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Investment in Burma/Myanmar

  • Guidelines on investment in Burma/Myanmar

    Individual Documents

    Title: Joint Comment on the Reporting Requirements on Responsible Investment in Burma
    Date of publication: 04 October 2012
    Description/subject: "After submitting a detailed comment [MAIN URL] to the US Department of State expressing concern over weak reporting requirements for US companies considering investing in Burma, EarthRights International, Freedom House, Physicians for Human Rights, U.S. Campaign for Burma and United to End Genocide issued the following statement: “We continue to be deeply concerned by the US government’s decision to lift all remaining sanctions, and allow corporations unrestricted investment access to Burma despite widespread corruption, ongoing human rights violations and a total lack of rule of law. Although US companies will be required to report on their investments, the current requirements lack specificity about enforcement and consequences for non-compliance. Furthermore, existing loopholes enable companies to designate information as ‘confidential’ as a way to avoid public scrutiny. The US government should take immediate steps to ensure that there is a strong regulatory framework that can effectively promote accountability and transparency..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) et al
    Format/size: pdf (135K; html)
    Alternate URLs: http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/press/press-releases/deplorable-weak-reporting-requirements-for...
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


    Title: Proposing Benchmarks for Corporations in Burma. Are they sufficient - or even appropriate?
    Date of publication: 18 September 2012
    Description/subject: Below, we publish the third draft of “Guidelines for Corporations Operating in Burma”, submitted to “Civil Society Organizations and Shareholders Addressing Corporations in Burma” by the US Campaign for Burma Committee on SRI at the Unitarian Universalist Association. Organisations with current input on these benchmarks include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, US Campaign for Burma, AFL-CIO, International Trade Union Congress (ITUC), Freedom House, Asia Foundation, Open Society, and the Conflict Risk Network of United to End Genocide. The title of the statement suggests that some companies have already decided to invest in Burma, following “rapprochements” with the regime made by the US, Australian and European governments earlier this year. One would have hoped for a more questioning approach by the sponsors. The Guidelines state that the “absence of law governing the behavior of corporations in Burma…makes it imperative that NGOs, shareholders, and affected parties inside Burma develop a position regarding what companies in Burma should do in order to operate responsibly”. Why not, instead, urge companies not to enter (or re-enter) the country before new and binding government regulations are in place? The authors confine themselves to discussing observance of human (including workers) rights, with only one fleeting mention of environmental and socio-economic issues. However, the latter are huge priorities for many thousands of local people. We're also told that “'..companies should prepare impact assessment reports on proposed projects in Burma that include impact assessments in the areas of human rights, the environment, gender equality, and poverty…” Fair enough - except that these need be performed only "where appropriate", rather than being stipulated as mandatory. Art of the possible? Similarly, the Campaign urges companies to “[a]dopt a policy that requires [them to]…seek business partners without connections to the military, drug trade, or questionable human rights practices”. But, again, this is only “wherever possible”. In contrast, the investment conditions published by the US and UK government, appear to proscribe any forging of commercial links with dubious or criminal domestic parties. It’s unfortunate that, while citing examples of campaigns against foreign corporations operating in Burma, no mention is made of those which have called mining companies specifically to account - notably Ivanhoe-Rio Tinto. See: Wikileaks reveal true nature of Ivanhoe-Rio Tinto's Burmese deal But the most important question to ask is surely this: might these benchmarks come to substitute for the vital requirement that a truly democratic government introduce its own binding reforms? Until such a government is freely-elected, there's a clear danger of "corporate creep" into - or even partial takeover - of institutions and regulatory processes which should be firmly under parliamentary control, serving the interests of civil society. [Comment by Nostromo Research, 18 September 2012].
    Author/creator: Nostromo Research
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: via Mines and Communitiies
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


  • Lists, Directories of Foreign Companies in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Database of companies linked with Burma
    Date of publication: 28 October 2002
    Description/subject: "On 28 October [2002], on behalf of the Global Unions Group, the ICFTU is releasing a new database of over 325 foreign companies with business links to Burma - links that help to sustain the brutal and repressive dictatorship in that country. While some prominent companies have withdrawn since the initial release of the database one year ago, Global Unions have added a further 92 companies which continue to do business with Burma or have been pursuing business links with the junta...." "The following database has been compiled by the ICFTU, based on publicly available information. It is a database of companies which appear, from the information available, to have some form of relationship with Burma. A company was added to the list as soon as one link was found between it and Burma or its regime during the period following 15 November 2000, the date of the ILO decision. In some cases, this link will be trade with, investment in or other business activities in Burma, for others it may be direct contact between the company and officials of the regime. It may also be that the company promotes or advertises tourism in the country... This list is not exhaustive. We are ready to correct any factual errors which it may contain. As we receive information on further companies which are active in Burma we will approach them in the same way and, depending on their reaction, add them to the list."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Global Unions
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.global-unions.org/spip.php?rubrique57
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Report Card - US Companies Investing in Burma
    Date of publication: June 2014
    Description/subject: "The Report Card of US Companies Investing in Burma is an evaluative tool that measures the due diligence reports and accountability efforts of US companies in accordance with the US Reporting Requirements on Responsible Investment in Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Campaign for Burma
    Format/size: pdf (126K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 September 2014


    Title: Foreign companies which have withdrawn from Burma
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: Alphabetical list by company of those which have pulled out from 1992, by Company, Sector, (date)In, (date)out, Country, Brief Details. Updated January 2003.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Foreign Investment in Burma
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: Foreign Investment of Permitted Enterprises up to November 1999 (by Country and Region) (US $ in million). Updated January 2003.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Yellow Pages
    Description/subject: Pretty feeble list
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmarpyi
    Description/subject: Big list of companies by sector, plus blue pages and a link to the soc.cult.burma membership list search by name of email... NOT ACCESSIBLE, NOVEMBER 2004.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • The debate (political, social and economic) on investment in Burma
    See also Activism and Campaigns and Sanctions

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Challenges for foreign investors in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Almost three years after the new regime known as ‘the democratically elected government’ took power in Naypyidaw, there have been many foreign investors looking into the once-isolated country for their foreign direct investment opportunities. The IMF recently even predicted that the new emerging country would be an Asian frontier or an Asian Tiger if the reform process keeps going on the right track. However, many investors have hesitated to do business in the country. Actually, there are a lot of investment opportunities inside the country such as telecommunications, agriculture, various natural resources, mineral, and fisheries etc. Naypyidaw has earnestly welcomed those investments. For instance, last month Myanmar’s foreign minister said at the Asia Society in New York, referring to American investors, “I wish to take this opportunity to invite more U.S. business firms and investors to get up and join the gold rush to Myanmar.” However, Naypyidaw expresses at the same time its frustration when holding receptions for hundreds of potential foreign investors: “investors come talk with us, and then turn away.” So a question is: why have those investors turned away? Why are they still waiting?..."
    Author/creator: Aung Tun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2014


    Title: Invest Myanmar: Tapping a New Asian Tiger
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: Final frontier - The rise and rise of Myanmar. "After more than 50 years of stagnation Myanmar is finally opening its doors to investment from the outside world. As well as sitting between the regional heavyweights of China and India, Myanmar offers incredible investment opportunities in energy, mining, infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries and so much more that led the International Monetary Fund to brand the country as Asia’s “final frontier”. Read inside for your guide to investing in Myanmar..."....."Farmers can benefit with good policies" - Myo Lwin and Victoria Bruce..."Beckoning investments in agriculture": Australian Professor, Michael Montesano, shares his thoughts with Myo Lwin, editor for special publications of The Myanmar Times on how the agriculture sector can be improved..."Opportunities on the horizon for telecoms companies - Government moves to fast-track development of Myanmar's telecom's industry into the 21st Century is (sic) peaking foreign interest. With a large untapped market, huge infrastructure challenges, and opportunities for joint ventures touted, the future looks bright for Myanmar telecoms." ..."Myanmar’s ICT industry is in the forefront of discussions as the country needs to embrace technology to integrate into the global economy"..."Myanmar opens up to new investments" - Aye Thidar Kyaw..."Investment in tourism looks set to reach new heights" - Zaw Win Than..."Crisis management key to good investment" - Aye Sapay Phyu..."Laws hold back rush of interest in mining sector": "Lacking in business transparency, Myanmar’s mining sector remains beyond the scope for many, but intrepid investors are showing interest" - "Everything seems negotiable – but no one’s going to sign that kind of deal, its just not profitable" Victoria Bruce...“If they doubt, it will be too late” In an interview with retired director general of the Ministry of Energy, U Soe Myint, The Myanmar Times enquired about the prospects of foreign investment in the country’s oil and gas sector". Myo Lwin and Naw Say Phaw Wa..."Myanmar’s small business not ready for competition" Victoria Bruce..."Easing of sanctions offers mixed encouragement for investors" Victoria Bruce..."What happens after sanctions?" Tim Harcourt..."Growth slows in Chinese overseas investments"..."Investors choice of local partner crucial - While foreign investors desperately want to come here, it’s not attractive right now" . Victoria Bruce..."Banking sector comes under spotlight" Victoria Bruce..."South Korea: an investment partner" - In an exclusive commentary for The Myanmar Times by the South Korean ambassador to Myanmar, Mr Kim Hae-yong shares his views on the potential of foreign investment for the country’s development and where South Korea can help" Kim Hae-yong... "Information proves the latest hot commodity" Victoria Bruce..."Moves to limit FDI in certain sectors ’retrograde’" Victoria Bruce..."Information is key for 'enormous opportunities" Ben White..."Land prices hold back property investment" Victoria Bruce..."Local entrepreneurs welcome FDI, slam government bias" Htar Htar Khin...“Local businesses need to be smart and clever”
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2012


    Title: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents
    Description/subject: Burma Day 2005 - Selected Documents... Supporting Burma/Myanmar’s National Reconciliation Process - Challenges and Opportunities... Brussels, Tuesday 5th April 2005... Most of the papers and reports focus on the "Independent Report" written for the conference by Robert Taylor and Morten Pedersen. They range from macroeconomic critique to historical and procedural comment.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Commission
    Format/size: html, Word
    Date of entry/update: 06 April 2005


    Title: Business and Human Rights, a resource website: Burma (Myanmar)
    Description/subject: A rich seam of news items, articles and long reports on Burma from 1996. Go to the Home page for more general material. "information from: · United Nations & ILO · companies · human rights, development, labour & environmental organisations · governments · academics · See the section on the UNOCAL case in "Lawsuits against companies: Selected major cases", journalists · etc..."
    Author/creator: Chris Avery
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Business and Human Rights: a resource website
    Description/subject: Frequently-updated links to news items, guidelines, reports, articles, United Nations and ILO documents, company policies, lawsuits against companies, other websites. Plus 56 hits for Burma OR Myanmar (September 2001). Very rich and useful source. Recommended. Sectors: Agriculture Aircraft/Airline Apparel industry: General Clothing & textile Footwear Arms/Weapons Asbestos Auditing, consulting & accounting Auto rental Automobile & other motor vehicles Baby food & baby milk Battery Bicycle Biotechnology Carpet & rug Ceramics Chemical Chocolate Cleaning products Clothing & textile Coffee Construction & building equipment/materials Cookware Cosmetics Diamond Diversified/Conglomerates Dye Electrical appliance Energy & electricity Express delivery Fabric & yarn Fertiliser Finance & banking Fire extinguisher Fireworks Fishing Food & beverage Footwear Furniture Garden supply Glass Health care Hotel Industrial gases Insurance Jewelry Law firms Logging & lumber Machine tools Manufacturing Media Medical equipment Metals & steel Military/defence Mining Oil, gas & coal Packaging Paint Paper Pesticide Pharmaceutical Photographic Plastics Printing Publishing Railroad Real estate Refrigerator & refrigerant Restaurants Retail Rubber Shipping, ship-building & ship-scrapping Slaughterhouses Sporting goods Stone quarries Sugar Supermarkets Tanneries Tea Technology, telecommunications & electronics Tobacco Tourism Toy Trucking Waste disposal Water. See also the section on the UNOCAL case in "Lawsuits against companies: Selected major cases". Good section on tourism.
    Author/creator: Chris Avery
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: EarthRights International: Burma Project
    Description/subject: "EarthRights International's Burma Project collects vital on-the-ground information about the human rights and environmental situation in Burma. Since 1995, ERI has worked in Burma to monitor the impacts of the military regime's policies and activities on local populations and ecosystems. ERI's staff has gathered a vast body of valuable, rare information about the state of the military regime's war on its peoples and its environment. Through gathering testimonies, grassroots organizing, and distributing information through campaign work, the Burma Project has made a significant contribution to human rights and environment protection in Burma. Where possible, we link our grassroots fact-finding missions and community organizing with regional and international level advocacy and campaigning. We work alongside affected community groups to prevent human rights and environmental abuses associated with large-scale development projects in Burma. Currently, the Burma Project focuses on large-scale dams, oil and gas development, and mining. We share experiences and resources with local communities, as well as provide assistance relevant to community needs. Over the past 10 years the Burma Project has raised awareness about the alarming depletion of resources in Burma and their relationship to a vast array of human rights abuses, as well as the local, national, and regional implications of these practices."...Sections on Dams, Mining, Oil & Gas and Other Areas of Work.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org
    http://www.earthrights.org/taxonomy/term/148
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility
    Description/subject: Interfaith investment funds, Shareholder action, corporate responsibility, corporate accountability, selective purchasing, sanctions, business in Burma, divstment, companies, corporations, Halliburton, Unocal, Total, MOGE etc... search for Burma, Unocal etc.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns
    Description/subject: Search for Burma. "Corporate accountability and environmental awareness: We monitor U.S.-based corporations in Asian countries where human rights abuses have been well-documented, such as Burma, and where continued manufacturing will escalate environmental destruction, such as Thailand and Indonesia. The treasury departments of the Maryknoll Fathers & Brothers, the Maryknoll Sisters and the Maryknoll Mission Association of the Faithful also closely follow corporate responsibility issues." Shareholder action, boycotts etc. Good links page to other corporate responsibility sites.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Trillium Asset Management
    Description/subject: Socially responsible investment, selective purchasing, shareholder action, corporate withdrawal, disinvestment etc.
    Language: English
    Format/size: Search for Burma
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: USA Engage - results of a search for "burma"
    Description/subject: "...USA*ENGAGE brings together Americans from all regions, sectors and segments of our society to speak out for a more effective foreign policy. Even though a large number of American companies, farmers, and workers are hurt by sanctions that take away US export markets and undermine our international competitiveness, Congress and the Administration cannot hear from only activists promoting a narrow sanctions agenda. A large coalition provides the voice to ensure that American policy-makers listen to all interested parties, including those who oppose sanctions..."
    Language: html
    Source/publisher: USA Engage
    Alternate URLs: http://www.usaengage.org/
    Date of entry/update: 08 February 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: Joint Comment on the Reporting Requirements on Responsible Investment in Burma
    Date of publication: 04 October 2012
    Description/subject: "After submitting a detailed comment [MAIN URL] to the US Department of State expressing concern over weak reporting requirements for US companies considering investing in Burma, EarthRights International, Freedom House, Physicians for Human Rights, U.S. Campaign for Burma and United to End Genocide issued the following statement: “We continue to be deeply concerned by the US government’s decision to lift all remaining sanctions, and allow corporations unrestricted investment access to Burma despite widespread corruption, ongoing human rights violations and a total lack of rule of law. Although US companies will be required to report on their investments, the current requirements lack specificity about enforcement and consequences for non-compliance. Furthermore, existing loopholes enable companies to designate information as ‘confidential’ as a way to avoid public scrutiny. The US government should take immediate steps to ensure that there is a strong regulatory framework that can effectively promote accountability and transparency..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) et al
    Format/size: pdf (135K; html)
    Alternate URLs: http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/press/press-releases/deplorable-weak-reporting-requirements-for...
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


