su derecho a un juicio imparcial y a las garantías procesales, y en las condiciones de su detención, así como en la libertad de expresión, reunión y asociación en el contexto de las próximas elecciones de 2010. A continuación se examinan los conflictos internos, la protección de la población civil, la discriminación y la necesidad de asistencia humanitaria. El Relator Especial reitera su recomendación sobre los cuatro componentes básicos de los derechos humanos: una revisión de la legislación nacional en consonancia con la nueva Constitución y las obligaciones internacionales; la progresiva puesta en libertad de los presos de conciencia; la reforma de las fuerzas armadas para garantizar el respeto de los derechos humanos y del derecho humanitario internacionales, incluida la capacitación; y el establecimiento de un poder judicial independiente e imparcial. Dado que Myanmar es parte solamente en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, el Relator Especial recomienda enérgicamente que se adhiera a los demás principales instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos."
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/64/318)
        Format/size: pdf (121K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


        Title: AG 2008 (63me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 05 September 2008
        Description/subject: Resumen: En su resolución 1992/58, la Comisión de Derechos Humanos estableció el mandato sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, que fue posteriormente prorrogado por el Consejo de Derechos Humanos en su decisión 1/102 y en su resolución 5/1. En marzo de 2008, en virtud de su resolución 7/32, el Consejo prorrogó por un año el mandato. El 26 de marzo de 2008 Tomás Ojea Quintana (Argentina) fue designado nuevo Relator Especial y tomó oficialmente posesión de su cargo el 1º de mayo de 2008. Tras presentar una solicitud para realizar una visita del 3 al 13 de agosto de 2008, el 9 de julio el Relator Especial recibió una respuesta positiva del Gobierno de Myanmar para que realizara una misión al país del 3 al 7 de agosto de 2008. El Relator Especial da las gracias al Gobierno de Myanmar por su hospitalidad y la cooperación recibida durante su primera misión al país. El principal propósito de la visita era establecer relaciones de trabajo con las autoridades y tomar contacto con la sociedad civil y con quienes no disfrutan de sus libertades fundamentales. El programa de la visita se incluye como anexo del informe. Este informe se presenta en cumplimiento de la resolución 62/222 de la Asamblea General. La primera parte se centra en las actividades y el programa de trabajo del Relator Especial. La segunda parte se concentra en las cuestiones sustantivas y en ella se profundiza en las relacionadas con la protección de los derechos humanos en el contexto de la nueva Constitución; la cuestión de la participación en el proceso democrático y la organización de las elecciones de 2010; el derecho de reunión y el derecho a la libertad de opinión y expresión y su formulación en la nueva Constitución; la cuestión del derecho internacional humanitario y la protección de la población civil, así como la situación de determinados grupos, como los grupos étnicos, las mujeres y los niños. El Relator Especial profundiza también en los mecanismos existentes para garantizar el máximo de protección en el contexto del desastre natural causado por el ciclón Nargis, y sus repercusiones en las condiciones y medios de vida y los derechos humanos. Por último, el Relator Especial examina las novedades acaecidas en la cooperación internacional que guardan relación con las cuestiones de derechos humanos pertinentes para su mandato y el entorno para fortalecer la cooperación en la promoción y la protección de los derechos humanos en el país. En sus recomendaciones, el Relator Especial incluye cuatro componentes básicos de los derechos humanos para allanar el camino de la democracia en Myanmar.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (112K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2008


        Title: AG 2007 (62me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2008
        Description/subject: Resumen: El presente informe se presenta de conformidad con la resolución 61/232 de la Asamblea General. El Relator Especial acoge con agrado la decisión del Gobierno de Myanmar de convocar nuevamente a la Convención Nacional para que celebre su último período de sesiones el 18 de julio de 2007 y termine de establecer los principios de una nueva constitución, como parte de una hoja de ruta de siete etapas para la transición a la democracia. No obstante, le sigue preocupando que no se den oportunidades de participación efectiva y auténtica a la Liga Nacional para la Democracia (NLD) y a algunos grupos étnicos, que han optado por no participar debido a la falta de transparencia y de posibilidades de hacer un aporte significativo. El Relator ha señalado en varias ocasiones que no habrá una auténtica transición a la democracia en Myanmar mientras no se libere a todos los presos políticos. Dada la importancia de la última etapa de la Convención Nacional, deplora que se haya extendido el arresto domiciliario del Secretario General de la NLD y que otros presos políticos continúen detenidos. En un momento de tal importancia para el proceso de reforma política y en vista de la necesidad de una reconciliación, el tratamiento tan severo que se dispensa a los máximos dirigentes de los grupos étnicos es muy contraproducente y ha consternado a muchos ciudadanos y observadores de derechos humanos. Los problemas de derechos humanos a que se hace referencia en el presente informe son en gran medida similares a los que el Relator Especial señaló el año pasado. El Relator Especial lamenta que el Gobierno, pese a los reiterados pedidos, no lo haya invitado a visitar el país. Por este motivo, el Relator no ha podido evaluar ninguna mejora ni verificar la exactitud de las denuncias recibidas de fuentes fidedignas. Se imponen severas restricciones a las libertades fundamentales de los activistas políticos y los defensores de los derechos humanos. Al 27 de junio de 2007, se estimaba que el número de presos políticos era 1.192. En todo el país, las comunidades son objeto de malos tratos por parte de algunos miembros de las fuerzas armadas que, con el fin de consolidar el control del Gobierno y a menudo también para aplicar proyectos nacionales de desarrollo, recurren al trabajo forzoso, la confiscación de bienes y activos, y al reasentamiento de poblaciones, en particular en las zonas fronterizas en que habitan los grupos étnicos. La falta de un compromiso efectivo de parte del Gobierno de Myanmar para hacer frente a la situación de los derechos humanos sigue siendo motivo de profunda preocupación. A nivel nacional, la capacidad de las instituciones encargadas de velar por el cumplimiento de la ley y la independencia e imparcialidad del poder judicial se han visto menoscabadas por la persistente situación de impunidad. También son motivo de preocupación las restricciones al ejercicio de los derechos fundamentales de los opositores políticos, los defensores de los derechos humanos y las víctimas de violaciones de los derechos humanos. A/62/223 07-45717 3 El Relator Especial también toma nota con gran satisfacción del entendimiento de 26 de febrero de 2007, entre la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) y el Gobierno de Myanmar, destinado a ofrecer a las víctimas de trabajo forzoso un mecanismo para obtener reparación. El Relator Especial también ha observado algunos avances concretos que él considera importantes hitos en la lucha contra la impunidad en Myanmar. Entre éstos figuran el establecimiento de un mecanismo nacional que se ocupa de recibir denuncias de trabajo forzoso y el diálogo iniciado por la Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados con el Gobierno, sobre la elaboración de un plan de acción para poner fin al reclutamiento de niños soldados y elaborar programas de reintegración, y el establecimiento de un mecanismo nacional para presentar denuncias sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos que se cometen contra los niños durante los conflictos armados. Estos mecanismos deben mejoran el acceso a las zonas en las que actualmente se restringe el acceso para la prestación de asistencia humanitaria, así como para la vigilancia de las violaciones de los derechos humanos. El Relator Especial está convencido de que Myanmar se beneficiaría de una cooperación más activa con su mandato, teniendo en cuenta las atribuciones redefinidas por el Consejo de Derechos Humanos. Ha insistido en que es su obligación hacer públicas las denuncias de violaciones de los derechos humanos pero que ello no excluye un diálogo constructivo y continuado con el Gobierno. Estos dos elementos de su mandato pueden contribuir a una nueva dinámica para mejorar la situación de los derechos humanos en el país. Como señala el Relator Especial en su informe anterior, no será fácil para Myanmar promover la transición política y los derechos humanos fundamentales. La colaboración entre las Naciones Unidas y la comunidad internacional es esencial para apoyar los esfuerzos del Gobierno y la sociedad civil. En sus recomendaciones, el Relator Especial alienta a la comunidad internacional a promover un marco de principios a fin de que los Estados Miembros puedan explorar muy diversas estrategias y modalidades de cooperación con Myanmar de acuerdo con sus ventajas y capacidades particulares. Es urgente que la comunidad internacional aproveche los programas de asistencia humanitaria existentes y preste apoyo en las esferas de la salud, la educación y los derechos humanos, en particular para el desarrollo de la sociedad civil.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (72K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2006 (61me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derecho humanos en Myanmar (Espanol) Corr. 1
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar Nota del Secretario General... Corrección: 1. Párrafo 56 La última oración debería decir lo siguiente: El brote de gripe aviar H5N1 de marzo/abril sigue siendo motivo de gran preocupación, aunque no ha habido casos de infección del H5N1 en seres humanos en Myanmar.... 2. Párrafo 73 Sustitúyase el texto existente por el siguiente: 73. El Relator Especial quisiera: a) Habida cuenta de la gravedad de las violaciones de los derechos humanos, recomendar que el Gobierno de Myanmar someta a todos los funcionarios que cometen esos actos a un control disciplinario y un castigo estrictos y ponga fin a la cultura de impunidad reinante en todo el país. En ese sentido, se deben adoptar varias medidas de manera inmediata, como la creación de una o varias comisiones nacionales independientes a fin de investigar el ataque de una turba contra Aung San Suu Kyi en noviembre de 1996 y el brutal incidente ocurrido en Depayin en mayo de 2003, así como la violencia sexual generalizada contra las mujeres y las niñas, con miras a que se enjuicie a los responsables de esos delitos; b) Exhortar al Gobierno de Myanmar a que autorice el acceso del Relator Especial, las Naciones Unidas y el personal asociado, así como del personal de organizaciones humanitarias a las zonas afectadas, y garantice su seguridad y libertad de circulación.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/61/369/Corr.1)
        Format/size: pdf (26K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2006 (61me session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derecho humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2006
        Description/subject: Resumen: El mandato del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar fue establecido por la Comisión de Derechos Humanos en su resolución 1992/58 y prorrogado recientemente por el Consejo de Derechos Humanos, en su decisión 1/102, por la que el Consejo decidió prorrogar excepcionalmente por un año los mandatos y los titulares de mandatos de los procedimientos especiales de la Comisión. El Relator Especial no ha podido llevar a cabo una misión de investigación en Myanmar desde de noviembre de 2003. Pese a que no se le ha permitido visitar el país durante el período al que se refiere este informe, ha seguido cumpliendo su mandato en la medida de sus posibilidades, basándose en la información recibida de diversas fuentes independientes y fidedignas. En los dos últimos años, el proceso de reforma propuesto en la “hoja de ruta de siete puntos para la reconciliación nacional y la transición democrática”, que estaba destinado a abrirse en última instancia a distintos actores pertinentes, ha quedado rigurosamente limitado y delineado. En consecuencia, el espacio político se ha redefinido de forma más estrecha. Además, una serie de obstáculos registrados en los dos últimos años han frenado el avance y limitado el carácter inclusivo de las reformas necesarias para la democratización. Esta evolución ha afectado negativamente a la labor de la Convención Nacional. Durante décadas, se ha reducido considerablemente el margen para el establecimiento de instituciones civiles y democráticas. La capacidad de las instituciones encargadas de velar por el cumplimiento de la ley y la independencia e imparcialidad del poder judicial se han visto obstaculizadas por la persistente situación de impunidad. Esta situación ha contribuido a acentuar la desigualdad y la disparidad entre los más pobres y los más ricos. El 27 de mayo de 2006, se volvió a prorrogar por 12 meses el arresto domiciliario de Aung Sang Suu Kyi a pesar de los diversos llamamientos internacionales realizados, en particular por el Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas. A finales de agosto de 2006 se estimaba en 1.185 el número de presos políticos. De abril a julio de 2006, se habría obligado a 1.038 miembros de la Liga Nacional para la Democracia a dimitir del partido, mediante intimidaciones y amenazas. El Relator Especial ha indicado reiteradamente que la reconciliación nacional requiere un diálogo fructífero y abierto con los representantes políticos y entre éstos. Cree firmemente que el arresto y la detención de varios líderes políticos o las graves y continuas restricciones de las libertades fundamentales no contribuyen a la conciliación nacional y la estabilidad en Myanmar. La persecución de miembros de partidos políticos de la oposición y defensores de los derechos humanos muestra que actualmente hay demasiados obstáculos a la hoja de ruta para la democracia, que impiden una auténtica transición. En el pasado, el Relator Especial reconoció que la hoja de ruta podía desempeñar un papel positivo en la transición política. Lamentablemente, parece que se ha perdido el impulso positivo de los primeros años de su mandato. El Relator Especial sigue particularmente preocupado por la persistente situación de impunidad, que ha cobrado un carácter sistemático y a la que el Gobierno de Myanmar deberá abordar urgentemente. Es cada vez más patente que la persistencia de la impunidad no se debe únicamente a una falta de capacidad institucional. Esta impunidad ha permitido eludir su responsabilidad a los autores de actos de opresión contra personas que habían impugnado políticas y prácticas en vigor. No se ha perseguido a varias personas y grupos que habían cometido violaciones graves de derechos humanos, en particular miembros de las fuerzas armadas. Asimismo, tampoco está demostrado que las autoridades competentes hayan investigado estos graves delitos. Las violaciones graves de los derechos humanos no sólo son conocidas y toleradas en la total impunidad por las estructuras existentes del Consejo Estatal para la Paz y el Desarrollo, sino que hasta están autorizadas por la Ley. A este respecto, el Relator Especial también está muy preocupado por el continuo uso indebido del sistema jurídico, que no reconoce el imperio de la ley y representa un obstáculo importante para el ejercicio efectivo y verdadero de las libertades fundamentales por parte de los ciudadanos. En especial, considera sumamente preocupante que se haya tipificado como delito el ejercicio de las libertades fundamentales por los opositores políticos, los defensores de los derechos humanos y las víctimas de abusos en materia de derechos humanos. El Relator Especial está muy preocupado por la campaña militar en curso en zonas habitadas por minorías étnicas de Myanmar oriental y por sus efectos en los derechos humanos, en especial en la población civil contra la que se han dirigido los ataques. La situación debería examinarse con relación a la práctica ampliamente extendida de confiscación de tierras en todo el país, destinada aparentemente a consolidar el control militar, especialmente en zonas habitadas por minorías étnicas. Esta práctica ha conducido a numerosos desalojos, traslados y reasentamientos forzados, así como a situaciones de migración y desplazamiento forzosos dentro del país. Habida cuenta de la envergadura de la actual campaña militar, la situación podría desembocar en una crisis humanitaria si no se hace frente a ella inmediatamente. El Relator Especial toma nota de la votación reciente del Consejo de Seguridad, el 15 de septiembre de 2006, para incluir a Myanmar en su orden del día. Considera que el próximo debate sobre Myanmar en el Consejo podría brindar una oportunidad de acelerar el proceso de transición hacia la democracia.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/61/369)
        Format/size: pdf (100K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2005 (60eme Session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 12 August 2005
        Description/subject: Resumen: "El mandato del Relator Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar fue establecido por la Comisión en su resolución 1992/58 y prorrogado recientemente en su resolución 2005/10. En esa resolución, la Comisión pidió al Relator Especial que presentara un informe a la Asamblea General en su sexagésimo período de sesiones, así como a la Comisión en su 62° período de sesiones. El presente informe se ha preparado en cumplimiento de esa solicitud y se basa en la información recibida por el Relator Especial hasta el 22 de julio de 2005. El presente informe debe examinarse conjuntamente con el último informe presentado por el Relator a la Comisión (E/CN.4/2005/36). El Relator Especial no ha podido llevar a cabo una misión de investigación en Myanmar desde noviembre de 2003. Pese a que no se le ha permitido visitar el país durante el período al que se refiere este informe, el Relator Especial ha seguido cumpliendo su mandato en la medida de sus posibilidades, basándose en la información recibida de diversas fuentes independientes y fidedignas. La Convención Nacional fue convocada nuevamente del 17 de febrero al 31 de marzo de 2005 sin la participación de varios partidos políticos, entre ellos la Liga Nacional para la Democracia (LND). Se seleccionó a los delegados invitados de entre las mismas ocho categorías establecidas para la Convención anterior: partidos políticos, representantes electos, razas nacionales, campesinos, trabajadores, intelectuales, personal del servicio estatal y grupos que han suscrito el alto el fuego. Según la Comisión para la Convocatoria de la Convención Nacional, de los 1.081 delegados invitados asistieron a la reunión un total de 1.073. El hecho de que se haya excluido del proceso a actores políticos importantes y representativos, las restricciones impuestas a su participación, la intolerancia con respecto a las voces críticas y la intimidación y detención de activistas en pro de la democracia hacen que carezca de significado, en este caso, toda noción de proceso democrático. Se debe garantizar la libertad de movimiento, reunión y asociación, pues dichas libertades son requisitos básicos para la reconciliación nacional y la democratización. El Relator Especial está firmemente convencido de que si no se enmiendan las restricciones de procedimiento inherentes al proceso y si no participan en la Convención los representantes de la oposición democrática, carecerá de credibilidad cualquier constitución que emerja de dicha reunión. Sentar las disposiciones de procedimiento que rigen la Convención Nacional sobre sólidas bases democráticas coadyuvará a la inclusión y participación plenas de todos los partidos políticos y para que se registren avances reales en el proceso de democratización. El Gobierno puede y debe adoptar medidas inmediatas para rescatar la Convención Nacional y su credibilidad tanto en el plano nacional como internacional. Una de las cuestiones más relevantes del actual proceso político es definir quién redactará el proyecto de constitución. Además, en la actualidad no hay indicios claros de cuáles son las reglas para la aprobación de la constitución mediante un referendo nacional. El Relator Especial observa con pesar que la información recibida demuestra que, en lo que respecta al ejercicio de los derechos y libertades fundamentales, la situación no ha cambiado de manera sustancial durante el período al que se refiere el informe. El Relator Especial recibe constantemente informes sobre restricciones y violaciones de libertades y derechos básicos. Al parecer quedan más de 1.100 presos políticos en Myanmar. La liberación de 249 presos políticos el 6 de julio de 2005 se vio menoscabada por los arrestos, la detención y la condena a severas penas de civiles y defensores de la democracia debido a actividades políticas de carácter pacífico. El Relator Especial sigue muy preocupado por la práctica de la detención administrativa. Es profundamente lamentable que Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Secretaria General de la LND, haya celebrado en arresto domiciliario sus 60 años. Su reclusión casi total y la falta de comunicación con sus colegas de la LND redundan en detrimento del espíritu de reconciliación nacional. El Relator Especial se siente alentado por el incremento de las actividades de prevención y tratamiento del VIH/SIDA, pero sigue muy preocupado por el hecho de que el VIH/SIDA se ha convertido en una epidemia generalizada en Myanmar. Si bien es cierto que el Gobierno sigue elaborando un plan nacional de acción en favor de los niños, aún no ha ratificado los dos Protocolos Facultativos de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño. Se siguen cometiendo graves violaciones de los derechos humanos contra las comunidades étnicas minoritarias de Myanmar. Continúan recibiéndose informes generalizados sobre casos de trabajo forzado, violación y abuso sexual, extorsión y expropiación por parte de las fuerzas gubernamentales. Son raras las veces en que las víctimas de tales violaciones tienen posibilidades de obtener compensación. No se puede seguir posponiendo la transición hacia una democracia plena y participativa en Myanmar. El diálogo político e institucional debe iniciarse sin más dilaciones. Al instituir los valores de la democracia y los derechos humanos, el Gobierno estará dando claras muestras ante el pueblo de Myanmar y la comunidad internacional de que está firmemente comprometido a facilitar la creación de un futuro estable y democrático para el país. Las Naciones Unidas y la comunidad internacional están dispuestas a trabajar en asociación con el Gobierno, los partidos políticos y las organizaciones de la sociedad civil para facilitar de forma efectiva la reconciliación nacional y la transición a la democracia. Si fortalece su cooperación con las organizaciones internacionales, el Gobierno de Myanmar podrá tener la seguridad de recibir apoyo en materia de solución de conflictos, reformas políticas y económicas, fortalecimiento institucional y creación de capacidad, asistencia humanitaria y desarrollo humano."
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/60/221)
        Format/size: pdf (227K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 September 2005


        Title: AG 2004 (59me Session): Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (Espanol)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Resumen: El mandato del Relator Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar fue establecido por la Comisión en su resolución 1992/58 y prorrogado recientemente en su resolución 2004/61. En esa resolución, la Comisión pedía al Relator Especial que presentara un informe provisional a la Asamblea General en su quincuagésimo noveno período de sesiones. El presente informe provisional se basa en la información recibida por el Relator Especial hasta el 30 de julio de 2004 y debe examinarse conjuntamente con el último informe presentado por el Relator a la Comisión (E/CN.4/2004/33). Desde su última misión a Myanmar en noviembre de 2003, el Relator Especial ha solicitado en varias ocasiones la colaboración del Gobierno de Myanmar para volver al país y llevar a cabo una misión de investigación. No obstante, pese a que en principio parecía haber indicios de acuerdo con la visita del Relator Especial, ésta no fue autorizada. Por tanto, en este informe, el Relator Especial presenta breves actualizaciones de los temas que examinó durante su última visita tomando como base información obtenida de otras fuentes. El Relator Especial seguirá tratando de ir a Myanmar a fin de poder desempeñar su mandato plenamente. La Convención Nacional se volvió a convocar del 17 de mayo al 9 de julio de 2004. La revitalización de la Convención Nacional constituye el primer paso de los siete previstos en el plan de reconciliación nacional y transición democrática presentado por el Primer Ministro, el General Khin Nyunt, el 30 de agosto de 2003. Las autoridades anunciaron que esperaban que los delegados de la nueva Convención Nacional plantearan sus sugerencias en el marco de los seis objetivos y 104 principios ya establecidos durante la Convención de 1993 a 1996. La Convención Nacional volvió a convocarse sin la participación de la Liga Nacional para la Democracia (LND) y de otros partidos políticos que obtuvieron la mayoría de escaños en las elecciones de 1990. A ella asistieron 1.076 delegados en comparación con los 702 que participaron en la convención anterior. El aumento se debió en gran medida a los representantes de nacionalidades étnicas, incluidos grupos de cesación del fuego que surgieron en el nuevo entorno político creado como resultado de acuerdos de cesación del fuego establecidos con 17 antiguos grupos armados. Por ello, considerando las posibilidades de resolución del conflicto, la Convención Nacional de 2004 puede constituir una oportunidad única para las minorías étnicas. El Relator Especial observa que las inquietudes respecto del proceso de la Convención Nacional que puso de manifiesto en el último informe que presentó a la Comisión no se han considerado, ni se han adoptado las medidas necesarias para garantizar unas condiciones democráticas mínimas en la nueva convocatoria de la Convención Nacional. El Relator Especial reitera que si el Gobierno desea promover un verdadero proceso de transición política, es necesario cumplir las obligaciones fundamentales en materia de derechos humanos. No obstante, el Relator Especial espera que el resultado definitivo de la Convención Nacional aporte algunas soluciones concretas a los problemas de toda la población de Myanmar. La liberación de Daw Aung San Suu Kyi y el inicio de un diálogo profundo con ella y con su partido, así como el logro de un acuerdo con grupos de cesación del fuego que tenga en cuenta las sugerencias de éstos ayudaría a la evolución del proceso político. En este sentido, el Relator Especial hace un llamamiento al Gobierno de Myanmar para que reconozca la función del Enviado Especial del Secretario General y la necesidad de que éste vuelva al país lo antes posible a fin de continuar con su labor de facilitación, en particular en el contexto de los preparativos del próximo período de sesiones de la Convención Nacional. La información recibida por el Relator Especial durante el período a que se refiere el informe indica que la situación relacionada con el ejercicio de las libertades fundamentales y los derechos humanos básicos en Myanmar no ha cambiado en esencia. Aún no se ha vuelto totalmente a la normalidad tras los acontecimientos ocurridos el 30 de mayo de 2003 en Depayin. Sigue habiendo gran cantidad de detenidos por razones de seguridad. El Relator Especial ha recibido varios informes de que continúan las detenciones y de que se imponen sentencias duras por actividades políticas pacíficas; muchos de los casos denunciados fueron mencionados por el Relator Especial en sus cartas y llamamientos urgentes dirigidos al Gobierno de Myanmar. Al Relator Especial le sigue preocupando la práctica de la detención administrativa. Aún hay restricciones a la actividad política y siguen clausuradas todas las oficinas de la LND, a excepción de la sede de este partido en Yangon, cuya reapertura fue permitida en abril de 2004. Pese a las restricciones existentes, según informes recientes la Liga Nacional para la Democracia ha podido llevar a cabo algunas actividades. Si bien aún queda por ver en qué medida se va a permitir a la LND y a otros partidos políticos que realicen actividades políticas pacíficas sin tomar represalias, el Relator Especial desearía reiterar su opinión, manifestada durante su última misión en noviembre, de que la aplicación del plan debe ir acompañada de cambios tangibles sobre el terreno que conduzcan a un proceso verdaderamente libre, transparente e integrador en el que participen todos los partidos políticos, las nacionalidades étnicas y los miembros de la sociedad civil. Deben respetarse las libertades y los derechos políticos para crear un entorno favorable que permita una transición democrática satisfactoria. La aplicación de las reformas en materia de derechos humanos que propone el Relator Especial en sus informes y cartas a las autoridades de Myanmar ayudaría a crear dicho entorno. Durante el período bajo examen, el Relator Especial ha recibido informes creíbles y detallados de violaciones de los derechos humanos en determinadas zonas en que se lucha contra la insurgencia de Myanmar y el Relator espera poder aclarar esos informes en su próxima misión. El Relator recuerda que las autoridades de Myanmar aún no han respondido a su petición de realizar una evaluación independiente en el Estado de Shan. El Relator Especial ha tomado nota de la cooperación del Gobierno de Myanmar con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño para el examen del segundo informe periódico de Myanmar sobre la aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño. El Relator Especial considera que en los últimos años la comunidad internacional ha considerado cada vez más la necesidad de prestar asistencia humanitaria en Myanmar. En este sentido, el Relator acoge con satisfacción la labor realizada por el Equipo de las Naciones Unidas en el País para determinar los aspectos más vulnerables de Myanmar a fin de elaborar un marco estratégico para la asistencia de las Naciones Unidas. Habida cuenta de la situación reinante en Myanmar, siguen siendo válidas las conclusiones y recomendaciones que figuran en los informes anteriores del Relator Especial.
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (165K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: AG 2001: Informe provisional del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: Resumen: Este es el primer informe del actual Relator Especial, nombrado para este mandato el 28 de diciembre de 2000. El informe está centrado en las actividades relativas a los derechos humanos y la evolución de la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar entre el 1° de enero y el 14 de agosto de 2001. Dado que el Relator Especial llevó a cabo una breve visita introductoria a Myanmar en abril y efectuará la debida misión de determinación de los hechos a fines de septiembre de 2001, el presente informe se limita únicamente a un número restringido de aspectos. De acuerdo con a evaluación presentada por el Relator Especial en este informe, Myanmar ha iniciado una etapa de transición política que, como en muchos países, constituye un proceso complejo que ha de avanzar gradualmente. En lo atinente a los derechos humanos, en el contexto de las conversaciones en curso entre el Gobierno y la oposición, se han podido observar algunos indicios de que el Gobierno tiene el propósito de seguir avanzando. A ese respecto, cabe señalar la divulgación de las normas sobre derechos humanos a que deben atenerse los funcionarios públicos, la labor del Comité de Derechos Humanos establecido por el Gobierno, la liberación de presos políticos, la reapertura de algunas oficinas de la Liga Nacional pro Democracia, el principal partido de oposición, la supervisión permanente, por parte de observadores internacionales, de las condiciones carcelarias, y la colaboración con la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, entre otras cosas, en el contexto del mandato de este Relator Especial y con el Enviado Especial del Secretario General para Myanmar y la Organización Internacional del Trabajo. Entre las esferas a las que es imprescindible prestar atención prioritaria cabe citar la situación de los grupos vulnerables, en particular, los niños, las mujeres y las minorías étnicas y, en especial, quienes se han visto desplazados dentro del país en zonas de operaciones militares. En general, existe una compleja situación humanitaria en Myanmar, que podría empeorar a menos que todas las partes afectadas adoptaran las medidas necesarias.
        Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/56/312)
        Format/size: pdf and Word
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 2000: Situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar - Informe provisional del Relator Especial
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Quincuagsimo quinto perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional preparado por el Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en la resolucin 2001/15 de la Comisin y la decisin 2001/251 del Consejo Econmico y Social.
        Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/55/359 )
        Format/size: PDF (116K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/17a7a41bf23c6125c1256983002f7c42/$FILE/0063507s.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1999: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: Quincuagsimo cuarto perodo de sesiones Asamblea General, Quincuagsimo cuarto perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, preparado por el Sr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos de conformidad con la resolucin 1999/17 de la Comisin, de 23 de abril de 1999 y con la decisin 1999/231 del Consejo Econmico y Social de 27 de julio de 1999.
        Author/creator: Sr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/54/440)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1998: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: Asamblea Generale, Quincuagsimo tercer perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, preparado por el Sr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos, de conformidad con la decisin 1998/261, del Consejo Econmico y Social, de 30 de julio de 1998.
        Author/creator: Sr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Nacionese Unidas (A/53/364)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1997: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Quincuagsimo segundo perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los Miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, preparado por el Sr. Rajsooomer Lallah, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos, de conformidad con la resolucin 51/117 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996, y la decisin 1997/272 del Consejo Econmico y Social, de 22 de julio de 1997.
        Author/creator: Sr. Rajsooomer Lallah
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/52/484)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1996: Informe provisional del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 October 1996
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Quincuagsimo primer perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional preparado por el Sr. Juez Rajsoomer Lallah, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos, sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de conformidad con la resolucin 1996/80 del 23 de abril de 1996.
        Author/creator: Sr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/51/466)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1995: Informe del Relator especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1995
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Quincuagsimo perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional preparado por el Sr. Yozo Yokota, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de conformidad con la resolucin 1995/72 de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos, de 8 de marzo de 1995, y la decisin 1995/283 del Consejo Econmico y Social, de 25 de julio de 1995.
        Author/creator: Sr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/50/568)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1994: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar (annex)
        Date of publication: 09 November 1994
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Cuadragsimo noveno perodo de sesiones. 1. El 5 de octubre de 1994 el Relator Especial envi al Gobierno de Myanmar un resumen de las denuncias que haba recibido sobre presuntas violaciones de los derechos los humanos en Myanmar (para el texto del resumen vase el documento A/49/594, prr. 9). En la carta que acompaaba el informe el Relator Especial peda las respuestas del Gobierno de Myanmar respecto de cinco cuestiones concretas (vase el documento A/49/594, prr. 8). 2. En una nota verbal de fecha 4 de noviembre de 1994, la Misin Permanente de la Unin de Myanmar ante la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas en Ginebra trasmiti las respuestas del Gobierno de Myanmar acerca del resumen de las denuncias que le haba enviado el Relator Especial y de las cinco cuestiones concretas que figuraban en su carta de 5 de octubre de 1994. 3. El texto completo de la respuesta del Gobierno de Myanmar respecto del resumen de las denuncias enviado por el Relator Especial es el siguiente:
        Author/creator: Sr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/49/594/Add.1)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1994: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 1994
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Cuadragsimo noveno perodo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional preparado por el Sr. Yozo Yokota, Relator Especial de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos sobre la situacin de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de conformidad con el prrafo 20 de la resolucin 1994/85 de la Comisin de Derechos Humanos, de 9 de marzo de 1994 y de la decisin 1994/269 del Consejo Econmico y Social, de 25 de julio de 1994.
        Author/creator: Sr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/49/594)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1993: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situacion de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 November 1993
        Description/subject: Asamblea General, Cuadrag�simo octavo per�odo de sesiones. El Secretario General tiene el honor de transmitir a los miembros de la Asamblea General el informe provisional preparado por el Profesor Yozo Yokota, Relator Especial de la Comisi�n de Derechos Humanos sobre la situaci�n de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de conformidad con el p�rrafo 16 de la resoluci�n 1993/73 de la Comisi�n de Derechos Humanos, de 10 de marzo de 1993, y de la decisi�n 1993/278 del Consejo Econ�mico y Social, de 28 de julio de 1993
        Author/creator: Sr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Espanol
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas (A/48/578)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1992: Informe del Relator Especial sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar
        Date of publication: 13 November 1992
        Description/subject: "El 3 de marzo de 1992, en su cuadragésimo octavo período de sesiones, la Comisi6n de Derechos Humanos aprob6 la resoluci6n 1992/58, titulada "Situación de los derechos humanos en Myanmar". En esa resolución, la Comisi6n, consciente, de que, de conformidad con la Carta, las Naciones Unidas promovían y estimulaban el respeto de los derechos humanos y de las libertades fundamentales de todos y de que en la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos se afirmaba que "la voluntad del pueblo es la base de la autoridad del poder público", tomó nota con especial preocupaci6n en ese sentido de que el proceso electoral iniciado en Myanmar con las elecciones generales del 27 de mayo de 1990 todavía no había llegado a su conclusi6n, de que al parecer no se había logrado ningún progreso para acatar la voluntad política del pueblo de Myanmar, conforme fue expresada en las elecciones, y de que los resultados finales de las elecciones ni siquiera se habían publicado oficialmente. La Comisi6n tomó nota también de que muchos dirigentes políticos, en particular algunos representantes elegidos, seguían privados de su libertad y que Daw Aung San Suu Kyi seguía sometida a arresto domiciliario, y tom6 nota con preocupaci6n de la gravedad de la situaci6n de los derechos humanos en Myanmar, de la existencia de importantes restricciones al ejercicio de las libertades fundamentales y de la imposición de medidas opresivas dirigidas, en particular, contra los grupos minoritarios y del éxodo continuo de refugiados de Myanmar hacia los países vecinos, en particular, de refugiados musulmanes de Myanmar a Bangladesh..."
        Author/creator: Profesor Yozo Yokota
        Language: Espanol, Spanish
        Source/publisher: Naciones Unidas Asamblea General (A/47/651)
        Format/size: pdf (1.9 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


      • Rapports a l'AG du rapporteur special sur la situation des droits de l'Homme au Myanmar (Français)