    Title: Invest Myanmar: Tapping a New Asian Tiger (Burmese)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: ေနာက္ဆံုးမ်က္ႏွာစာ... တဆင့္ၿပီး တဆင့္တိုးတက္လာေသာ ျမန္မာ... ရင္းႏွီး ျမႇပ္ႏွံလိုသူေတြ အေနနဲ႔ ဒြိဟျဖစ္ၿပီး ေစာင့္ေန ရင္ ေနာက္က် မွာပဲ... ျမန္မာေဆာက္လုပ္ေရး ေလာကအတြက္ ေကာင္းဖို႔လား၊ ဆိုးဖို႔လား (ႏိုင္ငံျခားသား လုပ္ငန္းရွင္ေတြ နည္းတူ ျပည္တြင္း လုပ္ငန္းရွင္ေတြ ကိုလည္း အခြန္ကင္းလြတ္ခြင့္ တန္းတူ ေပးဖို႔ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးေလာက က အလုိရွိေနၾကပါတယ္)... ပြင့္လင္းျမင္သာမႈ နဲ႔ ႏုိင္ငံေရးတည္ၿငိမ္ မႈ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္လွ်က္ရွိ... ႏိုင္ငံတကာေလေၾကာင္း လိုင္းေတြ ျပည္တြင္းျပည္ပ ခရီးစဥ္ သစ္ေတြ စီစဥ္ေန... ရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံသူနည္းစရာ အေၾကာင္းေတာ့ မရွိပါဘူး... ႏိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံသူေတြ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္နည္းပဲ က်င့္သံုးေနၾကဆဲ... ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးမႈမ်ားကို ဆန္းစစ္ၾကည့္ရာ၀ယ္... ျမန္မာ အက္စ္အမ္အီးေတြ ႏိုင္ငံျခား ကုမၸဏီေတြနဲ႔ တန္းတူ အခြင့္အေရး ရလို... ျမန္မာ့စီးပြားေရး ဖြံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေစႏိုင္မယ့္ ေတာင္ကိုရီးယားရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံမႈ... ျပည္တြင္း ဆက္သြယ္ေရးကုမၸဏီ သံုးခု ျပည္ပ ကုမၸဏီမ်ားနဲ႔ ဖက္စပ္လုပ္ကိုင္မယ္... ရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံမႈ မစတင္မီ ေစ်းကြက္ သုေတသန လုပ္ဖို႔ အလြန္အေရးပါ... ဘဏ္လုပ္ငန္း ပိုၿပီးအာရံုစိုက္ျပဳျပင္ဖို႔ လိုအပ္လာ... စီးပြားေရးနာလံ ထူႏိုင္ဖို႔ လမ္းသစ္ကို သြားေနတဲ့ ေျခလွမ္းတခ်ဳိ႔ ... ေျမေစ်း က ႏိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇပ္ႏွံမႈကို ဟန္႔တားေန... သဘာ၀ ကပ္ေဘးဆိုင္ရာ စီမံခန္႔ခြဲမႈ ေကာင္းေတြလည္း လုိအပ္... အထူးစီးပြားေရးဇုန္ စီမံကိန္း ျမန္ျမန္အေကာင္ အထည္ေဖာ္ရန္တိုက္တြန္း... ပိတ္ဆို႔မႈေတြဟာ စီးပြားေရး အတြက္ အေႏွာင့္အယွက္
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (2.53MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


    Title: What Myanmar Can Learn on FDI from Other East Asian Countries: Positive and Negative Effects of FDI
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: "The government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has announced a series of political and economic reforms since Mr. Thein Sein became the first president in March 2011. More than a few companies which had hesitated to invest in Myanmar from the EU, the United States, Japan and ASEAN have now started to seek a way to invest in the country effectively with minimal risk. Many other companies, however, have not changed their “wait and see” attitude without making a decision to invest in Myanmar. Nevertheless, for the Myanmar government, it is necessary to make adequate preparations for attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) irrespective of the realization of an investment boom in the country. Here, in order to give input to the government and business community of Myanmar, we would like to consider the positive and negative effects of FDI in accordance with the experiences of other East Asian countries..." ...The Burmese version was publised in the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commers & Industry, Vol.16 No.11, November 2012.
    Author/creator: Masami ISHIDA
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Policy Review on Myanmar Economy No. 6
    Format/size: pdf (English-75K; Burmese-912K-OBL version,1.3MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/IDE-Myanmar06bu-red.pdf
    http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/PolicyReview/pdf/06_Burmese.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    Title: US/Burma: Don’t Lift Sanctions Too Soon Safeguards Needed Before Allowing Investment, Financial Services
    Date of publication: 15 May 2012
    Description/subject: "The US government should not ease sanctions on business activities in Burma until adequate safeguards are in place to prevent new investment from fueling human rights abuses. A US presidential order imposing a ban on investment and financial services in Burma is scheduled to expire on May 20, 2012, unless it is renewed or revised. In early April, in response to Burmese government pledges of reform and electoral gains by Burma’s main opposition party, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that the US government was prepared to relax certain business-related sanctions. A new presidential order easing business restrictions is expected to be issued soon. “The US government should not reward the Burmese government’s nascent and untested changes by allowing an unregulated business bonanza,” said John Sifton, Asia advocacy director at Human Rights Watch. “Tough rules are needed to ensure that new investments benefit the people of Burma and don’t fuel human rights abuses and corruption, or end up strengthening the military’s control over civilian authorities.”..."
    Language: Engish
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar rush risks undermining progress
    Date of publication: 05 May 2012
    Description/subject: "As governments continue to discuss how to ease sanctions in Myanmar, fears are increasing that a sudden massive influx of foreign investment could be detrimental to the delicate ongoing transition. "I see a rush of over-investment, to the extent that things that can be done to slow down investment may be in the long-term interest of the country," Lex Rieffel, an economist and Southeast Asia expert with the Brookings Institution, said on Thursday at the Council on Foreign Relations, in Washington. 'I can assure you that even if we keep sanctions in place, there is going to be plenty of investment in this country. But what we will probably see is underinvestment in people - the government is currently meeting with every Tom, Dick and Harry, but there is no time being set aside for important decision-making or implementation.'..."
    Author/creator: Carey L Biron
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Onlie
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: The Lady and the generals meet half-way
    Date of publication: 06 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar's highly anticipated by-elections, held on April 1 for some 45 parliamentary seats, has borne its first diplomatic fruit. The United States announced a relaxation of certain economic sanctions and movement on the resumption of full diplomatic relations with Naypyidaw in reward for the country's recent democratic progress. However, the opposition National League for Democracy's landslide victory of 43 out of the 45 seats may be somewhat overstated and questions remain about the sincerity of President Thein Sein's government's commitment to sustainable reform..."
    Author/creator: Brian McCartan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


    Title: Not open for business: Despite elections, investor risk remains high in Burma
    Date of publication: April 2012
    Description/subject: "...Burma has vast oil, gas, hydropower and mineral potential, located mainly in the ethnic minority regions which continue to be areas of conflict. Keen on tapping these resources, the international business community is already a forceful advocate for overturning the sanctions regime and is actively scouting investment prospects. In particular, major oil companies – Chevron, Total and Exxon Mobil – are seeking to further penetrate Burma’s market. While international sanctions have limited investment over the last decade, foreign direct investment has recently increased. Foreign investment from 2010 to 2011 represents nine times the cumulative foreign investment between 2006 and 2010, with a staggering percentage benefiting the energy and extractive industries. Investors should exercise extreme caution. Burma is a volatile area for investors, without the rule of law and without constitutional assurances that the judiciary will protect property or investments. Despite economic reforms over the past year, the military continues to dominate the Burmese economy. It controls the Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings which manages the gem trade and the banking and construction industries. It also oversees the Myanmar Economic Corporation which controls economic activities as varied as tourism, trading companies and the sale of petroleum and natural gas. The recent reforms and election results provide reasons for cautious optimism in Burma, but the transition is tenuous and incomplete. Given the integration of the military in all aspects of Burma and its historically poor record of democratization and human rights abuse, the international community must seek to use every avenue of engagement with Burma to ensure the establishment of accountability mechanisms to protect human rights. Such mechanisms may be most important of all in the resource-rich ethnic minority regions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Conflict Risk Network
    Format/size: pdf (730K - OBL version; 849K- original)
    Alternate URLs: http://endgenocide.org/images/uploads/downloads/burma-not-open-for-business.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


    Title: Myanmar lures Singapore Inc
    Date of publication: 20 March 2012
    Description/subject: "Singapore Inc is in hot pursuit of business opportunities in Myanmar, where a recent reform drive aims to lure more foreign direct investment. A long time ally to Myanmar's former military regime, Singapore is well placed to reap first-mover advantages vis-a-vis Western countries that maintain but are slowly lifting economic sanctions against the country. Last month, a delegation representing 74 Singapore-based companies traveled to Myanmar for networking and business matching with Myanmar counterparts in construction, education, finance, infrastructure and logistics. Organized by the trade promotion groups Singapore Business Federation (SBF) and International Enterprise (IE) Singapore, the trip featured site visits, the signing of a memorandum of understanding to promote economic relations and trade ties, and courtesy calls on reformist President Thein Sein and many of his ministers..."
    Author/creator: Megawati Wijaya
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: BLOOD MONEY: A Grounded Theory of Corporate Citizenship -- Myanmar (Burma) as a Case in Point
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: "...In this inquiry I have explored the multiple interactions between corporate, state and civil society actors through which understandings of ‘responsible’ corporate engagement in Myanmar are created, enacted and transformed. I have identified and conceptualised four social processes at work in these interactions, which I describe in the grounded theories of: (1) Commercial Diplomacy (describing the use of enterprise as a conduit for foreign policy by states, particularly as it relates to ‘ethical’ business activity) (2) Stakeholder Activism (critiquing the aims and strategies of transnational civil society organisations who advocate for ‘responsible’ corporate engagement) (3) Corporate Engagement (explaining variation in the motivations and terms of corporate engagement, specifically different forms of divestment or engagement, as strategic responses to stakeholder activism, commercial diplomacy and other factors which influence the enterprise context) (4) Constructive Corporate Engagement (a conceptual framework, grounded in multiple stakeholder-views and drawing from the international development discourses of state fragility and human security, for considering the potentially constructive impacts of corporate engagement). Working within and between these four theories, I generated an overarching grounded theory of (5) Corporate Citizenship in Fragile States. From these theories I offer a critical analysis of Corporate Citizenship as the normative basis for a new articulation between the economic, social and political spheres in pursuit of a more equitable global order..."
    Author/creator: Nicola M. Black
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Te Waananga o Waikato (The University of Waikato)
    Format/size: html; pdf (3.5MB) (553 pages)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nickyblack.com/Nicky_Black/Corporate_Citizenship_and_Myanmar.html (Chapter-by-chapter)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/BM-Complete-NBlack%202009-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2010


    Title: TOTAL Oil: fuelling the oppression in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2005
    Description/subject: " Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. TOTAL Oil, the fourth largest oil company in the world, is in business with Burma’s dictatorship. It has been in Burma since 1992 against the wishes of Burma’s elected leaders, many of whom are being detained by the Junta. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma’s pro-democracy leader, has said that “Total has become the main supporter of the Burmese military regime.” . She told the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur that "TOTAL knew what it was doing when it invested massively in Burma while others withdrew from the market for ethical reasons”. She added, “the company must accept the consequences. The country will not always be governed by dictators.” The National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won 82 percent of the seats in Burma’s 1990 election. It has called on foreign companies not to invest in Burma because of the role investment plays in perpetuating dictatorship in that country. All the major ethnic leaderships from Burma have whole-heartedly supported this position too. Therefore, the mandate from which companies are asked not to invest in Burma comes from within the country. This report gathers together much of the available evidence relating to TOTAL’s role in fuelling the oppressive dictatorship in Burma. Broadly, it covers human rights abuses associated with TOTAL’s gas pipeline, TOTAL’s financing of Burma’s dictatorship and TOTAL’s influence on French foreign policy and therefore on European Burma policy as a whole. TOTAL’s presence in Burma has consequences far beyond its 63-kilometre pipeline across Burmese territory. Its destructive influence goes to the heart of international policy towards one of the world’s most brutal regimes. For that reason it is essential for all those who want change in Burma to deal with the problem of TOTAL Oil. As long as TOTAL remains in Burma, the dictatorship will be satisfied that the chances of real pressure against it are unlikely. This report has been produced to coincide with the launch of a new international campaign calling for TOTAL’s withdrawal from Burma. The campaign comprises 43 organisations across 18 countries..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign, UK
    Format/size: pdf (691K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.birmaniademocratica.org/ViewDocument.aspx?docid=90228f917e4a42a09445256a9e2459d9
    Date of entry/update: 04 July 2010