        Individual Documents

        Title: AG 2014 (69me sesssion): Rapport de la Rapporteure spéciale sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar, Yanghee Lee (Français)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: Résumé: "Les importantes réformes en cours au Myanmar doivent être saluées, et le pays est en transition. Pourtant, il faut s’occuper des indices d’un possible retour en arrière de façon à ne pas compromettre les progrès réalisés. Le présent rapport expose les analyses préliminaires de la Rapporteure spéciale et ses premières recommandations pour contribuer à ce que fait le pays dans la voie du respect, de la promotion et de la protection des droits de l’homme, et dans la poursuite de la démocratisation, de la réconciliation nationale et du développement du pays."
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies, Assemblée générale (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (567K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/26/pdf/N1454526.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: AG 2013 (68me sesssion): Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar (Français)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: Résumé: "Dans le présent rapport, le Rapporteur spécial rend compte des réformes en cours au Myanmar et de la mesure dans laquelle elles permettent toujours d’escompter des améliorations significatives de la situation des droits de l’homme. Parmi les évolutions importantes intervenues au cours de la période considérée figurent la libération continue de prisonniers d’opinion; le plus grand respect du droit à la liberté d’opinion et d’expression; et les progrès vers un accord de cessez-le-feu national. Le Rapporteur spécial met en garde, cependant, contre le risque que les lacunes dans le domaine des droits de l’homme ne soient sous-estimées ou que l’on considère que la seule dynamique des réformes actuelles suffise à y remédier. De son point de vue, si ces lacunes ne sont pas corrigées aujourd’hui, elles tendront à se pérenniser dans des domaines comme la responsabilité pour les violations des droits de l’homme; les droits des minorités ethniques et religieuses; les droits de réunion et d’association pacifiques; la représentation des femmes dans les postes décisionnels; les droits fonciers; et les droits de l’homme et le développement. En outre, elles finiront par nuire au processus de réforme lui-même s’il n’y est pas fait face en conformité avec les normes internationales des droits de l’homme. Le Rapporteur spécial conclut que, depuis le début du processus de réforme, l’enjeu est de parvenir à passer de l’état d’esprit militaire qui prévaut au sein du gouvernement à un état d’esprit démocratique, respectueux des droits de l’homme."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies, Assemblée générale (A/68/397)
        Format/size: pdf (135K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: AG 2012 (67me sesssion): Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar (Français)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: Résumé: "La période couverte par le présent rapport a une nouvelle fois été marquée au Myanmar par des bouleversements profonds et rapides, qui pourraient améliorer la situation de ce pays au regard des droits de l’homme, mais aussi par la persistance de problèmes qui se posent depuis longtemps et qui demeurent un facteur de risque pour le processus de réforme.".....I. Introduction... II. Situation des droits de l’homme: A. Prisonniers d’opinion; B. Conditions de détention et traitement des détenus; C. Autres questions liées aux droits civils et politiques; D. Société civile; E. Droits économiques, sociaux et culturels... III. Situation des minorités ethniques... IV. Situation dans l’État de Rakhine... V. Transition démocratique et instauration de l’état de droit... VI. Vérité, justice et responsabilité... VII. Conclusions... VIII. Recommandations.
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies, Assemblée générale (A/67/383)
        Format/size: pdf (130K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/520/49/PDF/N1252049.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: AG 2011 (66me sesssion): Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar (Français)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: Résumé: Le Myanmar se trouve à un tournant de son histoire et les possibilités d’évolution positive et concrète vers une amélioration de la situation des droits de l’homme et une transition démocratique plus marquée sont réelles. Le nouveau Gouvernement a pris des mesures en ce sens. Toutefois, de nombreux problèmes graves subsistent en matière de droits de l’homme et il faut y remédier. Le nouveau Gouvernement doit intensifier ses efforts pour tenir ses propres engagements et s’acquitter de ses obligations internationales relatives aux droits de l’homme. La communauté internationale doit rester vigilante et suivre de près l’évolution de la situation. Elle doit aussi soutenir et aider le Gouvernement en ce moment crucial. Le Rapporteur spécial réaffirme sa volonté d’oeuvrer de manière constructive, en coopération avec le Myanmar, à l’amélioration de la situation des droits fondamentaux de sa population.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Français, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies Assemblée générale (A/66/365)
        Format/size: pdf (135K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: AG 2010 (65me sesssion): Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar (francais)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: Résumé: Le présent rapport, soumis en application de la résolution 13/25 du Conseil des droits de l’homme et de la résolution 64/238 de l’Assemblée générale, porte sur l’évolution de la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar depuis que le Rapporteur spécial a fait rapport au Conseil des droits de l’homme en mars 2010 (A/HRC/13/48). Le 13 août 2010, le Gouvernement du Myanmar a fait savoir – annonce longtemps attendue – que des élections nationales auraient lieu le 7 novembre 2010. Le présent rapport analyse la situation des droits de l’homme dans le contexte des élections ainsi que la question de la justice et de la responsabilité. Dans les circonstances actuelles, les conditions préalables à la tenue d’élections authentiques ne sont pas réunies, et il est difficile de dire si les élections se traduiront véritablement par un changement et par une amélioration de la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar. S’agissant de la justice et de la responsabilité, le Rapporteur spécial relève que s’il incombe essentiellement au Gouvernement du Myanmar de régler le problème lié aux violations flagrantes et systématiques des droits de l’homme par toutes les parties, c’est la communauté internationale qui devra le faire si le Gouvernement ne s’acquitte pas de cette responsabilité. Le Rapporteur spécial recommande au Gouvernement du Myanmar de respecter la liberté d’expression et d’opinion et la liberté de réunion et d’association dans le contexte des élections nationales; de libérer tous les prisonniers d’opinion; de renforcer le système de justice et de responsabilité; de mettre en oeuvre les quatre éléments fondamentaux en matière de droits de l’homme, tels que ceux-ci sont exposés en détail dans ses rapports antérieurs; de faciliter la fourniture d’une assistance humanitaire; et de continuer de resserrer sa coopération avec le système international des droits de l’homme.
        Author/creator: M. Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Francais, French, English and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies -- Assemblée générale (A/65/368)
        Format/size: pdf (219K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/534/78/PDF/N1053478.pdf?OpenElement
        http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/534/77/PDF/N1053477.pdf?OpenElement
        http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: AG 2009 (64ieme session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais)
        Date of publication: 24 August 2009
        Description/subject: Résumé: "Le présent rapport est soumis en application de la résolution 63/245 de l’Assemblée générale et de la résolution 10/27 du Conseil des droits de l’homme. Il doit être lu avec le rapport du Rapporteur spécial présenté au Conseil des droits de l’homme à sa dixième session (A/HRC/10/19), étant donné qu’il porte essentiellement sur l’évolution des droits de l’homme au Myanmar depuis la parution de ce rapport. Le procès d’Aung San Suu Kyi a été l’événement le plus marquant de la période considérée. Les 18 mois supplémentaires d’assignation à résidence lui interdisent de participer activement aux élections de 2010. Le Rapporteur spécial considère que le maintien de son assignation à résidence est un coup porté à la feuille de route en sept étapes vers la démocratie et regrette que le Gouvernement du Myanmar ait manqué une autre occasion de manifester son attachement à la tenue d’élections ouvertes, libres et régulières. Le rapport se concentre sur les questions de protection des droits de l’homme. Il insiste notamment sur la situation des prisonniers de conscience, leur droit à un procès équitable et le respect des garanties prévues par la loi et leurs conditions de détention; ainsi que sur la liberté d’expression, d’assemblée et d’association dans le cadre des prochaines élections prévues en 2010. Il se poursuit par un examen des conflits internes, de la protection des civils, de la discrimination et du besoin d’aide humanitaire. Le Rapporteur spécial réitère sa recommandation concernant quatre éléments fondamentaux en matière de droits de l’homme : un examen de la législation nationale de la nouvelle constitution et des obligations internationales, la libération progressive des prisonniers de conscience, la réforme des forces armées en vue d’assurer le respect des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire, y compris la formation; et l’établissement d’un système judiciaire indépendant et impartial. Le Myanmar étant uniquement partie à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant et à la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes, le Rapporteur spécial lui recommande vivement d’adhérer aux autres principaux instruments internationaux relatifs aux droits de l’homme."
        Language: Francais(French), English and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/64/ 318)
        Format/size: pdf (124 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/491/52/PDF/N0949152.pdf?OpenElement
        http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/491/51/PDF/N0949151.pdf?OpenElement (English)
        http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: AG 2008 (63me session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais)
        Date of publication: 08 October 2008
        Description/subject: Résumé: Dans sa résolution 1992/58, la Commission des droits de l’homme a créé le mandat sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar, qui a été prorogé par la décision 1/102 et la résolution 5/1 du Conseil des droits de l’homme. En mars 2008, par sa résolution 7/32, le Conseil a prorogé d’un an le mandat. Le 26 mars 2008, Tomás Ojea Quintana (Argentine) a été nommé nouveau Rapporteur spécial et est officiellement entré en fonction le 1er mai 2008. Suite à une demande de visite du 3 au 13 août 2008, le 9 juillet, le Rapporteur spécial a reçu une réponse positive du Gouvernement du Myanmar pour entreprendre une mission dans ce pays du 3 au 7 août 2008. Le Rapporteur spécial voudrait remercier le Gouvernement du Myanmar pour son hospitalité et pour sa coopération pendant sa première mission dans le pays. Cette visite visait essentiellement à établir des rapports de travail avec les autorités, à rencontrer des membres de la société civile et également des personnes qui ne jouissent pas des droits fondamentaux. Le programme de la visite est joint au présent rapport. Le présent rapport fait suite à la résolution 62/222 de l’Assemblée générale. Sa première partie est axée sur les activités et sur le programme de travail du Rapporteur spécial. La seconde partie du rapport met l’accent sur des questions importantes et s’étend sur celles liées à la protection des droits de l’homme dans le cadre de la nouvelle constitution; elle traite de la question de la participation au processus démocratique et de l’organisation des élections de 2010, du droit de réunion et du droit à la liberté d’opinion et d’expression et de leur formulation dans la nouvelle Constitution, de la question du droit humanitaire international et de la protection des civils ainsi que de la situation de groupes précis comme les groupes ethniques, les femmes et les enfants. Le Rapporteur spécial traite ensuite des mécanismes mis en place pour assurer une protection maximale dans le cadre de la catastrophe naturelle du cyclone Nargis ainsi que des conditions de vie, des moyens de subsistance et des implications en matière de droits de l’homme. Finalement, le Rapporteur spécial commente les évolutions survenues dans la coopération internationale et qui sont liées aux problèmes des droits de l’homme pertinents vis-à-vis de son mandat et de l’environnement favorable à une coopération accrue en matière de promotion et de protection des droits de l’homme dans le pays. Dans ses recommandations, le Rapporteur spécial intègre quatre éléments essentiels pour le Myanmar.
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (118K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2008


        Title: AG 2007 (62me session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2007
        Description/subject: Résumé: Le présent rapport est soumis en application de la résolution 61/232 de l’Assemblée générale. Le Rapporteur spécial se félicite de la décision prise par le Gouvernement du Myanmar de reconvoquer la Convention nationale pour sa dernière session, le 18 juillet 2007, afin de mettre au point les principes d’une nouvelle constitution dans le cadre d’une feuille de route en sept étapes vers la démocratie. Il demeure toutefois préoccupé par le fait que la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie (NLD) et les groupes ethniques ne peuvent participer efficacement et activement à un processus qui, dénué de transparence et de crédibilité, les a découragés d’apporter leur contribution. Le Rapporteur spécial a affirmé à diverses reprises qu’il n’y aurait pas de transition démocratique authentique au Myanmar tant que tous les détenus politiques n’auraient pas été libérés. Compte tenu de l’importance de la dernière phase de la Convention nationale, il déplore la prorogation de l’ordre d’assignation à résidence de la Secrétaire générale de la NLD et le maintien en détention d’autres dirigeants politiques. À un moment aussi important pour le processus de réforme politique et compte tenu de la nécessité de s’engager sur la voie de la réconciliation, un traitement aussi sévère de hauts dirigeants des groupes ethniques envoie un message très dommageable, qui révolte de nombreux citoyens et observateurs des droits de l’homme. Les préoccupations relatives aux droits de l’homme mentionnées dans le présent rapport sont pour l’essentiel très semblables à celles qu’avait exprimées le Rapporteur spécial l’an dernier. Ce dernier déplore que le Gouvernement, malgré plusieurs demandes, ne l’ait pas invité à se rendre dans le pays. Pour cette raison, il n’a pas été en mesure d’évaluer toute amélioration éventuelle ni de vérifier l’exactitude des allégations reçues de sources crédibles. De sévères restrictions concernant les libertés fondamentales sont imposées aux activistes politiques et aux défenseurs des droits de l’homme. Au 27 juin 2007, le nombre de détenus politiques était estimé à 1 192. Dans tout le pays, les communautés sont soumises à des pratiques abusives par des membres des forces armées qui, afin de renforcer le contrôle du gouvernement central, et souvent pour mettre en oeuvre des projets de développement national, recourent au travail forcé, à la saisie de biens et d’avoirs et à des mesures de réinstallation forcée de populations, notamment dans les zones frontalières où résident des groupes appartenant à des minorités ethniques. L’absence de volonté effective du Gouvernement du Myanmar d’agir face à la situation dans le domaine des droits de l’homme continue de soulever de graves préoccupations. Au niveau national, la capacité des services de police et l’indépendance et l’impartialité du système judiciaire ont été entravées par une impunité persistante. Les restrictions imposées à l’exercice des libertés fondamentales par les opposants politiques, les défenseurs des droits de l’homme et les victimes des atteintes aux droits de l’homme constituent également un sujet de préoccupation. Le Rapporteur spécial prend aussi acte avec grande satisfaction de l’Accord conclu entre l’Organisation internationale du Travail et le Gouvernement du Myanmar le 26 février 2007, visant à mettre en place un mécanisme permettant aux victimes du travail forcé de demander réparation. Le Rapporteur spécial a également souligné certains faits concrets qu’il considère comme marquant une étape importante dans la lutte contre l’impunité au Myanmar. On mentionnera à ce sujet la mise en place d’un mécanisme national chargé de recevoir les plaintes des victimes du travail forcé, et le dialogue lancé par le Représentant spécial du Secrétaire général pour les enfants et les conflits armés avec le Gouvernement concernant l’élaboration d’un plan d’action visant à mettre un terme au recrutement des enfants soldats et à établir des programmes de réinsertion, et la mise en place d’un mécanisme national chargé de signaler les violations des droits de l’homme commises contre des enfants pendant un conflit armé. Ces dispositifs devraient faciliter l’accès aux zones actuellement limitées, en vue de la fourniture d’une assistance humanitaire et du contrôle des violations. Le Rapporteur spécial est convaincu que le Myanmar aurait avantage à renforcer sa coopération avec son mandat, tel qu’il a été redéfini par le Conseil des droits de l’homme. Il souligne qu’il est de son devoir de faire connaître les allégations relatives à des violations des droits de l’homme mais que cela n’exclut pas un dialogue constructif et continu avec les autorités. Ces deux éléments de son mandat peuvent contribuer à promouvoir une nouvelle dynamique en vue de l’amélioration de la situation des droits de l’homme dans le pays. Comme l’a indiqué le Rapporteur spécial dans son rapport précédent, le Myanmar aura des difficultés à promouvoir la transition politique et le respect des droits de l’homme fondamentaux. La collaboration de l’ONU et de la communauté internationale sont indispensables pour soutenir les efforts du Gouvernement et de la société civile. Dans ses recommandations, le Rapporteur spécial encourage la communauté internationale à promouvoir un cadre de principes afin de permettre aux États Membres de poursuivre diverses stratégies et d’établir des relations de coopération avec les autorités du Myanmar, compte tenu de leurs forces et capacités spécifiques. Il est urgent que la communauté internationale s’appuie sur les programmes d’assistance humanitaire existants et apporte son soutien à la santé, à l’éducation et aux droits de l’homme, notamment en contribuant au développement de la société civile.
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (105K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2006 (61me session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais) Corr. 1
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar Note du Secrétaire général... Rectificatif: 1. Paragraphe 56 La dernière phrase doit se lire comme suit : Les cas de grippe aviaire apparus en mars et avril continuent de susciter de vives préoccupations, même si le virus H5N1 n’a été détecté chez aucun être humain dans le pays.... 2. Paragraphe 73 Remplacer le texte existant par le texte ci-après : 73. Le Rapporteur spécial : a) Recommande que, compte tenu de l’ampleur des violations des droits de l’homme, le Gouvernement du Myanmar impose à tous les fonctionnaires coupables de tels actes des mesures disciplinaires et des sanctions strictes et mette fin à la culture d’impunité qui règne dans tout le pays. À cet effet, le Gouvernement devrait immédiatement prendre certaines mesures, par exemple créer une ou plusieurs commissions nationales indépendantes chargées d’enquêter sur l’agression collective dirigée contre Aung San Suu Kyi en novembre 1996 et sur le massacre perpétré à Depayin en mai 2003, ainsi que sur la violence sexuelle généralisée à l’égard des femmes et des filles, afin de veiller à ce que les auteurs de ces infractions soient traduits en justice; b) Demande au Gouvernement du Myanmar d’autoriser le Rapporteur spécial, le personnel des Nations Unies et le personnel associé, ainsi que le personnel des organisations humanitaires à se rendre dans les zones touchées et d’assurer leur sûreté, leur sécurité et leur liberté de mouvement.
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/61/369/Corr.1)
        Format/size: pdf (30K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2006 (61me session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2006
        Description/subject: Résumé: La Commission des droits de l’homme a établi le mandat du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar dans sa résolution 1992/58 et le Conseil des droits de l’homme l’a prorogé la dernière fois dans sa décision 1/102, par laquelle il a décidé de reconduire pour une année, à titre exceptionnel, les mandats et les titulaires de mandats relevant de toutes les procédures spéciales de la Commission des droits de l’homme. Depuis novembre 2003, le Rapporteur spécial n’a pas été autorisé à effectuer de mission d’établissement des faits au Myanmar. Faute d’avoir pu se rendre dans ce pays au cours de la période considérée, il a continué de s’acquitter de son mandat du mieux qu’il le pouvait sur la base des informations recueillies auprès de différentes sources indépendantes et fiables. Ces deux dernières années, le processus de réforme qui avait été proposé dans la « feuille de route en sept points pour la réconciliation nationale et la transition démocratique », et auquel devaient être associées diverses parties intéressées à plus ou moins longue échéance, a été strictement circonscrit et délimité, ce qui a eu pour effet de réduire l’espace politique. En outre, des manoeuvres d’obstruction ont ralenti le rythme des réformes nécessaires à la démocratisation et entravé la participation à ces réformes. Les travaux de la Convention nationale s’en sont ressentis. Au fil des décennies, l’espace disponible pour la création d’institutions civiles et démocratiques n’a cessé de se restreindre. La capacité de la force publique, de même que l’indépendance et l’impartialité de la justice, ont été entravées par le règne de l’impunité, ce qui a renforcé les inégalités et creusé le fossé entre pauvres et riches. Le 27 mai 2006, le maintien en résidence surveillée d’Aung San Suu Kyi a de nouveau été prolongé pour un an, en dépit des appels internationaux qui ont été lancés, notamment par le Secrétaire général de l’ONU. D’après les estimations, à la fin août 2006, le Myanmar comptait 1 185 prisonniers politiques. Entre les mois d’avril et de juillet 2006, 1 038 membres de la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie auraient été contraints, par des mesures d’intimidation et des menaces, de démissionner du parti. Le Rapporteur spécial insiste depuis le départ sur le fait que la réconciliation nationale doit passer par l’instauration d’un véritable dialogue, sans exclusive, avec les représentants politiques et entre eux. Il est fermement convaincu que ni l’arrestation et la détention de dirigeants politiques, ni les obstacles systématiquement mis à l’exercice des libertés fondamentales ne jouent en faveur de la réconciliation nationale ou de la stabilité du Myanmar. La persécution de membres de partis politiques de l’opposition et de défenseurs des droits de l’homme donne à penser que la feuille de route pour la démocratie se heurte aujourd’hui à trop d’obstacles pour déboucher sur une véritable transition. Par le passé, le Rapporteur spécial avait estimé que la feuille de route pourrait favoriser la transition politique. Malheureusement, le pays semble avoir perdu l’élan qu’il avait pris pendant les premières années de son mandat. Le Rapporteur spécial demeure particulièrement préoccupé par le problème de l’impunité, qui est devenue systématique et que le Gouvernement du Myanmar doit absolument combattre de toute urgence. Il est de plus en plus évident que l’impunité ne provient pas seulement de la faiblesse des institutions : elle permet aussi aux auteurs d’actes d’oppression commis à l’encontre de personnes qui s’opposent aux politiques et aux pratiques en vigueur d’échapper à leurs responsabilités. Des personnes et des groupes responsables de graves atteintes aux droits de l’homme, en particulier des militaires, échappent à la justice, et rien ne permet de penser que les autorités compétentes aient jamais enquêté sur les crimes en question. Les services du Conseil d’État pour la paix et le développement sont au courant de l’existence de graves violations des droits de l’homme, qui non seulement restent impunies mais sont autorisées par la loi. À cet égard, le Rapporteur spécial est également très préoccupé par les dysfonctionnements de justice, qui font obstacle à la primauté du droit et à l’exercice effectif et véritable des libertés fondamentales. Il est, en particulier, alarmé que les dissidents politiques, les défenseurs des droits de l’homme et les victimes de violations de ces droits soient poursuivis comme des criminels lorsqu’ils veulent exercer leurs libertés fondamentales. Le Rapporteur spécial est vivement préoccupé par la poursuite de la campagne militaire dans des régions du Myanmar où vivent des minorités, et par les incidences de cette campagne sur les droits de l’homme, surtout pour les civils visés. Cette question ne peut être séparée de celle de la confiscation des terres, pratique répandue dans tout le pays qui, selon toute apparence, vise à consolider le contrôle des militaires, surtout dans les régions où vivent des minorités ethniques, et a conduit à de nombreux déplacements, expulsions et réinstallations forcés, ainsi qu’à des migrations et des mouvements forcés de populations à l’intérieur du Myanmar. La campagne militaire actuellement menée, est d’une telle ampleur qu’elle pourrait déboucher sur une crise humanitaire s’il n’y est pas mis fin immédiatement. Le Rapporteur spécial note que le 15 septembre 2006, le Conseil de sécurité a décidé d’inscrire la situation au Myanmar à son ordre du jour; il estime qu’un débat sur la question au Conseil de sécurité pourrait accélérer la démocratisation du pays.
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/61/369)
        Format/size: pdf (112K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: AG 2005 (60eme Session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais
        Date of publication: 12 August 2005
        Description/subject: Résumé: "Le mandat du Rapporteur spécial de la Commission des droits de l’homme sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar a été établi par la Commission dans sa résolution 1992/58 et prorogé la dernière fois dans sa résolution 2005/10. Dans cette résolution, la Commission a prié le Rapporteur spécial de présenter un rapport intérimaire à l’Assemblée générale, lors de sa soixantième session, et de lui faire rapport à elle-même à sa soixante-deuxième session. Le présent rapport, qui fait suite à cette demande, a été établi à partir des informations recueillies par le Rapporteur spécial jusqu’au 22 juillet 2005 et doit être rapproché du dernier rapport qu’il a présenté à la Commission (E/CN.4/2005/36). Depuis novembre 2003, le Rapporteur spécial n’a pas été autorisé à effectuer de mission d’établissement des faits au Myanmar. Faute d’avoir pu se rendre dans ce pays au cours de la période considérée, il a continué de s’acquitter de son mandat du mieux qu’il le pouvait sur la base des informations recueillies auprès de différentes sources indépendantes et fiables. La Convention nationale, pour sa reprise, a été convoquée du 17 février au 31 mars 2005 sans la participation de plusieurs partis politiques dont la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie (NLD). Les délégués invités à y participer appartenaient aux huit mêmes catégories que par le passé : partis politiques, représentants élus, ethnies nationales, paysans, travailleurs, intellectuels et intelligentsia, fonctionnaires d’État et groupes parties au cessez-le-feu. D’après la Commission chargée de son organisation, 1 073 des 1 081 délégués invités à y participer y ont assisté. L’exclusion d’acteurs politiques importants et représentatifs, les restrictions imposées à leur participation, l’intolérance face aux critiques et l’intimidation et la détention des militants pour la démocratie sont antinomiques de tout processus démocratique. Les libertés de mouvement, de rassemblement et d’association doivent être garanties car elles sont un préalable à la réconciliation nationale et à la démocratisation. Le Rapporteur spécial est fermement convaincu que si les procédures restrictives inhérentes à la Convention nationale ne sont pas levées et les représentants de l’opposition démocratique ne sont pas autorisés à participer à ses travaux, la Constitution qui en découlera manquera de crédibilité. Pour faire reposer les arrangements de procédure régissant la Convention nationale sur des bases démocratiques solides, il faut permettre la pleine participation et implication de tous les partis politiques et progresser réellement dans le processus de démocratisation. Le Gouvernement peut et doit prendre des mesures immédiates pour sauver la Convention de l’échec et conserver sa propre crédibilité sur les plans aussi bien national qu’international. La question de savoir à qui incombe l’élaboration de la constitution est un des aspects les plus critiques du processus politique en cours. En outre, on ignore encore à l’heure actuelle quelles seront exactement les règles qui s’appliquent à l’adoption de la constitution à l’occasion d’un référendum national. Le Rapporteur spécial constate avec regret que, d’après ses sources, la situation concernant l’exercice des droits fondamentaux et libertés civiles n’a pas vraiment évolué au cours de la période considérée. Il reçoit sans cesse des informations faisant état de restrictions et de violations de ces droits et libertés. Il y aurait encore plus de 1 100 prisonniers politiques au Myanmar. La libération de 249 d’entre eux le 6 juillet 2005 n’a pas empêché la poursuite des arrestations, des détentions et des condamnations de civils et militants démocratiques à des peines sévères pour des activités politiques pacifiques. Le Rapporteur spécial reste également très préoccupé par la pratique de la détention administrative. Il est tout à fait regrettable que la Secrétaire générale de la NLD, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, ait fêté son soixantième anniversaire en détention administrative. Sa détention dans des conditions de quasi-mise au secret et l’interdiction qui lui est faite d’avoir des contacts avec les membres de son parti sont contraires à l’esprit de réconciliation nationale. Le Rapporteur spécial note avec encouragement que les activités de prévention et de traitement du VIH/sida se sont multipliées mais s’inquiète toujours de ce que la maladie a pris les proportions d’une épidémie généralisée au Myanmar. Si le Gouvernement continue de collaborer à l’élaboration d’un plan d’action national en faveur des enfants, il n’en a pas pour autant ratifié les deux protocoles facultatifs à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant. De graves violations des droits de l’homme continuent d’être commises contre les minorités ethniques du Myanmar. Les allégations de travail forcé, de viol et autres violences sexuelles, d’extorsion et d’expropriation par les forces gouvernementales continuent d’affluer. Les victimes de ces violations ont rarement des voies de recours. La transition vers un système pleinement démocratique et participatif au Myanmar ne souffre plus aucun retard. Un dialogue politique et constitutionnel doit être entamé sans tarder. En faisant respecter les valeurs démocratiques et les droits de l’homme, le Gouvernement fera clairement comprendre à la population du Myanmar et à la communauté internationale qu’il est fermement résolu à contribuer à l’instauration d’un avenir stable et démocratique pour le pays. L’Organisation des Nations Unies et la communauté internationale sont prêtes à travailler en partenariat avec le Gouvernement, les partis politiques et les organisations de la société civile pour contribuer efficacement à la réconciliation nationale et à la démocratisation. S’il coopère plus activement avec les organisations internationales, le Gouvernement peut être assuré de leur soutien en vue du règlement des conflits, des réformes politiques et économiques, du renforcement des institutions et des capacités, de la fourniture d’une assistance humanitaire et du développement axé sur l’être humain."
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/60/221)
        Format/size: pdf (116K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 September 2005


        Title: AG 2004 (59me Session): Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial (Francais)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Résumé: Le mandat du Rapporteur spécial de la Commission des droits de l’homme sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar a été donné par la Commission dans sa résolution 1992/58 et prorogé, la dernière fois, dans sa résolution 2004/61. Dans cette résolution, la Commission a prié le Rapporteur spécial de présenter un rapport intérimaire à la cinquante-neuvième session de l’Assemblée générale. Le présent rapport a été établi à partir des informations recueillies par le Rapporteur spécial jusqu’au 30 juillet 2004 et doit être rapproché du dernier rapport qu’il a présenté à la Commission (E/CN.4/2004/33). Depuis sa dernière mission au Myanmar en novembre 2003, le Rapporteur spécial a demandé au Gouvernement du Myanmar, à plusieurs reprises, de coopérer à son retour dans le pays en vue d’une mission d’établissement des faits. Cependant, s’il a donné son accord de principe à cette visite du Rapporteur spécial, aucune autorisation n’a été reçue de lui. Le Rapporteur spécial donne donc dans le présent rapport un résumé succinct des questions qu’il a examinées durant sa dernière visite, et sur la base d’informations recueillies auprès d’autres sources. Le Rapporteur spécial s’efforcera de retourner au Myanmar afin de s’acquitter pleinement de son mandat. La Convention nationale, pour sa reprise, a été convoquée du 17 mai au 9 juillet 2004. La relance de la Convention nationale constitue la première étape d’une feuille de route en sept points pour la réconciliation nationale et la transition démocratique, présentée par le Premier Ministre, le général Khin Nyunt, le 30 août 2003. Les autorités ont annoncé que les délégués à la nouvelle Convention nationale devraient formuler leurs propositions en fonction des six grands objectifs et des 104 principes déjà posés durant celle qui s’est tenue entre 1993 et 1996. La Convention nationale a été convoquée sans la National League for Democracy (NLD) ni les autres partis politiques qui avaient remporté la majorité des sièges aux élections de 1990. Elle a réuni 1 076 délégués, alors que la Convention précédente n’en avait réuni que 702. Cette augmentation s’explique essentiellement par le nombre accru de représentants des nationalités, y compris les groupes qui sont apparus dans le nouveau paysage politique à la suite des accords de cessez-le-feu signés avec 17 groupes armés. Pour les minorités ethniques, la Convention nationale de 2004 pourrait constituer une occasion irremplaçable de résoudre les conflits. Le Rapporteur spécial rappelle que les préoccupations qu’il avait exprimées dans son dernier rapport à la Commission au sujet de la Convention nationale n’ont pas été dissipées et que les mesures nécessaires pour assurer un fonctionnement démocratique minimal de la Convention nationale au moment où elle est à nouveau convoquée n’ont pas été prises. Le Rapporteur spécial réaffirme que si le Gouvernement souhaite faciliter un authentique processus de transition politique, il doit respecter des règles élémentaires concernant les droits de l’homme. Le Rapporteur spécial espère néanmoins que les résultats finals des travaux de la Convention nationale apporteront des solutions concrètes aux problèmes de l’ensemble de la population du Myanmar. La libération de Mme Aung San Suu Kyi et l’amorce d’un dialogue de fond avec elle et avec son parti ainsi que la conclusion d’un accord avec les groupes ayant signé le cessez-le-feu, qui tiendrait compte de leurs propositions, contribueraient à faire avancer le processus politique. À cet égard, le Rapporteur spécial engage le Gouvernement du Myanmar à reconnaître le rôle de l’Envoyé spécial du Secrétaire général et la nécessité de son retour dans ce pays le plus tôt possible en vue de poursuivre ses efforts de facilitation, notamment dans le cadre de la préparation de la prochaine session de la Convention nationale. Les informations reçues par le Rapporteur spécial au cours de la période considérée donnent à penser que la situation concernant l’exercice des droits fondamentaux et des libertés civiles au Myanmar n’a pas beaucoup changé. Les conséquences sur les droits de l’homme des événements du 30 mai 2003 à Depayin ne sont pas totalement estompées. Les détenus demeurent très nombreux dans les quartiers de sécurité. Le Rapporteur spécial a été informé de la poursuite des arrestations et des condamnations à des peines sévères de personnes menant des activités politiques pacifiques; un grand nombre des cas signalés ont été soulevés par le Rapporteur spécial dans ses lettres et appels urgents adressés au Gouvernement du Myanmar. Il reste également préoccupé par la pratique de la détention administrative. Des restrictions continuent de peser sur l’activité politique. Tous les locaux de la NLD demeurent fermés, à l’exception de son siège à Yangon, qui a été autorisé à rouvrir en avril 2004. D’après des informations récentes, la NLD a réussi malgré ces restrictions à mener certaines activités. On ne sait pas dans quelle mesure la NLD et les autres partis politiques seront autorisés à mener des activités politiques pacifiques sans subir de représailles, mais le Rapporteur spécial tient à rappeler les vues exprimées au cours de sa dernière mission en novembre, à savoir que la mise en oeuvre de la feuille de route doit s’accompagner de changements tangibles conduisant à un processus véritablement libre, transparent et ouvert à tous, avec le concours de tous les partis politiques, groupes ethniques et membres de la société civile. Le respect des droits et des libertés politiques est une condition essentielle de la création d’un climat favorisant le succès de la transition démocratique. La mise en oeuvre de réformes dans le domaine des droits de l’homme, que le Rapporteur spécial avait préconisée dans ses rapports et ses lettres aux autorités du Myanmar, contribuerait à un tel climat. Durant la période considérée, le Rapporteur spécial a pris connaissance d’informations crédibles et détaillées faisant état de violations des droits de l’homme dans certaines zones où sont menées des opérations anti-insurrectionnelles, au Myanmar, et espère qu’il sera en mesure d’apporter des précisions sur ces informations durant sa prochaine mission. Il rappelle que les autorités du Myanmar n’ont pas encore répondu à sa demande d’organisation d’une évaluation indépendante dans l’État Shan. Le Rapporteur spécial a pris note de la coopération du Gouvernement du Myanmar avec le Comité des droits de l’enfant à l’occasion de l’examen du second rapport périodique du Myanmar sur l’application de la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant. Le Rapporteur spécial constate que depuis quelques années la communauté internationale comprend mieux l’impératif d’une aide humanitaire au Myanmar. À ce sujet, il salue les efforts qu’accomplit l’équipe des Nations Unies au Myanmar pour recenser les facteurs de vulnérabilité, au Myanmar, afin de mettre au point un plancadre de l’aide de l’ONU. Étant donné la situation qui prévaut actuellement au Myanmar, les recommandations et les conclusions données dans les rapports antérieurs du Rapporteur spécial demeurent valables.
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (165K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: AG 2003: Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial
        Date of publication: 05 August 2003
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies
        Format/size: pdf, Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/e06a5300f90fa0238025668700518ca4/bae571e4004cb1a4c1256da9003ece48/$FILE/N0345984.doc
        Date of entry/update: 29 October 2003


        Title: AG 2002 Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport intérimaire établi par le Rapporteur spécial
        Date of publication: 09 August 2002
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies
        Format/size: pdf, Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/2850b6b995dc5febc1256c55002dbfd7/$FILE/N0264235.pdf (correction)
        http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/2850b6b995dc5febc1256c55002dbfd7/$FILE/N0251785.doc
        http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/2850b6b995dc5febc1256c55002dbfd7/$FILE/N0264235.doc (correction)
        Date of entry/update: 29 October 2003


        Title: AG 2001: Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar- Rapport int�rimaire �tabli par le Rapporteur sp�cial
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: Assembl�e g�n�rale, Cinquante-sixi�me session. Le Secr�taire g�n�ral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assembl�e g�n�rale le rapport int�rimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, �tabli par Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, Rapporteur sp�cial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conform�ment � la r�solution 2001/15 de la Commission et � la d�cision 2001/251 du Conseil �conomique et social.
        Author/creator: M. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Francais, English and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/56/312)
        Format/size: pdf (215 K),MS Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/a89062dfcd84095bc1256ad9004d78a9/$FILE/N0151753.pdf
        http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/517/52/PDF/N0151752.pdf?OpenElement (English)
        http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 2000: Situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar - Rapport int�rimaire par le Rapporteur sp�cial
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: Assembl�e g�n�rale, Cinquante-cinqui�me session. Le Secr�taire g�n�ral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assembl�e g�n�rale le rapport int�rimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, �tabli par Rajsoomer Lallah, Rapporteur sp�cial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conform�ment � la r�solution 2000/23 de la Commission et � la d�cision 2000/255 du Conseil �conomique et social.
        Author/creator: M. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Francais, English and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/55/359)
        Format/size: pdf (111 K) et Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/25fb2381e52cc7bcc1256983002f1a7f/$FILE/0063505f.doc
        http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1999: situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar - rapport du Rapporteur special
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: Assembl�e g�n�rale, Cinquante-quatri�me session. Le Secr�taire g�n�ral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assembl�e g�n�rale le rapport int�rimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, �tabli par M. Rajsoomer Lallah, Rapporteur sp�cial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conform�ment � la r�solution 1999/17 de la Commission en date du 23 avril 1999 et � la d�cision 1999/231 du Conseil �conomique et social en date du 27 juillet 1999.
        Author/creator: M. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Francais, English and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: Nations UNies (A/54/440)
        Format/size: pdf (61 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N99/290/89/PDF/N9929089.pdf?OpenElement (English)
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: AG 1998: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: Assemble gnral, Cinquante-troisime session. Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, tabli par M. Rajsoomer Lallah, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conformment la dcision 1998/261 du Conseil conomique et social en date du 30 juillet 1998.
        Author/creator: M. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/53/364)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1997: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, tabli par M. Rajsoomer Lallah, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conformment la rsolution 51/117 de l'Assemble gnrale, en date du 12 dcembre 1996, et la dcision 1997/272 du Conseil conomique et social, en date du 22 juillet 1997.
        Author/creator: M. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: A/52/484
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1996: Rapport intrimaire du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 October 1996
        Description/subject: Assemble gnrale, Cinquante et unime session. Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, tabli par le juge Rajsoomer Lallah, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme, conformment la rsolution 1996/80 de la Commission en date du 23 avril 1996.
        Author/creator: M. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/51/466)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1995: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1995
        Description/subject: Assemble gnrale, Cinquantime session. Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire tabli par M. Yozo Yokota, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme charg d'examiner la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, conformment au paragraphe 20 de la rsolution 1995/72 de la Commission en date du 8 mars 1995 et la dcision 1995/283 du Conseil conomique et social en date du 25 juillet 1995.
        Author/creator: M. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/50/568)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1994: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar (Annex)
        Date of publication: 09 November 1994
        Description/subject: Assemblee Generale, Quarante-neuvime session 1. Le Rapporteur spcial a soumis au Gouvernement du Myanmar, le 5 octobre 1994, un rsum des allgations qu'il avait reues concernant les violations des droits de l'homme au Myanmar (pour le texte, voir A/49/594, par. 9). Dans sa lettre d'accompagnement, le Rapporteur spcial priait le Gouvernement du Myanmar de lui faire tenir les rponses cinq questions particulires (voir A/49/594, par. 8). 2. Par note verbale date du 4 novembre 1994, la Mission permanente de l'Union du Myanmar auprs de l'Office des Nations Unies Genve a transmis les rponses du Gouvernement du Myanmar au rsum des allgations reues par le Rapporteur spcial, ainsi qu'aux cinq questions particulires poses par ce dernier dans sa lettre du 5 octobre 1994. 3. On trouvera ci-aprs le texte complet de la rponse du Gouvernement du Myanmar au rsum des allgations reues par le Rapporteur spcial :
        Author/creator: M. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/49/594/Add.1)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1994: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 1994
        Description/subject: Assemble gnrale, Quarante-neuvime session. Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire tabli par M. Yozo Yokota, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme charg d'examiner la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, conformment au paragraphe 20 de la rsolution 1994/85 de la Commission en date du 9 mars 1994 et la dcision 1994/269 du Conseil conomique et social en date du 25 juillet 1994.
        Author/creator: M. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/49/594)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1993: Rapport du Rapporteur spcial sur la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 November 1993
        Description/subject: Assemble gnrale, Quarante-huitime session. Le Secrtaire gnral a l'honneur de transmettre aux membres de l'Assemble gnrale le rapport intrimaire tabli par le professeur Yozo Yokota, Rapporteur spcial de la Commission des droits de l'homme charg d'examiner la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanmar, conformment au paragraphe 16 de la rsolution 1993/73 de la Commission en date du 10 mars 1993 et de la dcision 1993/278 du Conseil conomique et social en date du 28 juillet 1993.
        Author/creator: M. Yozo Yokota
        Language: Francais
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies (A/48/578)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: AG 1992 (47eme session) Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur la situation des droits de l’homme au Myanmar (francais)
        Date of publication: 13 November 1992
        Description/subject: "Le 3 mars 1992, à sa quarante-huitième session, la Commission des droits de l'homme a adopt~ la r~solution 1992/58. intitul~e "La situation des ~roits de l'homme au Myanmar". Dans cette r~solution, la Commission soulignait que conform~ment à la Charte, l'Organisation des Nations Unies favorise et encourage le respect des droits de l'homme et des libert~s fondamentales pour tous et que la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme énonce que ·'la volont~ du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité du pouvoir public"; elle notait ~galement avec une préoccupation particulière à cet égard que le processus électoral engagé au Myanmar avec les élections générales du 27 mai 1990 n'était pas encore parvenu à son terme. qu'aucun progrès apparent n'avait été fait pour concrétiser la volonté politique du peuple du Myanmar, telle qu'elle s'était exprimée dans les élections, et que les résultats définitifs des élections n'avaient pas même été rendus officiellement publics; elle notait aussi que de nombreux dirigeants politiques, en particulier des représentants élus, demeuraient privés de liberté et que Daw Aung San Suu Kyi faisait toujours l'objet d'une assignation à domicile; elle notait avec préoccupation la gravité de la situation des droits de l'homme au Myanrnar, l'existence de restrictions importantes qui pesaient sur l'exercice des libertés fondamentales et l'imposition de mesures oppressives dirigées en particulier contre des groupes minoritaires. ainsi que l'exode continu de réfugi~s du Myanmar vers les pays voisins. y compris celui des réfugiés musulmans du Myanmar vers le Bangladesh..."
        Language: Francais, French
        Source/publisher: Nations Unies -- Assemblée générale (A47-651)
        Format/size: pdf (2 MB)
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


      • Reports to the GA by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar (Arabic)

        Individual Documents

        Title: GA 2014 (69th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: لا أد من الإشادة أالمرحلة الانتقالية الهامة الـ رـر ـا ميانمـار وأالإصـاحات البعيـدة المدى الجارية فيها. غير عنه ينبغـي التدـدلأ لألأ عامـات لتملـة للتراجـلا حـس لا تتسـب في تقــويا التقــدم ا ــرر. ويعــرت رــذا التقريــر ــالات التركيــز الر يســية الأو ليــة الــ تارحهــا المقررة الخاصة وتوصـيااا الراميـة لى الإسـهام في الجهـود الـ تبـذلها ميانمـار مـن عجـ احتـرام حقوق الإنسان وحمايتها وتعزيزرا ولرسا الديمقراطية وتحقيق المدالحة الوطنية والتنمية
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (367K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/23/pdf/N1454523.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: GA 2013 (68th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: موجز في هذا التقرير ، يصف المقرر الخاص كيف تستمر الإصلاحات الجارية في ميانمار في ﺗﻬيئة آفاق لتحقيق أوجه تحسن كبيرة في حالة حقوق الإنسان . وتشمل التطورات الهامة التي شهدﺗﻬا الفترة المشمولة بالتقرير استمرار الإفراج عن سجناء ا لضمير؛ وتعزيز احترام الحق في حرية الرأي والتعبير؛ وإحراز تقدم نحو التوصل إلى اتفاق بشأن وقف إطلاق النار على الصعيد الوطني . غير أن المقرر الخاص يسلط الضوء على الأخطار الناجمة عن التغاض ي عن أوجه القصور في مجال حقوق الإنسان أو عن التعامل مع أوجه القصور هذه على افتراض أن الزخم المتوّلد عن الإصلاحات الحالية سيؤدي دون شك إلى معالجتها . ويحذر من أن أوجه القصور هذه، إذا لم تتم معالجتها الآن، ستترسخ على نحو متزايد في مجالات من قبيل المساءلة عن انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان ؛ وحقوق الأقليات العرقية والدينية؛ والحق في التجمع السلمي وفي تكوين الجمعيات؛ وتمثيل المرأة في مناصب صنع ال قرار؛ و الحقوق في الأراضي ؛ وحقوق الإنسان والتنمية . وعلاوة على ذلك، فإﻧﻬ ا ستؤدي في ﻧﻬاية المطاف إلى تقويض عملية الإصلاح نفسها ما لم تتم معالجتها وفقا للمعايير الدولية لحقوق الإنسان . ويخلص إلى أن التحدي القائم منذ بداية عملية الإصلاح يتمثل في تحقيق الانتقال من العقلية العسكرية السائدة داخل الحكومة إلى عقلية ديمقراطية تحترم حقوق الإنسان.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/68/397)
        Format/size: pdf (278K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: GA 2012 (67th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: موجز شهدت الفترة التي يغطيها التقرير مرة أخرى حدوث تغييرات هائلة وسريعة في ميانمار، يمكن أن تؤدي إلى زيادة تحسن حالة حقوق الإنسان في البلد، ولكن اس تمرار الشواغل الطويلة الأمد أيضا ما زال يشكل مخاطر ﺗﻬدد عملية الإصلاح. ......المحتويات الصفحة أولا - مقدمة . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٣ ثانيا - حالة حقوق الإنسان . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٤ ألف - سجناء الضمير . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٥ باء - ظروف احتجاز السجناء ومعاملتهم . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٦ جيم - مسائل أخرى متعلقة بالحقوق المدنية و السياسية . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٧ دال - اﻟﻤﺠتمع المد ني . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٩ هاء - الحقوق الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ١٠ ثالثا - حالة الأقليات العرقية . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ١٤ رابعا - الحالة في ولاية راخين . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ١٨ خامسا - الانتقال الديمقراطي وإرساء سيادة القانون . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٢٢ سادسًا - الحقيقة والعدالة والمساءلة . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٢٦ سابعًا - الاستنتاجات . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ٢٧ ثامنًا - التوصيا ت
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/67/383
        Format/size: pdf (316K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: GA 2011 (66th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: موجز تشهد ميانمار لحظة حاسمة في تاريخها وهناك فرص حقيقية لحدوث تط ورات إيجابية هادفة تتحسن ﺑﻬا حالة حقوق الإنسان وتتعمق من خلالها عملية الانتقال إلى الديمقراطية . وقد اتخذت الحكومة الجديدة عددًا من الخطوات لتحقيق ذلك . على أن هناك كثيرا من قضايا حقوق الإنسان التي لا تزال متبقية ويتعين معالجته ا. وينبغي للحكومة الجديدة أن تضاعف جهودها لتنفيذ الالتزامات التي قطعتها على نفسها وللوفاء بالتزاماﺗﻬا الدولية في مجال حقوق الإنسان. ويجب على اﻟﻤﺠتمع الدولي أن يواصل اهتمامه ﺑﻬذه التطورات وأن يتابعها عن كث ب . كما يتعين أن يقدم اﻟﻤﺠتمع الدولي الدعم والمساعدة للحكومة في هذه المرحلة الهامة . ويؤكد المقرر الخاص مجددًا استعداده للعمل بصورة بناءة والتعاون مع ميانمار لتحسين حالة حقوق الإنسان لشعبها.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/66/365)
        Format/size: pdf (331K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: GA 2010 (65th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: موجز ٢٥ وقرار الجمعية العامة / يقدَّم هذا التقرير عملا بقرار مجلس حقوق الإنسان ١٣ ٢٨٣ ، وهو يغطي مستجدات حقوق الإنسان في ميانمار منذ تقديم تقرير المقرر الخاص /٦٤ .(A/HRC/13/48) إلى مجلس حقوق الإنسان في آذار/مارس ٢٠١٠ وفي ١٣ آب /أغسطس ٢٠١٠ ، أعلنت حكومة ميانم ار أن موعد الانتخابات الوطنية الذي طال انتظاره هو ٧ تشرين الثاني/نوفمبر ٢٠١٠ . ويركز هذا التقرير على حقوق الإنسان في علاقتها مع الانتخابات، وعلى مسألة العدالة والمساءلة . وتتسم شروط عقد انتخابات نزيهة بالمحدودية في ظل الظروف الحالية، ويظل احتمال أن تحدث هذه الانتخابات تغييرا مجديا وأن تحسّن حالة حقوق الإنسان في ميانمار أمرا غير مؤكد. وفيما يتعلق بمسألة العدالة والمساءلة، يلاحظ المقرر الخاص أنه بينما تتحمل حكومة ميانمار المسؤولية في المقام الأول عن التصدي لمشكلة الانتهاكات الجسيمة والمنهجية لحقوق الإنسان التي ترتكبها جميع الأطراف، فإن هذه المسؤولية تقع على عاتق اﻟﻤﺠتمع الدولي ما لم تضطلع ﺑﻬا الحكومة. ويوصي المقرر الخاص بأن تحترم حكومة ميانمار حرية التعبير والرأي وحرية التجمع في سياق الانتخابات الوطنية؛ وتطلق سراح جميع سجناء الضمير؛ وتعالج مسألة العدالة والمساءلة؛ وتنّفذ العناصر الأساسية الأربعة لحقوق الإنسان، على النحو المفصل في تقاريره السابقة؛ وتسهّل وصول المساعدات الإنسانية؛ وتواصل تطوير التعاون مع منظومة حقوق الإنسان الدولية.
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/65/368)
        Format/size: pdf (322K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/534/75/pdf/N1053475.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


        Title: GA 2009 (64th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: موجز ٢٤٥ وقرار مجلس حقوق الإنسان / يقدّم هذا التقرير عملا بقرار الجمعية العامة ٦٣ ٢٧ . وينبغي قراءته بالاقتران مع التقرير المقدّم من المقرر الخاص إلى مجلس حقوق /١٠ حيث أنه ير ّ كز بشكل رئيسي عل ى التطورات ،(A/HRC/10/ الإنسان في دورته العاشرة ( 19 التي استجدّت في مجال حقوق الإنسان في ميانمار منذ تقديم ذلك التقرير. وكانت محاكمة أونغ سان سو كيي أهم أحداث الفترة المشمولة بالاستعراض . فالحكم عليها ب ١٨ شهرا إضافية من الإقامة الجبرية يعني منعها من المشاركة النشطة في انتخابات عام ٢٠١٠ . ويرى المقرر الخاص أن استمرار فرض الإقامة الجبرية عليها يشكل ضربة لخارطة الطريق إلى الديمقراطية ذات الخطوات السبع التي وضعتها الحكومة، وهو يأسف لأن حكومة ميانمار قد أهدرت فرصة أخرى لإثبات التزامها بإجراء انتخابات حرة ونزيهة وشاملة للجميع. ويركّز التقرير على قضا يا حماية حقوق الإنسان . وهو يسّلط الضوء، على وجه الخصوص، على حالة سجناء الرأي، وعلى حقهم في المحاكمة العادلة وفي مراعاة الأصول القانونية الواجبة، وعلى ظروف احتجازهم؛ ويسّلط الضوء كذلك على حرية التعبير والتجمّع وتكوين الجمعيات في سياق الانتخابات التي ستجرى في عام ٢٠١٠ . ويتضمن التقرير بالإضافة إلى ذلك استعراضا للنزاعات الداخلية ومسائل حماية المدنيين والتمييز والحاجة إلى المساعدة الإنسانية. ويكرّر المقرر الخاص توصيته بتنفيذ أربعة عناصر رئيسية لحقوق الإنسان، ألا وهي : إجراء استعراض للتشريعات الوطنية وفقا للدستور الجديد والالتزامات الدولية؛ والإفراج تدريجيا عن سجناء الرأي؛ وإصلاح القوات المسلحة لضمان احترام القانون الدولي لحقوق الإنسان والقانون الإنساني الدولي، بما يشمل التدريب؛ وإنشاء سلطة قضائية مستقلة ومحايدة. وبما أن ميانمار ليست طرفا إلا في اتفاقية حقوق الط فل واتفاقية القضاء على جميع أشكال التمييز ضد المرأة، فإن المقرّر الخاص يوصي بقوة بأن تنضم ميانمار إلى سائر صكوك حقوق الإنسان الدولية الرئيسية.
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/64/318)
        Format/size: pdf (269K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/491/49/pdf/N0949149.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


        Title: GA 2008 (63rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 05 September 2008
        Description/subject: Summary: "In its resolution 1992/58, the Commission on Human Rights established the mandate on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, which was then extended by the Human Rights Council in its decision 1/102 and resolution 5/1. In March 2008, by its resolution 7/32, the Council extended the mandate for one year. On 26 March 2008, Tomás Ojea Quintana (Argentina) was appointed as the new Special Rapporteur, and he officially assumed the function on 1 May 2008. Following a request for a visit from 3 to 13 August 2008, on 9 July the Special Rapporteur received a positive response from the Government of Myanmar to undertake a mission to that country from 3 to 7 August 2008. The Special Rapporteur would like to thank the Government of Myanmar for its hospitality and the cooperation he received during his first mission to the country. This visit was mainly aimed at establishing working relations with the authorities, to meet with civil society and also with those who do not enjoy their fundamental rights. The programme of the visit is annexed to the report. The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 62/222. The first part focuses on the activities and programme of work of the Special Rapporteur. The second part of the report concentrates on substantive issues and elaborates on those related to the protection of human rights in the context of the new Constitution; and the question of participation in the democratic process and organization of the 2010 elections; the right to assembly and right to freedom of opinion and expression and their formulation in the new Constitution; and the question of international humanitarian law and protection of civilians, as well as the situation of specific groups such as ethnic groups, women and children. The Special Rapporteur further elaborates on the mechanisms in place to ensure maximum protection in the context of natural disaster cyclone Nargis, and the living conditions, sustenance and its human rights implications. Finally, the Special Rapporteur discusses developments that have taken place in international cooperation and that relate to human rights issues pertinent to his mandate and the environment for a strengthened cooperation on the promotion and protection of human rights in the country. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur includes four core human rights elements for paving the road to democracy in Myanmar."
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (265K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2008


        Title: GA 2007 (62nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: "The present report is submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 61/232. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the decision of the Government of Myanmar to reconvene the National Convention for its last session on 18 July 2007, to finish laying down principles for a new constitution as part of a seven-stage road map to democracy. He remains concerned, however, at the lack of opportunity for effective and genuine participation by the National League for Democracy (NLD) and ethnic groups, which have deliberately chosen not to participate owing to the lack of transparency and meaningful input. He has repeated on several occasions that there will be no authentic democratic transition in Myanmar until all political prisoners are released. Given the importance of the last phase of the National Convention, he deplores the extension of the house arrest of the NLD General Secretary and the continued detention of other political leaders. At a time of such importance to the political reform process and in view of the need for reconciliation, such severe treatment of senior ethnic nationality leaders sends a very counterproductive signal, shocking many citizens and human rights observers. The human rights concerns enumerated in the present report are largely very similar to those highlighted by the Special Rapporteur last year. The Special Rapporteur deplores the fact that the Government, despite several requests, has not invited him to visit the country. For this reason he was not able to assess any improvements or verify the accuracy of the allegations received from credible sources. Severe restrictions on fundamental freedoms are imposed on political activists and human rights defenders. As of 27 June 2007, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,192. Throughout the country communities are subjected to patterns of abuse by members of the military who, in order to assert greater central government control, and often to implement national development projects, resort to forced labour, the seizure of property and assets and the forced relocation of populations, particularly in the border areas where ethnic nationality groups reside. The lack of an effective commitment by the Government of Myanmar to respond to the human rights situation continues to raise serious concerns. At the national level, the capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hindered by sustained impunity. The restrictions on the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses is also a matter of concern. The Special Rapporteur also takes note with great satisfaction of the Understanding between the International Labour Organizations and the Government of Myanmar, concluded on 26 February 2007, to provide a mechanism to enable victims of forced labour to seek redress. The Special Rapporteur has also noted concrete developments which he considers to be significant milestones in the fight against impunity in Myanmar. These include the establishment of a national redress mechanism to receive complaints of forced labour, and the dialogue initiated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict with the Government regarding the development of an action plan to halt recruitment of child soldiers and to develop reintegration programmes and the setting up of a national mechanism to report on human rights violations committed against children during armed conflict. These mechanisms should lead to greater access to currently restricted areas for the provision of humanitarian assistance, as well as the monitoring of violations. The Special Rapporteur is convinced that Myanmar would benefit from more active cooperation with his mandate, now under terms of reference that have been redefined by the Human Rights Council. He insists that it is his obligation to go public about allegations of human rights violations, but that this does not exclude a constructive and continuous dialogue with the Government. These two elements of his mandate can contribute to a new dynamic for the improvement of the situation of human rights in the country. As indicated by the Special Rapporteur in his previous report, it will not be easy for Myanmar to promote political transition and basic human rights. The collaboration of the United Nations and the international community are essential to support the efforts of the Government and civil society. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur encourages the international community to promote a framework of principles to enable Member States to pursue a plurality of strategies and cooperation with the Government of Myanmar in accordance with their particular strengths and capacities. It is urgent that the international community build on existing programmes of humanitarian assistance and support health, education and human rights, in particular through support to the development of civil society..."
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (169K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session) Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic) Corr. 1
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Situation of human rights in Myanmar Note by the Secretary-General... Corrigendum: 1. Paragraph 56 The last sentence should read The March/April outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza remains of serious concern, although there is no human case of H5N1 in Myanmar. 2. Paragraph 73 For the existing text substitute 73. The Special Rapporteur would like: (a) To recommend that, given the magnitude of human rights abuses, the Government of Myanmar should subject all officials committing these acts to strict disciplinary control and punishment and put an end to the culture of impunity that prevails throughout the country. In that respect, a number of immediate steps should be taken, such as setting up (an) independent national commission(s) to look into the mob attack of Aung San Suu Kyi in November 1996 and the brutal Depayin incident in May 2003, and to investigate the widespread sexual violence against women and girls with a view to ensuring that those responsible for such crimes are brought to justice; (b) To call upon the Government of Myanmar to authorize access to the affected areas by the Special Rapporteur, the United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations and to guarantee their safety, security and freedom of movement.
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369/Corr.1)
        Format/size: pdf (60K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2006
        Description/subject: أنشأت لجنة حقوق الإنسان ولاية المقرر الخاص المعني بحالة حقوق الإنسان في ٥٨ ومدد هذه الولاية مؤخرا مجلس حقوق الإنسان، في مقرره / ميانمار في قرارها ١٩٩٢ ١٠٢ ، الذي قرر الس بموجبه أن يمدد، على نحو استثنائي لمدة سنة واحدة، الولايات /١ المتعلقة بالإجراءات الخاصة للجنة والقائمين على تلك الولايات. ولم يسمح للمقرر الخاص بأن يجري بعثة تقصي حقائق في ميانمار منذ تشرين الثاني /نوفمبر ٢٠٠٣ . وبما أنه لم يسمح له بالدخول إلى البلد خلال الفترة المشمولة ذا التقرير، فقد واصل ممارسة ولايته بقدر ما يستطيع مستندًا إلى المعلوما ت التي جمعت من عدد مختلف من المصادر المستقلة والموثوقة. وفي السنتين الماضيتين، تعرضت عملية الإصلاح المقترحة في ”خريطة الطريق ذات النقاط السبع من أجل المصالحة الوطنية والانتقال نحو الديمقراطية “، التي كانت دف إلى أن تظل مفتوحة أمام مختلف الجهات المعنية، إلى ضغوط وقيود شديدة. ونتيجة لذلك، تم تضييق تعريف اال السياسي؛ وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، فإن العوائق التي برزت خلال السنتين الماضيتين أعاقت تقدم الإصلاحات المطلوبة لإضفاء الديمقراطية وأثرت على شموليتها . وقد تأثر عمل المؤتمر الوطني سلبًا نتيجة هذا التطور. وخلال عشرات السنوات، تقلص اال المتاح لإنشاء مؤسسات مدنية وديمقراطية إلى درجة كبيرة . وقد أعاقت الممارسة المستمرة للإفلات من العقاب قدرة مؤسسات إنفاذ القانون واستقلالية وحياد الهيئة القضائية . وساهم هذا الحال في ت رسيخ عدم المساوا ة وزيادة الفجوة بين الأكثر فقرا والأكثر غنى. وفي ٢٧ أيار/مايو، مددت الإقامة الجبرية ل أوانغ سانغ سو كي لمدة ١٢ شهرا أخرى رغم مختلف المناشدات الدولية، بما في ذلك مناشدة الأمين العام ل لأمم المتحدة . وفي اية آب/أغسطس ٢٠٠٦ ، ُق  در عدد السجناء السياسيين ب ١١٨٥ سجينًا. ومن ١ عضوًا من العصبة الوطنية من أجل نيسان /أبريل إلى تموز /يوليه ٢٠٠٦ ، أفيد أن ٠٣٨ الديمقراطية قد أرغموا على الاستقالة من الحزب بعد أعمال الترهيب والتهديد . وما فتئ المقرر الخاص يشير إلى أن المصالحة الوطنية تحتاج إلى حوار شامل وذي مغزى مع الممثلين السياسيين وفيما بينهم . وهو يعتقد اعتقادا راسخا بأن إلقاء القبض على عدد من القادة السياسيين واحتجازهم أو تقييد الحريات الأساسية بشكل مستمر لا يخدم المصالحة الوطنية واستقرار ميانمار. A/61/369 3 06-53068 وبالنظر إلى اضطهاد عدد من الأحزاب السياسية في المعارضة والمدافعين عن حقوق الإنسان، يبين أن خريط ة الطريق للديمقراطية تواجه اليوم عوائق كثيرة تحول دون حد وث عملية انتقال حقيقية . وقد أعرب المقرر الخاص في الماضي عن اعتقاده بأن خريطة الطريق قد تؤدي دورًا إيجابيا في عملية الانتقال السياسية. ولكن يبدو للأسف أن الزخم الإيجابي في السنوات الأولى من ولايته قد توقف. ولا يزال المقرر الخاص يشعر بالقلق بشكل خاص إزاء استمرار الإفلات من العقاب، الذي أصبح منهجيا ويجب أن تتصدى له حكومة ميانمار بسرعة . وأصبح من الواضح على نحو متزايد أن الإفلات من العقاب باستمرار لا ينبع من الافتقار إلى قدرة المؤسسات، إذ أدى الإفلات من العقاب إلى تفادي المساءلة عن الأعمال التي كتمت الأصوات التي تتساءل عن السياسات والممارسات القائمة . ولم تجر مقاضاة العديد من الأفراد واموعات المسؤولة عن ارتكاب انتهاكات خطيرة لحقوق الإنسان، وخاصة الأفراد العسكريين. ولا تكاد توجد دلائل على إجراء تحقيقات ع ن هذه الجرائم الخطيرة من قبل السلطات المختصة. إن الهياكل المنشأة التابعة لس الدولة للسلام والتنمية لا تداري الإفلات من العقاب إزاء الانتهاكات الخطيرة لحقوق الإنسان فحسب، بل تأذن ا القوانين أيضًا . وفي هذا اال، يشعر المقرر الخاص أيضا بالقلق إزاء استمرار سوء استغلال النظام القانوني مما ينكر سيادة القانون ويمثل عقبة رئيسية في وجه كفالة الممارسة الفعالة وذات المغزى للحريات الأساسية من قبل المواطنين . ومما يثير قلقه بشكل خاص تجريم ممارسة الحريات الأساسية من قبل الم عارضين السياسيين والمدافعين عن حقوق الإ نسان وضحايا انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان. ويشعر المقرر الخاص بقلق شديد إزاء الحملة العسكرية الجارية في المناطق الإثنية في شرقي ميانمار و آثارها على حقوق الإن سان، وخاصة على المدنيين الذين ا س تهدفوا خلال الهجمات. ويجب النظر في الحالة في ضوء انتشار ممارسة مصادرة ا لأراضي على نطاق واسع في جميع أنحاء البلد، التي يبدو أا دف إلى ترسيخ السيطرة العسكرية، وخاصة في المناطق الإثنية. وقد أدت هذه الممارسة إلى عمليات إخلاء ونقل وإعادة استيطان قسرية كثيرة جدا، وإلى حالات جير وتشريد داخلي قسريين . وبالنظر إلى حجم الحملة العس كرية الحالية، قد تؤدي الحالة إلى أزمة إنسانية إذا لم يتم التصدي لها على الفور. ويحيط المقرر الخاص علما بالتصويت الذي أجراه مؤخرًا مجلس الأمن في ١٥ أيلول/سبتمبر ٢٠٠٦ لإدراج ميانمار في جدول أعماله. ويرى أن مناقشة قادمة في الس حول ميانمار قد توفر فرصة للإسراع في عملية الانتقال إلى الديمقراطية
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369)
        Format/size: pdf (236K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2005 (60th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 12 August 2005
        Description/subject: زجوم تأشنأ اهرارقب ناسنلإا قوقح ةنلج١٩٩٢/٥٨ ةنجلل صالخا ررقلما ةيلاو بح نيعلما ناسنلإا قوقح ةنولآا في ةيلاولا كلت تعسوو ،رانمايم في ناسنلإا قوقح ةلا رارقلاب ةيرخلأا٢٠٠٥/١٠ . فيو قلا اذه لىإ ةنجللا تبلط ،رار اريرقت مدقي نأ صالخا ررقلما اﺗﻬرود في ةماعلا ةيعملجا لىإ ينتسلاو ةيناثلا اﺗﻬرود في ةنجللا لىإو ينتسلا .و مدقيريرقتلا ليالحا دنتسيو بلطلا كلذ ىلع ءانب تىح صالخا ررقلما اهاقلت تيلا تامولعلما لىإ ٢٢ زوتم/ هيلوي٢٠٠٥.و أرقي نأ ينعتي نارتقلاابا يرخلأا هريرقت عم ةنجللا لىإ مدقلم)E/CN.4/2005/36.( نيرشت ذنم رانمايم لىإ قئاقلحا يصقتل ةثعبب مايقلاب صالخا ررقملل حمسي لمونياثلا/برمفون ٢٠٠٣ . ةلومشلما ةرتفلا للاخ دلبلا لىإ لوخدلاب هل حامسلا مدع مغرو لعلما لىإ ادانتسا هتعاطتسا ردق ىلع هتيلاو ذيفنت لصاو ،ليالحا ريرقتلاب نم ةعمﻟﻤﺠا تامواﺑﻬ قوثولماو ةلقتسلما رداصلما نم ةفئاط. في ديدج نم نيطولا رتمؤلما دقعنا دقو نم ةرتفلا١٧طابش / لىإ ريابرف٣١ راذآ/ سرام٢٠٠٥ كلذ في ابم ،ةيسايسلا بازحلأا نم ددع كارشإ نود ةينطولا ةطبارلا ةيطارقيمدلا لجأ نم . ا تائفلا سفن نم نوبودنلما يقُتناو يهو قباسلا رتمؤلما في امك نيامثل : ةينطولا قارعلأاو ،نوبختنلما نولثملماو ،ةيسايسلا بازحلأا، ،لامعلاو ،نوحلافلاو وفظومو ،نوفقثلماو نوركفلماو ةيسمرلا رئاودلا رانلا قلاطإ فقو تاعاجمو ،.و بسحام ،نيطولا رتمؤلما ميظنت ةنلج هتدروأ عامتجلاا رضح٠٧٣ ١ لصأ نم ابودنم ٠٨١ ١ مهيلإ ةوعدلا تهجُو ابودنم. ىلع دويقلا ضرفو ،ةيلمعلا نم ةيباينلاو ةمالها ةيسايسلا ةلعافلا تاهلجا داعبتساو ةبلاطلما لامج في ينطشانلا فيوتخو ،نيدقتنلما عم لماعتلا في بصعتلاو ،اهتكراشم نم ايلاخ ةيطارقيمدلا ةيلمعلل موهفم يأ لعيج ،مهزاجتحاو ةيطارقيمدلاب نىعلما . بجاولا نمف ةينطولا ةلحاصملل ةيساسأ طورش اﻧﻬلأ تايعملجا نيوكتو عامتجلااو لقنتلا ةيرح حنمةيطارقيمدلا ءاسرإو. دعت لم اذإ هنأ اخسار اداقتعا صالخا ررقلما دقتعيو ةلصأتلما ةيئارجلإا دويقلا للمو يق نإف نيطولا رتمؤلما في ةيطارقيمدلا ةضراعلما ولثمم كرشُي لىإ رقتفيس روتسد يأ ماةيقادصلما . يطارقيمد ساسأ ىلع نيطولا رتمؤلما مظنت تيلا ةيئارجلإا تابيترتلا عضو حيتيسو في يقيقح مدقت قيقتحو ةلماك ةروصب مهتكراشمو ةيسايسلا بازحلأا عيجم جامدإ ميلس ةيطارقيمدلا ءاسرإ ةيلمع . اله يغبنيو ةيروف تاءارجإ ذاتخا ةموكلحا عيطتستو لجأ نم كلذءاوسلا ىلع ليودلاو يلخادلا ديعصلا ىلع هتيقادصمو نيطولا رتمؤلما ذاقنإ. في ةمالها لئاسلما ىدحإ برتعت روتسدلا ةغايصب علطضتس تيلا ةهلجا ديدتح ةلأسمو ةيلالحا ةيسايسلا ةيلمعلا . ةحضاو ةراشإ ةيأ نهارلا تقولا في دجوت لا ،كلذ ىلع ةولاعولا دعاوق عضو لىإنيطو ءاتفتسا ءارجإ قيرط نع روتسدلا دامتع. ةقلعتلما ةلالحا نأ ينبت ةدراولا تامولعلما نأ ظحلاي ذإ صالخا ررقلما فسأيو ريرقتلاب ةلومشلما ةرتفلا للاخ يربك لكشب يرغتت لم ةيساسلأا تايرلحاو قوقلحا ةسرامبم . تيلا تاكاهتنلااو دويقلا نع ريراقت ةرمتسم ةروصب ىقلتي وهف تايرلحاو قوقلحا لاطت ةيساسلأا. قوفي ام رانمايم في لازام هنأ لاقيو١٠٠ ١ يسايس ينجس . ةيهمأ نم للق دقو نع جارفلإا٢٤٩ في ايسايس انيجس ٦زوتم / هيلوي٢٠٠٥ ةاعدو ينيندلما لاقتعا رارمتسا ملسلا ةيسايسلا مهتطشنأ ببسب مهدض ةيساق ماكحأ رادصإو مهزاجتحاو ةيطارقيمدلاةي . يرادلإا زاجتحلاا ةسرامم نم ةياغلل اقلق صالخا ررقلما لازامو . فسلأا قيمع هل فسؤُي اممو ،ةيطارقيمدلا لجأ نم ةينطولا ةطبارلل ةماعلا ةنيملأا نأ س ناس غنوأ وادي يك و ديعب تلفتحا ، ةيبرلجا ةماقلإا نهر يهو ينتسلا اهدلايم . دارفنا عقاولا مكبح برتعلما اهزجح فىانتيو ايةينطولا ةلحاصلما حور عم ةطبارلا في اهئلامز عم لاصتلاا نم اﻧﻬامرحو. ةعانلما صقن سويرف لامج في جلاعلاو ةياقولا ةطشنأ ديازت صالخا ررقلما عجش امموةيرشبلا/ ةيرشبلا ةعانلما صقن سويرف نأ نم ةياغلل اقلق لظي هنكل ،زديلإا/ ءابو حبصأ زديلإا رانمايم في ارشتنم .غرو لامج في لمعلا لصاوت ةموكلحا نأ م نم ةينطولا لمعلا ةطخلجأ لفطلا لا ينيرايتخلاا ينلوكوتوبرلا ىلع قيدصتلا اهيلع ينعتي لازام هنإف ، ةيقافتقوقح لفطلا. امو ةيقرعلا تايلقلأا تاعمتمج دض ناسنلإا قوقلح ةميسج تاكاهتنا بكترُت تلاز رانمايم في . عساو ريراقت درت تلازامو لاكشأ نم هيرغو باصتغلااو ،ةرخسلا نع راشتنلاا ة ةموكلحا تاوق اﺑﻬ موقت تيلا ةيكللما عزنو ،زازتبلااو ،يسنلجا فنعلا . اياحض ديج ام ارذانوفاصتنلاا لىإ لايبس تاكاهتنلاا هذه Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2005/10. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to report to the General Assembly at its sixtieth session and to the Commission at its sixty-second session. The present report is submitted further to that request and is based on information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 22 July 2005. It is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2005/36). The Special Rapporteur has not been permitted to conduct a fact-finding mission to Myanmar since November 2003. While he has not been granted access to the country during the period covered by the present report, he has continued to fulfil his mandate to the best of his ability based on information collected from a variety of independent and reliable sources. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 February to 31 March 2005 without the involvement of a number of political parties, including the National League for Democracy (NLD). The invited delegates were selected from the same eight categories as for the previous Convention: political parties, representativeselect, national races, peasants, workers, intellectuals and intelligentsia, State service personnel and ceasefire groups. According to the National Convention Convening Commission, 1,073 out of the 1,081 delegates invited attended the meeting. The exclusion of important and representative political actors from the process, the restrictions placed on their involvement, the intolerance of critical voices and the intimidation and detention of pro-democracy activists render any notion of a democratic process devoid of meaning. Freedom of movement, assembly and association must be guaranteed, as they are basic requirements for national reconciliation and democratization. The Special Rapporteur firmly believes that if the inherent procedural restrictions are not amended and the representatives of the democratic opposition are not involved in the National Convention, any constitution that emerges will lack credibility. Placing the procedural arrangements that govern the National Convention on a sound democratic footing would allow for the full inclusion and involvement of all political parties and true progress to be made in the democratization process. The Government can and should take immediate steps to salvage the National Convention and its credibility both at home and internationally. The question of defining who will draft the constitution is one of the most relevant issues in the current political process. Furthermore, there is at present no clear indication of the rules for the adoption of the constitution through a national referendum. The Special Rapporteur regrets to note that the information received demonstrates that the situation regarding the exercise of fundamental rights and 3 A/60/221 freedoms has not substantially changed during the reporting period. He constantly receives reports of restrictions and violations of basic rights and freedoms. There reportedly remain over 1,100 political prisoners in Myanmar. The release of 249 political prisoners on 6 July 2005 was tempered by the continuation of the arrests, detention and harsh sentences meted out to civilians and democracy advocates for peaceful political activities. The Special Rapporteur remains very concerned at the practice of administrative detention. It is deeply regrettable that NLD General-Secretary Daw Aung San Suu Kyi celebrated her sixtieth birthday under house arrest. Her virtual solitary confinement and lack of access to NLD colleagues run counter to the spirit of national reconciliation. The Special Rapporteur is encouraged that HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment activities have increased, but remains very concerned that HIV/AIDS has become a generalized epidemic in Myanmar. While the Government continues to work on a national plan of action for children, it has yet to ratify the two Optional Protocols on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Serious human rights violations continue to be perpetrated against Myanmar’s ethnic minority communities. Widespread reports of forced labour, rape and other sexual violence, extortion and expropriation by Government forces continue to be received. Victims of violations rarely have recourse to redress. The transition to a full, participatory and democratic system in Myanmar can no longer be postponed. Political and constitutional dialogue must begin without delay. By instituting values of democracy and human rights, the Government will send a clear signal to the people of Myanmar and the international community that it is actively committed to facilitating the creation of a stable and democratic future for the country. The United Nations and the international community stand ready to work in partnership with the Government, the political parties and civil society organizations, to effectively facilitate national reconciliation and the transition to democracy. By strengthening its cooperation with international organizations, the Government can be assured of support for conflict resolution, political and economic reform, institution- and capacity-building, humanitarian assistance and human development.
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/60/ الأمم المتحدة 221)
        Format/size: pdf (410K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2004 (59th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2004/61. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session. The present interim report is based upon information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 30 July 2004 and is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2004/33). Since his last mission to Myanmar in November 2003 the Special Rapporteur has requested from the Government of Myanmar on several occasions its cooperation in returning to the country for a fact-finding mission. However, in spite of the indication of agreement in principle to the Special Rapporteur’s visit, no authorization to visit was received. The Special Rapporteur therefore provides in the present report short updates on the issues he examined during his last visit, based on information collected from other sources. The Special Rapporteur will continue seeking access to Myanmar so as to more fully discharge his mandate. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 May to 9 July 2004. Reviving the National Convention constitutes the first step under the seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition presented by the Prime Minister, General Khin Nyunt, on 30 August 2003. It was announced by the authorities that the delegates to the new National Convention were expected to frame their suggestions in the context of the six objectives and the 104 principles already laid down during the 1993-1996 Convention. The National Convention was reconvened without the involvement of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and other political parties that won the majority of seats in the 1990 elections. It was attended by 1,076 delegates, compared with the 702 participants at the previous Convention. This increase was largely made up of representatives of ethnic nationalities, including ceasefire groups that emerged in the new political environment created as a result of ceasefire agreements with 17 former armed groups. In terms of potential for conflict resolution, the 2004 National Convention may thus be a unique opportunity for ethnic minorities. The Special Rapporteur notes that the concerns regarding the National Convention process that he expressed in his last report to the Commission have not been addressed and that the necessary steps to ensure minimum democratic conditions for the reconvening of the National Convention have not been taken. The Special Rapporteur reiterates that if the Government wishes to promote a genuine process of political transition, fundamental human rights requirements have to be fulfilled. The Special Rapporteur nevertheless hopes that the final outcome of the National Convention will bring some concrete solutions to the concerns of the entire population of Myanmar. Releasing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and beginning a substantive dialogue with her and her party, as well as reaching an agreement with ceasefire groups that takes into account their suggestions would contribute to the advancement of the political process. In this respect, the Special Rapporteur appeals to the Government of Myanmar to recognize the role of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General and the necessity of his return to the country as soon as possible to continue his facilitation efforts, in particular in the context of preparations for the next session of the National Convention. The information received by the Special Rapporteur during the reporting period indicates that the situation with regard to the exercise of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms in Myanmar has not substantially changed. The effects of the events of 30 May 2003 in Depayin have yet to be fully reversed. There remain large numbers of security detainees. The Special Rapporteur has received several reports of continuing arrests and harsh sentences for peaceful political activities; many of the reported cases were raised by the Special Rapporteur in his letters and urgent appeals addressed to the Government of Myanmar. The Special Rapporteur also remains concerned at the practice of administrative detention. There are still restrictions on political activity, with all NLD party offices remaining shut, except for its headquarters in Yangon which was allowed to reopen in April 2004. Despite the restrictions in place, according to recent reports, NLD has been able to conduct some activities. While the extent to which NLD and other political parties will be allowed to conduct peaceful political activities without reprisals remains to be seen, the Special Rapporteur would like to reiterate the view, expressed during his last mission in November, that the implementation of the road map must be accompanied by tangible changes on the ground towards a genuinely free, transparent and inclusive process involving all political parties, ethnic nationalities and members of civil society. Political rights and freedoms must be respected in order to create an enabling environment conducive to a successful democratic transition. The implementation of human rights reforms proposed in his reports and letters to the Myanmar authorities would help create such an environment. During the reporting period, the Special Rapporteur has received credible and detailed reports of human rights violations in certain counter-insurgency areas in Myanmar and hopes that he will be able to clarify those reports during his next mission. He recalls that his request for an independent assessment in Shan State has not yet been answered by the Myanmar authorities. The Special Rapporteur has taken note of the cooperation by the Government of Myanmar with the Committee on the Rights of the Child in the consideration of the second periodic report of Myanmar on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Special Rapporteur believes that there has been growing appreciation in recent years by the international community of an imperative for humanitarian assistance in Myanmar. In this regard, he welcomes the efforts of the United Nations Country Team in mapping out vulnerabilities in Myanmar with a view to developing a strategic framework for United Nations assistance. In view of the prevailing situation in Myanmar, the conclusions and recommendations given in the previous reports of the Special Rapporteur remain valid.
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (228 K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: GA 2001: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteurs initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteurs assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Governments endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned." Author: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
        Format/size: PDF (241K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2000: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
        Format/size: PDF (219K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1999: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-fourth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 1999/17 of 23 April 1999 and Economic and Social Council decision 1999/231 of 27 July 1999.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/54/440)
        Format/size: PDF (78K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1998: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
        Author/creator: Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
        Format/size: PDF (117K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1997: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Arabic)
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-second session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/117 of 12 December 1996 and Economic and Social Council decision 1997/272 of 22 July 1997. Good section on citizenship and citizenship legislation (paras 119-142), mainly relating to the Rohingyas, a Muslim group in Rakhine (Arakan) state; statelessness and the conformity of the different forms of citizenship [in Burma] with international norms. Also, the rights pertaining to democratic governance, the right to form and join trade unions, forced labour, violations against ethnic minorities, including violations of civil rights.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Arabic
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/52/484)
        Format/size: PDF (168K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 October 1996
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-first session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Commission resolution 1996/80 of 23 April 1996.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English,Arabic, and other languages also available
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/51/466)
        Format/size: pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