    Title: Doing Business with Burma - report
    Date of publication: 25 January 2005
    Description/subject: What are the consequences of investment in or trade with Burma? How does it work? Who profits? Who suffers from it?... Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Who owns the economy? (When you do business with Burma, who do you need to deal with? Can a company have independent business links in Burma?) 3. Levels of FDI and trade; 4. How much of this money is going to the junta? Another source of income: all kinds of taxes; A possible third source of income: the exchange of foreign currency; 5. What do the generals do with this money? 6. On corruption, transparency and drugs; 7. Is there a link between FDI and politics? 8. Are there direct links between FDI and abuse of workers? 9. What is the effect of sanctions on ordinary citizens?
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
    Format/size: html, pdf (262K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Doing_Business_in_or_with_Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 February 2005


    Title: Traiter avec la Birmanie
    Date of publication: 25 January 2005
    Description/subject: Quelles sont les conséquences des investissements étrangers en Birmanie et du maintien de relations commerciales avec ce pays ? Quelles sont les règles du jeu ? Quels en sont les bénéficiaires ? Au détriment de qui ?... Table des matières:- 1. Introduction; 2. A qui appartient l’économie? (Avec qui doit-on traiter lorsqu’on veut faire du commerce avec la Birmanie? Une firme étrangère peut-elle avoir des contacts commerciaux à titre indépendant en Birmanie? 3. Volume d’IDE (investissements directs étrangers) et flux commerciaux; 4. Quelle partie de cet argent finit-elle dans les caisses de la junte? Autre source de revenus: les taxes en tous genres; Troisième source de revenus: le change de devises étrangères ; 5. Que font les généraux de tout cet argent? 6. Corruption, transparence et trafic de drogue; 7. Existe-t-il un lien entre l’IDE et la politique? 8. Y a-t-il des liens directs entre IDE et abus des droits des travailleurs? 9. Quelle est l’incidence des sanctions sur les citoyens ordinaires?
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Confédération internationale des syndicats libres (CISL)
    Format/size: pdf (299K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 February 2005


    Title: In Our Court: ATCA, Sosa, and the Triumph of Human Rights
    Date of publication: 27 July 2004
    Description/subject: Washington, D.C. – EarthRights International's new report, "In Our Court: ATCA, Sosa, and the Triumph of Human Rights," analyzes the history of the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), its use in human rights cases over the past two decades, and the political debate between the human rights community, the business lobby, and the Bush Administration over how ATCA should be used. "In Our Court" is the first report to trace the use of ATCA and provide a comprehensive discussion of how and why it has become an important tool for human rights advancement, and why it has come under attack by the business community and the Bush Administration. Using case studies from Burma, Nigeria, and Sudan, the report explains the need for ATCA and the link between the victims of human rights violations and the corporations that have gained from the abuse. The U.S. Supreme Court's June 2004 decision on Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain was a victory for human rights groups such as EarthRights International and the victims they represent. The Supreme Court ruled that ATCA continues to afford non-citizens a way to sue perpetrators of egregious human rights abuses in U.S. federal courts. Concluding with a legal analysis of the Sosa decision, "In Our Court" explores the implications of the Supreme Court's ruling for victims of human rights abuses, their defenders, corporations, and the Administration, and makes recommendations for preserving the ability of victims and survivors to seek legal redress in U.S. courts.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: html (219K),
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2004


    Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
    Date of publication: 03 March 2004
    Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
    Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
    Format/size: pdf (261K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


    Title: The European Union and Burma: The Case for Targeted Sanctions
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The political stalemate in Burma will not be broken until the military regime considers it to be in its own self-interest to commence serious negotiations with the democratic and ethnic forces within the country. This paper outlines how the international community can bring about a political and economic situation which will foster such negotiations. Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. The regime continues to ignore the 1990 electoral victory of Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. The regime has shown no commitment to three years of UN mediation efforts. It has failed to end the practice of forced labour as required by its ILO treaty obligations and demanded by the International Labour Organization. It continues to persecute Burma’s ethnic peoples. It continues to detain more than 1,350 political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Any proposal of a road map to political change in Burma will fail to bring about democracy in this country unless it is formulated and executed in an atmosphere in which fundamental political freedoms are respected, all relevant stakeholders are included and committed to negotiate, a time frame for change is provided, space is provided for necessary mediation, and the restrictive and undemocratic objectives and principles imposed by the military through the National Convention (ensuring continued military control even in a “civilian” state) are set aside.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
    Format/size: pdf (120K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 March 2004


    Title: Wege aus der Isolation. Birmas nationaler und internationaler Aussöhnungsprozess
    Date of publication: August 2003
    Description/subject: Zu Beginn der neunziger Jahre reagierten die EU und die USA auf die 1988 erfolgte Machtübernahme des Militärs in Birma und die Nichtanerkennung des 1990 errungenen Wahlsiegs der Opposition mit der öffentlichen Verurteilung dieses Regimes und einer Reihe wirtschaftlicher und politischer Sanktionen. Die ASEAN-Staaten wie auch UNO-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan setzten hingegen auf eine Strategie des »konstruktiven Engagements«, die durch einen intensiven Dialog mit der Regierung in Rangun den Weg zu politischen Reformen zu ebnen versuchte. Beide Strategien haben bislang nicht zu den beabsichtigten Ergebnissen geführt. Ausgangspunkt dieser Studie ist daher die Frage, welche Faktoren zu jener fast unauflöslich erscheinenden Konfrontation zwischen der Militärregierung einerseits und der birmanischen Opposition sowie den westlich orientierten Staaten andererseits geführt haben und welche Strategie von außen, vor allem von der EU, entwickelt werden sollte, um eine Neugestaltung der politischen Machtverhältnisse und eine Verbesserung der mehr als desolaten Lebensverhältnisse vieler Einwohner Birmas zu erzielen. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluß, daß die politische und wirtschaftliche Krise Birmas nur durch einen langfristigen und umfassenden Transformationsprozeß bewältigt werden kann, in dem Veränderungen der sozioökonomischen Basis und der politischen Strukturen eng miteinander zu verknüpfen sind. Von Seiten des Auslands - nicht zuletzt der EU - kann und sollte dieser Transformationsprozeß nach Kräften und in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen gefördert werden. Hierbei müssen positive Anreize und Druck einander nicht ausschließen, sondern es wäre im jeweiligen Einzelfall zu prüfen, ob eine Zusammenarbeit möglich und nützlich erscheint oder aber verweigert werden muß. Ways out of isolation, Burma's national and international reconciliation process, transition and democratisation
    Author/creator: Gerhard Will
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2005


    Title: Corporate Engagement Project, Yadana Project Myanmar/Burma, May 2003 (2nd visit)
    Date of publication: July 2003
    Description/subject: "The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort, involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the contexts in which they work. Based on site visits, CEP aims to identify and analyze the challenges for corporations that recur across companies and across contexts. Based on the patterns that emerge, CEP develops management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. In this context, Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant, and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP, visited Myanmar from April 22 – May 3, 2003 to visit the Yadana pipeline project, operated by Total, as a follow up to our first visit conducted in October 2002. This visit was the second CEP visit to the Yadana Project in what is planned as a series of three visits. To avoid duplication, this report should be read in combination with the first report (available at http://www.cdainc.com/cep/cep-casestudylist.htm). Our purpose, as in all CEP field visits, was to examine the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. The CEP team intends to visit Thailand to explore allegations from several international NGOs that people originating from the pipeline area were displaced into Thailand. If people had to leave Myanmar/Burma recently for reasons related to the pipeline or the presence of oil companies, this would be important for CEP to know. The trip will serve the following purposes: ! To learn additional information related to the impact of the pipeline on local civilians. We want to address the possibility that we only hear positive stories about the pipeline from people currently residing in the corridor, while people that were possibly forced to leave the corridor might tell of a different reality. ! To verify why CDA’s observations in the pipeline area differ from the observations in some of the reports produced by international NGOs about the impact of the pipeline on the local contexts. ! To explore rumors in the business community in Thailand and Myanmar/Burma (and among NGOs themselves) that some NGOs make a “business” of producing allegations against companies, based on testimonies from Myanmar/Burmese refugees. This is of concern to CEP because if CEP is unable to confirm allegations that “NGOs fabricate “evidence,” it supports the credibility of the NGOs that make allegations or advocate on behalf of Myanmar/Burmese refugees. On the other side, if the fabrication of evidence is confirmed, this would support sentiments in the business community that allegations should not be taken seriously. This undermines the ability of individuals with genuine grievances against companies to be heard. CONCLUSION: The second visit to the Yadana pipeline confirmed the positive impact that the presence of the oil companies currently has on the population within the pipeline corridor. It is also evident that these positive impacts in the pipeline corridor will not convince outside critics about Total’s positive contribution to the country at large. The company will continue to be criticized and remain vulnerable to outside pressure from some stakeholders until it is better able to address concerns on the larger socio-political context in the country. The single most important observation revealed in this report is the need for the co-investors to develop a vision of the role they want to play in Myanmar/Burma and the strategy they will use to achieve this. With a clear vision and strategy, efforts to achieve this outcome can be focused, and new working partnerships can be built and nurtured. Within these, creative solutions to the challenges of working in Myanmar can be formulated."
    Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Doug Fraser
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
    Format/size: pdf (285 KB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: Multinational Enterprises in Situations of Violent Conflict and Widespread Human Rights Abuses
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "In response to enquiries about foreign investment in Myanmar, the Committee for International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (CIME) asked the Secretariat to prepare a paper, under the responsibility of the latter, that would provide background information to interested parties. This paper was not only to shed light on business activity in Myanmar, but also to consider the broader challenges of conducting business responsibly in countries characterised by civil strife and extensive human rights violations. The present paper responds to this request and focuses on issues that are of particular relevance to extractive industries. This sector?s share of global investment is quite small, but its significance for particular host societies is large and the underlying issues for corporate responsibility affect the welfare of millions of people. While not ignoring the problems that have arisen in connection with multinational enterprise activity in troubled host countries, this paper also seeks to promote and highlight the positive roles that some companies have played in the search for solutions to these countries? very complex problems..."
    Author/creator: Kathryn Gordon
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
    Format/size: PDF (186 KB) 35 pages
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: BURMA: COMPANIES, NGOs AND THE NEW DIPLOMACY
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Burma, also known as Myanmar, is an important case study in wider international debates on the politics of sanctions versus constructive engagement, and the role of companies and NGOs in controversial states. Since 1962 Burma has been ruled by a succession of military and quasi-military regimes. All the main political actors, including the armed forces, agree that it should eventually return to some form of democratic rule. The questions are: when and by what route? And how, if at all, can the international community assist? One of the most important features of the Burma debate is the role played by non-state actors – particularly NGOs, but also companies. A loose coalition of advocacy groups has put pressure on Western governments to impose sanctions on Burma, and on companies to withdraw from the country. Petroleum companies, in particular, have been accused of collaborating with an illegitimate regime. But such campaigns raise further questions: what role should advocacy groups play in foreign policy-making? And what are the real responsibilities of international companies in controversial states?..."
    Author/creator: John Bray
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Royal Institute for International Affairs (Briefing Papers, New Series No. 24)
    Format/size: pdf (68 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.eldis.org/assets/Docs/11176.html
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: Myanmar Case Perpetuates False Analogies
    Date of publication: 17 April 2000
    Description/subject: The case before the U.S. Supreme Court on the right of Massachusetts and several California localities to promulgate regulations on foreign trade—specifically, to impose sanctions on Myanmar, formerly Burma, for human-rights violations—is a clear test of the post-Cold War maxim to "think globally, act locally."
    Author/creator: Catharin Dalpino
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Brookings Institute
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2000/0417southasia_dalpino.aspx?p=1
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: No Happy Medium for Hardliners
    Date of publication: February 2000
    Description/subject: The SPDC is seeking new ways to tell the world that Burma is open for business. But it is having a hard time finding a medium that doesn't threaten to open the floodgates of political debate.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2 (Businss section)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: "The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are non-binding recommendations to enterprises, made by the thirty-three governments that adhere to them. Their aim is to help Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) operate in harmony with government policies and with societal expectations ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    Format/size: PDF (1.57MB)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Destructive Engagement: A Decade of Foreign Investment in Burma
    Date of publication: October 1999
    Description/subject: An Issue Paper of EarthRights International's Burma Project. Since 1988, when the Burmese military regime opened up the country to foreign investment after a generation of isolation, the country has seen no improvement on a whole range of indicators, such as education, health and poverty, that investment is supposed to help improve. Instead, investment has brought a doubling in the size of the country's army and major arms purchases that have in turn furthered the repression. Investment has also been concentrated in extractive industries, namely logging, gems and natural gas, resulting in the selling off of Burma's natural resources at alarming rates. The stream of refugees and migrants out of the country -- fleeing the human and economic devastation brought about by the regime -- is perhaps the clearest indicator that investment and business engagement with Burma are not working.
    Author/creator: Tyler R. Giannini
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Earthrights International
    Format/size: pdf (250K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: All Along the Watchtower
    Date of publication: September 1998
    Description/subject: "As foreign investors flee, prices rise, and foreign reserves dwindle, many wonder how much longer Burma's military regime can hold off the rising tide of unrest...The announcement that U.S. oil giant ARCO and telecommunications powerhouse Ericsson are pulling out of Burma is one more sign that the country’s economy is both closing and collapsing. ARCO’s announcement that it was abandoning its rights to develop offshore blocks of natural gas in Burma’s Andaman Sea and Ericsson’s hasty withdrawal are only two of a number of major projects that have fallen victim to Burma’s economic collapse and political impasse. The $800 million “three-in-one” project which was to have been built by Total, Unocal and Mitsui was quietly shelved late last month. The project would have built a $300 million gas pipeline up from the Yadana pipeline to fuel a $200 million fertilizer plant and a $300 million electrical generating plant. The gas was to have come from the regime’s share of the Yadana field gas with the government and its three partners sharing construction costs..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burmese Fairy Tale
    Date of publication: 19 February 1998
    Description/subject: (The writer is a pro-democracy activist and former political prisoner. She lives in Rangoon.) "Like many Burmese, l am tired of living in a fairy tale. For years, outsiders portrayed the troubles of my country as a morality play: good against evil, with no shade of gray in between-a simplistic picture, but one the world believes. The response of the West has been equally simplistic: It wages a moral crusade against evil, using such "magic wands" as sanctions and boycotts..."
    Author/creator: Ma Thanegi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Far Eastern Economic Review (5th Column)
    Format/size: html (11K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "The Irrawaddy" Business
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: Burma row brews over US state law • UK clothing firm cuts Burmese ties •
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "The Irrawaddy" Business
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: Joint-Venture for sugar mill • Foreign cash ATMs • San Francisco bans Burmese business • Japan insurer sets foot in Burma • Divestment Movement: South Africa stle • Thailand eyes Burmese ports • Burma to join BIST-EC [to make BIMST-EC]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: Debate on Investing in Burma
    Date of publication: February 1996
    Description/subject: Various articles, pro and con., including at the September 7, 1995, US Congressional hearing on "Recent Developments in Burma" which was called by the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the House Committee on International Relations. Excerpts from documents submitted as evidence in a lawsuit filed by Peregrine Myanmar Ltd. and Peregrine Capital Myanmar Ltd. against American businesswoman, Miriam Marshall Segal who had been doing business in Burma in one form or another for nearly two decades.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. III, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Effect of Foreign Investment in Burma
    Date of publication: 01 October 1995
    Description/subject: "Everyone has heard the argument that economic sanctions never work, that the best way to encourage dictators to change their policies is to give them lots of money, then ask them to change, then give them even more money if they refuse. Economic sanctions only hurt the poor, the big investors tell us, while investment dollars "trickle down" from the generals and help everyone. Not only is there no evidence anywhere to support this argument, but in the case of Burma foreign investment directly leads to suffering..." "Even the Wall Street Journal admitted that foreign investment in Burma is wrong, stating "We have argued for commerce and investment where it strengthens civil societies vis-a-vis dictators. But these deals, by putting money directly into SLORC's pocket, only make a richer prize out of political power. The prospect of vast petrodollars gives the generals yet another reason to cling to office no matter how many bodies of their fellow citizens pile up." There is no argument for raping Burma's resources and handing money to SLORC, and it is about time investors and their governments started admitting it..."
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner (Karen Human Rights Group)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Laws and regulations governing investment
    See also the Law and Constitution section