      • Reports to the GA by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar (Chinese)

        Individual Documents

        Title: GA 2014 (69th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: 摘要 缅甸的重要过渡和意义深远的改革必须得到赞扬。但应消除退缩迹象,以避免损害已取得的进展。本报告介绍了特别报告员初步关注的重点领域和为促进缅甸努力尊重、保护和促进人权及实现民主化、民族和解和发展而提出的建议。
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (651K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/24/pdf/N1454524.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: GA 2013 (68th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: 摘要 本报告根据大会第67/233 号决议第21 段提交,所述期间为2012 年8 月25 日至2013 年8 月10 日。在本报告所述期间,缅甸发生了巨大变化,通过建立新 机构以及国民议会和地区议会开会积极颁布新法律等继续实施2011 年启动的改 革措施;同时在民族和解方面取得稳步进展,并为此与前族裔武装团体进行谈判, 鼓励流离失所者自愿回返和重新安置。政府开展了一系列旨在逐步实现市场经济 的改革措施,向外国投资和贸易开放了新的行业,并采取措施确保提高透明度和 打击腐败。随着缅甸与外界的交往广泛扩大,出现了新的挑战。全国族裔之间的 紧张关系和暴力事件不断增加,人们对当前的改革是否会受到影响感到忧虑。联 合国继续进行广泛参与,并向缅甸提供支持。
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/67/397)
        Format/size: pdf (377K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: GA 2012 (67th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: 第六十七届会议 临时议程* 项目70(c) 促进和保护人权:人权状况及特别 报告员和代表的报告 伊朗伊斯兰共和国的人权状况 秘书长的说明 秘书长谨向大会成员转递由伊朗伊斯兰共和国人权状况特别报告员艾哈迈 德·沙希德依照人权理事会第16/9 号决议提交的报告。特别报告员已向大会第 六十六届会议提交第一份临时报告,并向人权理事会第十九届会议提交了第一次 报告,而人权理事会则在该届会议上延长了特别报告员的任期。 本报告没有涵盖该国境内所有潜在的侵犯人权行为,但概述了当前人权状 况,尤其是对伊朗伊斯兰共和国履行国际义务的能力构成阻碍的系统性问题。.....目录 段次页次 一. 导言.............................................................. 1-6 3 二. 工作方法.......................................................... 7-9 4 三. 公民和政治权利.................................................... 10-51 4 A. 言论自由和知情权 .............................................. 10-22 4 B. 集会和结社自由 ................................................ 23-25 8 人权维护者.................................................... 26-28 9 C. 宗教自由 ...................................................... 29-31 10 1. 巴哈教 .................................................... 32-33 10 2. 基督教 .................................................... 34-36 11 3. 伊斯兰教苦行僧教派 ........................................ 37-39 11 D. 司法 .......................................................... 40 12 1. 修订版伊斯兰刑法 .......................................... 40-44 12 2. 适当程序权利 .............................................. 45-48 13 3. 法律界的独立性 ............................................ 49-51 14 4. 监狱状况 .................................................. 52 15 5. 酷刑、残忍和有辱人格的惩罚及处决 .......................... 53-56 15 四. 经济、社会和文化权利.............................................. 57-69 16 获得教育、经济、社会和文化发展的权利.......................... 58-62 16 1. 阿拉伯社区 ................................................ 63-66 17 2. 阿塞拜疆人 ................................................ 67-69 18 五. 儿童权利.......................................................... 70-73 19 A. 处决,残忍和有辱人格的惩罚 .................................... 70-72 19 B. 童婚 .......................................................... 73 20 六. 结论和建议........................................................
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/67/383
        Format/size: pdf (375K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: GA 2011 (66th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: 摘要 这是缅甸历史上的关键时刻,此时真正有机会取得积极、有意义的进展,以 改善人权状况并深化向民主过渡。新政府已采取一些措施来实现这些目标。但是, 许多严重的人权问题依然存在,必须予以解决。新政府应加紧努力,落实承诺并 履行其国际人权义务。国际社会需继续参与并密切跟踪事态发展。国际社会还需 在此重要时期支持并协助缅甸政府。特别报告员重申他愿意与缅甸开展建设性合 作,以改善缅甸人民的人权状况。
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/66/365)
        Format/size: pdf (358K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: GA 2010 (65th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: 摘要 本报告是根据人权理事会第13/25 号决议和大会第64/238 号决议提交,述 及特别报告员于2010 年3 月向人权理事会提交报告(A/HRC/13/48)以来缅甸国内 的人权事态发展。 缅甸政府于2010 年8 月13 日宣布,把人们期待已久的全国选举日期定于 2010 年11 月7 日。本报告集中讨论与选举有关的人权问题以及声张仗义和追究 责任问题。在当前情况下,举行真正选举的条件有限,这些选举给缅甸人权状况 带来实际变化和改观的可能性仍不确定。 关于声张仗义和追究责任问题,特别报告员指出,虽然首先应该由缅甸政府 负责处理所有当事方严重和系统地侵犯人权的问题,但如果该国政府没有负起责 任,国际社会将负责处理这一问题。 特别报告员建议缅甸政府在全国选举方面尊重言论和意见自由以及集会和 结社自由;释放所有政治犯;解决声张仗义和追究责任问题;落实他在上次报告 中详细阐述的四项核心人权要素;为获得人道主义援助提供便利;继续发展与国 际人权体系的合作。
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/65/368)
        Format/size: pdf (375K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/534/76/pdf/N1053476.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


        Title: GA 2009 (64th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: 摘要 本报告是根据大会第63/245 号决议和人权理事会第10/27 号决议提交的。 阅读本报告时应参阅特别报告员给人权理事会第十届会议的报告(A/HRC/ 10/19),因为本报告的重点主要是那份报告以来缅甸的人权事态发展。 对昂山素季的审判是本报告所述期间最重大的事件。对她增加18 个月的软 禁使她不能积极参加2010 年的选举。特别报告员认为,继续软禁她是对缅甸政 府促进民主的七点路线图的打击,他感到遗憾的是,缅甸政府又失去了一次证明 自己致力于包容各方、自由和公正选举的机会。 本报告着重说明人权保护问题。它特别强调政治犯的状况、他们接受公正审 判的权利、适当法律程序和他们的拘留条件;以及在即将到来的2010 年选举背 景下的言论、集会和结社自由。报告接着审查了该国的内部冲突、平民保护、歧 视和人道主义援助需要等问题。 特别报告员重申其四项核心人权要素的建议:根据新《宪法》和国际义务审 查国家立法;逐步释放政治犯;改造武装部队,包括培训,以确保尊重国际人权 和人道主义法;以及建立独立和公正的司法机构。由于缅甸仅仅是《儿童权利公 约》和《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》的缔约国,特别报告员大力建议缅甸加 入其他核心国际人权文书。
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/64/318)
        Format/size: pdf (304K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/491/50/pdf/N0949150.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


        Title: GA 2008 (63rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 05 September 2008
        Description/subject: 摘要 人权委员会在其第1992/58 号决议中确定了关于缅甸人权状况的任务,人权 理事会在其第1/102 号决定和第5/1 号决议中延长了这项任务期限。 2008 年3 月,理事会在其第7/32 号决议中把该任务期限延长一年。2008 年 3 月26 日,托马斯·奥赫亚·金塔纳(阿根廷)被任命为新的特别报告员,他于 2008 年5 月1 日正式上任。 特别报告员要求于2008 年8 月3 日至13 日进行访问,7 月9 日特别报告员 收到缅甸政府的正面答复, 于2008 年8 月3 日至7 日前往该国执行任务。特别 报告员感谢缅甸政府在其对缅甸第一次执行任务中给予款待和合作。这次访问主 要目的是同当局建立工作关系,与民间社会会面,也与那些无法享受其基本权利 的人会面。这次访问行程载于本报告附件。 本报告是按照大会第62/222 号决议提交的。第一部分集中叙述特别报告员 的活动和工作方案。 本报告第二部分集中谈论实质性问题,阐述与在新宪法下保护人权有关的问 题;参与民主进程和举行2010 年选举的问题;集会权利、意见自由和表达自由 权利,以及新宪法列入这些权利的问题;国际人道主义法和保护平民的问题,以 及诸如族裔群体、妇女和儿童等特殊群体的状况。特别报告员进一步阐述为最大 限度保护“纳尔吉斯”气旋自然灾害受害者的现有机制,以及生活条件、生活资 料及其对人权的影响。最后,特别报告员讨论了在国际合作方面和在与其任务有 关人权问题方面的事态发展,以及就促进和保护该国人权问题加强合作的环境。 特别报告员在其建议中列入四项核心人权要素,以便为缅甸民主铺路。
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (357K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2007 (62nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: The present report is submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 61/232. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the decision of the Government of Myanmar to reconvene the National Convention for its last session on 18 July 2007, to finish laying down principles for a new constitution as part of a seven-stage road map to democracy. He remains concerned, however, at the lack of opportunity for effective and genuine participation by the National League for Democracy (NLD) and ethnic groups, which have deliberately chosen not to participate owing to the lack of transparency and meaningful input. He has repeated on several occasions that there will be no authentic democratic transition in Myanmar until all political prisoners are released. Given the importance of the last phase of the National Convention, he deplores the extension of the house arrest of the NLD General Secretary and the continued detention of other political leaders. At a time of such importance to the political reform process and in view of the need for reconciliation, such severe treatment of senior ethnic nationality leaders sends a very counterproductive signal, shocking many citizens and human rights observers. The human rights concerns enumerated in the present report are largely very similar to those highlighted by the Special Rapporteur last year. The Special Rapporteur deplores the fact that the Government, despite several requests, has not invited him to visit the country. For this reason he was not able to assess any improvements or verify the accuracy of the allegations received from credible sources. Severe restrictions on fundamental freedoms are imposed on political activists and human rights defenders. As of 27 June 2007, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,192. Throughout the country communities are subjected to patterns of abuse by members of the military who, in order to assert greater central government control, and often to implement national development projects, resort to forced labour, the seizure of property and assets and the forced relocation of populations, particularly in the border areas where ethnic nationality groups reside. The lack of an effective commitment by the Government of Myanmar to respond to the human rights situation continues to raise serious concerns. At the national level, the capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hindered by sustained impunity. The restrictions on the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses is also a matter of concern. The Special Rapporteur also takes note with great satisfaction of the Understanding between the International Labour Organizations and the Government of Myanmar, concluded on 26 February 2007, to provide a mechanism to enable victims of forced labour to seek redress. The Special Rapporteur has also noted concrete developments which he considers to be significant milestones in the fight against impunity in Myanmar. These include the establishment of a national redress mechanism to receive complaints of forced labour, and the dialogue initiated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict with the Government regarding the development of an action plan to halt recruitment of child soldiers and to develop reintegration programmes and the setting up of a national mechanism to report on human rights violations committed against children during armed conflict. These mechanisms should lead to greater access to currently restricted areas for the provision of humanitarian assistance, as well as the monitoring of violations. The Special Rapporteur is convinced that Myanmar would benefit from more active cooperation with his mandate, now under terms of reference that have been redefined by the Human Rights Council. He insists that it is his obligation to go public about allegations of human rights violations, but that this does not exclude a constructive and continuous dialogue with the Government. These two elements of his mandate can contribute to a new dynamic for the improvement of the situation of human rights in the country. As indicated by the Special Rapporteur in his previous report, it will not be easy for Myanmar to promote political transition and basic human rights. The collaboration of the United Nations and the international community are essential to support the efforts of the Government and civil society. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur encourages the international community to promote a framework of principles to enable Member States to pursue a plurality of strategies and cooperation with the Government of Myanmar in accordance with their particular strengths and capacities. It is urgent that the international community build on existing programmes of humanitarian assistance and support health, education and human rights, in particular through support to the development of civil society.
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (302K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese) Corr. 1
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Situation of human rights in Myanmar Note by the Secretary-General... Corrigendum: 1. Paragraph 56 The last sentence should read The March/April outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza remains of serious concern, although there is no human case of H5N1 in Myanmar.... 2. Paragraph 73 For the existing text substitute 73. The Special Rapporteur would like: (a) To recommend that, given the magnitude of human rights abuses, the Government of Myanmar should subject all officials committing these acts to strict disciplinary control and punishment and put an end to the culture of impunity that prevails throughout the country. In that respect, a number of immediate steps should be taken, such as setting up (an) independent national commission(s) to look into the mob attack of Aung San Suu Kyi in November 1996 and the brutal Depayin incident in May 2003, and to investigate the widespread sexual violence against women and girls with a view to ensuring that those responsible for such crimes are brought to justice; (b) To call upon the Government of Myanmar to authorize access to the affected areas by the Special Rapporteur, the United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations and to guarantee their safety, security and freedom of movement.
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369/Corr.1)
        Format/size: pdf (90K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2006
        Description/subject: Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently by the Human Rights Council, in its decision 1/102 by which the Council decided to extend, exceptionally for one year, the mandates and mandate holders of the special procedures of the Commission. The Special Rapporteur has not been permitted to conduct a fact-finding mission to Myanmar since November 2003. While he has not been granted access to the country during the period covered by the present report, he has continued to fulfil his mandate to the best of his ability based on information collected from a variety of independent and reliable sources. In the past two years, the reform process proposed in the “seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition”, which was meant to become eventually open to various relevant actors, has been strictly limited and delineated. As a result, the political space has been redefined in narrower terms. In addition, obstructions in the past couple of years have held back the pace and inclusive nature of the reforms which were required for democratization. The work of the National Convention has been adversely affected by this evolution. Through the decades, the space for the establishment of civilian and democratic institutions has been seriously curtailed. The capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hampered by sustained practices of impunity. This situation has contributed to reinforce inequality and increased the gap between the poorest and the richest. On 27 May 2006, the house arrest of Aung Sang Suu Kyi was further prolonged by 12 months in spite of various international appeals, including by the Secretary- General of the United Nations. As at the end of August 2006, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,185. From April to July 2006, 1,038 members of the National League for Democracy were reportedly forced to resign from the party following intimidation and threats. The Special Rapporteur has consistently indicated that national reconciliation requires meaningful and inclusive dialogue with and between political representatives. He firmly believes that the national reconciliation and the stability of Myanmar are not well served by the arrest and detention of several political leaders or by the severe and sustained restrictions on fundamental freedoms. The persecution of members of political parties in the opposition and human rights defenders shows that nowadays the road map for democracy faces too many obstacles to bring a genuine transition. In the past, the Special Rapporteur acknowledged that the road map could play a positive role in the political transition. Sadly, the positive momentum in the early years of his mandate is apparently stalled. The Special Rapporteur remains particularly concerned about the continuing impunity, which has become systematic and must be urgently addressed by the Government of Myanmar. It has become increasingly clear that the persistent impunity does not only stem from a lack of institutional capacity. Impunity has allowed accountability to be avoided for acts that have oppressed voices questioning existing policies and practices. Several individuals and groups responsible for committing serious violations of human rights, in particular members of the military, have not been prosecuted. There is also little evidence that these serious crimes have been investigated by relevant authorities. Grave human rights violations are received among the established structures of the State Peace and Development Council and indulged not only with impunity but authorized by the sanction of laws. In that respect, the Special Rapporteur is also very concerned by the continued misuse of the legal system, which denies the rule of law and represents a major obstacle for securing the effective and meaningful exercise of fundamental freedoms by citizens. He considers especially as a matter of grave concern the criminalization of the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses. The Special Rapporteur is very concerned by the ongoing military campaign in ethnic areas of eastern Myanmar and by its effects on human rights, especially on civilians who have been targeted during the attacks. The situation should be considered in connection with the widespread practice of land confiscation throughout the country, seemingly aiming to anchor military control, especially in ethnic areas. Such a practice has led to numerous forced evictions, relocations and resettlements, situations of forced migration and internal displacement. Given the scale of the current military campaign, the situation may lead to a humanitarian crisis if it is not addressed immediately. The Special Rapporteur takes note of the recent vote of the Security Council on 15 September 2006 to include Myanmar in its agenda. He believes that a forthcoming debate of the Council on Myanmar may offer an opportunity to speed up the process of transition towards democracy.
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369)
        Format/size: pdf (347K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2005 (60th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 12 August 2005
        Description/subject: Summary: "The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2005/10. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to report to the General Assembly at its sixtieth session and to the Commission at its sixty-second session. The present report is submitted further to that request and is based on information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 22 July 2005. It is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2005/36). The Special Rapporteur has not been permitted to conduct a fact-finding mission to Myanmar since November 2003. While he has not been granted access to the country during the period covered by the present report, he has continued to fulfil his mandate to the best of his ability based on information collected from a variety of independent and reliable sources. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 February to 31 March 2005 without the involvement of a number of political parties, including the National League for Democracy (NLD). The invited delegates were selected from the same eight categories as for the previous Convention: political parties, representativeselect, national races, peasants, workers, intellectuals and intelligentsia, State service personnel and ceasefire groups. According to the National Convention Convening Commission, 1,073 out of the 1,081 delegates invited attended the meeting. The exclusion of important and representative political actors from the process, the restrictions placed on their involvement, the intolerance of critical voices and the intimidation and detention of pro-democracy activists render any notion of a democratic process devoid of meaning. Freedom of movement, assembly and association must be guaranteed, as they are basic requirements for national reconciliation and democratization. The Special Rapporteur firmly believes that if the inherent procedural restrictions are not amended and the representatives of the democratic opposition are not involved in the National Convention, any constitution that emerges will lack credibility. Placing the procedural arrangements that govern the National Convention on a sound democratic footing would allow for the full inclusion and involvement of all political parties and true progress to be made in the democratization process. The Government can and should take immediate steps to salvage the National Convention and its credibility both at home and internationally. The question of defining who will draft the constitution is one of the most relevant issues in the current political process. Furthermore, there is at present no clear indication of the rules for the adoption of the constitution through a national referendum. The Special Rapporteur regrets to note that the information received demonstrates that the situation regarding the exercise of fundamental rights and freedoms has not substantially changed during the reporting period. He constantly receives reports of restrictions and violations of basic rights and freedoms. There reportedly remain over 1,100 political prisoners in Myanmar. The release of 249 political prisoners on 6 July 2005 was tempered by the continuation of the arrests, detention and harsh sentences meted out to civilians and democracy advocates for peaceful political activities. The Special Rapporteur remains very concerned at the practice of administrative detention. It is deeply regrettable that NLD General-Secretary Daw Aung San Suu Kyi celebrated her sixtieth birthday under house arrest. Her virtual solitary confinement and lack of access to NLD colleagues run counter to the spirit of national reconciliation. The Special Rapporteur is encouraged that HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment activities have increased, but remains very concerned that HIV/AIDS has become a generalized epidemic in Myanmar. While the Government continues to work on a national plan of action for children, it has yet to ratify the two Optional Protocols on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Serious human rights violations continue to be perpetrated against Myanmar’s ethnic minority communities. Widespread reports of forced labour, rape and other sexual violence, extortion and expropriation by Government forces continue to be received. Victims of violations rarely have recourse to redress. The transition to a full, participatory and democratic system in Myanmar can no longer be postponed. Political and constitutional dialogue must begin without delay. By instituting values of democracy and human rights, the Government will send a clear signal to the people of Myanmar and the international community that it is actively committed to facilitating the creation of a stable and democratic future for the country. The United Nations and the international community stand ready to work in partnership with the Government, the political parties and civil society organizations, to effectively facilitate national reconciliation and the transition to democracy. By strengthening its cooperation with international organizations, the Government can be assured of support for conflict resolution, political and economic reform, institution- and capacity-building, humanitarian assistance and human development."
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/60/221)
        Format/size: pdf (375K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 September 2005


        Title: GA 2004: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2004/61. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session. The present interim report is based upon information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 30 July 2004 and is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2004/33). Since his last mission to Myanmar in November 2003 the Special Rapporteur has requested from the Government of Myanmar on several occasions its cooperation in returning to the country for a fact-finding mission. However, in spite of the indication of agreement in principle to the Special Rapporteur’s visit, no authorization to visit was received. The Special Rapporteur therefore provides in the present report short updates on the issues he examined during his last visit, based on information collected from other sources. The Special Rapporteur will continue seeking access to Myanmar so as to more fully discharge his mandate. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 May to 9 July 2004. Reviving the National Convention constitutes the first step under the seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition presented by the Prime Minister, General Khin Nyunt, on 30 August 2003. It was announced by the authorities that the delegates to the new National Convention were expected to frame their suggestions in the context of the six objectives and the 104 principles already laid down during the 1993-1996 Convention. The National Convention was reconvened without the involvement of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and other political parties that won the majority of seats in the 1990 elections. It was attended by 1,076 delegates, compared with the 702 participants at the previous Convention. This increase was largely made up of representatives of ethnic nationalities, including ceasefire groups that emerged in the new political environment created as a result of ceasefire agreements with 17 former armed groups. In terms of potential for conflict resolution, the 2004 National Convention may thus be a unique opportunity for ethnic minorities. The Special Rapporteur notes that the concerns regarding the National Convention process that he expressed in his last report to the Commission have not been addressed and that the necessary steps to ensure minimum democratic conditions for the reconvening of the National Convention have not been taken. The Special Rapporteur reiterates that if the Government wishes to promote a genuine process of political transition, fundamental human rights requirements have to be fulfilled. The Special Rapporteur nevertheless hopes that the final outcome of the National Convention will bring some concrete solutions to the concerns of the entire population of Myanmar. Releasing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and beginning a substantive dialogue with her and her party, as well as reaching an agreement with ceasefire groups that takes into account their suggestions would contribute to the advancement of the political process. In this respect, the Special Rapporteur appeals to the Government of Myanmar to recognize the role of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General and the necessity of his return to the country as soon as possible to continue his facilitation efforts, in particular in the context of preparations for the next session of the National Convention. The information received by the Special Rapporteur during the reporting period indicates that the situation with regard to the exercise of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms in Myanmar has not substantially changed. The effects of the events of 30 May 2003 in Depayin have yet to be fully reversed. There remain large numbers of security detainees. The Special Rapporteur has received several reports of continuing arrests and harsh sentences for peaceful political activities; many of the reported cases were raised by the Special Rapporteur in his letters and urgent appeals addressed to the Government of Myanmar. The Special Rapporteur also remains concerned at the practice of administrative detention. There are still restrictions on political activity, with all NLD party offices remaining shut, except for its headquarters in Yangon which was allowed to reopen in April 2004. Despite the restrictions in place, according to recent reports, NLD has been able to conduct some activities. While the extent to which NLD and other political parties will be allowed to conduct peaceful political activities without reprisals remains to be seen, the Special Rapporteur would like to reiterate the view, expressed during his last mission in November, that the implementation of the road map must be accompanied by tangible changes on the ground towards a genuinely free, transparent and inclusive process involving all political parties, ethnic nationalities and members of civil society. Political rights and freedoms must be respected in order to create an enabling environment conducive to a successful democratic transition. The implementation of human rights reforms proposed in his reports and letters to the Myanmar authorities would help create such an environment. During the reporting period, the Special Rapporteur has received credible and detailed reports of human rights violations in certain counter-insurgency areas in Myanmar and hopes that he will be able to clarify those reports during his next mission. He recalls that his request for an independent assessment in Shan State has not yet been answered by the Myanmar authorities. The Special Rapporteur has taken note of the cooperation by the Government of Myanmar with the Committee on the Rights of the Child in the consideration of the second periodic report of Myanmar on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Special Rapporteur believes that there has been growing appreciation in recent years by the international community of an imperative for humanitarian assistance in Myanmar. In this regard, he welcomes the efforts of the United Nations Country Team in mapping out vulnerabilities in Myanmar with a view to developing a strategic framework for United Nations assistance. In view of the prevailing situation in Myanmar, the conclusions and recommendations given in the previous reports of the Special Rapporteur remain valid.
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (426K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: GA 2001: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteurs initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteurs assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Governments endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned."
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Chilnese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
        Format/size: PDF (349K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2000: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
        Format/size: PDF (382K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1999: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Chinese)
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-fourth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 1999/17 of 23 April 1999 and Economic and Social Council decision 1999/231 of 27 July 1999.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/54/440)
        Format/size: PDF (612K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1998: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Chinese
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
        Format/size: PDF (900K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Reports to the GA by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar (English)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Collected reports to the UN General Assembly by the Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in Myanmar
        Description/subject: All the reports from 1992 in one document. "...All the reports from 1993 in one document."Basic starting points for an assessment of human rights conditions in Burma/Myanmar are the UN resolutions on the situation of human rights in Myanmar and the body of reports submitted since 1992 to the UN General Assembly and Commission on Human Rights/Human Rights Council by the UN Special Rapporteurs on Myanmar. Special Rapporteurs are independent experts appointed by the Commission on Human Rights (and the Human Rights Council which replaced the Commission in 2006) to examine and report on particular human rights themes or on the situation of human rights in particular countries. Country Special Rapporteurs are only appointed to examine the most serious human rights situations. The Commission appointed Professor Yozo Yokota as Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar in 1992 following two years when Burma/Myanmar had been examined by the Commission under its 1503 (confidential) procedure. He was succeeded in 1996 by Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, who was followed in 2000 by Professor Paolo Sergio Pinheiro followed, in 2008, by Sr Tomás Ojea Quintana. Not only are the reports of the Special Rapporteur the most authoritative general reports on the human rights situation in Burma/Myanmar, including analysis of the legal framework governing the exercise of human rights in the country, but they also contain an abundance of summaries of testimonies gathered by the Special Rapporteurs since 1993 as well as the responses of the Government of Myanmar to specific allegations. By reading or searching the reports as a body it is thus possible to see the patterns of violations over a number of years, to assess the degree to which they are systematic, widespread and persistent over time, to track particular themes (e.g. killings, rape, torture, forced relocation, forced labour) but also to inquire whether there has been any development, positive or negative, since the United Nations human rights bodies began their examination of the situation..." See also the parallel collection of reports to the Commission on Human Rights/Human Rights Council.
        Author/creator: Professor Yozo Yokota, Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 February 2009


        Individual Documents

        Title: GA 2014-69th Session: Oral Statement by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 2014
        Description/subject: This statement supplements the Special Rapporteur's written report, A/69/398, of 23 September 2014 - http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/2014-UNGA69-SRMreport-en.pdf ..... "...In my report I recognize the important gains made through Myanmar’s reform process to date. I commend the initial reforms that have undoubtedly improved the political, economic, social and human rights landscape in the three years since the establishment of the new Government. Yet, there are signs of possible backtracking which, if not addressed, could undermine Myanmar’s efforts to take its rightful place as a responsible member of the international community that respects and protects human rights. I urge the Government of Myanmar to continue its partnership with the international community to ensure that human rights lie at the foundation of its democratic transition..."
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly
        Format/size: pdf (59K)
        Alternate URLs: http://statements.unmeetings.org/media2/4654485/rev-lee-statement-of-sr-on-myanmar-to-ga-final-1-.p...
        Date of entry/update: 31 October 2014


        Title: GA 2014 (69th Session): Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee (English)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: Summary: "The important transition and far-reaching reforms in Myanmar must be commended. Yet, possible signs of backtracking should be addressed so as not to undermine the progress achieved. The present report sets out the Special Rapporteur’s preliminary key areas of focus and recommendations aimed at contributing to Myanmar’s efforts towards respecting, protecting and promoting human rights and achieving democratization, national reconciliation and development."
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (453K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/25/pdf/N1454525.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: UN General Assembly 2014 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar - Conclusions and Recommendations
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: These Conclusions and Recommendations were extracted by the Online Burma/Myanmar Library from the report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar. See the Alternate URL for the full report.
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/69/398) via Online Burma/Myanmar Library
        Format/size: pdf (150K-Conclusions&Recommendations; 453K-full report)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/2014-UNGA69-SRMreport-en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2014


        Title: GA 2013 (68th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: Summary: "In the present report, the Special Rapporteur describes how the reforms under way in Myanmar continue to create the prospect of significant improvements in the human rights situation. Important developments during the reporting period include the continuing release of prisoners of conscience; improving respect of the right to freedom of opinion and expression; and progress towards agreement on a national ceasefire. The Special Rapporteur highlights, however, the dangers of glossing over shortcomings in the area of human rights or presuming that these shortcomings will inevitably be addressed through the momentum of current reforms. He warns that, if these shortcomings are not addressed now, they will become increasingly entrenched in areas such as accountability for human rights violations; the rights of ethnic and religious minorities; the rights to peaceful assembly and association; the representation of women in decision-making positions; land rights; and human rights and development. Furthermore, they will eventually undermine the reform process itself if they are not addressed in accordance with international human rights standards. He concludes that the challenge, which has been present since the outset of the reform process, is to achieve a transition from the military mindset that prevails within the Government to a democratic mindset that upholds human rights."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/68/397)
        Format/size: pdf (116K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: Statement by Tomás Ojea Quintana SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN MYANMAR
        Date of publication: 25 October 2012
        Description/subject: "...We should all acknowledge and commend the Government of Myanmar for what has been achieved thus far, which I have previously stated has improved the country’s human rights situation. Yet, recent developments highlight that Myanmar continues to grapple with ongoing human rights concerns that could pose risks to the reform process..."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (67th session)
        Format/size: pdf (100K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


        Title: GA 2012 (67th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: Summary: "The reporting period has again seen dramatic and accelerated changes in Myanmar, which can further improve the country’s human rights situation, but also the persistence of long-standing concerns that continue to pose risks to the reform process".....Contents: I. Introduction ... II. Human rights situation: A. Prisoners of conscience; B. Conditions of detention and treatment of prisoners; C. Other issues relating to civil and political rights; D. Civil society; E. Economic, social and cultural rights... III. Situation of ethnic minorities... IV. Situation in Rakhine State... V. Democratic transition and establishing the rule of law... VI. Truth, justice and accountability... VII. Conclusions... VIII. Recommendations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/67/383
        Format/size: pdf (111K)
        Alternate URLs: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/520/49/PDF/N1252049.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: GA 2011 (66th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: Summary: "This is a key moment in Myanmar’s history and there are real opportunities for positive and meaningful developments to improve the human rights situation and deepen the transition to democracy. The new Government has taken a number of steps towards these ends. Yet, many serious human rights issues remain and they need to be addressed. The new Government should intensify its efforts to implement its own commitments and to fulfil its international human rights obligations. The international community needs to continue to remain engaged and to closely follow developments. The international community also needs to support and assist the Government during this important time. The Special Rapporteur reaffirms his willingness to work constructively and cooperatively with Myanmar to improve the human rights situation of its people."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/66/365)
        Format/size: pdf (118K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: GA 2010 (65th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: Summary: "The present report is submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 13/25 and General Assembly resolution 64/238 and covers human rights developments in Myanmar since the Special Rapporteur’s report to the Human Rights Council in March 2010 (A/HRC/13/48). On 13 August 2010, the Government of Myanmar announced the long-awaited date for national elections for 7 November 2010. The present report focuses on human rights in relation to elections, and the issue of justice and accountability. Conditions for genuine elections are limited under the current circumstances, and the potential for these elections to bring meaningful change and improvement to the human rights situation in Myanmar remains uncertain. Regarding the issue of justice and accountability, the Special Rapporteur notes that while it is foremost the responsibility of the Government of Myanmar to address the problem of gross and systematic human rights violations by all parties, that responsibility falls to the international community if the Government fails to assume it. The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of Myanmar respect freedom of expression and opinion and freedom of assembly and association in the context of the national elections; release all prisoners of conscience; address justice and accountability; implement the four core human rights elements, as detailed in his previous reports; and facilitate access for humanitarian assistance and continue developing cooperation with the international human rights system."
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/65/368)
        Format/size: pdf (172K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


        Title: GA 2009 (64th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: Summary: "The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/245 and Human Rights Council resolution 10/27. It should be read in conjunction with the report of the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Council at its tenth session (A/HRC/10/19), since it focuses mainly on the human rights developments in Myanmar since that report. The trial of Aung San Suu Kyi was the most significant event of the period under review. The additional 18-month house arrest bars her from actively participating in the 2010 elections. The Special Rapporteur considers that the continuation of her house arrest is a blow to the Government’s seven-step road map to democracy and regrets that the Government of Myanmar missed another opportunity to prove its commitment to hold inclusive, free and fair elections. The report concentrates on human rights protection issues. In particular, it highlights the situation of prisoners of conscience, their right to a fair trial and due process of law and conditions of their detention; as well as freedom of expression, assembly and association in the context of the upcoming elections in 2010. It continues with a review of internal conflicts, the protection of civilians, discrimination and the need for humanitarian assistance. The Special Rapporteur reiterates his recommendation of four core human rights elements: a review of national legislation in accordance with the new Constitution and international obligations; the progressive release of prisoners of conscience; the reform of the armed forces to ensure respect for international human rights and humanitarian law, including training; and the establishment of an independent and impartial judiciary. Since Myanmar is party only to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Special Rapporteur strongly recommends that it accede to the other core international human rights instruments."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/64/318)
        Format/size: pdf (108K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


        Title: GA 2008 (63rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 05 September 2008
        Description/subject: Summary: "In its resolution 1992/58, the Commission on Human Rights established the mandate on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, which was then extended by the Human Rights Council in its decision 1/102 and resolution 5/1. In March 2008, by its resolution 7/32, the Council extended the mandate for one year. On 26 March 2008, Tomás Ojea Quintana (Argentina) was appointed as the new Special Rapporteur, and he officially assumed the function on 1 May 2008. Following a request for a visit from 3 to 13 August 2008, on 9 July the Special Rapporteur received a positive response from the Government of Myanmar to undertake a mission to that country from 3 to 7 August 2008. The Special Rapporteur would like to thank the Government of Myanmar for its hospitality and the cooperation he received during his first mission to the country. This visit was mainly aimed at establishing working relations with the authorities, to meet with civil society and also with those who do not enjoy their fundamental rights. The programme of the visit is annexed to the report. The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 62/222. The first part focuses on the activities and programme of work of the Special Rapporteur. The second part of the report concentrates on substantive issues and elaborates on those related to the protection of human rights in the context of the new Constitution; and the question of participation in the democratic process and organization of the 2010 elections; the right to assembly and right to freedom of opinion and expression and their formulation in the new Constitution; and the question of international humanitarian law and protection of civilians, as well as the situation of specific groups such as ethnic groups, women and children. The Special Rapporteur further elaborates on the mechanisms in place to ensure maximum protection in the context of natural disaster cyclone Nargis, and the living conditions, sustenance and its human rights implications. Finally, the Special Rapporteur discusses developments that have taken place in international cooperation and that relate to human rights issues pertinent to his mandate and the environment for a strengthened cooperation on the promotion and protection of human rights in the country. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur includes four core human rights elements for paving the road to democracy in Myanmar."
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (102K)
        Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


        Title: GA 2007 (62nd Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 24 October 2007
        Description/subject: Statement by Mr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar... 62nd session of the General Assembly, Third Committee, Item 70 (c)... 24 October 2007 New York..."Since the submission of my report, tragic events have been taking place in Myanmar since 15 August 2007 when the Government of Myanmar increased the retail price of fuel by up to 500 per cent. This decision, which was made without advance warning, has drastically affected the livelihoods of the people of Myanmar. The population, who has seen for the last years its standards of living curtailed, reacted to this state of affairs by staging a number of peaceful protests starting on 19 August, which culminated in large demonstrations from 18 September to 30 September, led by Buddhist monks with the participation of the 88 generation students, NLD parliamentarians, religious minorities and citizen, including women and children, as well as government officials. From 26 to 28 September, the security forces repressed peaceful demonstrators with the use of excessive force including shootings and severe beatings. As a result, people have been killed and thousands of them have been arrested. Many people remain still detained and I continue received alarming reports of death in custody, torture and disappearances. At the time of speaking, I have been able to verify, through different independent and reliable sources, allegations of the use excessive force by the security forces including live ammunitions, rubber bullets, teargas, bamboo and wood sticks, rubber batons and catapults (slingshots). This largely explains the killings and the severe injuries reported. The use of non-law enforcement officials and non-State armed groups alongside the security forces, including members' of the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) as well as militia (Swan Ah Shin), is also of very serious concern..."
        Author/creator: Sergio Paulo Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (147K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


        Title: GA 2007 (62nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: "The present report is submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 61/232. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the decision of the Government of Myanmar to reconvene the National Convention for its last session on 18 July 2007, to finish laying down principles for a new constitution as part of a seven-stage road map to democracy. He remains concerned, however, at the lack of opportunity for effective and genuine participation by the National League for Democracy (NLD) and ethnic groups, which have deliberately chosen not to participate owing to the lack of transparency and meaningful input. He has repeated on several occasions that there will be no authentic democratic transition in Myanmar until all political prisoners are released. Given the importance of the last phase of the National Convention, he deplores the extension of the house arrest of the NLD General Secretary and the continued detention of other political leaders. At a time of such importance to the political reform process and in view of the need for reconciliation, such severe treatment of senior ethnic nationality leaders sends a very counterproductive signal, shocking many citizens and human rights observers. The human rights concerns enumerated in the present report are largely very similar to those highlighted by the Special Rapporteur last year. The Special Rapporteur deplores the fact that the Government, despite several requests, has not invited him to visit the country. For this reason he was not able to assess any improvements or verify the accuracy of the allegations received from credible sources. Severe restrictions on fundamental freedoms are imposed on political activists and human rights defenders. As of 27 June 2007, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,192. Throughout the country communities are subjected to patterns of abuse by members of the military who, in order to assert greater central government control, and often to implement national development projects, resort to forced labour, the seizure of property and assets and the forced relocation of populations, particularly in the border areas where ethnic nationality groups reside. The lack of an effective commitment by the Government of Myanmar to respond to the human rights situation continues to raise serious concerns. At the national level, the capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hindered by sustained impunity. The restrictions on the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses is also a matter of concern. The Special Rapporteur also takes note with great satisfaction of the Understanding between the International Labour Organizations and the Government of Myanmar, concluded on 26 February 2007, to provide a mechanism to enable victims of forced labour to seek redress. The Special Rapporteur has also noted concrete developments which he considers to be significant milestones in the fight against impunity in Myanmar. These include the establishment of a national redress mechanism to receive complaints of forced labour, and the dialogue initiated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict with the Government regarding the development of an action plan to halt recruitment of child soldiers and to develop reintegration programmes and the setting up of a national mechanism to report on human rights violations committed against children during armed conflict. These mechanisms should lead to greater access to currently restricted areas for the provision of humanitarian assistance, as well as the monitoring of violations. The Special Rapporteur is convinced that Myanmar would benefit from more active cooperation with his mandate, now under terms of reference that have been redefined by the Human Rights Council. He insists that it is his obligation to go public about allegations of human rights violations, but that this does not exclude a constructive and continuous dialogue with the Government. These two elements of his mandate can contribute to a new dynamic for the improvement of the situation of human rights in the country. As indicated by the Special Rapporteur in his previous report, it will not be easy for Myanmar to promote political transition and basic human rights. The collaboration of the United Nations and the international community are essential to support the efforts of the Government and civil society. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur encourages the international community to promote a framework of principles to enable Member States to pursue a plurality of strategies and cooperation with the Government of Myanmar in accordance with their particular strengths and capacities. It is urgent that the international community build on existing programmes of humanitarian assistance and support health, education and human rights, in particular through support to the development of civil society..." N.B. this report was written before the recent events in the country. The Special Rapporteur is expected to address the Third Committee of the General Assembly on the afternoon of 24 October 2007, when he will no doubt talk about the crackdown - OBL.
        Author/creator: Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (90K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2007


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 20 October 2006
        Author/creator: Sr.Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (97K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 October 2006


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English) CORR. 1
        Date of publication: 18 October 2006
        Description/subject: Corrigendum to A/61/369:- 1. Paragraph 56: The last sentence should read The March/April outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza remains of serious concern, although there is no human case of H5N1 in Myanmar... 2. Paragraph 73: For the existing text substitute 73. The Special Rapporteur would like: (a) To recommend that, given the magnitude of human rights abuses, the Government of Myanmar should subject all officials committing these acts to strict disciplinary control and punishment and put an end to the culture of impunity that prevails throughout the country. In that respect, a number of immediate steps should be taken, such as setting up (an) independent national commission(s) to look into the mob attack of Aung San Suu Kyi in November 1996 and the brutal Depayin incident in May 2003, and to investigate the widespread sexual violence against women and girls with a view to ensuring that those responsible for such crimes are brought to justice; (b) To call upon the Government of Myanmar to authorize access to the affected areas by the Special Rapporteur, the United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations and to guarantee their safety, security and freedom of movement.
        Language: English (other languages available)
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369/Corr.1)
        Format/size: pdf (24.77 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?m=89
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: GA 2006 (61st Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2006
        Description/subject: Summary: "... In the past two years, the reform process proposed in the “seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition”, which was meant to become eventually open to various relevant actors, has been strictly limited and delineated. As a result, the political space has been redefined in narrower terms. In addition, obstructions in the past couple of years have held back the pace and inclusive nature of the reforms which were required for democratization. The work of the National Convention has been adversely affected by this evolution. Through the decades, the space for the establishment of civilian and democratic institutions has been seriously curtailed. The capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hampered by sustained practices of impunity. This situation has contributed to reinforce inequality and increased the gap between the poorest and the richest. On 27 May 2006, the house arrest of Aung Sang Suu Kyi was further prolonged by 12 months in spite of various international appeals, including by the Secretary- General of the United Nations. As at the end of August 2006, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,185. From April to July 2006, 1,038 members of the National League for Democracy were reportedly forced to resign from the party following intimidation and threats. The Special Rapporteur has consistently indicated that national reconciliation requires meaningful and inclusive dialogue with and between political representatives. He firmly believes that the national reconciliation and the stability of Myanmar are not well served by the arrest and detention of several political leaders or by the severe and sustained restrictions on fundamental freedoms. The persecution of members of political parties in the opposition and human rights defenders shows that nowadays the road map for democracy faces too many obstacles to bring a genuine transition. In the past, the Special Rapporteur acknowledged that the road map could play a positive role in the political transition. Sadly, the positive momentum in the early years of his mandate is apparently stalled. The Special Rapporteur remains particularly concerned about the continuing impunity, which has become systematic and must be urgently addressed by the Government of Myanmar. It has become increasingly clear that the persistent A/61/369 06-53070 3 impunity does not only stem from a lack of institutional capacity. Impunity has allowed accountability to be avoided for acts that have oppressed voices questioning existing policies and practices. Several individuals and groups responsible for committing serious violations of human rights, in particular members of the military, have not been prosecuted. There is also little evidence that these serious crimes have been investigated by relevant authorities. Grave human rights violations are received among the established structures of the State Peace and Development Council and indulged not only with impunity but authorized by the sanction of laws. In that respect, the Special Rapporteur is also very concerned by the continued misuse of the legal system, which denies the rule of law and represents a major obstacle for securing the effective and meaningful exercise of fundamental freedoms by citizens. He considers especially as a matter of grave concern the criminalization of the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses. The Special Rapporteur is very concerned by the ongoing military campaign in ethnic areas of eastern Myanmar and by its effects on human rights, especially on civilians who have been targeted during the attacks. The situation should be considered in connection with the widespread practice of land confiscation throughout the country, seemingly aiming to anchor military control, especially in ethnic areas. Such a practice has led to numerous forced evictions, relocations and resettlements, situations of forced migration and internal displacement. Given the scale of the current military campaign, the situation may lead to a humanitarian crisis if it is not addressed immediately. The Special Rapporteur takes note of the recent vote of the Security Council on 15 September 2006 to include Myanmar in its agenda. He believes that a forthcoming debate of the Council on Myanmar may offer an opportunity to speed up the process of transition towards democracy."....N.B. CORR. I
        Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/61/369)
        Format/size: pdf (88K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/GA2006-SRM-rep-en.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


        Title: GA 2005 (60th Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 27 October 2005
        Description/subject: "...Throughout my mandate as Special Rapporteur I have received many reports, documenting violations of the Government's pledge to democratic reform and respect for human rights. I have attempted on many occasions, through different means, to be allowed to visit the country in order to verify those reports. The Government of Myanmar has not given me the opportunity to do so. In this way the Government is renouncing to have its views and policies reflected in my report..." In his oral delivery, though not included in the present text, the Special Rapporteur referred to the case of Su Su Nway as an example of regime’s harsh crackdown on human rights defenders and lack of cooperation with the ILO. This will be included in a later version if it becomes available.
        Author/creator: Mr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (37K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 October 2005


        Title: GA 2005 (60th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 12 August 2005
        Description/subject: Summary: "The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2005/10. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to report to the General Assembly at its sixtieth session and to the Commission at its sixty-second session. The present report is submitted further to that request and is based on information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 22 July 2005. It is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2005/36). The Special Rapporteur has not been permitted to conduct a fact-finding mission to Myanmar since November 2003. While he has not been granted access to the country during the period covered by the present report, he has continued to fulfil his mandate to the best of his ability based on information collected from a variety of independent and reliable sources. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 February to 31 March 2005 without the involvement of a number of political parties, including the National League for Democracy (NLD). The invited delegates were selected from the same eight categories as for the previous Convention: political parties, representativeselect, national races, peasants, workers, intellectuals and intelligentsia, State service personnel and ceasefire groups. According to the National Convention Convening Commission, 1,073 out of the 1,081 delegates invited attended the meeting. The exclusion of important and representative political actors from the process, the restrictions placed on their involvement, the intolerance of critical voices and the intimidation and detention of pro-democracy activists render any notion of a democratic process devoid of meaning. Freedom of movement, assembly and association must be guaranteed, as they are basic requirements for national reconciliation and democratization. The Special Rapporteur firmly believes that if the inherent procedural restrictions are not amended and the representatives of the democratic opposition are not involved in the National Convention, any constitution that emerges will lack credibility. Placing the procedural arrangements that govern the National Convention on a sound democratic footing would allow for the full inclusion and involvement of all political parties and true progress to be made in the democratization process. The Government can and should take immediate steps to salvage the National Convention and its credibility both at home and internationally. The question of defining who will draft the constitution is one of the most relevant issues in the current political process. Furthermore, there is at present no clear indication of the rules for the adoption of the constitution through a national referendum. The Special Rapporteur regrets to note that the information received demonstrates that the situation regarding the exercise of fundamental rights and freedoms has not substantially changed during the reporting period. He constantly receives reports of restrictions and violations of basic rights and freedoms. There reportedly remain over 1,100 political prisoners in Myanmar. The release of 249 political prisoners on 6 July 2005 was tempered by the continuation of the arrests, detention and harsh sentences meted out to civilians and democracy advocates for peaceful political activities. The Special Rapporteur remains very concerned at the practice of administrative detention. It is deeply regrettable that NLD General-Secretary Daw Aung San Suu Kyi celebrated her sixtieth birthday under house arrest. Her virtual solitary confinement and lack of access to NLD colleagues run counter to the spirit of national reconciliation. The Special Rapporteur is encouraged that HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment activities have increased, but remains very concerned that HIV/AIDS has become a generalized epidemic in Myanmar. While the Government continues to work on a national plan of action for children, it has yet to ratify the two Optional Protocols on the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Serious human rights violations continue to be perpetrated against Myanmar’s ethnic minority communities. Widespread reports of forced labour, rape and other sexual violence, extortion and expropriation by Government forces continue to be received. Victims of violations rarely have recourse to redress. The transition to a full, participatory and democratic system in Myanmar can no longer be postponed. Political and constitutional dialogue must begin without delay. By instituting values of democracy and human rights, the Government will send a clear signal to the people of Myanmar and the international community that it is actively committed to facilitating the creation of a stable and democratic future for the country. The United Nations and the international community stand ready to work in partnership with the Government, the political parties and civil society organizations, to effectively facilitate national reconciliation and the transition to democracy. By strengthening its cooperation with international organizations, the Government can be assured of support for conflict resolution, political and economic reform, institution- and capacity-building, humanitarian assistance and human development."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/60/221)
        Format/size: pdf (110K)
        Date of entry/update: 27 September 2005


        Title: GA 2004 (59th Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 2004
        Description/subject: Statement by Mr. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar 59th Session of the General Assembly, New York, 28 October 2004.
        Author/creator: Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro,
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html (45K), Word (47K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GA2004-SRM-oral.doc
        Date of entry/update: 04 November 2004


        Title: GA 2004 (59th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (English)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2004/61. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session. The present interim report is based upon information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 30 July 2004 and is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2004/33). Since his last mission to Myanmar in November 2003 the Special Rapporteur has requested from the Government of Myanmar on several occasions its cooperation in returning to the country for a fact-finding mission. However, in spite of the indication of agreement in principle to the Special Rapporteur’s visit, no authorization to visit was received. The Special Rapporteur therefore provides in the present report short updates on the issues he examined during his last visit, based on information collected from other sources. The Special Rapporteur will continue seeking access to Myanmar so as to more fully discharge his mandate. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 May to 9 July 2004. Reviving the National Convention constitutes the first step under the seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition presented by the Prime Minister, General Khin Nyunt, on 30 August 2003. It was announced by the authorities that the delegates to the new National Convention were expected to frame their suggestions in the context of the six objectives and the 104 principles already laid down during the 1993-1996 Convention. The National Convention was reconvened without the involvement of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and other political parties that won the majority of seats in the 1990 elections. It was attended by 1,076 delegates, compared with the 702 participants at the previous Convention. This increase was largely made up of representatives of ethnic nationalities, including ceasefire groups that emerged in the new political environment created as a result of ceasefire agreements with 17 former armed groups. In terms of potential for conflict resolution, the 2004 National Convention may thus be a unique opportunity for ethnic minorities. The Special Rapporteur notes that the concerns regarding the National Convention process that he expressed in his last report to the Commission have not been addressed and that the necessary steps to ensure minimum democratic conditions for the reconvening of the National Convention have not been taken. The Special Rapporteur reiterates that if the Government wishes to promote a genuine process of political transition, fundamental human rights requirements have to be fulfilled. The Special Rapporteur nevertheless hopes that the final outcome of the National Convention will bring some concrete solutions to the concerns of the entire population of Myanmar. Releasing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and beginning a substantive dialogue with her and her party, as well as reaching an agreement with ceasefire groups that takes into account their suggestions would contribute to the advancement of the political process. In this respect, the Special Rapporteur appeals to the Government of Myanmar to recognize the role of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General and the necessity of his return to the country as soon as possible to continue his facilitation efforts, in particular in the context of preparations for the next session of the National Convention. The information received by the Special Rapporteur during the reporting period indicates that the situation with regard to the exercise of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms in Myanmar has not substantially changed. The effects of the events of 30 May 2003 in Depayin have yet to be fully reversed. There remain large numbers of security detainees. The Special Rapporteur has received several reports of continuing arrests and harsh sentences for peaceful political activities; many of the reported cases were raised by the Special Rapporteur in his letters and urgent appeals addressed to the Government of Myanmar. The Special Rapporteur also remains concerned at the practice of administrative detention. There are still restrictions on political activity, with all NLD party offices remaining shut, except for its headquarters in Yangon which was allowed to reopen in April 2004. Despite the restrictions in place, according to recent reports, NLD has been able to conduct some activities. While the extent to which NLD and other political parties will be allowed to conduct peaceful political activities without reprisals remains to be seen, the Special Rapporteur would like to reiterate the view, expressed during his last mission in November, that the implementation of the road map must be accompanied by tangible changes on the ground towards a genuinely free, transparent and inclusive process involving all political parties, ethnic nationalities and members of civil society. Political rights and freedoms must be respected in order to create an enabling environment conducive to a successful democratic transition. The implementation of human rights reforms proposed in his reports and letters to the Myanmar authorities would help create such an environment. During the reporting period, the Special Rapporteur has received credible and detailed reports of human rights violations in certain counter-insurgency areas in Myanmar and hopes that he will be able to clarify those reports during his next mission. He recalls that his request for an independent assessment in Shan State has not yet been answered by the Myanmar authorities. The Special Rapporteur has taken note of the cooperation by the Government of Myanmar with the Committee on the Rights of the Child in the consideration of the second periodic report of Myanmar on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Special Rapporteur believes that there has been growing appreciation in recent years by the international community of an imperative for humanitarian assistance in Myanmar. In this regard, he welcomes the efforts of the United Nations Country Team in mapping out vulnerabilities in Myanmar with a view to developing a strategic framework for United Nations assistance. In view of the prevailing situation in Myanmar, the conclusions and recommendations given in the previous reports of the Special Rapporteur remain valid.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (72K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: GA 2003 (58th Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar and the debate in the 3rd Committee
        Date of publication: 12 November 2003
        Description/subject: Statement by Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar... 58th Session of the General Assembly. Third Committee, Item 117 (c)...The main URL contains the longer version of the Special Rapporteur's statement which was distributed to the 3rd Committee. What was actually read out was shorter, due to time constraints. This short version, with the following interactive debate, including the statement of the Myanmar Ambassador, is accessible online on video at the URL given below. The Press Release contains a summary of the statement and the debate.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html (38K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/PP-oral-PR.htm (Press Release)
        http://157.150.195.57/ramgen/ga/58/ga3rd031112.rm (full video version of the debate. Scroll in about one quarter to the beginning of the Statement)
        Date of entry/update: 13 November 2003


        Title: GA 2003 (58th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 05 August 2003
        Description/subject: This report contains very firm criticism of the SPDC for the crackdown on the NLD and in particular the 30 May attack on an NLD convoy when a number of NLD supporters were killed and others, including Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, were detained. He considers that these actions have set back the dialogue process, perhaps terminally. The report also contains a section entitled "Research on the human rights situation in ethnic areas of Myanmar" with paragraphs on: Forced relocations; Confiscation of land and property, Forced labour and portering, Torture, arbitrary detention and extrajudicial killings or executions; Rape; Arbitrary taxation and extortion; Use of landmines; and Violations by other armed groups.
        Author/creator: Professor Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/58/219)
        Format/size: pdf (142K), html (91K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GA2003SRM-rep.htm
        http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/58/219&Lang=E
        Date of entry/update: 12 September 2003


        Title: GA 2002 (57th Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 06 November 2002
        Description/subject: Statement by Mr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar. 57th Session of the General Assembly, Third Committee, Item 119. New York, 6 November 2002.
        Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Format/size: html (48K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2002 (57th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 09 August 2002
        Description/subject: "The present report is based upon the findings of the Special Rapporteur’s mission to Myanmar, undertaken in February 2002, and information received by him up to 1 July 2002...There can be no credible democratic political transition in Myanmar without four fundamental conditions: the inclusion of all components of society in political dialogue in a spirit of participation, mutual respect, cooperation and equity; the release of all political prisoners; the lifting of the restrictions which continue to hamper the ability of political parties and groups having concluded ceasefires with the Government to meet, discuss, exchange and peacefully conduct their legitimate activities; and the explicit discussion of political democratization that cannot take place without free elections...the issue of reform of the system of administration of justice is crucial. The Government and civil society of Myanmar must work together to ensure that reform of the judicial institutions takes place in the context of the process of political transition..."
        Author/creator: Sr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/57/290)
        Format/size: PDF (84K), Word (105K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/5f76f926296339ebc1256c55002d2211/$FILE/N0251784.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2001 (56th Session): Oral statement by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 09 November 2001
        Description/subject: Statement by Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar. 56th Session of the General Assembly. Third Committee, Item 119. New York, 9 November 2001. "I have the honour to present my first report which refers to my activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. I would also like to share a few preliminary observations from my first fact-finding mission to Myanmar from 9 to 17 October 2001..."
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Alternate URLs: http://listserv.indiana.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0111&L=maykha-l&O=A&P=15883
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2001 (56th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteur’s initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteur’s assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Government’s endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned."
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
        Format/size: PDF (195K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/53F25867FD928877C1256AD9004B8E15/$File/N0151752.doc?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2000 (55th Session) Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
        Format/size: PDF (98K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/6f93e36e7c6843ccc1256983002e3c40/$FILE/0063504e.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1999 (54th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 04 October 1999
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-fourth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 1999/17 of 23 April 1999 and Economic and Social Council decision 1999/231 of 27 July 1999.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/54/440)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1998 (53rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1997 (52nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-second session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/117 of 12 December 1996 and Economic and Social Council decision 1997/272 of 22 July 1997. Good section on citizenship and citizenship legislation (paras 119-142), mainly relating to the Rohingyas, a Muslim group in Rakhine (Arakan) state; statelessness and the conformity of the different forms of citizenship [in Burma] with international norms. Also, the rights pertaining to democratic governance, the right to form and join trade unions, forced labour, violations against ethnic minorities, including violations of civil rights.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/52/484)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 08 October 1996
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-first session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Commission resolution 1996/80 of 23 April 1996.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/51/466)
        Format/size: pdf (94K), html
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: GA 1995: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 October 1995
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fiftieth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/72 of 8 March 1995, and Economic and Social Council decision 1995/283 of 25 July 1995.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/50/568)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Addendum - Government Response)
        Date of publication: 09 November 1994
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-ninth session. 1. The Special Rapporteur submitted to the Government of Myanmar, on 5 October 1994, a summary of allegations he had received concerning human rights violations in Myanmar (for the text, see A/49/594, para. 9). In his accompanying letter, the Special Rapporteur requested the Government of Myanmar's responses to five specific questions (see A/49/594, para. 8). 2. By note verbale dated 4 November 1994, the Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations Office at Geneva transmitted the responses of the Government of Myanmar to both the Special Rapporteur's summary of allegations received and the five specific questions put in his letter of 5 October 1994. 3. The following is the full text of the Government of Myanmar's response to the summary of allegations received by the Special Rapporteur: "OBSERVATIONS AND REBUTTALS ON THE SUMMARY OF ALLEGATIONS"
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594/Add.1)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 28 October 1994
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forthy-ninth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar in accordance with paragraph 20 of Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/85 of 9 March 1994 and Economic and Social Council decision 1994/269 of 25 July 1994.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1993: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 16 November 1993
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-eighth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Professor Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with paragraph 16 of the Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/73 of 10 March 1993 and Economic and Social Council decision 1993/278 of 28 July 1993.
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/48/578)
        Format/size: PDF (88K) and Word
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/026307f31845840dc125699000591d47/$FILE/9361495E.doc
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1992: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
        Date of publication: 13 November 1992
        Description/subject: Forty-seventh session Agenda item 97 (c) "...n 3 March 1992, at its forty-eighth session, the Commission on Human Rights adopted resolution 1992/58, entitled "Situation of human rights in Myanmar". In that resolution, the Commission noted that in accordance with the Charter, the United Nations promotes and encourages respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government"; noted also with particular concern in that regard that the electoral process initiated in Myanmar by the general elections of 27 May 1990 had not yet reached its conclusion, that no apparent progress had been made in giving effect to the political will of the people of Myanmar, as expressed in the elections..."
        Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/47/651)
        Format/size: pdf (1.8MB); html (117K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/GA1992_SR-report.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Reports to the GA by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar (Russian)