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar’s Investment Treaties: A review of legal issues in light of recent trends
    Date of publication: June 2014
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This paper reviews Myanmar’s existing investment treaties and examines the legal implications of key terms contained in them. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of Myanmar’s current investment treaty context, which can inform a way forward for possible reform and contribute to a deeper understanding of the implications of potential future treaties. This paper focuses on key provisions that have proven important in other countries’ experience with investment treaties over the past decade. 1 The main findings of this paper are as follows: 1. Myanmar has seven investment treaties in force, plus an eighth treaty—the Myanmar–Japan bilateral investment treaty (BIT)—that may soon enter into force. 2. Myanmar’s investment treaties cover the investment relationship between Myanmar and 15 other countries. These 15 countries are all located in East, South-East and South Asia and in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand). 3. Four of Myanmar’s investment treaties, which cover Myanmar’s investment relationship with 13 different countries, were negotiated either with or through ASEAN. 4. Myanmar’s investment treaties that were negotiated with or through ASEAN show some degree of consistency, although important differences between these four treaties remain. In contrast, there is a very high degree of variation between Myanmar’s ASEAN investment treaties and Myanmar’s BITs, both in the types of provisions included in different treaties and in the drafting of provisions common to several treaties. 5. These variations have significant legal implications for the nature and extent of Myanmar’s obligations under different treaties. They also make the government’s task of complying with Myanmar’s existing investment treaties more complex. 6. Many of Myanmar’s investment treaties contain most-favoured nation (MFN) clauses. The effect of these provisions is that any benefit extended to foreign investors from one country under one investment treaty may need to be extended to foreign investors covered by Myanmar’s other investment treaties. As a result, Myanmar may be required to grant a combination of benefits to foreign investors that is more generous than that provided by any one of Myanmar’s investment treaties, considered individually. 7. Aside from the Myanmar–Philippines BIT, all of Myanmar’s investment treaties allow foreign investors to bring claims under the treaty directly to investor–state arbitration. In such disputes, an arbitral tribunal will decide if the state in which the investment is located has breached the treaty. If the investor’s claim is successful, the tribunal will make a binding, monetary award against the state. Because Myanmar’s investment treaties are enforceable through investor–state arbitration, questions relating to the extent of Myanmar’s obligations under different treaties have important practical implications"
    Author/creator: Jonathan Bonnitcha
    Source/publisher: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
    Format/size: pdf (1MB-reduced version; 1.85MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.iisd.org/sites/default/files/publications/myanmar_investment_treaties_review_legal_issue...
    Date of entry/update: 23 September 2014


    Title: Myanmar still a high-risk investment
    Date of publication: 03 October 2012
    Description/subject: "Internal debate over a pending new foreign investment law has exposed divisions between reformers and conservatives in Myanmar. How the power struggle shakes out will determine in large measure the direction and pace of the country's closely watched economic reform program. Big multinational corporations, including Coca-Cola, Ford Motor Company and General Electric, have expressed initial interest in Myanmar, a market American companies were until recently banned from entering due to US government imposed economic sanctions. Even with that ban lifted, companies have remained wary about committing funds without stronger legal protection of their investments. In line with his broad reform agenda, President Thein Sein announced plans for a more liberal investment regime in late 2011. Since then the law to regulate new foreign investment has undergone several rewrites and heated debate in parliament. The new law is designed to replace the extant and outdated 1988 investment law. A first draft of the law was sent to parliament in March but was rejected by conservative parliamentarians - some with known links to the business associates of former junta leaders - as overly advantageous to foreign interests. Although full details of the legislation have not yet been made public, earlier drafts reportedly included several restrictions on foreign capital, including bans on foreign investment in as many as 13 sectors..."
    Author/creator: Brian McCartan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2012


  • Chinese investment

    Individual Documents

    Title: Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Myanmar: Remarkable Trends and Multilayered Motivations
    Date of publication: 2012
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Following the national responsibility theory in the school of international society which argues that national interest drives a state’s foreign policy, this thesis first attempts to deconstruct China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) in Myanmar since 2004 by picking apart and manipulating financial data in order to determine the resulting trends and developments. It then analyzes how Myanmar’s abundant natural resources could help alleviate China’s rising energy demands and how Chinese FDI can enhance China’s political security, reduce energy costs, diversify its imports, and mitigate mineral shortages. The United States’ marked presence in the region due to a transformation in foreign policy in the Obama administration, as well as the 2011 dissolution of military law in Myanmar, means that the motivation for Chinese FDI no longer solely revolves around the acquisition of natural resources and the previous lack of international competitors in the country. Nevertheless, I argue that China’s national economic interest will continue to serve as the primary incentive to invest billions of dollars into Myanmar, though political interest is beginning to factor more into China’s motivations."...Keywords: China, Myanmar, foreign direct investment, natural resources, national interest
    Author/creator: Travis Mitchell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lund University, Graduate School, Department of Political Science
    Format/size: pdf (1.17MB)
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


    Title: Vor der Flut
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: Sie werden nicht gefragt, nicht entschädigt und bald einfach fortgejagt: Ein Staudammprojekt am Ayeyarwady in Myanmar bedroht die Natur und die Existenz tausender Flussanwohner. Der Widerstand gegen die Pläne der Militärjunta ist lebensgefährlich. Chinesische Investitionen, Kachin; Chinese Investment.
    Author/creator: Veronika Buter
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Kontinente
    Format/size: html (16K)
    Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


    Title: Chinese Hydropower Industry Investment in the Mekong Region-Impacts and Opportunities for Cooperation: Perspectives from Civil Society
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Description/subject: The past decade has witnessed a tremendous surge in investment in hydropower projects in Southeast Asian countries on the part of Chinese corporations at the same time as the PRC continues to overdevelop its own hydropower potential and environmental protection takes greater priorities within the country. In this paper delivered at at a China - ASEAN power forum attended by hundreds of executives of leading PRC power companies, Zao Noam and Piaporn Deetes of Thailand argue that the social and environmental impacts from hydropower development in the Mekong countries must be seriously addressed in order to mitigate damaging impacts to regional economies, food security and rural livelihoods. Without comprehensive and careful consideration of hydropower's multi-faceted impacts, millions of small farmers and fisher folk whose livelihoods depend on the richness of the Mekong ecosystems will bear most of the costs of the infrastructure development. Civil society in the Mekong region urges the Chinese corporate sector to conduct hydropower development in the region according to international standards which minimizes socio-economic and ecological harm.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Living River Siam
    Format/size: pdf (1 MB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 February 2008


    Title: China in Burma:- The increasing investment of Chinese multinational corporations in Burma’s hydropower, oil &gas, and mining sectors
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: "Introductory research conducted by the Burma Project over the past three months has found more than 26 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in more than 62 hydropower, oil & gas, and mining projects in Burma. The projects vary from small dams completed in the past decade to planned dual oil and gas pipelines across Burma to Yunnan province announced this year. Detailed information about many of these investments is not made available to affected communities or the general public, and we hope that the information here will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the conduct of Chinese MNCs in Burma..."
    Language: English, Chinese, Burmese
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (English,3.21 MB; Chinese,1.8 MB; Burmese,1.84 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corp...
    Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


    Title: Sino-Myanmar Economic Relations Since 1988
    Date of publication: April 2007
    Description/subject: Introduction: "One of the key features of the Sino-Myanmar relationship since 1988 has been the growing bilateral cooperation in the areas of trade, aid or development assistance, and investment. Since 1988, China has become one of the most important sources of trade and development assistance for Myanmar. Though overall investment volumes are small, a hallmark of Chinese investment in Myanmar is its heavy concentration in a few strategic sectors. The pattern of the Sino-Myanmar economic relationship has reflected what the "Modern World System" theorists call "centre-periphery" relations: the wealth flows from the periphery to the centre and the authority or influence flows from the centre to the periphery."
    Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, Singapore Working Paper No. 86
    Format/size: pdf (445 kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/showfile.asp?pubid=647&type=2
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2008


    Title: Myanmar’s Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?
    Date of publication: July 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Against the background of closer diplomatic, political and security ties between Myanmar and China since 1988, their economic relations have also grown stronger throughout the 1990s and up to 2005. China is now a major supplier of consumer and capital goods to Myanmar, in particular through border trade. China also provides a large amount of economic cooperation in the areas of infrastructure, energy and state-owned economic enterprises. Nevertheless, Myanmar’s trade with China has failed to have a substantial impact on its broad-based economic and industrial development. China’s economic cooperation apparently supports the present regime, but its effects on the whole economy will be limited with an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and distorted incentives structure. As a conclusion, strengthened economic ties with China will be instrumental in regime survival, but will not be a powerful force affecting the process of economic development in Myanmar."...Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), China, trade, border trade, economic cooperation, energy, oil and gas
    Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No. 66
    Format/size: pdf (510K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2007


    Title: The Vanishing Lady Tycoon
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Stories of murder and mayhem abound in Kachin State’s casino town... "Welcome to the Macao of northern Burma: Maija Yang, once a backward Kachin State border village but now a bustling boom town with more than a dozen casinos catering to Chinese gamblers sidelined by restrictions in their own country. The frontier-style administration of Maija Yang, 160km north of the Kachin capital Myitkyina, is effectively in the hands of the Kachin Independence Organization, which is said to earn around 8.5 million yuan (more than US $1 million) annually from the Chinese-run casinos. Prostitution, drugs and alcohol probably net the town even more money. The first of the casinos was built four years ago under a KIO development program originally intended to provide local people, traditionally reliant on the opium trade, with an alternative source of income. The high-minded plan went awry, however—the casinos employ mostly Chinese staff, and the drugs problem is only getting worse..."
    Author/creator: Khun Sam
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


  • Foreign investment in clothing

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Clean Clothes Campaign, Switzerland
    Description/subject: Campaign on Triumph, a Swiss underware company sourcing in Burma.
    Language: English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cleanclothes.ch/de/f25000086.html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: National Labor Committee
    Description/subject: "In support of human and worker rights". Documents on Burma-US trade, particularly US garment companies sourcing in Burma.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns?id=0010
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Triumph International
    Description/subject: Triumph is a German/Swiss "intimate apparel" company subject to a campaign for sourcing in Burma; in particular its factory is on land leased from the Burmese military.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Foreign Direct Investment and the Garments Industry in Burma
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: "The coup d'etat by General Ne Win in 1962, and the introduction of the Burmese Way to Socialism, ensured that for almost 30 years foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma was near enough to non-existent. In 1989, after the uprisings of the previous year and the re-shuffling of the upper military echelons into the reconstituted State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the door to foreign investment was opened once more. The following attempts to clarify the state of play regarding FDI in Burma. A particular emphasis is placed on the apparel industry, the one area of FDI growth in Burma in recent years. The first section presents an overview of the procedures for foreign investment, highlighting the role of the military regime in garnering resources. The second section briefly examines the data relating to FDI in Burma, highlighting its limitations. The third section provides an overview of FDI, including the recent collapse, the main sectors in receipt of foreign investment, and source countries. Overall, FDI is small in comparison with comparable countries and the prognosis for future investment is poor due to the winding down of certain prominent gas pipeline projects. The fourth section examines Burma's growing exports of apparel, notably to the USA. Due to the unreliable nature of the data surrounding Burma's apparel industry, a brief comparison is made with this industrys development in Cambodia..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch
    Format/size: html (491K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Duds 'n' Drugs
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: "Burma's booming garment industry is helping to launder illicit profits, as well as providing as an excellent cover for drug exports..."
    Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Foreign investment in mining

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Sees Foreign Investment Topping $5b in 2014-15
    Date of publication: 17 September 2014
    Description/subject: "Burma has revised its forecast for foreign direct investment (FDI) to more than US$5 billion for the fiscal year that began in April, a senior official said on Tuesday, surpassing earlier expectations and led by new ventures in energy and telecoms. The figure exceeds an earlier estimate of $4 billion, with investments in the first five months of this fiscal year worth $3.32 billion, said Aung Naing Oo, secretary of the government-run Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC)"...
    Author/creator: AUNG HLA TUN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014