        Individual Documents

        Title: GA 2014 (69th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee (Russian)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2014
        Description/subject: Резюме Важный процесс перехода и глубокие реформы в Мьянме заслуживают одобрения. Тем не менее необходимо обратить внимание на возможные признаки свертывания реформ во избежание ослабления достигнутого прогресса. В настоящем докладе определяются предполагаемые основные направления деятельности Специального докладчика и излагаются рекомендации по содействию мерам, принимаемым Мьянмой в целях обеспечения уважения, защиты и поощрения прав человека и достижения демократизации, национального примирения и развития.
        Author/creator: Yanghee Lee
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/69/398)
        Format/size: pdf (607K)
        Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N14/545/27/pdf/N1454527.pdf?OpenElement
        Date of entry/update: 16 October 2014


        Title: GA 2013 (68th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 23 September 2013
        Description/subject: Резюме В настоящем докладе Специальный докладчик представляет информацию о том, как благодаря проводимым в настоящее время в Мьянме реформам про- должают открываться возможности для значительных улучшений положения в области прав человека. К числу важных событий, произошедших в отчетном периоде, относятся продолжающееся освобождение узников совести, улучше- ние ситуации с соблюдением права на свободу мнения и с лова, а также дости- жение прогресса в соблюдении национального соглашения о прекращении огня. Вместе с тем Специальный докладчик особо отмечает опасности, связанные с замалчиванием недостатков в области прав человека и ожиданиями того, что эти недостатки будут в любом случае устранены по инерции в рамках проводи- мых реформ. Он предупреждает о том, что если эти недостатки не будут устра- нены сейчас, то они будут все более прочно укореняться в таких областях, как привлечение к ответственности за нарушения прав человека; соблюдение прав этнических и религиозных меньшинств; соблюдение прав на свободу мирных собраний и ассоциации; обеспечение представленности женщин на руководя- щих должностях; соблюдение прав землевладения и землепользования; и права человека и развитие. Кроме того, если они не будут устранены в соответствии с международными стандартами в области прав человека, то в конечном итоге они подорвут сам процесс реформ. В заключение он отмечает, что серьезной за- дачей, которая возникла с самого начала процесса реформ, является обеспече- ние перехода от основанного на военной доктрине образа мышления, преобла- дающего в правительстве, к демократическому образу мышления, ориентиро- ванному на соблюдение прав человека.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/68/397)
        Format/size: pdf (397K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 24 October 2013


        Title: GA 2012 (67th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 25 September 2012
        Description/subject: Резюме : За отчетный период в Мьянме вновь имели место существенные и стреми- тельные перемены, которые могут дополнительно улучшить положение в облас- ти прав человека в стране, однако сохраняются долгосрочные проблемы, кото- рые продолжают создавать угрозу для процесса реформ. ..... Содержание Стр. I. Введение ... II. Положение в области прав человека : A. Узники совести; B. Условия содержания и обращение с заключенными; C. Прочие вопросы, касающиеся гражданских и политических прав; D. Гражданское общество; E. Экономические, социальные и культурные права ... III. Положение этнических меньшинств... IV. Положение в штате Ракхайн... V. Демократические преобразования и обеспечение верховенства права ... VI. Истина, справедливость и подотчетность ... VII. Выводы ... VIII. Рекомендации
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/67/383)
        Format/size: pdf (385K)
        Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129
        Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012


        Title: GA 2011 (66th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 16 September 2011
        Description/subject: Резюме Настоящий момент является одним из ключевых этапов в истории Мьянмы и предоставляет реальные возможности для позитивных и значимых событий, которые помогут улучшить положение в области прав человека и углубить пе- реход к демократии. Новое правительство предприняло ряд шагов для достиже- ния данной цели. Однако многие серьезные проблемы в сфере прав человека по-прежнему сохраняются и требуют решения. Новому правительству следует активизировать усилия по выполнению собственных обязательств, а также ме- ждународных обязательств, связанных с правами человека. Международному сообществу необходимо сохранять приверженность данному процессу и при- стально наблюдать за ним. Оно также должно поддерживать правительство и оказывать ему помощь в этот важный период. Специальный докладчик под- тверждает свою готовность к конструктивной работе и сотрудничеству с Мьян- мой в целях улучшения положения в области прав ее населения.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/66/365)
        Format/size: pdf (417K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 October 2011


        Title: GA 2010 (65th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 15 September 2010
        Description/subject: Резюме Настоящий доклад представлен во исполнение резолюции Совета по пра- вам человека 13/25 и резолюции 64/238 Генеральной Ассамблеи и в нем рас- сматриваются события в области прав человека в Мьянме за период после пред- ставления доклада Специального докладчика Совету по правам человека в мар- те 2010 года (A/HRC/13/48). 13 августа 2010 года правительство Мьянмы наконец-то объявило о том, что национальные выборы будут проведены 7 ноября 2010 года. В настоящем докладе основное внимание уделяется вопросу о правах человека применитель- но к выборам, а также вопросу о правосудии и подотчетности. Условия для про- ведения подлинных выборов в нынешних обстоятельствах ограничены и воз- можность того, что эти выборы позволят добиться предметных преобразований и улучшат ситуацию в области прав человека в Мьянме, по-прежнему носит не- определенный характер. Что касается вопроса о правосудии и подотчетности, то Специальный док- ладчик отмечает, что, хотя первейшая обязанность правительства Мьянмы за- ключается в решении проблемы грубых и систематических нарушений прав че- ловека всеми сторонами, ответственность ляжет на международное сообщество в том случае, если правительство не выполнит свои обязанности. Специальный докладчик выносит рекомендацию о том, что правительство Мьянмы должно уважать свободу выражения мнений, свободу собраний и ассо- циации в контексте национальных выборов; освободить всех узников совести; заниматься решением вопросов в области правосудия и подотчетности; выпол- нять четыре главных правозащитных элемента, подробно изложенных в его предыдущих докладах; а также содействовать обеспечению доступа для целей оказания гуманитарной помощи и продолжать развивать сотрудничество с меж- дународной правозащитной системой.
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (A/65/368) Организация Объединенных Наций Генеральная Ассамблея
        Format/size: pdf (480K)
        Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


        Title: GA 2009 (64th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 24 September 2009
        Description/subject: Резюме: Настоящий доклад представляется во исполнение резолюции 63/245 Гене- ральной Ассамблеи и резолюции 10/27 Совета по правам человека. Его следует рассматривать совместно с докладом Специального докладчика Совету по пра- вам человека на его десятой сессии (A/HRC/10/19), поскольку основное внима- ние в нем уделяется событиям в области прав человека, которые имели место в Мьянме после представления этого доклада. Самым значительным событием рассматриваемого периода стал судебный процесс по делу Аунг Сан Су Чжи. Назначенные ей дополнительно 18 месяцев домашнего ареста лишают ее возможности активно участвовать в выборах 2010 года. Специальный докладчик считает, что продление ее домашнего ареста наносит удар по осуществлению семиэтапного правительственного плана демо- кратизации, и выражает сожаление в связи с тем, что правительство Мьянмы упустило еще одну возможность доказать свою приверженность проведению всеохватных, свободных и справедливых выборов. В центре внимания настоящего доклада находится вопрос защиты прав че- ловека. В частности, в нем идет речь о положении узников совести, их праве на справедливое судебное разбирательство и на должную правовую процедуру; а также о свободе выражения мнений, собраний и ассоциаций в связи с пред- стоящими в 2010 году выборами. Далее в нем рассматриваются вопросы, ка- сающиеся внутренних конфликтов, защиты мирного населения, дискриминации и необходимости гуманитарной помощи. Специальный докладчик вновь подтверждает свою рекомендацию относи- тельно четырех основных элементов, касающихся реализации прав человека: пересмотр национального законодательства с учетом положений новой консти- туции и в соответствии с международными обязательствами; постепенное осво- бождение узников совести; реформа вооруженных сил с целью обеспечить со- блюдение международных норм в области прав человека и международного гу- манитарного права, включая подготовку кадров; и создание независимой и бес- пристрастной судебной системы. Поскольку Мьянма является участницей толь- ко Конвенции о правах ребенка и Конвенции о ликвидации всех форм дискри- минации в отношении женщин, Специальный докладчик настоятельно рекомен- дует ей присоединиться к другим основным международным договорам в об- ласти прав человека.
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/64/318)
        Format/size: pdf (377K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 October 2009


        Title: GA 2008 (63rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 05 September 2008
        Description/subject: Резюме В своей резолюции 1992/58 Комиссия по правам человека учредила мандат по вопросу о положении в области прав человека в Мьянме, который впослед- ствии был продлен Советом по правам человека в его решении 1/102 и резолю- ции 5/1. В марте 2008 года в своей резолюции 7/32 Совет продлил срок действия этого мандата на один год. 26 марта 2008 года новым Специальным докладчи- ком был назначен Томас Охеа Кинтана (Аргентина), который официально при- ступил к исполнению своих обязанностей 1 мая 2008 года. В ответ на свою просьбу о посещении Мьянмы в период с 3 по 13 августа 2008 года Специальный докладчик 9 июля получил от правительства Мьянмы согласие на посещение страны в период с 3 по 7 августа 2008 года. Специаль- ный докладчик хотел бы поблагодарить правительство Мьянмы за гостеприим- ство и содействие, оказанное ему в ходе первого посещения им этой страны. Главная цель посещения заключалась в том, чтобы установить рабочие отноше- ния с властями, встретиться с представителями гражданского общества, а также с теми, кто лишен возможности пользоваться своими основными правами. Про- грамма посещения приводится в приложении к настоящему докладу. Настоящий доклад представляется во исполнение резолюции 62/222 Гене- ральной Ассамблеи. В первой части представлена информация о деятельности и программе работы Специального докладчика. Вторая часть доклада посвящена вопросам существа и вопросам, касаю- щимся защиты прав человека в свете новой конституции, вопрос об участии в демократическом процессе и проведения выборов в 2010 году, вопрос о свободе собраний и вопрос о праве на свободу убеждений и на их свободное выражение и о том, каким образом они сформулированы в новой конституции, вопрос о международном гуманитарном праве и защите гражданских лиц, а также вопрос о положении конкретных групп населения, таких как этнические меньшинства, женщины и дети. Далее Специальный докладчик подробно останавливается на вопросе о действующих механизмах, призванных обеспечить максимально эф- фективную защиту населения после стихийных бедствий, в частности после циклона «Наргис», а также об условиях жизни, возможностях получения средств к существованию и их последствиях для прав человека. В заключение Специальный докладчик останавливается на событиях, которые произошли в сфере международного сотрудничества и связаны с вопросами прав человека, имеющими отношение к его мандату, и рассматривает вопрос об условиях ук- репления сотрудничества в области поощрения и защиты прав человека в стра- не. В качестве рекомендаций Специальный докладчик представляет четыре ос- новных элемента реализации прав человека, призванных обеспечить переход Мьянмы к демократии.
        Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/63/341)
        Format/size: pdf (362K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2007 (62nd Session) : Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 13 August 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: The present report is submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 61/232. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the decision of the Government of Myanmar to reconvene the National Convention for its last session on 18 July 2007, to finish laying down principles for a new constitution as part of a seven-stage road map to democracy. He remains concerned, however, at the lack of opportunity for effective and genuine participation by the National League for Democracy (NLD) and ethnic groups, which have deliberately chosen not to participate owing to the lack of transparency and meaningful input. He has repeated on several occasions that there will be no authentic democratic transition in Myanmar until all political prisoners are released. Given the importance of the last phase of the National Convention, he deplores the extension of the house arrest of the NLD General Secretary and the continued detention of other political leaders. At a time of such importance to the political reform process and in view of the need for reconciliation, such severe treatment of senior ethnic nationality leaders sends a very counterproductive signal, shocking many citizens and human rights observers. The human rights concerns enumerated in the present report are largely very similar to those highlighted by the Special Rapporteur last year. The Special Rapporteur deplores the fact that the Government, despite several requests, has not invited him to visit the country. For this reason he was not able to assess any improvements or verify the accuracy of the allegations received from credible sources. Severe restrictions on fundamental freedoms are imposed on political activists and human rights defenders. As of 27 June 2007, the number of political prisoners was estimated at 1,192. Throughout the country communities are subjected to patterns of abuse by members of the military who, in order to assert greater central government control, and often to implement national development projects, resort to forced labour, the seizure of property and assets and the forced relocation of populations, particularly in the border areas where ethnic nationality groups reside. The lack of an effective commitment by the Government of Myanmar to respond to the human rights situation continues to raise serious concerns. At the national level, the capacity of law enforcement institutions and the independence and impartiality of the judiciary have been hindered by sustained impunity. The restrictions on the exercise of fundamental freedoms by political opponents, human rights defenders and victims of human rights abuses is also a matter of concern. The Special Rapporteur also takes note with great satisfaction of the Understanding between the International Labour Organizations and the Government of Myanmar, concluded on 26 February 2007, to provide a mechanism to enable victims of forced labour to seek redress. The Special Rapporteur has also noted concrete developments which he considers to be significant milestones in the fight against impunity in Myanmar. These include the establishment of a national redress mechanism to receive complaints of forced labour, and the dialogue initiated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict with the Government regarding the development of an action plan to halt recruitment of child soldiers and to develop reintegration programmes and the setting up of a national mechanism to report on human rights violations committed against children during armed conflict. These mechanisms should lead to greater access to currently restricted areas for the provision of humanitarian assistance, as well as the monitoring of violations. The Special Rapporteur is convinced that Myanmar would benefit from more active cooperation with his mandate, now under terms of reference that have been redefined by the Human Rights Council. He insists that it is his obligation to go public about allegations of human rights violations, but that this does not exclude a constructive and continuous dialogue with the Government. These two elements of his mandate can contribute to a new dynamic for the improvement of the situation of human rights in the country. As indicated by the Special Rapporteur in his previous report, it will not be easy for Myanmar to promote political transition and basic human rights. The collaboration of the United Nations and the international community are essential to support the efforts of the Government and civil society. In his recommendations, the Special Rapporteur encourages the international community to promote a framework of principles to enable Member States to pursue a plurality of strategies and cooperation with the Government of Myanmar in accordance with their particular strengths and capacities. It is urgent that the international community build on existing programmes of humanitarian assistance and support health, education and human rights, in particular through support to the development of civil society.
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/62/223)
        Format/size: pdf (338K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


        Title: GA 2004: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 30 August 2004
        Description/subject: Summary: The mandate of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar was established by the Commission in its resolution 1992/58 and extended most recently in resolution 2004/61. In that resolution, the Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-ninth session. The present interim report is based upon information received by the Special Rapporteur up to 30 July 2004 and is to be read in conjunction with his last report to the Commission (E/CN.4/2004/33). Since his last mission to Myanmar in November 2003 the Special Rapporteur has requested from the Government of Myanmar on several occasions its cooperation in returning to the country for a fact-finding mission. However, in spite of the indication of agreement in principle to the Special Rapporteur’s visit, no authorization to visit was received. The Special Rapporteur therefore provides in the present report short updates on the issues he examined during his last visit, based on information collected from other sources. The Special Rapporteur will continue seeking access to Myanmar so as to more fully discharge his mandate. The National Convention was reconvened from 17 May to 9 July 2004. Reviving the National Convention constitutes the first step under the seven-point road map for national reconciliation and democratic transition presented by the Prime Minister, General Khin Nyunt, on 30 August 2003. It was announced by the authorities that the delegates to the new National Convention were expected to frame their suggestions in the context of the six objectives and the 104 principles already laid down during the 1993-1996 Convention. The National Convention was reconvened without the involvement of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and other political parties that won the majority of seats in the 1990 elections. It was attended by 1,076 delegates, compared with the 702 participants at the previous Convention. This increase was largely made up of representatives of ethnic nationalities, including ceasefire groups that emerged in the new political environment created as a result of ceasefire agreements with 17 former armed groups. In terms of potential for conflict resolution, the 2004 National Convention may thus be a unique opportunity for ethnic minorities. The Special Rapporteur notes that the concerns regarding the National Convention process that he expressed in his last report to the Commission have not been addressed and that the necessary steps to ensure minimum democratic conditions for the reconvening of the National Convention have not been taken. The Special Rapporteur reiterates that if the Government wishes to promote a genuine process of political transition, fundamental human rights requirements have to be fulfilled. The Special Rapporteur nevertheless hopes that the final outcome of the National Convention will bring some concrete solutions to the concerns of the entire population of Myanmar. Releasing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and beginning a substantive dialogue with her and her party, as well as reaching an agreement with ceasefire groups that takes into account their suggestions would contribute to the advancement of the political process. In this respect, the Special Rapporteur appeals to the Government of Myanmar to recognize the role of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General and the necessity of his return to the country as soon as possible to continue his facilitation efforts, in particular in the context of preparations for the next session of the National Convention. The information received by the Special Rapporteur during the reporting period indicates that the situation with regard to the exercise of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms in Myanmar has not substantially changed. The effects of the events of 30 May 2003 in Depayin have yet to be fully reversed. There remain large numbers of security detainees. The Special Rapporteur has received several reports of continuing arrests and harsh sentences for peaceful political activities; many of the reported cases were raised by the Special Rapporteur in his letters and urgent appeals addressed to the Government of Myanmar. The Special Rapporteur also remains concerned at the practice of administrative detention. There are still restrictions on political activity, with all NLD party offices remaining shut, except for its headquarters in Yangon which was allowed to reopen in April 2004. Despite the restrictions in place, according to recent reports, NLD has been able to conduct some activities. While the extent to which NLD and other political parties will be allowed to conduct peaceful political activities without reprisals remains to be seen, the Special Rapporteur would like to reiterate the view, expressed during his last mission in November, that the implementation of the road map must be accompanied by tangible changes on the ground towards a genuinely free, transparent and inclusive process involving all political parties, ethnic nationalities and members of civil society. Political rights and freedoms must be respected in order to create an enabling environment conducive to a successful democratic transition. The implementation of human rights reforms proposed in his reports and letters to the Myanmar authorities would help create such an environment. During the reporting period, the Special Rapporteur has received credible and detailed reports of human rights violations in certain counter-insurgency areas in Myanmar and hopes that he will be able to clarify those reports during his next mission. He recalls that his request for an independent assessment in Shan State has not yet been answered by the Myanmar authorities. The Special Rapporteur has taken note of the cooperation by the Government of Myanmar with the Committee on the Rights of the Child in the consideration of the second periodic report of Myanmar on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Special Rapporteur believes that there has been growing appreciation in recent years by the international community of an imperative for humanitarian assistance in Myanmar. In this regard, he welcomes the efforts of the United Nations Country Team in mapping out vulnerabilities in Myanmar with a view to developing a strategic framework for United Nations assistance. In view of the prevailing situation in Myanmar, the conclusions and recommendations given in the previous reports of the Special Rapporteur remain valid.
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/59/311)
        Format/size: pdf (292K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 September 2004


        Title: GA 2001: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 20 August 2001
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteurs initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteurs assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Governments endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned."
        Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
        Format/size: PDF (399K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 2000: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 22 August 2000
        Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
        Format/size: PDF (271K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1998: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 10 September 1998
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
        Author/creator: Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
        Format/size: PDF (94K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: GA 1997: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Russian)
        Date of publication: 16 October 1997
        Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-second session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/117 of 12 December 1996 and Economic and Social Council decision 1997/272 of 22 July 1997. Good section on citizenship and citizenship legislation (paras 119-142), mainly relating to the Rohingyas, a Muslim group in Rakhine (Arakan) state; statelessness and the conformity of the different forms of citizenship [in Burma] with international norms. Also, the rights pertaining to democratic governance, the right to form and join trade unions, forced labour, violations against ethnic minorities, including violations of civil rights.
        Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
        Language: Russian
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/52/484)
        Format/size: PDF (94K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Statements and documents submitted to the GA by Myanmar

      Individual Documents

      Title: Letter dated 24 October 2012 from the Permanent Representative of Myanmar to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
      Date of publication: 24 October 2012
      Description/subject: "...1. A country-specific resolution on Myanmar was first tabled by the European Union in the Third Committee of the General Assembly in 1991. Since then it has become a ritual for the European Union to do the same on a yearly basis. 2. Myanmar has all along rejected the resolution and dissociated itself from the adoption thereof. This approach is taken for a couple of reasons. Firstly, as a matter of principle, Myanmar rejects country-specific resolutions. Secondly, the resolution did not reflect nor recognize the realities on the ground. It mainly relies on unsubstantiated information leading to erroneous conclusions. The draft resolutions are usually influenced by the recommendations and observations of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, whose views are usually focused only on the perspective of ideal standards of human rights without giving due consideration to the broader aspects of national reconciliation and peace and stability of the country. 3. This memorandum is intended to provide States Members of the United Nations with objective information on the human rights situation in Myanmar. It is our hope that it will be able to rectify the misperception and misunderstanding that may still persist about Myanmar..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (A/C.3/67/4)
      Format/size: pdf (60K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


      Title: Response by Ambassador H.E. U Thaung Tun, Representative of the Union of Myanmar to the Oral Presentation by Special Rapporteur Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro,
      Date of publication: 24 October 2007
      Description/subject: Response by Ambassador H.E. U Thaung Tun Representative of the Union of Myanmar to the Oral Presentation by Special Rapporteur Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, in the Third Committee at the 62nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly..."...the Special Rapporteur's report on Myanmar as contained in document A/62/223 is less than objective and is replete with unfounded allegations. It is essentially the same as that of the last year and largely reproduces allegations emanating from insurgents and expatriate groups opposed to the government. However, to his credit the Special Rapporteur acknowledges in paragraph 62 of the report that he was not able to verify the accuracy of the allegations received. He attributes this to the fact that he was unable to visit the country in recent years. In reality, the Distinguished Professor is someone who is not unfamiliar with the complex situation obtaining in Myanmar, the multitude of challenges it faces and the efforts of the Government to promote political, economic and socio-cultural development. The Professor in fact has no difficulty to exchange views on the situation in Myanmar with interested parties including the Myanmar Missions to the United Nations in New York and Geneva. It is also possible for him to verify the reports he receives by communicating with the Myanmar Government and the UN Country Team. Unsubstantiated allegations have no place in a Special Rapporteur's report..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Mission, New York
      Format/size: pdf (133K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 October 2007


      Title: GA 2003: Statement on the Draft Resolution entitled "Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar" delivered by His Excellency U Kyaw Tint Swe to the Third Committee
      Date of publication: 24 November 2003
      Description/subject: 58th United Nations General Assembly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


      Title: GA 2003: Statement by HE Mya Than
      Date of publication: 13 November 2003
      Description/subject: In the General Debate of the 1st Committee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 November 2003


      Title: GA 2003: Memorandum concerning the situation of human rights in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 22 October 2003
      Language: English, Francais, French
      Source/publisher: SPDC via UN
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/576/04/PDF/N0357604.pdf?OpenElement (version en francais)
      Date of entry/update: 10 February 2004


      Title: GA 2003: Statement by HE U Win Aung, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Delegation of the Union of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 29 September 2003
      Description/subject: at the fifty-eighth General Assembly of the United Nations, New York
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.mofa.gov.mm/speeches/58_unga.html
      Date of entry/update: 02 October 2003


      Title: Statement by H.E. U Win Aung
      Date of publication: 19 September 2002
      Description/subject: Statement by His Excellency U Win Aung, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Delegation at the 57th General Assembly of the United Nations "...Cooperation with the United Nations is the cornerstone of Myanmar's Foreign Policy..."
      Author/creator: Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: HTML (18K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Documents and reports for the GA from the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: GA 2002: NCGUB Briefing Paper
      Date of publication: 02 October 2002
      Description/subject: Briefing paper on the current political and human rights situation in Burma 2002. For the 57th Session of the UN General Assemblys resolution on the human rights situation in Myanmar [Burma]. Prepared by the Burma UN Service Office of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma, 2 October 2002. Contents: Summary; Suggested Language for the Resolution ; The Move Towards a Genuine and Substantive Dialogue ; Political Prisoners and Political Activities ; The Judicial System and Unjust Laws and Orders ; The National Convention; Continued violations of human rights and widespread discriminatory practices against ethnic and religious minorities; Forced displacement; Women; Children; Refugees and IDPs; Landmines; Forced Labor; Restrictions on religious freedom ; Humanitarian concerns; The Economic situation; Appendix I: Aide Memoire Impact of Armed Conflict on the Children of Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NCGUB
      Format/size: html (385K) 38 pages
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • UN human rights documents on Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: UN human rights documents on Myanmar
    Description/subject: From 1991 to the present: General Assembly, Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Council reports and resolutions, as well as NGO written statements
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 March 2010


  • United Nations human rights treaties to which Myanmar is a party

    • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: CEDAW Main page
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: CEDAW: Response by Myanmar to the recommendations contained in the concluding observations of the Committee following the examination of the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar on 3 November 2008
      Date of publication: 13 September 2011
      Description/subject: Participation of Women in Political and Public Life...Women in Northern Rakhine State
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3/Add.3)
      Format/size: pdf (63K)
      Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/452/94/pdf/G1145294.pdf?OpenElement
      Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


      Title: CEDAW: Response by Myanmar to the recommendations contained in the concluding observations of the Committee following the examination of the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar on 3 November 2008
      Date of publication: 03 December 2010
      Description/subject: Women’s Rights
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3/Add.2
      Format/size: pdf (32K)
      Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/470/14/pdf/G1047014.pdf?OpenElement
      Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


      Title: Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 07 November 2008
      Description/subject: 1. The Committee considered the combined second and third report of Myanmar (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) at its 864th and 865th meetings, on 3 November 2008 (see CEDAW/C/SR.864 and 865). The Committee's list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3 and the responses of Myanmar are contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3)
      Format/size: pdf (90K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/co/CEDAW-C-MMR-CO-3.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


      Title: In the Shadow of the Junta - CEDAW Shadow Report by women of Burma
      Date of publication: 27 October 2008
      Description/subject: (Press RElease, 27 October 2008): CEDAW shadow report reveals systemic gender discrimination in Burma... "Women’s organizations are today launching a shadow report revealing systemic gender discrimination in Burma, which will be used to review Burma at the 42nd Session of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Committee in Geneva on November 3, 2008. The Women’s League of Burma, together with other community-based organizations around Burma’s borders, has compiled extensive data in the report on how the regime’s failed policies have impacted women and girls, particularly in the areas of education, health, rural development, and violence against women. The findings strongly contradict the claims in the country report by the ruling military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), that women in Burma “enjoy their rights even before they are born.” The report exposes how the regime is profiting from the sale of the country’s natural resources to build up the military and its GONGOs, and how systematic militarization and prioritization of military expenditure has reinforced the existing patriarchal system. It analyzes how the regime’s new constitution not only fails to effectively promote gender equality, but guarantees that the armed forces, an almost exclusively male institution, will control a quarter of seats in the government. The report states: “The face of public life in Burma is male, because the culture of Burma today is profoundly militarized. The military presence pervades every village, town and city, every branch and level of its administration, and every situation involving power and status.” The report exposes how national women’s organizations are merely for show. They are led by wives of SPDC commanders, who promote the regime’s policies and abuse their power at every level. The report reiterates that there can be no advancement of the lives of women and girls in Burma, and no protection and promotion of their rights while the military and its proxy organizations remain in power. “The regime’s road map to disciplined democracy is simply a road-map to further patriarchy,” said Nang Yain (General Secretary of the Women’s League of Burma) “We need genuine political reform to work for gender equality in Burma.”"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
      Format/size: pdf (5,38MB, original; 4.1MB (alternate URL)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org
      http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/IntheShadow-Junta-CEDAW2008.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 November 2008


      Title: Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined second and third periodic report: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 14 October 2008
      Description/subject: 98 paras in response to the List of Issues CEDAW sent to the SPDC in March 2008.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1)
      Format/size: pdf (45K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


      Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
      Date of publication: October 2008
      Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 2nd and 3rd periodic State party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) -MYANMAR-....."...Rohingya women and girls suffer from the devastating consequences of brutal government policies implemented against their minority group but also from socio-religious norms imposed on them by their community, the combined impact of which dramatically impinges on their physical and mental well-being, with long-term effects on their development. a) State-sponsored persecution: The 1982 Citizenship Law renders the Rohingya stateless, thereby supporting arbitrary and discriminatory measures against them. Their freedom of movement is severely limited; they are barred from government employment; marriage restrictions are imposed on them; they are disproportionately subject to forced labour, extortion and other coercive measures. Public services such as health and education are appallingly neglected. Illiteracy is estimated at 80%. The compounded impact of these human right violations also results in household impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing the vulnerability of women and children....Rohingya women and girls are also subject to serious gender-based restrictions due to societal attitudes and conservative interpretation of religious norms in their male-dominated community. The birth of a son is always favoured. Girls’ education is not valued and they are invariably taken out of school at puberty. Women and adolescent girls are usually confined to their homes and discouraged from participating in the economic sphere. They are systematically excluded from decision-making in community matters. Divorced women and widows are looked down upon, exposed to sexual violence and abandoned with little community support..."
      Author/creator: Chris Lewa
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
      Format/size: pdf (179K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


      Title: List of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of periodic reports: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 06 March 2008
      Description/subject: The pre-session working group examined the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar (CEDAW/C/MMR/3)and produced a list of 29 questionw which was sent to the SPDC. The replies to the questions are contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3)
      Format/size: pdf (48K)
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


      Title: CEDAW 2007: (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Combined second and third periodic reports of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 04 September 2007
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "...Myanmar women enjoy good life and rights in accordance with the laws or customs since ancient time. The government is carrying out within the limited resources to enable entire Myanmar women to face the challenges of knowledge age and to keep abreast with the world. In so doing, so that all women enjoy full rights and for the comprehensive development of women, conservation of Myanmar traditional culture is also considered seriously."... The report can also be found in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish by searching at http://documents.un.org/ -- paste CEDAW/C/MMR/3 into the Symbol box of the Simple Search.
      Language: English (also Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish on the ODS site -- see Description)
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/3)
      Format/size: pdf (197K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2007


      Title: Gathering Strength - Women from Burma on their Rights
      Date of publication: January 2002
      Description/subject: Link to the URLs of the individual chapters (pdf): IMAGES ASIA'S CEDAW PROJECT METHODOLOGY: THE AIM OF THIS REPORT 11; THE INTERVIEW PROCESS 11; OBSTACLES ENCOUNTERED DURING RESEARCH 13; DATA ANALYSIS 14; OTHER PROJECT AIMS 17. THE CEDAW & THE GOVERNMENT'S OBLIGATIONS: THE CEDAW & THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S RIGHTS MOVEMENT; STRUCTURE OF THE CEDAW; GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS; CEDAW MONITORING MECHANISMS; THE SPDC AT THE 22ND SESSION OF THE CEDAW... MEETINGS & MACHINERY: THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE CEDAW: OVERVIEW; THE BURMESE WAY TO EQUALITY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... SOCIAL ROLES & GENDER STEREOTYPES: OVERVIEW; RELIGION & GENDER DISCRIMINATION; PRESERVERS OF CULTURE; FAMILY ROLES; SOCIAL RELATIONS & BEHAVIOURAL NORMS; RESTRICTIONS; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: OVERVIEW; WOMEN IN WAR; RELOCATION & DISPLACEMENT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE & ARMED CONFLICT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN AREAS OF MILITARY OCCUPATION; SEXUAL VIOLENCE ACROSS BORDERS: REFUGEES & MIGRANTS; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE COMMUNITY; REPORTING & PUNISHMENT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE; FORCED MARRIAGE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELOCATION & REFUGE; GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S HEALTH: OVERVIEW; GOVERNMENT HEALTH SPENDING; POLICY, LAW & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATING TO WOMEN'S HEALTH; EDUCATION ABOUT WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUES; ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE; REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH; MATERNAL HEALTH; WOMEN & HIV/AIDS 120 FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... EDUCATION FOR WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; WOMEN & ILLITERACY; CURRENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE & DROP OUT; BARRIERS TO EDUCATION; DISCRIMINATION IN GIRLS' SCHOOLING; INCENTIVES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION; VOCATIONAL TRAINING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... THE ECONOMY & WOMEN'S LABOUR: OVERVIEW; THE ECONOMY; DECISION-MAKING & THE FAMILY INCOME; CULTURAL STEREOTYPES REGARDING WORK; RURAL WOMEN; FORCED LABOUR; EDUCATION & WORK OPPORTUNITIES; WOMEN IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE; THE CIVIL SERVICE; THE INFORMAL SECTOR; THE PRIVATE SECTOR; LACK OF INFORMAL & PRIVATE SECTOR REGULATION; THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN & THE LAW: OVERVIEW; FOUNDATIONS OF THE LAW IN BURMA; LAWS RELATING SPECIFICALLY TO WOMEN; THE PRACTICE OF THE LAW; WOMEN & FAMILY LAW; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTIONS ON POLITICAL FREEDOM; INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION; NATIONAL PARTICIPATION; LOCAL PARTICIPATION; WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS; CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY; WOMEN'S POLITICAL ACTIVITIES IN EXILE; WOMEN IN BURMA'S POLITICAL FUTURE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... CONCLUSION... BIBLIOGRAPHY... ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE.
      Author/creator: Brenda Belak
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Images Asia
      Format/size: html (38K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CEDAW 2000: (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Concluding Observations on Myanmar
      Date of publication: 28 January 2000
      Description/subject: (CEDAW/C/2000/I/CRP.3/Add.2/Rev.1.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations.
      Format/size: pdf (51K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 452nd meeting (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 26 January 2000
      Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women... Twenty-second session... Summary record of the 457th meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Wednesday, 26 January 2000, at 3 p.m. Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.452)
      Format/size: pdf (142K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