    Title: Ivanhoe Mines
    Description/subject: Most foreign mining in Burma is done by Ivanhoe. Click on Copper Operations, then on Monywa or search for Myanmar or Monywa. Gold also.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Metal Mining Agency of Japan
    Description/subject: Active in promoting mining in Burma. "The Metal Mining Agency of Japan (MMAJ) is a semigovernmental organization under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the main organization that executes the Japanese Government's policies related to the mining industry. Since its establishment in 1963, the Agency has been conducting various exploration operations for mineral resources both within and outside Japan, and other worldwide activities, such as technical cooperation in resources development for developing countries with mineral resources, technological research and development in the field of mining, rare metal stockpiling in Japan, mining related environmental pollution control activities, and international exchange through the collection and analysis of information concerning mineral resources. From a long-term viewpoint, the Agency has also been conducting exploration of deep seafloor mineral resources in the Pacific Ocean. Through these activities, the Agency has contributed to the stable supply of nonferrous metal resources, not only for use in Japan, but also in other countries."
    Language: Japanese, English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/main/html/mmaj.htm
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Metal Mining Agency of Japan: Oversesas projects in Asia
    Description/subject: Click on Myanmar for a map and description of MMAJ's earlier interest in the Monywa mine, now being exploited by Ivanhoe. In 1998 MMAJ organised a Workshop in Rangoon for "Investment Promotion & Environemntal Protection in the Mining Sector in ASEAN"
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20041115084443/www.mmaj.go.jp/mmaj_e/services.html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Mineral Resources Map of Asia
    Description/subject: Click down to Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Metal Mining Agency of Japan (MMAJ)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.jogmec.go.jp/mric_web/deposit/index.htm
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Mines and Communities Website
    Description/subject: The Mines and Communities Website ("MAC") was initiated by members of the Minewatch Asia-Pacific London support group. Its main aim is to ensure easy access to materials published by the group, as well as partner organisations and individuals. We want to make information on mining impacts, projects, and the corporate sector more widely available. Above all, we hope to empower mining-affected communities, so that they can better fight against damaging proposals and practices. The website is supported by: JATAM (Mining Advocacy Network, Indonesia), Mines, Minerals and People (India), Minewatch Asia Pacific Project (Philippines), Partizans (People against Rio Tinto Zinc and Its Subsidiaries, UK), Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (UK), the Society of St. Columban (UK) and Third World Network Ghana. These organisations are also represented on the editorial group which will submit and monitor new information and contacts on which this website can build......See the Country page for several dozen articles and reports on mining in Burma. MAC is one of the homes of "Grave Diggers: A Report on Mining in Burma" by Roger Moody.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mines and Communities
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Mining Laws of Asian Countries
    Description/subject: Interesting to compare the Burmese 1994 Mining Law with those of other Asian countries (see analysis of the 1994 Mining Law in "Grave Diggers" by Roger Moody, which is on the OBL shelves).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Metal Mining Agency of Japan
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20041115084443/www.mmaj.go.jp/mmaj_e/services.html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Mining Watch, Canada / Mines Alerte
    Description/subject: Carries a copy of "Grave Diggers" (no search engine so go to publications and browse). Good links page.
    Language: English
    Format/size: English, fracais, espanol
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Project Underground
    Description/subject: Search for Burma (113 hits, Sept. 2001). "Project Underground exists as a vehicle for the environmental, human rights and indigenous rights movements to carry out focused campaigns against abusive extractive resource activity. We seek to systematically deal with the problems created by the mining and oil industries by exposing environmental and human rights abuses by the corporations involved in these sectors and by building capacity amongst communities facing mineral and energy development to achieve economic and environmental justice."
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
    Date of publication: 20 February 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
    Format/size: pdf (632K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


    Title: Myanmar Geosciences Society
    Date of publication: 2003
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: MGS
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Canadian Company Defends Self, Junta
    Date of publication: October 2000
    Description/subject: Ivanhoe Mines, a Canadian-based company whose operations in Burma have recently come under renewed scrutiny following the release of a report by a mining watchdog group, has come out in defense of its Burmese business partners, the ruling SPDC
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10 (Business page)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
    Date of publication: 14 February 2000
    Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
    Author/creator: Roger Moody
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various groups
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
    http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


    Title: Burma's Jade Mines: An Annotated Occidental History
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "The history of Burma’s jade mines in the West is a brief one. While hundreds of different reports, articles and even books exist on the famous ruby deposits of Mogok, only a handful of westerners have ever made the journey to northern Burma’s remote jade mines and wrote down their findings. Occidental accounts of the mines make their first appearance in 1837. Although in 1836, Captain Hannay obtained specimens of jadeite at Mogaung during his visit to the Assam frontier (Hannay, 1837), Dr. W.Griffiths (1847) was the first European to actually visit the mines, in 1837 (Griffiths, 1847). The following is his account, as given in Scott and Hardiman (1900–1901):..."
    Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of the Geoliterary Society (Vol. 14, No. 1, 1999). via ganoksin
    Format/size: html (55K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The 1994 Mines Law - SLORC Law No. 8/94 (English)
    Date of publication: 06 September 1994
    Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Myanmar Mines Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No 8/94)... The 2nd Waxing Day of Tawthalin, 1356 M.E. (6th September, 1994) "The objectives of this Law are as follows: a.to implement the Mineral Resources Policy of the Government; b.to fulfil the domestic requirements and to increase export by producing more mineral products; c.to promote development of local and foreign investment in respect of mineral resources; d.to supervise, scrutinize and approve applications submitted by person or organization desirous of conducting mineral prospecting, exploration or production; e.to carry out for the development of, conservation, utilization and research works of mineral resources; f.to protect the environmental conservation works that may have detrimental effects due to mining operation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
    Format/size: html, pdf (82K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1994-SLORC_Law1994-08-The_%20Myanmar_Mines_Law-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Foreign investment in oil and gas

    • Oil and gas pipelines

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Oil and gas pipelines
      Description/subject: Link to an area of the OBL Environment section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: Gas pains for China and Myanmar
      Date of publication: 14 October 2014
      Description/subject: "Since the Sino-Myanmar natural gas pipeline commenced fuel deliveries in late July 2013, the 793-kilometer energy transportation route has operated well below its total capacity. The underutilization has resulted in an estimated annualized loss of 1.7 billion yuan (US$280 million) and raised pressing questions about the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)-led joint venture's future commercial viability. Data about the US$1 billion pipeline's first year of operations have become public in recent months. According to a CNPC report released in July, the pipeline transferred a total of 1.87 billion cubic meters of natural gas to southern China and 60 million cubic meters for local consumption in Myanmar during its first year of deliveries. The 2.47 billion transferred translates to around 20% of the pipeline's total capacity, which is designed to carry 12 billion cubic meters annually..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 October 2014


    • Oil and gas - general

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma Sees Foreign Investment Topping $5b in 2014-15
      Date of publication: 17 September 2014
      Description/subject: "Burma has revised its forecast for foreign direct investment (FDI) to more than US$5 billion for the fiscal year that began in April, a senior official said on Tuesday, surpassing earlier expectations and led by new ventures in energy and telecoms. The figure exceeds an earlier estimate of $4 billion, with investments in the first five months of this fiscal year worth $3.32 billion, said Aung Naing Oo, secretary of the government-run Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC)"...
      Author/creator: AUNG HLA TUN
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
      Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014


      Title: Oilwatch-SEA
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: oilwatch-SEA
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 November 2004


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar delays energy tender to improve transparency
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: Myanmar has delayed an oil and gas exploration tender to meet the transparency standards of the Western energy majors lining up, many for the first time, to invest in the rapidly reforming nation, a senior energy ministry official said.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Reuters via Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


      Title: Burma’s Frontier Appeal Lures Shadowy Oil Firms
      Date of publication: 09 May 2012
      Description/subject: While the major non-American Western oil companies adopt and wait-and-see policy and US firms remain barred by Washington’s sanctions, shadowy oil enterprises are gaining footholds in Burma. Among firms which have recently won licenses to explore for oil and gas are little-known businesses based in Panama, Nigeria and Azerbaijan—countries where corporate accountability can be murky. Not only does the bidding process remain opaque, the pedigree of some of the participants is too..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 May 2012


      Title: Natural Gas Export Revenue, Fiscal Balance and Inflation in Myanmar
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Abstract: "While natural gas exports have brought a large amount of foreign currency revenue to the Government of Myanmar, their contribution to reducing monetization of the fiscal deficit and disinflation has been obscure. The immediate reason is that under the country's dual exchange rate system, the revenue is converted at the grossly overvalued official rate which undervalues it in terms of the local currency by 1/200. However, devaluation would only improve the fiscal balance and not reduce the excess money supply since the central bank cannot sterilize the impact of the foreign reserve increase. As a policy reform to utilize the revenue for disinflation, this study proposes deregulation of the strict controls on foreign exchange."... Keywords: Myanmar, Disinflation, Natural Resource Exports, Dual Exchange Rates
      Author/creator: Koji KUBO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO
      Format/size: pdf (495K)
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


      Title: The Caribbean Connection
      Date of publication: August 2008
      Description/subject: Gas and oil companies are using offshore tax havens to disguise their investments in Burma... "BANGKOK — GAS and oil companies are using British offshore tax havens in the Caribbean and Bermuda to disguise their investments in Burma, avoiding international sanctions and public attention. Enlarge Image Despite US and EU sanctions, intended to isolate the military regime and force democratic change, Burma’s natural gas industry in particular is booming. Some of the investment comes from neighboring China, Thailand and India, countries that oppose sanctions. However, human rights campaigners say there is still considerable financial involvement by Western companies—and much of it is camouflaged..."
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


    • Arakan (Shwe) gas field

      • Shwe gas field and pipeline -- reports and articles

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: The Shwe Gas Movement
        Description/subject: "The SHWE Gas Movement is concerned with a natural gas pipeline project presently unfolding in Western Burma... In cooperation with Burma's military junta, a consortium of Indian and Korean corporations are currently exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State in Western Burma. Discovered in December 2003, these fields--labeled A-1, or "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold)--are expected to hold one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. These Shwe fields could well become the Burmese military government's largest single source of foreign income... However, for the people of Burma this project will likely bring more suffering than benefits. It is the opinion of the SHWE Gas Movement that the following issues are very likely outcomes if the pipeline project goes ahead unchecked:... Exploitation of the Voiceless: In order to transport the gas to India, a pipeline corridor is already being cleared in the minority Burmese states of Arakan and Chin. Moreover, the area is becoming increasingly militarised and forced labour is occurring in the context of infrastructure development... Large-scale Human Rights Abuses and Militarisation: As experience with two previous international Burmese gas pipeline projects -- the Yadana and the Yetagun -- suggest, forced relocation of villagers, forced labour, torture, rape and extrajudicial killings will result from the Shwe project... Environmental and Cultural Destruction: Because proper social and environmental impact assessments have not been carried out, the extent of the project's impact on the local population and environment can hardly be determined, but the Burmese military has a long history of environmental and cultural degradation... The Entrenchment of the Burmese Military Regime: Just as the Yadana and Yetagun projects provided a context for the Burmese military regime to extend its reach into minority and opposition areas, so too is the Shwe project providing an excuse to further militarize and exploit the frontier areas of Arakan and Chin state. Meanwhile, when the money from this project begins flowing into the junta's coffers, this will only increase the military's grip over the rest of Burma. Burma's current state of affairs is well known. The regime's poor human rights record has led most governments and many international organisations and institutions to condemn Burma's state terror and pass sanctions and investment bans against the country. This approach, also supported by the majority of Burma's opposition movement and Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is meant to apply economic and political pressure on the regime and kick-start a process of democratisation. At the same time, several countries, such as the regional neighbours Thailand, India, China and Malaysia, promote constructive engagement with the regime as opposed to international isolation. According to their arguments, constructive engagement will promote economic development, integrate the country into the international community, and eventually instigate a full transfer to democracy. To date, however, progress in democratisation and human rights is yet to show, which seriously questions the viability of constructive engagement. Indeed, most foreign investment and development projects have caused more suffering than good because of the direct involvement of Burma's military. Thus, as argued by the Nobel Laureate and winner of the 1990 elections in Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, "until we have a system that guarantees rules of law and basic democratic institutions, no amount of aid or investment will benefit our people." We, the SHWE Gas Movement, ask the governments and corporations involved to halt the project until there is assurance that the people of the whole of Burma and Western Burma in particular can participate in the decision-making process and benefit from this project and not suffer the same fate as the people affected by the Yadana and the Yetagun pipelines. We ask you for your support in achieving this goal."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 March 2005


        Individual Documents

        Title: Statement by Local Residents at Ramree Island regarding Shwe Gas Project, Deep Sea Port, and Oil and Gas Pipeline (English, Burmese, Chinese)
        Date of publication: 02 May 2013
        Description/subject: "Construction of Daewoo’s Shwe gas project, as well as CNPC’s Maday deep sea port and oil and gas pipeline have damaged our (local people’s) livelihoods and environment in Kyauk Phu Township since 2009. Additionally, there has been ongoing forcible land confiscation, providing no compensation or a limited amount of compensation for the confiscated rice farms and lands. We, the local affected people, were not informed or consulted by the companies regarding the positive or negative impacts of the projects before the implementation of these projects until today. Furthermore, we were not informed of whether an EIA or SIA had been conducted before the implementation of the projects. Therefore, we have been deeply concerned about the possibility of the total destruction of our major livelihoods such as farming and fishing, as the projects have already negatively impacted our livelihoods..."
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ, Chinese
        Source/publisher: Local Residents at Ramree Island (20 local groups and villages)
        Format/size: pdf (64K-English; 63K-Burmese; 144K-Chinese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Ramree_Oil_and_Gas_Statement-bu.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Ramree_Oil_and_Gas_Statement-ch.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


        Title: "There is no benefit, they destroyed our farmland" (English and Burmese)
        Date of publication: 08 April 2013
        Description/subject: WITH SUBSTANTIAL SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS, INCLUDING A PHOTO ESSAY...Selected Land and Livelihood Impacts Along the Shwe Natural Gas and China-Myanmar Oil Transport Pipeline from Rakhine State to Mandalay Division..."Yesterday, we published a photo essay and companion report highlighting the severe impacts of the Shwe natural gas and Myanmar-China oil transport pipelines on the lives and livelihoods of local communities living around these mega-projects. Set for operation later this year, these Chinese and Korean led projects will transport Myanmar and foreign resources to China while providing little benefits to communities; lands have been taken, destroyed and damaged with inadequate compensation to make way for the dual pipelines and associated infrastructure. Based on over one year of on-the-ground fact-finding inside Myanmar by EarthRights International, the photos and essay amplify the voices of communities who are calling for the projects to be suspended or diverted to avoid ongoing harms..."
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
        Format/size: html (87K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/multimedia/essay/photo-essay-selected-impacts-shwe-natural-gas-myanmar-c...
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Shwe-Essay-Selected-Impacts-Myanmar-Language.pdf
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Shwe-Photo-Essay-Captions-Myanmar-Language.pdf
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/daewoo-land-acquisition-english.pdf
        http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Daewoo-Land-Acquisition-Burmese.pdf
        http://www.earthrights.org/campaigns/press-coverage-shwe-gas-and-myanmar-china-oil-projects
        http://www.earthrights.org/campaigns/civil-society-reports-statements-shwe-and-myanmar-china-oil-an...
        Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


        Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
        Date of publication: 17 December 2012
        Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


        Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
        Date of publication: 07 November 2012
        Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
        Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
        http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%2... (Summary in Chinese)
        Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


        Title: Sold Out - Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma
        Date of publication: 07 September 2011
        Description/subject: "Construction of various project components to extract, process, and export the Shwe gas - as well as oil trans-shipments from Africa and the Middle East - is now well underway. Local peoples are losing their land and fishing grounds without finding new job opportunities. Workers that have found lowpaying temporary jobs are exploited and fired for demanding basic rights. Women face unequal wages, discrimination in the compensation process, and vulnerabilities in the growing sex industry around the project. Resentment against the so-called Shwe Gas Project is growing and communities are beginning to stand up against abuses and exploitation. Despite threats and risk of arrest, farmers and local residents are sending complaints to local authorities. Laborers are striking for better pay and working conditions and women running households are demanding electricity. Burma’s military government is exporting massive world-class natural gas reserves found off the country’s western coast, sacrificing the country’s future economic security and dashing chances of electrification and job creation. The “Shwe” offshore fields will produce trillions of cubic feet of natural gas that could be used to spur economic and social development in one of the world’s least developed nations. Instead it will be piped across the country to China, fuelling abuses and conflict along its path. Meanwhile active fighting has broken out between armed resistance groups and government troops in the area of the pipeline corridor in northern Burma. The Korean, Chinese and Indian companies involved in this project are taking tremendous risks with their reputations and investments. Social tensions, armed conflict, human rights abuses, and lack of project standards have raised concerns in investor circles and caused at least one pension fund to divest from the Korean fi rm Daewoo International, the main developer of the gas fields. Genuine development can only be achieved when community rights and the environment are protected, affected peoples share in benefits, and transparency and accountability mechanisms are in place. The Shwe Gas and China-Burma Pipelines projects must be suspended and all financing frozen or divested until such conditions exist..."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: pdf (2.9MB - English; 4.2MB - Burmese)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/SoldOut(bu)-red.pdf
        http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SoldOut-Web-Verstoin.pdf
        http://www.shwe.org/campaign-update/sold-out-new-report/
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


        Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
        Date of publication: 15 December 2010
        Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
        Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
        Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


        Title: Overview of Land Confiscation in Arakan State
        Date of publication: June 2010
        Description/subject: Introduction: "The following analysis has been compiled to bring attention to a wider audience of many of the problems facing the people of Burma, especially in Arakan State. The analysis focuses particularly on the increase in land confiscation resulting from intensifying military deployment in order to magnify security around a number of governmental developments such as the Shwe Gas, Kaladan, and Hydropower projects in western Burma of Arakan State...Conclusion: "The SPDC's ongoing parallel policy of increasing militarisation while increased forced land confiscation to house and feed the increasing troop numbers causes widespread problems throughout Burma. By stripping people of the land upon which peopl's livelihoods are based, whilst providing only desultory compensation if any at all, many citizens face threats to their food security as well as water shortages, a decrease or abolition of their income, eradicating their ability to educate their children in order to create a sustainable income source in the future. Additionally, the policy of using forced labour in the Government's construction and development projects, coupled with the disastrous environmental effects of many of these projects, continues to create severe health problems throughout the country whilst simultaneously stifling the local economy so that varied or sustainable work is difficult to become engaged in. All of this often leads to people fleeing the country in search of a better life."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: All Arakan Students' and Youths' Congress (AASYC)
        Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 16 June 2010


        Title: Corridor of Power - China’s Trans-Burma Oil and Gas pipelines
        Date of publication: 07 September 2009
        Description/subject: Introduction: "On June 16, 2009 China's Vice-President Xi Jinping and Burma's Vice-Senior General Maung Aye signed a memorandum of understanding relating to the development, operation and management of the "Myanmar-China Crude Oil Pipeline Projects." After years of brokering deals and planning, China has cemented its place not only as the sole buyer of Burma's massive Shwe Gas reserves, but also the creator of a new trans-Burma corridor to secure shipment of its oil imports from the Middle East and Africa. China's largest oil and gas producer -the China National Petroleum Corporation or CNPC - will build nearly 4,000 kilometers of dual oil and gas pipelines across the heartland of Burma beginning in September 2009. CNPC will also purchase offshore natural gas reserves, handing the military junta ruling Burma a conservative estimate of one billion US dollars a year over the next 30 years. Burma ranks tenth in the world in terms of natural gas reserves yet the per capita electricity consumption is less than 5% that of neighbouring Thailand and China. Burma already receives US$ 2.4 billion per year - nearly 50 percent of revenues from exports - from natural gas sales but spends a pittance on health and education; one reason it was ranked as the second-most corrupt country in the world in 2008. Entrenched corruption combined with energy shortages have led to social unrest in the conflict-ridden country; unprecedented demonstrations in 2007 were sparked by a spike in fuel prices. An estimated 13,200 soldiers are currently positioned along the pipeline route. Past experience has shown that pipeline construction and maintenance in Burma involves forced labour, forced relocation, land confiscation, and a host of abuses by soldiers deployed to the project area. A lack of transparency or assessment mechanisms leaves critical ecosystems under threat as well. Yet it is not only the people of Burma who are facing grave risks from these projects. The corporations, governments, and financiers involved also face serious financial and security risks. A re-ignition of fighting between the regime and ceasefire armies stationed along the pipeline route; an unpredictable business environment that could arbitrarily seize property or assets; and public relations disasters as a result of complicity in human rights abuses and environmental destruction all threaten investments. The Shwe Gas Movement is therefore calling companies and governments to suspend the Shwe Gas and Trans-Burma Corridor projects; shareholders, institutional investors and pension funds to divest their holdings in these companies; and banks to refrain from financing these projects unless affected peoples are protected."
        Language: English, Burmese (press releases in also in Chinese and Thai)
        Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: pdf (2.5MB, 2.3MB, English version; 7.7MB, Burmese version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/ (press releases in English, Burmese, Chinese and Thai)
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Corridor_of_PowerSGM-bu.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/CorridorofPower-SGM-red.pdf (English)
        Date of entry/update: 07 September 2009


        Title: A Governance Gap: The Failure of the Korean Government to hold Korean Corporations Accountable to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Regarding Violations in Burma
        Date of publication: 15 June 2009
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report is intended to inform the upcoming meetings of the OECD Investment Committee in Paris, France in 2009. It documents substantive errors in the Korean NCP’s interpretations of the OECD Guidelines, and its failure to achieve functional equivalence with other NCPs. EarthRights International (ERI) and the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM) request the Investment Committee to address the governance gap within the OECD Guidelines system of implementation by acknowledging the Korean NCP’s errors in interpretation, and by clarifying certain aspects of Guidelines with respect to the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case. Chapter 1 provides an updated context of the situation in Burma, highlighting the environmental and human rights, political, and economic situations, with particular attention to updates on the impacts of natural gas development in the country. Chapter 2 describes the OECD Guidelines specific instance procedure and the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. in October 2008. Chapter 3 explains structural shortcomings and conflicts of interest at the Korean NCP, noting that these are problems that appear to pervade the NCP system, raising important questions about the ability of the Guidelines to have their desired effect. Chapter 4 describes specific substantive problems with the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case, noting how the NCP decided in favor of the companies on every count, concluding that the complaint did not merit further attention. Chapter 5 highlights the ways in which the Korean NCP’s decision is inconsistent with decisions of other NCPs, most notably with decisions by the French and UK NCPs. Chapter 6 makes specific requests of the OECD Investment Committee with respect to clarifying certain aspects of the Guidelines and taking effective action to improve the performance of the Korean NCP. Appendix A of this report is an unofficial English translation of the Korean NCPs decision. The text of the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. is available at www.earthrights.org."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International, Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: pdf (496MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/A_Governance_Gap-ERI.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


        Title: COMPLAINT TO THE SOUTH KOREA NATIONAL CONTACT POINT UNDER THE SPECIFIC INSTANCE PROCEDURE OF THE OECD GUIDELINES FOR MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES
        Date of publication: 29 October 2008
        Description/subject: REGARDING NATURAL GAS DEVELOPMENT BY DAEWOO INTERNATIONAL AND KOREA GAS CORPORATION (KOGAS) IN BURMA (MYANMAR)... FILED BY EARTHRIGHTS INTERNATIONAL (ERI) ON BEHALF OF THE SHWE GAS MOVEMENT (SGM)... CO-COMPLAINANTS ARE: THE KOREAN HOUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY (KHIS); KOREAN CONFEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS (KCTU); FEDERATIONS OF KOREAN TRADE UNIONS (FKTU); CITIZEN'S ACTION NETWORK (CAN); PEOPLE FOR DEMOCRACY IN BURMA; WRITERS FOR DEMOCRACY OF BURMA; HUMAN RIGHTS SOLIDARITY FOR NEW SOCIETY; THE ASSOCIATION FOR MIGRANT WORKERS' HUMAN RIGHTS; BURMA ACTION KOREA... OCTOBER 29, 2008....."...EarthRights International (ERI), on behalf of the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM), brings this complaint alleging that Daewoo International and the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) have breached and will continue to breach a number of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (the “Guidelines”) related to their activities in Burma (Myanmar).1 These breaches are related to the companies’ exploration, development, and operation of the natural gas project in Burma known as the Shwe Gas Project, meaning “gold” in Burmese (hereinafter “Shwe Project”)....".....CONTENTS: I. Introduction 4 i. Identity and Interest of the Complainants 4 ii. Identity of the Corporations Involved 4 iii. Previous Contact between the Corporations and the Complainants 5 iv. Summary of Breaches by Daewoo International and KOGAS in Burma 5 v. Specific Requests of the South Korean NCP 7 II. Applicability of the Guidelines 8 i. Why Daewoo International and KOGAS, and this Complaint, are Subject to the Guidelines 8 ii. Why NCP Involvement is Requested and Necessary at this Time 8 III. Background on Burma 9 i. Geography and Demographics 9 ii. Government and Politics 10 iii. Economy 11 iv. Cyclone Nargis 13 v. Military Support 14 vi. Human Rights 14 IV. Background to this Complaint 17 i. Previous Natural Gas Projects and Human Rights Abuses: The Yadana and Yetagun Pipelines 17 ii. The Shwe Natural Gas Project of Daewoo International, KOGAS, et al 20 V. Specific Breaches of the Guidelines by Daewoo International and KOGAS 23 i. Section II.1, Enterprises should contribute to economic, social and environmental progress with a view to achieving sustainable development. 23 a) International Standards 24 b) Breaches of Section II.1 24 ii. Section II.2, [Enterprises should] Respect the human rights of those affected by their activities consistent with the host government's international obligations and commitments. 25 a) Customary International Human Rights Obligations 26 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 27 c) Breaches of Section II.2 28 iii. Sections III.1 & V.2, Enterprises should 1) ensure that timely, regular, reliable and relevant information is disclosed regarding their activities, structure, financial situation and performance and 2) provide timely information and consult with affected communities. 30 a) International Standards 30 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 31 c) Breaches of Section III.1 32 d) Breaches of Section V.2 33 iv. Section IV.1(c), Enterprises should contribute to the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour. 34 a) Customary International Law Regarding Forced Labour and Forced Portering 34 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 35 c) Obligations Under National Law 35 3 d) Breaches of Section IV.1(c) 36 v. Section V.3, [Enterprises should] Assess environmental impact and prepare an appropriate environmental impact assessment. 37 a) The Requirement for EIA Under Customary International Law 37 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 39 c) Breaches of Section V.3 39 VI. Conclusion 42 VII. Contact Information of Representative of Complainants 43
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: pdf (249K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/OECDComplaint10.29-ENGLISH.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Blocking Freedom: A case study of China's oil and gas investmert in Burma
        Date of publication: 21 October 2008
        Description/subject:  KEY POINTS - A Brief Summary: * Oil exploration by Chinese companies in Arakan, western Burma, precipitated a rare explosion of local anger in April 2007, resulting in damage to a Chinese drilling site, a crackdown by Burmese forces, and seventy villagers fleeing their homes.... * Burma's oil and gas resources are being exported while a majority of the people has no electricity. Exploration operations carried out without prior knowledge or consent of local residents and without impact assessments resulted in social and environmental abuses contrary to the claims of corporate social responsibility reports by the Chinese companies involved.... * Chinese investment in Burma's oil and gas sector is growing, with 16 blocks under contract for exploration. This investment also includes the purchase ofhuge offshore natural gas reserves, construction of cross-country pipelines, and the development of a deep sea port, which stand to amplify abuses across the country.... * While the military regime now takes in US$2.7 billion a year from the sale of natural gas, less than half of the earnings are publicly recorded. Revenue from the sale of new natural gas finds are destined to triple in the coming years. This includes the sale of gas from the Shwe gas project, which would generate an estimated US$24 billion over the next twenty years.... * Without rule of law, accountability or transparency mechanisms in Burma, Chinese and other companies operating in the country will become complicit in military abuses and conflict.... * Without assurance of adherence to basic international standards, Chinese and multinational oil and gas corporations in Burma need to s top investment and operations in Burma's oil and gas sector until such time as Burma has a genuine democratically-elected government, rule of law, and legislation guaranteeing the protection of human rights and the environment. At the same time, s hareholders, investors, and banks that support Chinese and other multinational oil and gas companies must divest their funds from projects in Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (4.4MB - original; 3.9MB - burmalibrary version)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/Blocking_Freedom-en.pdf
        http://shwe.org/media-releases/publications/file/Blocking%20Freedom%20English.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


        Title: China’s Game Plan for Burma
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: China’s ability to elbow out other contenders for the Shwe gas—from Thailand, Japan and South Korea, as well as India—underlines Beijing’s rising influence within the Burmese regime
        Author/creator: William Boot
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Erdgas in Burma - ein Rohstoff und seine Folgen
        Date of publication: 15 November 2006
        Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Pläne der Shwe-Gas-Pipeline durch den koreanischen Daewoo-Konzern und andere internationale Teilhaber. Befürchtete Auswirkungen: Menschenrechtsverletzungen, Umweltzerstörung, Zerstörung der Lebensgrundlage, Einkommen für das Militärregime Shwe-Gas-Pipeline, Daewoo, GAIL, India, Shwe Gas Movement, report "Supply and Command"
        Author/creator: Andreas Berger
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: Burma.Initiative Asienhaus
        Format/size: pdf (322K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 December 2006


        Title: Gas Politics: Shwe Gas Development in Burma
        Date of publication: November 2006
        Description/subject: "In recent months, both China and India have signed agreements with the Burmese military junta indicating their willingness to buy gas from the proposed Shwe gas project in western Burma, with Thailand also expressing interest. If built, the Shwe project would be Burma’s largest gas development project ever. Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo analyse the events surrounding the recent agreements and the inevitable consequences if the project were to proceed..."
        Author/creator: Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International, published in "Watershed" Vol. 11 No. 2, November 2005–June 2006
        Format/size: pdf (306K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


        Title: Supply and Command - Natural gas in western Burma set to entrench military rule
        Date of publication: July 2006
        Description/subject: Executive Summary" "A scramble for natural gas presently unfolding in western Burma is poised to provide the ruling military junta with its single largest source of income. The sale of the gas, mainly to regional neighbours, will further entrench the junta, insulating it from international pressure. The country's already abysmal human rights situation is set to worsen. A consortium of Indian and Korean corporations, in cooperation with the regime, has been exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State after the discovery of a "world class gas deposit" in wells labelled "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold) in late 2003. The Shwe wells are expected to lead to one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. Burma's strategic location between two of the world's largest and most energy-hungry countries (China and India) has accelerated the exploration and extraction process. Outcry over Burma's human rights record and its continued detention of democracy leader and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi has led to a series of actions by the international community, including moves to highlight Burma as a security threat at the UN Security Council. Yet the regime has continued its military expansion and offensives, particularly into ethnic border areas, in an effort to strengthen its hold. Since 1988, the number of infantry battalions based in the Western Command in Arakan and Chin states, the two western states that will be affected by the Shwe gas project, has increased from 3 to 43 battalions. The increased militarization has led to human rights abuses including forced labour, confiscation of land and assets, extortion, and violence. These abuses will surely be exacerbated by a further increase of troop levels to secure any gas pipeline in the area. Indeed, the effects of the project are already being felt by local fishermen. In April 2004, soldiers arrested fishermen inside an exclusion zone around exploratory rigs in the gas fields. The men were not aware of the restrictions as they had frequently gone fishing in that area. Regardless of this, they were beaten and thrown injail. Gas from the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in the east of the country is currently Burma's largest source of legal export revenue. The Shwe project, however, would increase the junta's income from gas by at least 150%. The junta stands to profit by approximately US$580-824 million per year or US$124 7 billion over the life of the project. Previous gas earnings have been directly linked with military arms purchases and allow the regime to continue its oppressive grip on the whole of Burma's population in defiance of international pressure. While the regime purchases more arms with gas revenues, the local population remains in poverty. Arakan and Chin states are both excluded from the national electricity grid; ninety percent of the population uses candles for light and firewood as their primary source of cooking fuel. People are denied their rights to participate in decision-making about any development projects, including the extraction of local resources. Two proposed pipeline routes to India traverse four areas classified as crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity, including one of the ten most vulnerable ecoregions in the world. Clearance paths either side of a pipeline that would disrupt animal migratory paths and the building of roads and infrastructure are • foreign governments, institutions, and civil society, of particular concern in these areas. The fate of at least three particularly in the region, to pressure businesses critically endangered animal species, the Arakan forest turtle, involved in the Shwe gas project to freeze all current the dugong, and the Irrawaddy river dolphin, will also be put into business with the military regime and refrain from question by the Shwe project. Environmental dangers involved further investment. in the commercial production and transport of natural gas such as chemical leakage and gas blowouts are a further concern. • the broader international community to continue to expose the dangers posed by the Shwe gas project. Several ancient historical sites - including the third Dhanyawaddy City that dates back to 580 BC - that are significant not only to Arakan people but to the understanding of the history of Southeast Asia lie within twenty kilometres of the proposed Shwe gas pipelines. Given the SPDC's record of destruction and disregard for culturally and historically important sites, including those in Arakan State, this proximity makes them vulnerable to ransacking and destruction during the development of the Shwe pipelines and associated infrastructure such as roads and military barracks. In order to address the potential social, economic, and environmental impacts of the Shwe gas project and to enable its benefits to be distributed equitably, Burma needs a democratic system of governance in which people can voice their concerns without fearing persecution. Without this, the Shwe project must not go forward. The Shwe Gas Movement urges: • all corporations and businesses involved in the Shwe project, either state or privately owned, to freeze all current business with the military regime and refrain from further investment and exploration until a dialogue can be held with a democratically-elected government."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
        Date of entry/update: 14 July 2006


        Title: Another Yadana: The Shwe Natural Gas Pipeline Project (Burma-Bangladesh-India)
        Date of publication: 27 August 2004
        Description/subject: "In Burmese, Yadana refers to objects of religious veneration and, by extension, to people and objects of great worth.[1] The construction and maintenance of the Yadana Pipeline has forever changed that. For the thousands of people adversely affected by this multi-national energy project, the word has a very different meaning. Yadana is now synonymous with forced labor and severe human rights violations.[2] Another Yadana, sadly, is in the making. In January 2004, with the approval of the Burmese government, a consortium of South Korean and Indian companies announced plans to develop a massive natural gas field in the Gulf of Bengal, off the coast of western Burma. This new project, known as Shwe, which means “gold” in Burmese, is still in its early planning stages. In EarthRights International’s (ERI) view, an alarming number of similarities already exist between the Yadana Pipeline and the proposed Shwe Pipeline. If nothing is done, it appears likely that history will repeat itself. Forced labor and human rights abuses are still an ongoing problem throughout Burma, and it can be assumed that these violations will continue at any major development project site. At this point, little information on the proposed Shwe Project is publicly available. To help counter this problem ERI is now collaborating with a growing number of groups in the tri-state border region (Burma-Bangladesh-India) where the transnational pipeline is likely to be constructed. Together, the groups are working to raise local, regional and international awareness concerning the social and environmental impacts the massive Shwe Project is likely to have regionally. The Project is expected to cost between one and three billion U.S. dollars to build.[3] Future reports based on careful fact-finding are planned, as is an international campaign should the energy consortium move forward with the project..." N.B. map in pdf version.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: EarthRights International
        Format/size: html, pdf (324K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Shwe_Project.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 August 2004


        Title: Four articles on new gas field off Arakan
        Date of publication: 20 January 2004
        Description/subject: 1. Daewoo makes giant gas discovery in Rakhine basin off northwestern Myanmar, "Oil and Gas Journal", Jan. 16; 2. Giant natural gas discovery off Myanmar, UPI, Jan. 16; 3. GAIL set to invest Rs 4000 crore to cart Myanmar gas, "Business Standard", Jan. 17; 4. Massive natural gas reserve confirmed in Rakhine State, Myanmar "Times", Jan. 19-25..."Daewoo International Corp., Seoul, and Korea Gas Corp. discovered 4 to 6 tcf of recoverable gas on Block A-1 in the nonproducing Rakhine basin shelf in the Bay of Bengal off northwestern Myanmar and plans to pursue other similar objectives on the block. The Shwe-1/1A wildcat is the first wildcat drilled in the Plio-Pleistocene section off northwestern Myanmar and the country's first offshore discovery since Yetagun gas field in the Gulf of Martaban 12 years ago, Daewoo said. This is Daewoo's first well on its first project as operator..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: IFI Discussion Group
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


      • The Shwe Gas Movement

        • The Shwe Gas Movement website

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: The Shwe Gas Movement
          Description/subject: "The SHWE Gas Movement is concerned with a natural gas pipeline project presently unfolding in Western Burma... In cooperation with Burma's military junta, a consortium of Indian and Korean corporations are currently exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State in Western Burma. Discovered in December 2003, these fields--labeled A-1, or "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold)--are expected to hold one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. These Shwe fields could well become the Burmese military government's largest single source of foreign income... However, for the people of Burma this project will likely bring more suffering than benefits. It is the opinion of the SHWE Gas Movement that the following issues are very likely outcomes if the pipeline project goes ahead unchecked:... Exploitation of the Voiceless: In order to transport the gas to India, a pipeline corridor is already being cleared in the minority Burmese states of Arakan and Chin. Moreover, the area is becoming increasingly militarised and forced labour is occurring in the context of infrastructure development... Large-scale Human Rights Abuses and Militarisation: As experience with two previous international Burmese gas pipeline projects -- the Yadana and the Yetagun -- suggest, forced relocation of villagers, forced labour, torture, rape and extrajudicial killings will result from the Shwe project... Environmental and Cultural Destruction: Because proper social and environmental impact assessments have not been carried out, the extent of the project's impact on the local population and environment can hardly be determined, but the Burmese military has a long history of environmental and cultural degradation... The Entrenchment of the Burmese Military Regime: Just as the Yadana and Yetagun projects provided a context for the Burmese military regime to extend its reach into minority and opposition areas, so too is the Shwe project providing an excuse to further militarize and exploit the frontier areas of Arakan and Chin state. Meanwhile, when the money from this project begins flowing into the junta's coffers, this will only increase the military's grip over the rest of Burma. Burma's current state of affairs is well known. The regime's poor human rights record has led most governments and many international organisations and institutions to condemn Burma's state terror and pass sanctions and investment bans against the country. This approach, also supported by the majority of Burma's opposition movement and Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is meant to apply economic and political pressure on the regime and kick-start a process of democratisation. At the same time, several countries, such as the regional neighbours Thailand, India, China and Malaysia, promote constructive engagement with the regime as opposed to international isolation. According to their arguments, constructive engagement will promote economic development, integrate the country into the international community, and eventually instigate a full transfer to democracy. To date, however, progress in democratisation and human rights is yet to show, which seriously questions the viability of constructive engagement. Indeed, most foreign investment and development projects have caused more suffering than good because of the direct involvement of Burma's military. Thus, as argued by the Nobel Laureate and winner of the 1990 elections in Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, "until we have a system that guarantees rules of law and basic democratic institutions, no amount of aid or investment will benefit our people." We, the SHWE Gas Movement, ask the governments and corporations involved to halt the project until there is assurance that the people of the whole of Burma and Western Burma in particular can participate in the decision-making process and benefit from this project and not suffer the same fate as the people affected by the Yadana and the Yetagun pipelines. We ask you for your support in achieving this goal."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Shwe Gas Movement
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 04 March 2005


        • "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" (English)

          Individual Documents

          Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 10, May 2010
          Date of publication: May 2010
          Description/subject: No Breakthrough against Forced Labour in Myanmar: ILO...Chinese Oil Companies Damages (sic) peoples’ lives in Burma (Editorial)...US Banks Involved in Shwe Gas Project...Shwe Gas Project Will be Completed by March 2013: Hyundai Heavy...Joseph Stiglitz: Developing Nations Need to Attempt to Reverse Natural Resource Curse...Vietnam & Myanmar sign Multiple Economic Pacts...Oslo-Listed Seadrill leaves Burma...India’s Essar Arm Gets Govt. Contract for ‘Kaladan Muli Modal Transit Transport Project’... China Signs Myanmar Pipeline Deal to Boost Oil Supply...First Village Forcibly relocated for Irrawaddy Dam Project.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (348K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


          Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 9, Dec-Jan, 09-2010
          Date of publication: January 2010
          Description/subject: -China Tie Economic with Burma’s Military Regime Including Energy Sector -CNPC Starts Work on $1.5 Billion Oil Pipeline and Oil Terminal in autumn -Burma Has Gas Money: No Financial Help Needed (Editorial) -Burma Control Import Sale Gasoline and Diesel Fuel -Burma Plans to Hand over 3 Yangon Ports to Private Firm -Burma Buys 20MiG-29 Fighter Jets -Malaysian and Singaporean Firms to explore oil and gas in Burma -Burma Is Not Broke -India to Obtain Stake in Shwe Gas Pipeline -Bangladesh, Burma to Resolve border Dispute -Five Facts about China-Burma Relation -Houses and Rice Fields Confiscated for China’s Oil Pipeline and Sea Port Project
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (203K)
          Date of entry/update: 15 February 2010


          Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 8
          Date of publication: November 2009
          Description/subject: Rights Groups Call for China to Halt Construction of Pipeline in Burma...China must halt oil and gas pipeline projects in Burma (Editorial)...CNPC starts China-Burma Oil pipeline construction with abuses...Hyundai Heavy to build US$ 1.4 billion Shwe Gas Plant in Burma...Why Dealing with Burma Is a Very Bad Idea...Army continues forced labour along gas pipeline in Burma’s Mon State...Singapore firm inks massive Myanmar gas deal...Burmese Junta Confiscates Public Oil Wells and Refinery for Chinese Company
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (523K)
          Date of entry/update: 08 December 2009


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 7
          Date of publication: July 2009
          Description/subject: China to Start Building Shwe Gas Pipeline in Sept Despite Concerns over Rights Abuses, June 27, 2009 (SGB)...Editorial: "China Deepens Burma Relationship"..."Korea Rejects Burma Gas Project Complaint" June 15, 2009 (DVB)..."Myanmar’s Trade Ties Let Junta Ignore Democracy Calls" By Daniel Ten Kate..."Asean’s Burma Burden - Sanctions can help bring down the junta" By Eva Kusuma Sundari, "Wall Street Journal Asia"...Six Villages relocated for Dam project in Arakan" 6/11/2009 (Narinjara News)..."Officials Fired Burmese Secret Tunnels’ Publicity", June 23, 2009 (The Nation).
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (356K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 July 2009