      Title: CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Examination of the Initial Report of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 21 January 2000
      Description/subject: 21 January 2000: 1) U Win Mra's Statement; 2) Questions from the Committee; 3) Response by Myanmar; 4) Shadow Report by the Women's Organizations of Burma's Shadow Report Writing Committee: "Burma: The Current State of Women - Conflict Area Specific". Includes recommendations on health, education, violence against women and poverty.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VI, No, 4
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 450th meeting (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 21 January 2000
      Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Twenty-second session Summary record of the 450th meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Friday, 21 January 2000, at 10.30 a.m.... Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued) Initial report of Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.450
      Format/size: pdf (128K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


      Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 451st meeting (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 21 January 2000
      Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women Twenty-second session... Summary record of the 451st meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Friday, 21 January 2000, at 3 p.m. Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued) Initial report of Myanmar (continued)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.451)
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


      Title: CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Initial Report of Myanmar
      Date of publication: 25 June 1999
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/1)
      Format/size: pdf (203K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
      Date of publication: 18 December 1979
      Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979; entry into force 3 September 1981. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CEDAW Committee. Myanmar accession: 22 July 1997.
      Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN page)
      Description/subject: Myanmar acceded to this treaty on 7 December 2011. It entered into force 30 days after. Myanmar's first report to the committee is due by December 2013.....The Convention in brief: Guiding Principles of the Convention... Entry into Force... Monitoring of Implementation... Conference of States parties... Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities... Convention & Optional Protocol Signatories & Ratification... Civil Society... Timeline of Convention Events... Frequently Asked Questions on the Convention... Negotiation Archives
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar takes major step in addressing the needs of Landmine Victims
      Date of publication: 12 December 2011
      Description/subject: "Myanmar Accedes to the international Convention on the Rights of Disabled People (CRPD)...The ICBL had previously been informed by Foreign Ministry officials that the legal review of this convention had been completed, but that the Convention would have to forwarded to the new Parliament for debate and approval. On 9 December, the United Nations received the accession from Myanmar, which will go into effect 6 January 2012. Myanmar’s adherence to the CRPD will be significant for increasing assistance to the countries landmine, and other, disabled..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    • Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

      • The Convention, the Committee, procedure, backround and guideline documents

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: A Guide for Non-Governmental Organizations Reporting to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
        Description/subject: "A step by step guide for NGOs preparing an alternative report for the Committee on the Rights of the Child, an outline of the procedures concerning NGO presentations at the pre-sessional meetings, procedures for follow-up action and background to the work of the NGO Group..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Format/size: pdf (47K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=630&flag=report
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
        Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Description/subject: The NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a coalition of international non-governmental organisations, which work together to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It was originally formed in 1983 when members of the NGO Group were actively involved in the drafting of the Convention. An organisational brochure is available [html format]. The NGO Group has a Liaison Unit that supports participation of the NGOs, particularly national coalitions, in the reporting precess to the Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as other activities to ensure the implementation of the Convention. One important area is the management of Alternative Reports that have been submitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (as per Article 45a). The NGO Group has the following aims: * To be an advocate on behalf of children by raising awareness about the Convention. * To promote and facilitate, through specific programmes and actions, the full implementation of the Convention. * To facilitate a flow of information between the Committee on the Rights of the Child, concerned United Nations bodies and the NGO community. * To facilitate co-operation and information sharing regarding the monitoring and implementation of the Convention within the NGO community. * To draw up policies and strategies and undertake action in fields covered by the Convention * To contribute to the monitoring work of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. * To facilitate the creation and support the work of National Coalitions for the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Webcasting - the CRC Committee 59th Session
        Description/subject: The CRC meetings on Burma/Myanmar can be watched via this link on the 19th January 10-13hrs and 15-18hrs Geneva time (GMT 9hrs and 14hrs)..... "As part of a pilot project for all treaty bodies, the NGO Group is very pleased to be webcasting the public meetings of the 59th Session of the CRC Committee. In the coming days, the live webcast will be available directly on this page. For now, please click http://ccprcentre.org/home/215 [Alternate URL]to view the live video. To view a complete list of the countries that will come before the Committee at this session, and to view the schedule of meetings, click here. Please check back for more news about how to access archive videos..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
        Alternate URLs: http://ccprcentre.org/home/215
        Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child as of 1st March 2011
        Date of publication: 01 March 2011
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (272.1K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


        Title: Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: October 2010
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (128K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


        Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (English)
        Date of publication: 20 November 1989
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (112.4K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


      • Burma/Myanmar and the CRC

        • NGO submissions to the CRC on Burma/Myanmar

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: List of NGO submissions on Burma/Myanmar
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Child Rights Information Network (CRIN)
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


          Individual Documents

          Title: CRC 2012: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
          Date of publication: 19 January 2012
          Description/subject: For the Examination of the combined 3rd and 4th periodic State Party Reports (CRC/C/MMR/3-4) -MYANMAR - Updated in January 2012....."...The Muslim population of Northern Rakhine State, known as Rohingya2, constitutes an ethnic, linguistic and religious minority group in Myanmar. Their number is estimated at 735,000 or about 91% of the total population of that area3. They are ethnically related to the Chittagonian Bengalis just across the border in Bangladesh. The Rohingya are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity and religion, and are subject to systematic state policies of exclusion, restrictions and arbitrary treatment imposed on them by successive governments over the last few decades. These policies were the root causes of two mass refugee exoduses to Bangladesh, in 1978 and again in 1991/92. The outflow has not stopped and today Rohingyas continue to flee from Myanmar. In addition to 29,000 registered refugees housed in two refugee camps, Bangladesh currently hosts 200,000 or more unregistered Rohingya refugees living among local communities. Tens of thousands have also migrated to Malaysia and the Middle-East, including thousands of boat people. Rohingya children, in particular, bear the full brunt of the devastating impact of these policies, which gravely impair their physical and mental development as children and will affect the long-term future of their community..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
          Format/size: pdf (712K)
          Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2012: Attacks on education and health facilities and related personnel: Trends and recent incidents from eastern Burma (submission to the CRC)
          Date of publication: 21 September 2011
          Description/subject: "The UN Security Council (UNSC) has repeatedly recognised the importance of protecting health and education facilities and related personnel from attack, with the passage of resolutions 1612 (2005) and 1998 (2011). Unfortunately, in the context of eastern Burma, UN-led monitoring and reporting pursuant to these resolutions has to date gathered only minimal information regarding such attacks. This briefer is thus designed to contribute information on this question, in the hope that it prompts more systematic international monitoring. After a short introduction, Section I of this briefer details KHRG research methodology; Section II analyses general trends in armed conflict and related violations during the reporting period and Section III analyses 16 particularly illustrative incidents that entailed attacks on schools, clinics and related personnel or children. These incidents were selected from a database detailing 59 recent attacks monitored by KHRG that did or could have placed educational or medical facilities and related personnel at risk of attack. Appendix 1 presents legal analysis to support monitoring attacks in eastern Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
          Format/size: pdf (169K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=26524&flag=legal
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/CRC2012-Myanmar-NGO-KHRG.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2012: Briefing for the CRC on corporal punishment in Myanmar
          Date of publication: June 2011
          Description/subject: "This report provides supplementary information on the 3rd and 4th report of Myanmar on the implementation of the CRC. The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children submits a briefing to each Pre-sessional Working Group of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The briefings summarize the legal status of corporal punishment in each of the States to be examined, together with any research evidence of prevalence of corporal punishment. The briefing covers corporal punishment in all settings - the home, alternative care, schools and penal systems."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children
          Format/size: pdf (134K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2012: Myanmar: Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in advance of the examination of Myanmar’s report on the Convention on the Rights of the Child
          Date of publication: May 2011
          Description/subject: The government claims that the Tatmadaw Kyi is an all-volunteer force and that the minimum age for recruitment is 18. However, low salaries and extremely poor working conditions have combined to create disincentives for voluntary recruitment into the army. The Tatmadaw Kyi military officers and informal recruiting agents continue to use intimidation, coercion, and physical violence to gain new recruits, a sizeable number of which are underage. There are no reliable figures on the number of underage soldiers in the Myanmar army. The Coalition‘s information indicates that patterns of underage recruitment by the Tatmadaw Kyi remain unchanged from those reported previously by UN and NGO sources, including forced recruitment directly by military officers and informal recruiting agents. A system of incentives to reward recruiters still exists and the use of tricks, bribery, threats and force are widely reported. On 4 November 2010, the government gazetted a new military law, the 2010 People‘s Military Service Law, which contains provisions for eligible citizens to be called up for two years military service (or three years‘ for those with technical skills). It is widely perceived that this law will not contribute to preventing child recruitment, unless adequate safeguards are implemented to regulate and professionalise the conscription process.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (Child Soldiers International)
          Format/size: pdf (733K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=25369&flag=legal
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/CRC2012-Myanmar-NGO-CSI.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2012: The plight of children under military rule in Burma - CRC Shadow Report, Burma
          Date of publication: 29 April 2011
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: The Child Rights Forum of Burma (CRFB) is submitting the following report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for its review of Burma. Children in Burma face numerous challenges to their survival and development. For the majority of children access to basic rights such as health care, food, education, protection from abuse and exploitation are almost non-existent. CRFB wishes to bring to the Committee’s attention information regarding the following children’s rights violations by the State Party, all of which impede their chances of development and survival: • the denial of health care and an adequate standard of living; • the denial of free and accessible education, and discrimination in access to education; • pervasive and widespread child labour and forced labour, including portering in the army; • a failure to protect children from sexual exploitation and trafficking; • a failure to accord special protection to children affected by armed conflict, including from ongoing violations of international humanitarian law by the armed forces; • the recruitment and participation of children in armed conflict; • the denial of rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly; • arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and denial of the rights to a fair trial."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Child Rights Forum of Burma
          Format/size: pdf (1.6MB - OBL version; 2.4MB - original)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/docs/Myanmar_CRFB_CRC%20Report.pdf
          http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=25397&flag=legal
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2012: Suggestions for disability-relevant questions to be included in the list of issues for Pre-sessional Working Group, CRC 58th Session
          Date of publication: 01 February 2011
          Description/subject: "Suggestions for disability-relevant questions to be included in the list of issues for pre-sessional working group CRC 58th session. IDA submissions to the CRC Committee highlight the rights of children with disabilities and aim to promote and mainstream the standards of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities into the Committee’s work. "
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Disability Alliance (IDA)
          Format/size: pdf (218K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/find.asp?country=35&categoryID=Any6
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2004: Child Soldiers : CRC Country Briefs : Myanmar
          Date of publication: 17 February 2004
          Description/subject: "...Myanmar is estimated to have one of the largest numbers of child soldiers of any country in the world, with the overwhelming majority serving in the national army, the Tatmadaw.1 Although the minimum age for conscripts is 18, Human Rights Watch has estimated that children may account for 35 to 45 per cent of new recruits into the national army, or 70,000 or more of Myanmar’s estimated 350,000 soldiers. The government has not ratified the OP-CRC-CAC. Child soldiers, including those under the age of 15, are also present in armed opposition groups..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (re-named Child Soldiers International)
          Format/size: pdf (48K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=4008&flag=legal
          http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_CSCS_ngo_report.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2004: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
          Date of publication: November 2003
          Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report -MYANMAR..... "...The Muslim population of Rakhine State, known as Rohingya2 and closely related to the Chittagonian people of Southern Bangladesh, is being discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity and religion. They have been excluded from the nationbuilding process in Myanmar and the military regime has implemented policies of exclusion and discrimination against this group aimed at encouraging them to leave the country. These systematic policies have maintained underdevelopment and have been the driving force behind two mass refugee exoduses to Bangladesh, in 1978 and again in 1991/92. The combination of human right violations the Rohingya face -- from the denial of legal status to restriction of movement and economic constraints -- creates food insecurity and makes life in Northern Rakhine State untenable for many. Rohingya children, in particular, are innocent victims suffering from the debilitating consequences of these government policies, which dramatically affect their physical and mental development, and will have long-lasting effects for the future of the Rohingya community..."
          Author/creator: Chris Lewa
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Forum Asia
          Format/size: pdf (151K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/find.asp?country=35&categoryID=Any6
          http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_ForumAsia_ngo_report.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2004: BURMA (MYANMAR): Right to Education Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers -
          Date of publication: October 2003
          Description/subject: Submission by Human Rights Watch to the Committee ion the Rights of the Child... SUMMARY: "Many children in Burma (Myanmar) are denied their right to education under article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Many are out of school because their families cannot afford school fees. Large numbers of children, particularly in ethnic minority areas, are also denied access to education, as armed conflict has resulted in the closure or destruction of many schools. Large numbers of children in these areas have been forcibly displaced by the Burma army, with little or no access to education. In violation of article 38 of the Convention, forced recruitment of children into Burma’s national army is systematic and widespread. Children as young as eleven are forcibly recruited from public places, including marketplaces, bus, ferry, and rail stations, and the street. During training, these children are subject to routine and often brutal beatings and systematic humiliation. Once deployed, they often engage in combat against ethnic armed opposition groups, and are forced to participate in human rights abuses against civilians. They are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. They are refused contact with their families and face severe reprisals if they try to escape. In violation of article 39, the government makes no programs or assistance available for the recovery and social reintegration of children who have been recruited or used as child soldiers."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
          Format/size: pdf (75K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 2004: BURMA'S CHILD IN EDUCATION
          Date of publication: August 2003
          Description/subject: Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child...Conclusion: "Though Burma became a state party of CRC and promulgated a Child Law, the situation of children in education is not progressed. Their right to education is abused due to the lack of government obligation to child welfare. The poverty, political instability and internal wars are largely impacted to the education life of children in Burma. Many children are dropouts from school because of family's financial situation and poverty, while many children in minority areas were abused the right to education in consequence of internal wars and military operation in these areas."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs Committee All Burma Federation of Student Unions (ABSFU)
          Format/size: pdf (85K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 1997: Burma: Children's Rights and the Rule of Law
          Date of publication: January 1997
          Description/subject: Submitted as an Alternative Report to the CRC. Burma acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1991. Since then, however, there has been little progress towards the implementation of the convention, and the underlying problems which impede implementation have not changed. These include a total lack of the rule of law and accountability of the government, as well as draconian restrictions on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly which prevent local reporting and monitoring of the human rights situation of children. Events of October and December1996 in Burma, which saw hundreds of high school and university students take to the streets to demand the protection of their rights, especially the right to form student unions, highlight the urgent need for reform. Over three hundred students and youths were arrested during the December demonstrations, at least fifty of whom remain unaccounted for. . .
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: CRC 1997: COMMENTS ON THE INITIAL REPORT OF BURMA (MYANMAR) TO THE UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
          Date of publication: July 1996
          Description/subject: Submitted to the Members of the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child by Ethan Taubes, consultant to the International League for Human Rights 432 Park Avenue South New York, New York, 10016, U.S.A July 1996....Executive Summary: "Myanmar's initial report demonstrates a serious lack of understanding for the principles animating the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Through its chronic omission of virtually all relevant information, it describes a country in which children's rights are afforded special protection under national law .With its primary emphasis on reciting enacted legislation, and with little relevant commentary or factual documentation to fill the gaps, the report avoids any substantive discussion of what measures Myan.mar is taking to protect children's rights and enforce existing laws. SLORC attempts to mask its noncompliance with the Committee's reporting guidelinesl by using the subtitle "Implementation" in each section of its report. However, although the term "implementation" is continually waved like a talismanic wand at the reader, the sections usually refer to statutory provisions without providing any material on actual implementation measures the government is taking or, at least, planning to pursue. Implementation of the Convention does not"end simply with mechanical incorporation of the CRC provisions into national law .Legislation is meaningless unless it is accompanied by concrete administrative codes and guidelines for government agencies to follow and apply .Legislation must be bolstered by specific policy decisions and by political will to implement the principles of the Convention.2 Article 44(2) of the CRC requires States parties to include in their reports ". ..sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned," The Myanmar report fails to satisfy this basic requirement. As a result, it will be all but impossible for the Committee to conduct discussions "to analyze progress achieved and factors and difficulties encountered in the implementation of the Convention," as is the responsibility of the Committee under its guidelines,3 The Committee should require that Myanmar submit another report within six months, because the current report is not in compliance with the reporting guidelines established by the Committee and fails to provide the information necessary for the Committee to conduct its discussions. For this purpose, the Committee should: (1) emphasize, and elaborate on, the reporting guidelines previously established in the CRC's Overview on Reporting Procedures, and (2) require that Myanmar be more forthcoming in its reporting, especially in its discussion of implementation measures, and demand that the SLORC not avoid difficult issues about protecting the rights of the Bumiese child."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International League for Human Rights
          Format/size: pdf (893K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


          Title: CRC 1997: The Situation of Children in Burma
          Date of publication: 01 May 1996
          Description/subject: "[This report was prepared as a submission to the UN Committee which is reviewing SLORC’s observance of the Convention on Rights of the Child, which SLORC ratified in 1991. Under the terms of the Convention, SLORC was required to submit a report to the Committee in 1993, but did not do so until September 1995. Their case comes before the Committee in Oct. 1996 or Jan. 1997. This report was submitted together with a 140-page Annex of excerpts from KHRG reports relating to children. It is reproduced here for general use.] This summary is intended for consideration by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. It has been prepared partly in response to the report filed by the State Law & Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Burma’s ruling military junta. It does not contain a paragraph-by-paragraph analysis of SLORC’s report, but instead attempts to summarize some of the worst problems facing Burma’s children today and point out some of the most glaring fallacies in the SLORC report. All of the observations and quotations included here are taken from our 4 years of living among and interviewing villagers, refugees and the internally displaced. In Burma the Tatmadaw (Army) exercises absolute power of life and death over every civilian, including children. Soldiers act with complete impunity, particularly in rural areas, and are not answerable to any laws which exist on paper in Rangoon. Children are often shot on sight in free-fire zones, tortured or executed as "suspected rebels", used for forced labour, forcibly conscripted into the Army and otherwise subject to direct abuse. They also suffer from the destruction of the village environment and the economy under SLORC policies, which are leading to widespread malnutrition and the death of children, the lack of educational opportunities, and other factors which rob them of a childhood..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
          Format/size: html, pdf (115.54 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg96/596child.html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: CRC 1997: "When Children's Rights are Jeopardized, so is the Future of the Nation." - The Children's Rights situation in Burma
          Date of publication: January 1996
          Description/subject: "This paper is an attempt to investigate how Burma is treating its children. This has been done through collating already existigg material on the situation of children in Burma. No 'nev.' interviews or recordings have been done. The material consists of different reports, papers and books (see bibliography). Because of limited time and language skills this paper is just an attempt to show the differences between the Child Right's Coovention and reality, between what is said by the State Law and Restoration Council (Slorc) and whatthoy are actually doing..."
          Author/creator: Sara Brunnkvist
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "Burma Issues" via Norwegian Burma Council
          Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
          Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


      • The CRC and Thailand

        Individual Documents

        Title: Thailand’s Second State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: 07 June 2004
        Description/subject: Thailand’s Second Report On The Implementation of the Convention On the Rights of the Child Submitted to The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child... by The Sub-committee on the Rights of the Child; The National Youth Commission; The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups; Ministry of Social Development and Human Security... Contents: Introduction; 1. General Measures of Implementation; 2. Definition of the Child; 3. General Principles; 4. Civil Rights and Freedoms; 5. Family Environment and Alternative Care; 6. Basic Health and Welfare; 7. Education, Leisure and Cultural Activities; 8. Special Protection Measures.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/83/Add.15)
        Format/size: pdf (923K), Word (884K)
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


        Title: Thailand's 1st State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: 30 September 1996
        Description/subject: I. GENERAL MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION 1 - 75:- A. Report preparation and dissemination of the Convention 2 - 16; B. The promotion of child rights 17 - 34; C. Implementing the provisions of the Convention 35 - 75... II. DEFINITION OF A "CHILD" 76 - 122:- A. The meaning of the word "child" 76 - 81; B. Age and criminal responsibility 82 - 88; C. Counselling services 89 - 95; D. Age of compulsory education 96 - 99; E. Age of sexual consent 100 - 103; F. Age of marriage 104 - 106; G. Age of military conscription 107 - 108; H. Age and imprisonment 109 - 112; I. Age for admission to employment 113 - 119; J. Discrimination between boys and girls 120 - 122... III. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 123 - 142:- A. Non-discrimination 124 - 125; B. Best interests of the child 126 - 127; C. The rights to life, survival and development 128; D. Respect for children's viewpoints 129 - 142... IV. CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS 143 - 193:- A. Nationality and birth registration 143 - 150; B. Publication and distribution of children's literature 151 - 154; C. Protecting children from media violence 155 - 160; D. Child protection procedures 161 - 167; E. Investigation and interrogation procedures in child cruelty cases and its prevention 168 - 182; F. Corporal punishment 183 - 193... V. THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND RELATED FACTORS 194 - 311:- A. Children in impoverished families 196 - 204; B. Children born out of wedlock 205 - 216; C. Children of separated or divorced parents 217 - 229; D. Child neglect, child abandonment, child abuse and family violence 230 - 278; E. Children in other types of care 279 - 295; F. Children with disabilities 296 - 311... VI. BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES 312 - 341... VII. EDUCATION, LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES 342 - 372:- A. Education 342 - 354; B. Leisure time 355 - 365; C. Cultural activities 366 - 372... VIII. SPECIAL PROTECTION MEASURES 373 - 529:- A. Children in emergency situations 373 - 389; B. Children in conflict with the law 390 - 434; C. Children in situations of exploitation 435 - 514; D. Children of minority or ethnic groups 515 - 529... IX. CONCLUSION 530 - 532.
        Language: English, Francais, French
        Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/11/Add.13)
        Format/size: html (299K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.11.Add.13.Fr?Opendocument (Francais)
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


    • Human Rights Committee
      Though Burma/Myanmar is not party to the ICCPR, Thailand is, and since there are very many Burmese in Thailand, their situation is of interest to the Committee.

  • Human Rights Council
    Replacing the Commission on Human Rights

    • Universal Periodic Review

      • General information, overviews, guidelines and toolkits for the Universal Periodic Review

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) - Powerpoint Presentation
        Date of publication: 01 December 2009
        Description/subject: Presentation to the ND-Burma 16th MB Meeting...Overview of the process with a focus on the forthcoming UPR session on Burma (February 2011) and what Burma groups can do
        Author/creator: Cheery Zahau
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
        Format/size: ppt
        Date of entry/update: 25 January 2010


        Title: (Asian) Regional Universal Periodic Review Briefing
        Description/subject: N.B. IF THIS LINK IS DOWN TRY LATER... Documents for the Second Regional Universal Periodic Review Briefing (16-17 November 2009, Bangkok) Resolutions and Decisions: * GA 60/251 * HRC 5/1 (extracts) * HRC Dec. 6/102 * PRST/8/1 * PRST/9/2... OHCHR Briefing and Information Material: * UPR Calendar 1st cycle (Global) * UPR Calendar 1st cycle (South-East Asia) * UPR fact sheet * Technical guidelines for stakeholders * Deadlines for the submission of stakeholders’ information * Terms of Reference – Voluntary Trust Fund for the Participation in the UPR... UPR Documentation: * Indonesia: National report, Compilation of UN information, Summary of stakeholders’ submissions, Advance questions, Working group report, outcome decision, Plenary document. * Malaysia: National report, Compilation of UN information, Summary of stakeholders’ submissions, Advance questions, Working group report, outcome decision, Plenary document. * Republic of Korea:Addendum
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://bangkok.ohchr.org/news/events/upr-briefing-2009/
        http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/UPRMain.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 05 January 2011


        Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) - OHCHR web-page
        Description/subject: Main OHCHR page on the UPR..."The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique process which involves a review of the human rights records of all 192 UN Member States once every four years. The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides the opportunity for each State to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations. As one of the main features of the Council, the UPR is designed to ensure equal treatment for every country when their human rights situations are assessed. The UPR was created through the UN General Assembly on 15 March 2006 by resolution 60/251, which established the Human Rights Council itself. It is a cooperative process which, by 2011, will have reviewed the human rights records of every country. Currently, no other universal mechanism of this kind exists. The UPR is one of the key elements of the new Council which reminds States of their responsibility to fully respect and implement all human rights and fundamental freedoms. The ultimate aim of this new mechanism is to improve the human rights situation in all countries and address human rights violations wherever they occur..."
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 13 December 2009


        Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Reports
        Description/subject: Various documents on the UPR
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Service for Human Rights
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: UPR - Deadlines for submission of information
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: UPR-info.org
        Description/subject: Very useful site - "The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a new and unique mechanism of the United Nations which started in April 2008 and consisting of the review of the human rights practices of all States in the world, once every four years. You will find on this website all the documents available on the UPR, including: States and NGOs reports; OHCHR summaries and compilations; summaries of each review; reports of the Working Group; final outcomes with recommendations; webcasts of the UPR sessions; press statements by NGOs and analyses by UPR Info and other NGOs as well as detailed explanations on how to engage in the process:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UPR-info.org
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: Website of the Bangkok Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
        Description/subject: Many useful documents on the UPR. N.B. IF THIS SITE IS DOWN, TRY LATER
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Individual Documents

        Title: Civil Society Participation in the Universal Periodic Review
        Date of publication: 2012
        Description/subject: Powerpoint presentation...undated
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International
        Format/size: ppt
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: The Universal Periodic Review (UPR): The State and Civil Society Processes
        Date of publication: 01 December 2009
        Description/subject: What is the UPR?...What is the HRC?...The UPR Process...Troika...What does the Troika do?...State under Review...Outcome Document...State Obligations...SPDC......Civil Society: Submit Report...Lobby Strategy...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
        Format/size: pdf (62K)
        Date of entry/update: 25 January 2010


        Title: The Universal Periodic Review Handbook
        Date of publication: 08 June 2009
        Description/subject: This handbook has been updated to reflect new developments and practices during the last sessions of the UPR. It identifies and explains key stages of the process and provides guidelines and recommendations to prepare submissions and advocacy activities within all the UPR process.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Fédération Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
        Format/size: pdf (109K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 January 2010


        Title: INFORMATION AND GUIDELINES FOR RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS ON THE UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW MECHANISM
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: A detailed set of guidelines on how to prepare submissions for the UPR
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (231K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: Fact Sheet: Human Rights Council – Universal Periodic Review
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (252K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Universal Periodic Review Toolkit
        Description/subject: Emphasis on how the UPR can contribute to children's rights
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Child Rights Information Network
        Format/size: pdf (586K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: UPR Calendar 2008-2011 ASEAN & other Asia-Pacific Countries
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (5.82 K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


      • Procedures of the Universal Periodic Review

        Individual Documents

        Title: Human Rights Council:: Follow-up to President's statement 8/1
        Date of publication: 24 September 2008
        Description/subject: Guidelines on documentation: "To ensure the smooth adoption of future reports relating to the universal periodic review, and in the light of the consultations held with all concerned parties, the following arrangements shall be followed:..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (HRC 8/PRST/2)
        Format/size: pdf (121K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: Modalities and practices for the universal periodic review process
        Date of publication: 09 April 2008
        Description/subject: I. Modalities of work for troika members before the session of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review...II. Modalities for the review in the Working Group...III. Report of the Working Group...IV. Modalities at the plenary session...V. General modalities
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations (HRC 8/PRST/1)
        Format/size: pdf (34K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


        Title: GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF INFORMATION UNDER THE UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW
        Date of publication: 27 September 2007
        Description/subject: HRC Decision 6/102. Follow-up to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (42K)
        Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010


      • Sample State, UN and stakeholder UPR documents

        Individual Documents

        Title: UPR - Republic of Korea
        Date of publication: 25 August 2008
        Description/subject: Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Republic of Korea... Addendum: Response of the Republic of Korea on the Universal Periodic Review recommendations
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: pdf (61K)
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) -- Indonesia
        Description/subject: National report... Compilation of UN information... Summary of stakeholders' information... Questions submitted in advance... Outcome of the review... Report of the Working group... Decision on the outcome... Draft Report of the eight session of the Human Rights Council... Related webcast archives
        Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


        Title: UPR - Malaysia
        Description/subject: National report... Compilation of UN information... Summary of stakeholders' information... Questions submitted in advance... Outcome of the review... Report of the Working group... Addendum Decision on the outcome... Draft Report of the eleventh session of the Human Rights Council... Related webcast archives
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United Nations
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


      • Burma/Myanmar and the Universal Periodic Review

        • Burma/Myanmar and the Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group

          Individual Documents

          Title: Universal Periodic Review: Myanmar's addendum to the Report of the Working Group
          Date of publication: 27 May 2011
          Description/subject: 1. "As a United Nations Member State, Myanmar seriously prepared its National Report to UPR and took an active part in the 10th session of the Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Myanmar also gave extremely serious consideration to the recommendations made by many countries at the Working Group...2. The Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has examined the recommendations under paragraph 106 of the Report of the Working Group on the UPR and hereby provides to the 17th session of the Human Rights Council further information on them as follows:..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Union of Myanmar via United Nations
          Format/size: pdf (34K)
          Alternate URLs: http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session10/MM/A_HRC_17_9_Add.1_Myanmar_E.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 15 June 2011


          Title: Universal Periodic Review - Myanmar: Report of the Working Group
          Date of publication: 24 March 2011
          Description/subject: It is significant that "The [13 pages of] recommendations formulated during the interactive dialogue listed below have been examined by Myanmar and enjoy the support of Myanmar:..." These include reference to "2,200 political prisoners" whose existence, on other occasions, the Government has denied.
          Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/17/9)
          Format/size: pdf (147K)
          Date of entry/update: 05 June 2011


        • Universal Periodic Review of Myanmar - Session 09:00-12:00, 27 January 2011, Geneva
          This is not yet a complete list of documents -- notably, the 2 replies by Myannmar are not yet available in written form, though they are on the webcast, and the Report by the Working Group is only available in an unedited form.

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: UPR - Myanmar page
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: The page contains written versions of the statements by states - accessible also as videos (see Webcast entry). It also contains the Report of the Working Group.....The link may take you to the Human Rights Council Extranet, which requires login and password. For login, use hrc extranet as login and 1session as password.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council extranet
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar: Webcast of the session 9.00-12-00, 27 January 2011 (video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: 09:00 - 12:00 - Opening of the session - 8th Plenary Meeting -- 3 hours 3 minutes. This link is to the video record of the complete session.... Subsequent links (following the links to the written documents) are to the individual statements by governments beginning with Myanmar.....The discussion includes many references to the 7 November elections.
          Language: English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 hours, 3 minutes)
          Date of entry/update: 31 January 2011


          Individual Documents

          Title: UPR of Myanmar: draft report (Advanced-Unedited) of the Working Group
          Date of publication: 02 February 2011
          Description/subject: Background and summary of the Session of 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council (A/HRC/WG.6/10/L.7)
          Format/size: pdf (153K)
          Alternate URLs: http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session10/MM/Myanmar-A_HRC_WG.6_10_L.7-eng.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 07 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- 1st Opening Statement by Myanmar (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: Delivered by Dr. Tun Shin, Deputy Attorney-General of Myanmar. The video version (see alternate URL) has the 1st and 2nd opening statements
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (128K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:01:38&end=00:11:43
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- 1st response by Myanmar (video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: Text not yet available
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: Adobe Flash (11 minutes)
          Date of entry/update: 05 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- 2nd Opening Statement by Myanmar (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: Delivered by Myanmar's Permanent Representative in Geneva, HE U Wunna Maung Lwin...The video version (see alternate URL)has both the 1st and 2nd opening statements)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (110K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:01:38&end=00:11:43
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- 2nd response by Myanmar (video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: Text not yet available
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: Adobe Flash (36 minutes)
          Date of entry/update: 05 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Algeria
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Text: Francais, French (oral version in French and English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (71K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:18:02&end=00:19:40 (English)
          rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-orig.rm?start=00:17:59&end=00:19:39 (French)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Argentina (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish (oral version in Spanish and English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (56K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=02:19:05&end=02:21:05 (English)
          rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-orig.rm?start=02:19:04&end=02:21:03 (Spanish)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Australia
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Austria
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Azerbaijan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (52K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Bahrain
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Arabic (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (41K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Bangladesh
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (73K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Belarus
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (104K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Belgium
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Francais, French (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (47K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Bhutan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (45K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Brazil
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (73K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Brunei Darussalam
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (33K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Cambodia
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (71K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Canada
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (36K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by China (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Description/subject: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:19:48&end=00:22:11 (English) rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-orig.rm?start=00:19:46&end=00:22:05 (Chinese)
          Language: Chinese (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (60K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Cuba
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Czech Republic
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (55K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Denmark
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (67K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by DPRK
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by France
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Francais, French (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (133K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by France
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Francais, French (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (64K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Germany
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (67K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Greece
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (43K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Hungary
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (68K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by India
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (74K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Indonesia
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Iran
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (69K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Iraq
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Arabic
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (55K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Ireland
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (90K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Italy
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Japan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (75K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Jordan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (59K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Lao PDR
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (83K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Malaysia
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (69K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Maldives
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Nepal
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (48K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by New Zealand
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Nicaragua
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (47K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Nigeria
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Norway
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (63K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Pakistan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (60K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Philippines
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Poland
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (34K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Portugal
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (53K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Republic of Korea
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (59K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Russian Federation
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Russian (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (44K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Singapore (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (63K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:13:56&end=00:15:49
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Slovakia
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (61K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Slovenia (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (39K), Adobe Flash (3 minutes)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127pm1-eng.rm?start=01:16:20&end=01:19:59
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Spain
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Sri Lanka (text and video)
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Alternate URLs: rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/upr/10th/hrc110127am1-eng.rm?start=00:15:55&end=00:17:53
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Sudan
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Arabic (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (38K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Sweden
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (70K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Syrian Arab Republic
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Arabic (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (29K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Thailand
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (66K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Arabic
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (49K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Timor-Leste
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (55K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Turkey
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (36K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by UK
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (72K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Ukraine
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (67K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by United States of America
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (72K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Uruguay
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (76K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Venezuela
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: Español, Spanish (oral version in English on the webcast)
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (98K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Vietnam
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (67K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


          Title: UPR of Myanmar -- Intervention by Zimbabwe
          Date of publication: 27 January 2011
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Council
          Format/size: pdf (44K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 February 2011


        • Burma/Myanmar and the UPR: background documents

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW -- Basis of the Review of Myanmar
          Date of publication: 27 March 2010
          Description/subject: Links to relevant texts... The basis of the review is: (a) The Charter of the United Nations; (b) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; (c) Human rights instruments to which a State is party; (d) Voluntary pledges and commitments made by States, including those undertaken when presenting their candidatures for election to the Human Rights Council (hereinafter"the Council". 2.In addition to the above and given the complementary and mutually interrelated nature of international human rights law and international humanitarian law, the review shall take into account applicable international humanitarian law..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
          Format/size: pdf (129K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 March 2010


          Title: Universal Periodic Review (UPR) - Powerpoint Presentation
          Date of publication: 01 December 2009
          Description/subject: Presentation to the ND-Burma 16th MB Meeting...Overview of the process with a focus on the forthcoming UPR session on Burma (February 2011) and what Burma groups can do
          Author/creator: Cheery Zahau
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
          Format/size: ppt
          Date of entry/update: 25 January 2010


          Individual Documents

          Title: The Universal Periodic Review (UPR): The State and Civil Society Processes
          Date of publication: 01 December 2009
          Description/subject: What is the UPR?...What is the HRC?...The UPR Process...Troika...What does the Troika do?...State under Review...Outcome Document...State Obligations...SPDC......Civil Society: Submit Report...Lobby Strategy...
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
          Format/size: pdf (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 25 January 2010


        • Burma/Myanmar and the UPR: OHCHR Myanmar page

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Universal Periodic Review - Myanmar: OHCHR page of documents
          Date of publication: 20 December 2010
          Description/subject: Date of consideration: Thursday, 27 January 2011, 9:00 am - 12:00 am..... DOCUMENTS CURRENTLY ON THE PAGE: * Myanmar National report to the UPR..... * Compilation of UN information... * UN Country Team's submission to the UPR [Background documents to this report: (1) Excerpts of Treaty Body Concluding Observations and Special Procedure Reports submitted by the United Nations Country Team Myanmar for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Compilation Report Universal Periodic Review Myanmar 10th Session January 24 January - 4 February 2011... (2) Draft National Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women 2011‐2015 - Myanmar]..... * Submission of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict (OSRSG) [listed, but not yet online]. Background documents to this submission: (1) Conclusions on children and armed conflict in Myanmar by the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict, 25 July 2008...(2) Conclusions on children and armed conflict in Myanmar by the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict, 28 October 2009..... Summary of stakeholders' information (25 submissions)
          Language: English (some documents also in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
          Source/publisher: United Nations (OHCHR)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


        • Burma/Myanmar and the UPR: submissions to the UPR - Myanmar's National Report

          Individual Documents

          Title: Myanmar-UPR: National Report
          Date of publication: 10 November 2010
          Description/subject: Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Tenth session Geneva, 24 January – 4 February 2011.....No Russian version at present
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/WG.6/10/MMR/1)
          Format/size: pdf (130K - English; 147K - French; 224K - Spanish; 225K - Arabic; 727K - Chinese)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_National_report(sp).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_National_report(cn).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_National_report(fr).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_National_report(ar).pdf
          Date of entry/update: 18 December 2010


        • Burma/Myanmar and the UPR: submissions to the UPR - Stakeholders' submissions

          Individual Documents

          Title: Summary of Stakeholders' reports to the UPR - Myanmar
          Date of publication: 18 October 2010
          Description/subject: Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Tenth session Geneva, 24 January – 4 February 2011.....Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1.....The present report is a summary of 24 stakeholders’ submissions1 to the universal periodic review. It follows the structure of the general guidelines adopted by the Human Rights Council. It does not contain any opinions, views or suggestions on the part of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), nor any judgement or determination in relation to specific claims. The information included herein has been systematically referenced in endnotes and, to the extent possible, the original texts have not been altered. Lack of information or focus on specific issues may be due to the absence of submissions by stakeholders regarding these particular issues. The full texts of all submissions received are available on the OHCHR website. The report has been prepared taking into consideration the four-year periodicity of the first cycle of the review.
          Language: English (Also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
          Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/WG.6/10/MMR/3)
          Format/size: pdf (181K - English; 191K - Arabic; 121K - French; 633K - Chinese; 241K - Russian; 184K - Spanish)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_Stakeholders_summary(ar).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_Stakeholders_summary(fr).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_Stakeholders_summary(ch).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_Stakeholders_summary(ru).pdf
          http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/UPR2011-Myanmar_Stakeholders_summary(sp).pdf
          Date of entry/update: 16 December 2010


          Title: ARTICLE 19: Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review (Union of Myanmar)
          Date of publication: 13 August 2010
          Description/subject: Executive summary: "ARTICLE 19 is aware of the magnitude of human rights violations in Myanmar. Given our expertise and scope of activities, this submission focuses on Myanmar’s compliance with its international human rights obligations in protecting the right to freedom of expression and right to freedom of information. In particular the major issues of concern are: • Failure of the legal framework to guarantee the right to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of information • Absence of freedom of expression in electoral processes; • Censorship of the media and detention, arbitrary arrests and harassment of journalists and media workers; • Prosecution and imprisonment of Aung San Suu Kyi and others exercising the right to freedom of expression; • Complete control and censorship of the internet. These concerns are outlined in a greater detail below..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Article 19 - Global Campaign for Free Expression
          Format/size: pdf (129K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: FIDH/ALTSEAN-Burma: Universal Periodic Review: Joint submission on Myanmar
          Date of publication: 09 July 2010
          Description/subject: "The Alternative Asean Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma) and the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) submission focuses on the Myanmar military regime’s use of forced labor, the forced recruitment of child soldiers, the forced displacement of civilian populations, and rape and sexual violence committed by members of the Tatmadaw (Armed Forces). These widespread and systematic abuses amounting to crimes against humanity and war crimes, as defined by Article 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute, have been documented by numerous UN mechanisms and Rapporteurs. 2. In May 2008, Myanmar' s ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) adopted the country’s new Constitution. The drafting and approval of this document was the culmination of a highly controlled and undemocratic process that stretched over 15 years. The Constitution will come into force when the newly elected members of Parliament will convene following the planned 2010 general elections, the first in 20 years. 3. With the current Constitution, the SPDC ensured its own protection for prior crimes. The Article 445 of the Constitution provides that no legal action can be taken against SPDC members who officially carried out their duties “according to their responsibilities.” The Charter effectively provides the SPDC with blanket immunity for the gross violations of human rights, including crimes against humanity and war crimes that it has committed over the past decades. 4. In March 2009, the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar Professor Tomás Ojea Quintana stated that the ongoing human rights abuses in the country were “the result of a state policy.” Due to the junta’s lack of accountability for those abuses, the Special Rapporteur made the unprecedented recommendation that the UN consider establishing a Commission of Inquiry into war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the SPDC, a requests that ALTSEAN-Burma and FIDH fully support..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma, FIDH
          Format/size: pdf (155K)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ALTSEAN-UPR_Submission_on_Burma.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Karen Human Rights Group: Submission for the UN Universal Periodic Review (Burma): Human rights concerns in KHRG research areas
          Date of publication: 06 July 2010
          Description/subject: Executive summary" "In this submission, the Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) provides information under sections A, C and D as stipulated in the General Guidelines for the Preparation of Information under the Universal Periodic Review: A. Methodology. This section details the methodology used by KHRG to gather information for this submission. C. Promotion and protection of human rights. This section details KHRG concerns related to practices by the Government of Myanmar (GOM) in areas researched by KHRG: Forced labour; Taxation, capricious demands and looting; Targeting of civilians in conflict; Forced relocation and land confiscation; movement and trade restrictions; Arbitrary arrest, detention, torture, summary execution and unexplained violence; Landmines, remnants of war and forced demining; Forced recruitment of adults and children into the armed forces; Denial of access to humanitarian services; and Cumulative impacts on livelihoods and displacement. D. Constraints, best practices and recommendations. This section details constraints faced by human rights monitors and defenders. It also details best practices for improving human rights as developed by local communities, and provides recommendations for actions by the government to address areas of concern highlighted in Section C."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-03)
          Format/size: pdf (257K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Amnesty International: Myanmar: Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review Tenth session of the UPR Working Group of the Human Rights Council January 2011
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: Executive summary: "In this submission, Amnesty International provides information under sections B, C and D as stipulated in the General Guidelines for the Preparation of Information under the Universal Periodic Review:1 · Under section B, Amnesty International raises concerns about the 2008 Constitution, the 2010 Electoral Laws and the criminalisation of peaceful dissent by security laws. · Section C highlights Amnesty International’s concerns about human rights violations in the context of: political imprisonment, conditions in detention, the anti-government protests of August and September 2007, the May 2008 constitutional referendum, the mass sentencing of peaceful political activists in late 2008, the repression of ethnic minority political activists, the 2010 elections, Cyclone Nargis, crimes against humanity, armed conflict and displacement. · In section D, Amnesty International makes a number of recommendations for action by the government to address the areas of concern."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/008/2010)
          Format/size: pdf (145K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma): AAPPB Submission to the United Nations Universal Periodic Review of Burma
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP) provides information for sections B, C and D of the summary of stakeholders’ information. Drawing on recent AAPP research and interviews with former political prisoners, this submission highlights concerns regarding Burma’s compliance with its international human rights obligations in relation to political prisoners and conditions of incarceration. There are 42 prisons in Burma and 109 labour camps. The deplorable conditions in these places are well-documented: incommunicado detention, torture, poor diet, substandard hygiene levels and denial of adequate medical care."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma) (AAPP)
          Format/size: pdf (244K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Burma Forum on Universal Periodic Review (BF-UPR): Joint Submission
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Burma’s human rights record is characterized by a pervasive culture of impunity, enabling the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) to violate a host of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. After nearly 50 years of successive military rule, there is a lack of adherence to human rights principles and a lack of rule of law and judicial independence, which has led to the creation of policies and measures by State authorities that are at complete odds with international human rights standards. There are no statutory or constitutional bodies to promote and protect human rights. Formal and informal human rights education is strictly repressed. Independent civil society organizations (CSOs) who promote human rights and document rights abuses inside the country are harassed by the State, and individuals subject to arrest. As a result, hundreds of CSOs are operating in exile, implementing training programs, publishing reports, and lobbying the international community and media, while working alongside those who are inside Burma..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Forum on Universal Periodic Review (BF-UPR)
          Format/size: pdf (117K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: International PEN/Index on Censorship: Joint Submission to the Universal Periodic Review Mechanism on the Union of Myanmar
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: "International PEN and Index on Censorship welcome the opportunity provided by the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights to comment on the human rights situation in the Union of Myanmar, about which it has had serious concerns for a number of years. This document provides an overview of the current situation of writers and journalists, and focuses on long term imprisonment and legislation used to suppress freedom of expression and other basic rights..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International PEN, Index,on Censorship
          Format/size: pdf (105K)
          Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


          Title: Jubilee Campaign: Universal Periodic Review Burma
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: "...despite provisions of the Constitution indicating otherwise, in reality, there is no guarantee of religious freedom for minority religions in Burma, other than Theravada Buddhism, the majority religion... As the 2010 parliamentary election ... in Burma approaches, it is reported that the junta’s attacks and restrictions will be intensified and strengthened, especially in the Karen state and Chin state, where the majority of citizens are Christians. Many Karen and Chin Christians belong to the Karen National Union and the Chin National Front, armed resistance groups that demand freedom and autonomy for their states. Because these Christian minority groups raise their voices for freedom and demand a fair and free election, the junta sees them as a threat to the existence of its regime and consequently is using more excessive force to suppress them... The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom notes that the regime “has one of the world’s worst human rights records.”Burmese government authorities destroy Christian churches and attack pastors and church-members without legitimate reasons. For example, in January 2009, churches in the Rangoon area were ordered to stop holding services and pastors were forced to sign documents promising to cease worship services. Furthermore, the regime restricts proselytizing, evangelizing, and importing or printing religious literature including the Bible and the Qur’an. Many religious materials are under censorship. The government also requires Christians and Muslims to request permission for and report religious gatherings or worship services two to three months in advance so they can be monitored by the government... Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State are not eligible for government-issued National Registration Cards (NRCs), which denies them access to education in state-run schools. As an effort to promote freedom through citizenship, UNHCR is working with the local authorities on the issuance of Temporary Registration Cards (TRCs) to Muslim residents of Rakhine State..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Submission of Jubilee Campaign USA, Inc.
          Format/size: pdf (205K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2010


          Title: The Arakan Project: Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review [Myanmar]
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: " The Arakan Project raises concern over Myanmar’s non-compliance with its international human rights obligations with regard to the Rohingya population in North Rakhine State and, in particular, the 1982 Citizenship Law which deprives the Rohingya of their rights to citizenship, legitimising discrimination and arbitrary treatment against them such as restriction on movement, on marriage and pregnancy, arbitrary detention, forced labour, and denial of socio-economic rights..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
          Format/size: pdf (127K)
          Date of entry/update: 29 September 2010


          Title: The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty : Submission on Burma/Myanmar: to the Universal Periodic Review
          Date of publication: 05 July 2010
          Description/subject: "...The population of Myanmar is overwhelmingly Buddhist (89%); the remainder of the society is roughly 4% Christian, 4% Muslim, and 1% Animist. Because the SPDC perceives religious minorities as threats to its power, it restricts their freedom of expression and association, among other abuses. The SPDC controls all media, including religious publications and sermons..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Becket Fund for Religious Liberty
          Format/size: pdf (201K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ): MYANMAR Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council
          Date of publication: 02 July 2010
          Description/subject: "...Serious human rights violations have occurred throughout Myanmar during the current regime’s rule, but are most severe in rural ethnic areas. They are directly related to the military’s attacks on the people it sees as supporting armed opposition. Because Burmese authorities handle cases of sexual violence—including rape—in an ad hoc way, official numbers are unavailable. Burmese women’s organizations have documented 875 cases of rape from 1988 to 2006; they believe this is a mere fraction of the total number because of the difficulty in accessing communities under SPDC control and the fear and stigma that keeps women and girls from reporting rape. The scale of reported violations and the associated tolerance and impunity for them indicates the SPDC’s acceptance of sexual violence as a legitimate part of the strategy to intimidate people in areas of armed conflict or potential resistance and to punish communities for appearing to support the government’s opposition. These policies directly breach articles 2 and 5 of CEDAW. 6. Forced labor and child soldiering are also associated with areas of continuing armed conflict. The military has grown from 180,000 soldiers in 1988 to an estimated 300,000 in 2007. This expansion has forced commanders to rely on local communities to supply labor for building infrastructure and for portering. The pressure to fill recruitment quotas has led to a situation in which the Myanmar regime’s armed forces constitute the only army in Asia to continue recruiting child soldiers, numbering in the thousands, if not tens of thousands. The number of cases of forced labor is likely to be at least that high. These practices are in contravention of Myanmar’s obligations under the Forced Labor Convention and under Article 38 of CRC. In addition, customary international law has criminalized the recruitment and use of child soldiers at least since 1996.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)
          Format/size: pdf (62K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Human Rights Watch: Universal Periodic Review Submission: Myanmar (Burma)
          Date of publication: 01 July 2010
          Description/subject: Summary: "For more than two decades, Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has demonstrated scant respect for the fundamental human rights of the Burmese people. Widespread and systematic violations of international human rights and humanitarian law continue throughout the country, especially in ethnic minority areas along Burma's borders. The 2008 Constitution and an election scheduled for this year will likely do little to alter the military's continued political dominance, albeit in ostensibly civilian guise, and a repressive state apparatus that will not change significantly. The culture of impunity in Burma for government officials and military personnel for serious abuses is supported by a judicial system that is neither impartial nor independent. There has been little if any accountability for serious crimes committed by government security forces, including routine use of forced labor, sexual violence against women and girls, recruitment and use of child soldiers, extrajudicial killings of civilians in conflict areas and other violations of international humanitarian law. Some non-state armed groups have also been implicated in serious abuses, including forced labor and the use of child soldiers. There are systematic restrictions on basic freedoms in Burma, including on the rights to freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, and association. For example, despite Burma having ratified International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No. 87 on freedom of association, the SPDC continues to refuse to register independent trade unions in the country. The government of Burma currently incarcerates more than 2,100 political prisoners including political activists, journalists, trade unionists and labor rights advocates, artists and vocal opponents of the SPDC. Many of these prisoners have received harsh sentences - including up to 65 years in prison - on trumped up criminal charges that seek to curtail peaceful political dissent and free expression. Conditions in Burmese prisons do not meet international standards: prisoners are not given adequate health care, face routine ill-treatment and at times torture, and may be transferred to remote facilities in the hinterlands that make visits by family members and UN officials difficult. The government has not granted the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) access to Burmese prisons in accordance with the ICRC's standard procedures since 2006."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Australian Council for International Development: Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Myanmar — July 2010
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: MYANMAR’S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK IN THE PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS...IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFICIENCY OF LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK...COOPERATION WITH HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS AND STAKEHOLDERS...IDENTIFICATION OF ACHIEVEMENTS, BEST PRACTICES, CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS...KEY NATIONAL PRIORITY, INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENT TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGE...EXPECTATION IN TERMS OF CAPACITY BUILDING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Australian Council for International Development (ACFID)
          Format/size: pdf (154K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: Burma Campaign Australia: Joint Submission to the Universal Periodic Review on Burma (Myanmar):
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: 1. This paper was drafted in consultation with and is jointly submitted by Burma Campaign Australia (a national network comprising of Democracy for Burma Action Group, Australia Burma Network, Canberra Network for Democracy in Burma, Burma Solidarity Group and Burma Campaign Sydney), Union Aid Abroad APHEDA, Burma Economic Watch (Macquarie University), Australian Karen Organisation, Burmese Rohingya Community in Australia, the Burma Office (Australia) and the Australian Council of Trade Unions....."...The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to systematically violate human rights in Burma and using Burma’s national laws in this process. Abuses have been extensively documented by a succession of the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Burma/Myanmar1, including the current Rapporteur Tomas Ojea Quintana. Many domestic laws are used by the SPDC to suppress the population, whilst others deny citizens of Burma their basic human rights. 3. Suppressive domestic laws that violate human rights in Burma include:...".....Undated. July 2010 used as default date.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Burma Campaign Australia
          Format/size: pdf (86K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: Chin Human Rights Organization: Burma/Myanmar Individual Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, July 2010 Tenth Session of the UPR Working Group of the Human Rights Council, January 2011
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: Under Section B, CHRO highlights Burma/Myanmar’s obligations under international law and human rights instruments, and articles of the 2008 Constitution that contradict those obligations. • Section C focuses on the widespread and systematic nature of human rights violations perpetrated by the Burma/Myanmar army in Chin State documented by CHRO. CHRO is particularly concerned about forced labour, land confiscation, the lack of access to humanitarian services and the denial of religious freedom for the Chin people. The Chin are facing forced assimilation and denial of their collective rights as indigenous peoples, and are fleeing their traditional homeland in large numbers. • In Section D, CHRO makes a number of recommendations for action by the SPDC to improve the human rights situation in Burma/Myanmar, with a particular focus on Chin State.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization
          Format/size: pdf (94K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: EarthRights International: Universal Periodic Review – Myanmar (Burma) Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – July 2010
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: "This submission focuses on the human rights abuses that have occurred over the past four years in relation to oil and natural gas development projects in Myanmar, which is under the rule of a military regime known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Since the early 1990s, the areas around such development projects have been heavily militarized in order to protect the projects and the interests of the companies who finance them. As MAF soldiers flood the area, the local villagers are subjected to severe human rights abuses, including incidences of extrajudicial killings, forced labor, violations of freedom of movement, and land confiscations. As ERI and others have documented, this pattern of abuse has continued over the last four years. Although not the primary focus of this submission, similar abuses have occurred in relation to other development projects in Myanmar as well, such as mines and dams."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: EarthRights International
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: EarthRights International: Universal Periodic Review – Myanmar (Burma) Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – July 2010 - Annex 1
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: Reports by EarthRights International regarding oil and gas projects in Myanmar [these reports included as Annexes 2, 3 and 4]
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: EarthRights International
          Format/size: pdf (19K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: EarthRights International: Universal Periodic Review – Myanmar (Burma) Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – July 2010 - Annex 2
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: ENERGY INSECURITY: How Total, Chevron, and PTTEP Contribute to Human Rights Violations, Financial Secrecy, and Nuclear Proliferation in Burma (Myanmar)... A Report by EarthRights International, July 2010
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: EarthRights International
          Format/size: pdf (958K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: EarthRights International: Universal Periodic Review – Myanmar (Burma) Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – July 2010 - Annex 3
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: "The Human Cost of Energy: Chevron’s Continuing Role in Financing Oppression and Profiting From Human Rights Abuses in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)".....TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction... Executive Summary and Recommendations;... 1. Stepping Into Unocal’s Shoes - Chevron’s partnership with a repressive regime in the Yadana Project... 2. Financing Oppression - The Yadana Project’s continuing contributions to the military regime... 3. With Eyes Wide Open - Chevron’s knowledge of the abuses on the Yadana Project... 4. The Persistence of Abuse - Continuation of forced labor and other abuses in recent years... 5. No Smiling Faces - Conditions of life in the region... 6. Sitting Idly By - Chevron’s silence during the 2007 demonstrations and crackdown... 7. No Safe Harbor - Chevron’s continuing legal liability after the Unocal settlement... Appendix A: Another Yadana: The Shwe Gas Project... Appendix B: China in Burma... Endnotes.....Original date of publication, 28 April 2008; Date of submission to UPR, July 2010
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: EarthRights International
          Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: EarthRights International: Universal Periodic Review – Myanmar (Burma) Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – July 2010 - Annex 4
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: "TOTAL IMPACT: The Human Rights, Environmental, and Financial Impacts ofTotal and Chevron's Yadana Gas Project in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)"...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Two western oil companies are currently partnered with the Burmese military regime in a remote corner of southern Burma (Myanmar) on one of the world's most controversial development projects: The Yadana Gas Project by the France-based Total and the US-based Chevron. Yadana, which means "treasure" in Burmese, is a large-scale project that transports natural gas from the Andaman Sea across Burma's Tenasserim region to Thailand, where it generates electricity for the Bangkok metropolitan area. The gas is transported through an overland pipeline that passes through the dense jungle and rugged terrain of a secluded and environmentally sensitive ethnic area in southeast Burma. From the project's beginning, the Burma Army has been tasked with providing security for the companies and the pipeline and has committed widespread and systematic human rights abuses against local people. EarthRights International (ERI) has been documenting human rights abuses related to the Yadana Project since 1994, and new evidence collected through 2009 attests to the on-going violent abuses committed by the Burma Army providing security for the companies and the project. Abuses include extrajudicial killings, torture, and other forms of ill-treatment; widespread and systematic forced labor; and violations of the rights to freedom of movement and property. Based on new and original evidence, this report further documents the Burma Army's role in the construction phase of the Yadana Project as well as its continuing connection to the companies and the pipeline. Rather than acknowledge its inherent and close relationship with Burma's armed forces, Total has traditionally denied the connections between its company and the Burma Army in its project area, raising important ethical questions about the company's willingness to misrepresent its material risks to investors and shareholders. In addition to the localized human rights impacts in the pipeline region, the Yadana Project has been a significant factor in keeping the Burmese military regime financially solvent. This report documents for the first time the aggregate revenue generated by the Yadana Project for the ruling SPDC, from 2000 to 2008. Rather than contribute to Burma's economic development, the billion dollar revenues from the project have instead contributed to high-level corruption: the revenue is not accounted for in Burma's national budget and according to reliable sources it is stored in two offshore banks in Singapore. Moreover, there are apparent correlations between the SPDC's increasing financial wherewithal and its overall authoritarian behavior. While the severity and seriousness of the human rights and financial impacts of the Yadana Project are logical focal points of concern, the environmental impacts of the project cannot be discounted. This report presents information that details serious problems with Total's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), a document which ERI obtained through US courts and which is now part of the public record; details of which are published here for the first time. Villagers in the pipeline corridor also report ongoing adverse impacts associated with an ill-conceived environmental protection group established and supported by Total in the pipeline corridor. Rather than acknowledge or attempt to mitigate these and other known impacts of the Yadana Project, Total CEO Christophe de Margerie has publicly told critics to "go to hell" and instead focused resources on public relations, including claims that the Yadana gas has made neighboring Bangkok a cleaner city. Total has also systematically whitewashed their complicity in abuses and authoritarianism in Burma in three key ways: first, and most directly, Total has commissioned a number of impact assessments by the US-based CDA Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA), which the corporations tout as evidence that the Yadana Project hurts no one and benefits many. These impact assessments and their fundamental flaws are the subject ofthe ERI report Getting it Wrong(2009). Second, the companies repeatedly misuse both these impact assessments and third-party reports and statements, asserting that others support their claims that there are no abuses in the pipeline area. Third, the companies promote their local "socio-economic" program and declare that it provides economic, educational, and health benefits to every person in the pipeline corridor. While many of the companies' socio-economic efforts might be desirable in theory, local villagers argue that these programs have not worked the way the companies claim they do, if at all. Moreover, ERI has found that the true effectiveness of these local projects have never been independently or fully examined and verified; and regardless of the effectiveness of these programs, they do not exonerate the companies from accountability for complicity in human rights violations and they do not erase the deeper national impacts connected to the revenue stream from the Yadana Project to the SPDC. Total and Chevron's impacts in Burma are profound. ERI makes several specific demands of the companies and calls on the corporate and investment community and policymakers to seriously consider the ethics of Total and Chevron's operations in Burma, and to heed the recommendations included at the end of this report." .....Original date of publication, September 2009. Date of submission to UPR, July 2010
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: EarthRights International
          Format/size: pdf (3MB)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: European Centre for Law and Justice. Submission on Myanmar to the Universal Periodic Review
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR (BURMA): "In a country with a population consisting of eighty-nine percent Buddhists and only eight percent Christians or Muslims,1 Myanmar continues to persecute religious and tribal minorities despite the United Nations’ Human Rights Council’s intervention. The military regime has reportedly scheduled an election in 2010 which will likely be a sham election since the candidate for the primary opposition party is not permitted to run and the military regime has set up front parties.2 Christians within the country have little hope that the persecution will cease. Christians are losing their lives, their homes, and their faith...".....Undated. July 2010 used as default date
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: European Centre for Law and Justice
          Format/size: pdf (41K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: European Centre for Law and Justice. Submission on Myanmar to the Universal Periodic Review - Annex
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR - APPENDIX... SECTION 2: A. Persecution against Christians... [Section B does not exist]... C. Other Minority Religious Discrimination.....Undated. July 2010 used as default date
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: European Centre for Law and Justice
          Format/size: pdf (40K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: INDIG: Burma - Restoring Dignity Through Recognizing Basic Rights for All - Submission to the UPR
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: "The governments of Thailand and Indonesia selected two outstanding representatives of independent individuals. We encourage Myanmar to follow a similar pattern and to receive nominations from civil society for this important post in the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights...."Violence against women and rape as a weapon..."...."The role of transnational corporations in Myanmar has created many adverse conditions impacting indigenous communities...".....Undated. July 2010 used as default date.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: INDIG
          Format/size: pdf (68K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: International Campaign to Ban Landmines: Myanmar - Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: Summary: "Landmine Monitor has documented credible reports of the Myanmar military forcing civilians to remove antipersonnel mines from the ground, without training or protective equipment, and forcing civilians to carry equipment for the military in areas where the danger of antipersonnel mines exists—on some occasions using civilians as human minesweepers. Such activities constitute a threat to the right to life, liberty and security of person as stipulated in Article 3 of the UDHR. The ICBL has consistently encouraged the authorities in Myanmar to end such practices, to halt the military’s extensive use of antipersonnel landmines, and to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty.".....SEE APPENDIX
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines
          Format/size: pdf (33K - Text; 51K - Annex)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/ICBL_InternationalCampaigntoBanLandmines_Annex1_eng.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: International Campaign to Ban Landmines: Myanmar - Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review - Annex
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: "This appendix demonstrates a pattern of abuse spanning more than a decade. It contains specific information on instances of forced labor mine clearance that have been documented in annual Landmine Monitor reports from 1999 to 2008..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
          Format/size: pdf (51K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: Joint Submission by ARC International, ILGA International and ILGA Europe in the UPR review of Myanmar
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: Recommendation: "We therefore recommend that the Human Rights Council, in its upcoming UPR review, urge Myanmar to bring its legislation into conformity with its commitment to equality and non‐discrimination, and its international human rights obligations, by repealing all provisions which may be applied to criminalise sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex.".....Undated. July 2010 used as default date
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: ARC International, ILGA International, ILGA‐Europe
          Format/size: pdf (175K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: Unrepresented Nations and People's Organization (UNPO): Myanmar - Submission to the UPR
          Date of publication: July 2010
          Description/subject: Key words: 2008 Constitution, crimes against humanity, war crimes, collective punishment, enforced disappearances, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), forced labour, child soldiers, disenfranchisement, freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and/ or association, religious freedom, cultural and linguistic rights, land seizure, environmental degradation......Undated. July 2010 used as default date
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Unrepresented Nations and People's Organization (UNPO)
          Format/size: pdf (55K)
          Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


          Title: Freedom Now: Individual Submission to the Universal Periodic Review (Burma/Myanmar)
          Date of publication: 30 June 2010
          Description/subject: "...Complementing other submissions that examine the broader picture of Burma’s human rights abuses, this submission highlights the junta’s ongoing detention and inhumane treatment of the emblematic case of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD). The military junta has detained Ms. Suu Kyi under house arrest for some 15 of the past 21 years. In 2006, Freedom Now was retained to serve as international counsel to Ms. Suu Kyi by a member of her family..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Freedom Now
          Format/size: pdf (200K)
          Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


          Title: Asian Legal Resource Centre: Submission by the Asian Legal Resource Centre to the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review concerning human rights and rule of law in Myanmar
          Date of publication: 20 June 2010
          Description/subject: SUMMARY: "This submission, pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1, which provides for civil society to participate in the Universal Periodic Review process of United Nations Member States’ human rights obligations and commitments, concentrates on the features of legal, judicial and policing frameworks that enable the un-rule of law in Myanmar. The country lacks a normative framework to protect human rights under article 5 and articles 8 through 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It lacks an independent and impartial judiciary. Its police force is militarized. Gross human rights abuse is systemic. Avenues for redress as envisaged in international standards are absent. Two major obstacles to implementation of human rights are the State’s perception that the rule of law is a function of the executive and therefore that the role of the judiciary is to enforce policy rather than law; and, the accompanying systemic corruption in all parts of the State apparatus, especially in the judiciary and police. The Council should consider how it can work better within the United Nations system to apprise itself of the un-rule of law in Myanmar, and coordinate its activities with other parts of the system with a view towards substantive political change in the country, which must pre-empt any substantive change in the normative and institutional frameworks through which to implement human rights"..... Key Words: Rule of law, judiciary, police, arbitrary arrest, arbitrary detention, torture, deaths in custody, trial, redress, corruption
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC-UPR-10-001-2010)
          Format/size: pdf (77K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Submission by the Asian Legal Resource Centre to the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review concerning human rights and rule of law in Myanmar - Annexe
          Date of publication: 20 June 2010
          Description/subject: This document is an annexe to the submission of the Asian Legal Resource Centre pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1, which provides for civil society to participate in the Universal Periodic Review process of United Nations Member States’ human rights obligations and commitments, on the human rights and rule of law situation in Myanmar. For convenience, it has been organized according to the same headings as the original document to which it is annexed.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC-UPR-10-001-2010: Annexe)
          Format/size: pdf (226K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 November 2010


          Title: Reporters Without Borders: Contribution to the UPR on press freedom in Myanmar/Burma
          Date of publication: 14 June 2010
          Description/subject: Introduction: Overview of press freedom situation: "The army, which has been in power since 1962, uses repression and propaganda to gag the pro-democracy movement and civil society, of which journalists are often in the vanguard. A paradise for censors, Burma is one of the very few countries where all publications are subjected to prior censorship. After China, it is the Asia’s largest prison for journalists and bloggers. At least 12 journalists and two netizens are currently imprisoned in Burma, some of them serving jail terms of more than 20 years. The head of the military junta, General Than Shwe, is in charge of the special police force responsible for the repression. Its targets have included the owners of video cameras who were suspected of filming the crackdown on the protests by monks in 2007 and then sending their footage abroad. And those who shot video footage exposing governmental negligence after Cyclone Nargis in 2008. As shown in the documentary film Burma VJ, working as a clandestine reporter for Democratic Voice of Burma or other Burmese exile media continues to be very dangerous. The exile media play a vital role in informing the Burmese people because Burma’s two television and radio channels and the daily newspapers are under the military junta’s direct control. Mizzima and Irrawaddy, two of the most popular online exile media, were again the target of cyber-attacks in 2009. The privately-owned press is subject to military censorship. An average of one third of a privately-owned magazine’s content is removed by the censors. The military censorship bureau, called the Press Scrutiny Board, said in a 2008 message to Burmese media that the “the publication of any photo, sketch, painting, article, novel or poem without being sent [in advance to the censor] will be punished”. Failure to comply can lead to sanctions ranging from seizure of the publication to imprisonment for the editors..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders
          Format/size: pdf (26K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


          Title: Christian Solidarity Worldwide – Stakeholder Submission MYANMAR (Universal Periodic Review, 10th Session)
          Date of publication: June 2010
          Description/subject: "...Severe restrictions on access to parts of the country, and severe restrictions on freedom of information, expression and association, make it very difficult to obtain accurate statistics and information. Nevertheless, first-hand testimonies obtained by CSW through interviews with refugees, internally displaced peoples, former political prisoners and Myanmar army defectors; conducted on the Thailand-Myanmar border, inside the conflict zones of eastern Myanmar, inside Kachin State in northern Myanmar close to the border with China, on the India-Myanmar border and the Bangladesh-Myanmar border; conducted inside Myanmar’s cities, particularly Yangon, and with Burmese and ethnic civil society groups inside the country and along its borders; and in consultation with many other international NGOs, have led CSW to the conclusion that these violations, which are widespread and systematic, amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity. ...In light of Myanmar’s obligations under international law to observe, respect and protect human rights, particularly the rights of women and children, this submission focuses on the grave violations perpetrated by the ruling military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the military, known as the Tatmadaw. CSW notes that the UN Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar recently concluded that the violations occurring in Myanmar may amount to crimes against humanity and war crimes, and has recommended that the UN should consider establishing a Commission of Inquiry to conduct an investigation..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
          Format/size: pdf (140K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 September 2010


        • Burma/Myanmar and the UPR: further analysis and commentary

          Individual Documents

          Title: MYANMAR: The problem of a U.N. member state disconnected from a normative framework: Myanmar and the Human Rights Council review
          Date of publication: 02 March 2011
          Description/subject: HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL Sixteenth session, Agenda Item 4, Interactive Dialogue with the SR on Myanmar A written statement submitted by the Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC), a non-governmental organisation with general consultative status....."... 2. In this submission, the ALRC considers the implications of this disconnect between the norms-based language and activities of the global human rights movement and the norm-less reality of a member state. This disconnect is not merely a disconnect between rhetorical aspirations and hard truth. It is a much more significant problem of the gap between a norms-based system and a norm-less one, and unless it is properly understood and accounted for in the work of the Human Rights Council and other international agencies, the many functional and technical proposals being put forward during the ongoing Council review process will have little if any relevance to the situation of human rights in Myanmar, or other countries with analogous conditions..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 05 March 2011