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 6
          Date of publication: March 2009
          Description/subject: "China and Burma to Jointly Develop Oil and Gas Pipelines in Burma", March 28, 2009 (SGB)...Editorial: "Abuses Continue as China and India Battle Energy Interests In Burma"..."CNOOC Starts Myanmar Drilling Despite Uproar over Human Rights" By Erwin China, Singapore (Feb 26, 2009)..."Biofuel Gone Bad: Burma’s Atrophying Jatropha" By TIME Staff (Mar. 13, 2009)..."The Scramble For A Piece of Burma" By HANNAH BEECH/ Arakan State (Mar 19, 2009)..."Norway’s Vast Oil Wealth Fund Drops Chinese Firm" AP March 13, 2009..."Foreign investment in Myanmar doubled in 2008" AP, (March 19, 2009)..."South Korean Firm ,Seeks Mining Rights", Xinhua, Feb 6, 2009..."India’s Essar Oil Abuses Human Rights in Burma" March 21, 2009 (SGB).
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
          Date of entry/update: 07 July 2009


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 5
          Date of publication: January 2009
          Description/subject: Shwe Gas Will Be Piped to China for 30 Years Starting from 2012 - Construction to begin in 2009 despite human rights concerns...Editorial: "Big Oil Companies Flouting Intl. Standards in Lawless Burma"..."Human Rights Abuses in Myanmar?" By David Watermeyer (Dec 2008 / "The Korea Times")..."Myanmar’s Farmers Pay for China’s Oil Thirst", By Marwaan Macan-Markar Nov 4, 2008 (Inter Press Service)..."China Leads Surge in Foreign Investment in Myanmar during First 9 Months", Jan 5, 2009 (AP)..."Myanmar, Russia to Jointly Explore Oil, Gas", www.chinaview.cn 2008-09-09..."Vietnamese Companies to Explore Oil and Gas in Myanmar Offshore Area", www.chinaview.cn 2008-04-10..."Thai PTTEP’s Blocks M7 & M3: Lack of Commercial Viability Costs Millions" Jan 2009 (SGB)..."Thailand Delaying Plans to Build Another Gas Pipeline in Burma" Jan 2009 (SGB)..."Exploration heightens tensions between Burma and Bangladesh", Jan 21, 2009 (SGB).
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (316K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 July 2009


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 4
          Date of publication: July 2008
          Description/subject: Indian Essar Oil Company Exploration Damages People Properties; Time for US’s Chevron to Leave Burma (Editorial); Gas Found During Tube Well Drilling in Arakan; Treasury Sanction on Myanmar Traffickers Implicate CNOOC (Forbes, 27 Feb 2008); Myanmar Resources Offer Few Riches; PTTEP and CNOOC Swap Gas Blocks in Burma; NZ govt under fire for Burma contract; Electric Power Sector Major Attractor of Foreign Investment in Myanmar; Russian Company to Explore Gold in Myanmar; Nobel Winners Seek UN Action for Arms Embargo and Targeted Banking Sanction on Burma; TOTAL OUT OF BURMA - Protesters in London called for French’s Total to stop fuelling oppression in Burma on Jan 19, 2008;
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (300K)
          Date of entry/update: 08 July 2008


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 3
          Date of publication: March 2008
          Description/subject: Indian Essar Oil Company Exploration Damages People Properties...Time for US’s Chevron to Leave Burma (Editorial)...Gas Found During Tube Well Drilling in Arakan...Treasury Sanction on Myanmar Traffickers Implicate CNOOC...Myanmar Resources Offer Few Riches...PTTEP and CNOOC Swap Gas Blocks in Burma...NZ govt under fire for Burma contract...Electric Power Sector Major Attractor of Foreign Investment in Myanmar...Russian Company to Explore Gold in Myanmar...Nobel Winners Seek UN Action for Arms Embargo and Targeted Banking Sanction on Burma...TOTAL OUT OF BURMA - Protesters in London called for French’s Total to stop fuelling oppression in Burma on Jan 19, 2008.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (222K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 2
          Date of publication: January 2008
          Description/subject: Burma’s Oil and Gas: Events of 2007...China Wins Rights to Myanmar’s Gas...Gas-Rich Burma but harsh fuel price on citizens - People Protest for “Freedom from Starvation” (Editorial)...CNPC and Yunnan sign refining agreement - China plans to build an oil pipeline from Yunnan to Myanmar...Than Shwe’s Gas Powered Regime to Look now on China...Protests against Fuel Price Hike Break out Despite Junta Crackdown...Gas Sales to Thailand Account for 43% of Burmese Exports...Burma’s FDI more than Doubled: Thailand is the Largest Investor...Junta Proffers Entire Arakan Gas Reserve to China: Dual Oil, Gas Pipeline Plans Threaten Rights abuses in Burma...Burma, China, Russia: Oil and Arms China, Russia rejected Burma at UNSC...Burma Cashes up on Energy, But Locals in the Dark...World Wide Protests against the Shwe Gas Project...Foreign investment in Myanmar dominated by oil, gas and power...India signed US$ 150 million contract for 3 offshore blocks despite unrest in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (338K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 1
          Date of publication: November 2007
          Description/subject: India signed US$ 150 million contract for 3 offshore blocks despite unrest in Burma... India’s oil minister noted the contract was a very happy development between two countries...Monks Back on Streets, Protests Continue...More companies need to withdraw (Editorial)...“Words” from Oil and Gas Companies: Refuse to Exit Burma...EU Sanctions Fall Short on Burma’s Major Revenue Earner, the Oil and Gas Sector...Japan Adds to Pressure on Burma...The Whole World must Act (By Gordon Brown, Oct 24, 07/Guardian)...Region’s Energy Needs Enable Burma Junta...Exploration proceeds off Myanmar as crisis boils...ICRC ‘Deeply Worried’ About Burmese Detainess...
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch,
          Format/size: pdf (276K)
          Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 12
          Date of publication: September 2007
          Description/subject: Burmese Junta Confirms Agreement to Sell Shwe Gas to China; Protests against Fuel Price Hike Break out continually in Burma despite Junta Crackdown; Gas-Rich Burma but harsh fuel price on citizens -- People Protest for “Freedom from Starvation” (Editorial); ASEAN Lawmakers to China, India: Don’t Support Burmese Junta; Reaction on Burma’s Deteriorated Situation: “Wards of the Month”; Fuel Price Policy Explodes in Burma (Larry Jagan, "Asia Times"); India eyes more gas fields in Burma; China Conducts Survey for Oil Terminal in Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (322K)
          Date of entry/update: 09 September 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 11
          Date of publication: August 2007
          Description/subject: Gas Sales to Thailand Account for 43% of Burmese Exports; Save Our Natural Resources (Editorial); PTTEP Discovers Large Gas Deposit, Plans to Begin Production Next Year; China to Build Large Seaport in Arakan; China’s Thumb in every Burmese Pie (Larry Jagan); Bangladesh Looks to World Bank & ADB for Burmese Hydropower Investment; UN says Burma’s Junta is Fueling Poverty; ANC: Stop Arakan Hydropower Project.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (223K)
          Date of entry/update: 20 August 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 10
          Date of publication: June 2007
          Description/subject: Burma’s FDI more than Doubled: Thailand is the Largest Investor; Regime extends Suu Kyi detention; Foreign Investors have Burmese Blood on their Hands (Editorial); Hydropower and Oil&Gas Sectors Dominate Burma’s FDI; Burma Prefers China as Gas Buyer; India Sees Red (Anupama Airy); First as Tragedy, Second as Farce: PTT at a Crossroads (Matthew Smith); Thailand’s PTT Exploration discovers natural gas off Burma coast; Daewoo Sends Legal Experts to Burma; Russia to Build Nuclear Centre in Sanctions-Hit Burma (Conor Humphries); Villagers Attack Chinese Company in Arakan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (153K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 June 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 9
          Date of publication: May 2007
          Description/subject: SPDC Proffers Entire Arakan Gas Reserve to China: Dual Oil,Gas Pipeline Plans Threaten Rights abuses in Burma; End China Exchanges Its Support for Burma Gas (Editorial); China signs new hydropower deal with Burma; China Seeks route around the ‘Malacca Dilemma’ (Graham Lees,World Politics Watch); Burma Cashes up on Energy, But Locals in the Dark; Daewoo Consider Legal Action Against Burma: Gas To Go To China;
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (457K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 April 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 8
          Date of publication: April 2007
          Description/subject: World Wide Protests against the Shwe Gas Project; Editorial: “No More Guns for Gas” - Stop Daewoo’s and India’s Arm Supplies to the Than Shwe Regime; Fishermen Suffer Navy Harassment as Daewoo Starts New Drilling; Burma’s Neighbors Hold the Key; Russian Companies to Explore Oil, Gas in Burma Inland area; Burma Introduces E-Gov System in New Capital - Daewoo, KCOMS to provide Info-and Comm- Tech; Thailand’s PTTEP Finds more Gas in Burma’s Block M-9, Spends US$ 200 million on Test Drilling; Action of March 26: Fourth Global Protest against the Shwe gas project, Daewoo and India’s arms supplies to the Burma regime; Despite US, EU Sanctions, New Contracts Continue for Burma’s Oil and Gas.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (323K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 April 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 7
          Date of publication: February 2007
          Description/subject: Mekong River and Burma: China’s two Plans for Secure Energy Transportation; Get Out of Burma, Activist Group Tells China (Editorial); Year 2007: MPRL and China Heighten Burma’s Energy Sector; Burma Finds Willing Arms Suppliers in Energy-Hungry Neighbors By Michael Black and William Couchaux | 03 Jan 2007 World Politics Watch Exclusive; India to Supply Weapons to Burma; Burma Prefers Arakan Gas as an LNG Project; Daewoo President Resigned; Nine Daewoo Oil Workers Kidnapped in Nigeria; Thailand’s PTTEP Has Discovered Gas in Burma
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (301K)
          Date of entry/update: 01 February 2007


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.6
          Date of publication: January 2007
          Description/subject: Daewoo International President Lee Tae - Yong may face up to five years in prison for illegal arms exports to Than Shwe’s Regime; Beware! Foreign Investors Can Kill (Editorial); INDICTED! Burma Weapons Factory Daewoo Funded, Say Prosecutors Daewoo boss among 14 executives facing criminal charges, Shwe Gas Movement wants answer; Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas (continued from last month): Sino-Indian Interests and Rivalry in Burma; Six More Contracts Increased Burma’s Oil and Gas Sector in 2006; Activists in S.Korea Denounce Daewoo for Arms Supplies to Burma; Construction of Sittwe Port to Start in January - India’s grand Kaladan project that includes a major water way and pipeline to its North Eastern states is moving swiftly ahead. But at what price? Along the Kaladan River in Arakan State, land confiscations and forced labor have already arrived ahead of the development. Activists fear more will follow.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (159K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.5
          Date of publication: December 2006
          Description/subject: Global Protest Over Shwe Gas Project in Burma; Foreign Oil firms Block Change in Burma (Editorial); Forced Labor and Other Abuses Mounting Along the Indo-Burma Proposed Pipeline Route, By K.Murn Aung; Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas (The authors conclude that “while countries in the neighbouring regions - particularly India and Thailand, but also Australia and Japan - may have important roles to play, China wields far more leverage. For those who wish to influence Burma in a positive direction, it is therefore essential to consider ways that change could be stimulated with the active participation of China, whether through sanctions, constructive engagement and/or any form of dialogue”); Australia’s Danford Equities Signs Oil- Gas Exploration Deal With Burma; Thailand’s PTTEP to Begin New Offshore Drilling in Myanmar;
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (242K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.4
          Date of publication: November 2006
          Description/subject: Is Daewoo Arming the SPDC? - S.Korea Activists Demand Probe into Daewoo’s Alleged Arms Exports to Burma; It’s not too late for Thailand to change its Burma Policy (Editorial); Arakan Oil and Gas and Sea Port for China’s Energy Resource; Burma, China, Russia: Arms and Energy; The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now -- Part VI: The Construction of Pipelines to India and China Will Cause Futher Environmental Degradation and Human Rights Abuses, By Lars Thompson; Myanmar Hikes Income Taxes on Fuel Firms; Myanmar Will Reopen Six Blocks to Foreign Firms.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (234K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 3
          Date of publication: September 2006
          Description/subject: North East Students oppose Shwe Gas Pipeline; Burma Needs Support In Reality (Editorial); Thailand Joins the Race a Bid for Shwe Gas Reserves; Myanmar Energy Production Rising (Aaron Clark, Associated Press Writer); The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now Part V: The Nature of Natural Gas as a Harmful and Non-Renewable Natural Resource (By Lars Thompson); Myanmar Gas Pipeline to Bypass Bangladesh; Gas and Oil discovered in Myanmar (By Anuchit Nguyen, Bloomberg News); Acient Mrauk-U Palace Turned into Castor Oil Plantation (Narinjara News); Arakan Reserves May Satisy S-Korea’s Gas Needs for Five Years.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (128K)
          Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 2
          Date of publication: August 2006
          Description/subject: SGM Calls for Korean and Indian Firms to Withdraw from Burma; Resource Curse: Burma (editorial); Shocking Future along the Kaladan River By K. Murn Aung (SGB); The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now. Part IV: International Law Requires That an Environmental Impact Assessment Be Prepared Now (Lars Thompson); Death Grip: - Despite international calls for reform, the ever-defiant SPDC maintains control over Myanmar with an Orwellian hand. Secrecy and paranoia abound, while rubbing elbows with Asia’s powerhouse nations keeps the regime in charge; Teachers, Students Arrested in Arakan; Two Arakanese women seek Justice; ANC Urges to End the Shwe Gas Project Fearing E-damages and HR Violations.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (137K)
          Date of entry/update: 30 July 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, Issue 1
          Date of publication: July 2006
          Description/subject: Daewoo Ban Mariners in Arakan Sea; Continuing Seismic Surveys Adversely Impact the Marine Environment in Burma (Editorial); Myanmar must free forced labour plaintiffs by July 31: ILO; Land Confiscation And Other Human Rights Abuses Continue in Onshore Area: Arakan; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part III: ONGC and GAIL Corporate Policies as well as the Environmental Law of India Require an EIA Now (Lars Thompson); China and India’s New Battle Ground: Burma’s Arakan State (Herman_; Life Under Burma’s Military Regime - In the second article of a special series from inside Burma, the BBC’s Kate McGeown looks at the dayto- day problems facing ordinary people under the country’s repressive military regime; Daewoo Found Huge Gas Deposit in Arakan Offshore.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
          Format/size: pdf (230K)
          Date of entry/update: 04 July 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 12
          Date of publication: May 2006
          Description/subject: Activists Demonstrate to Halt Shwe Gas Project; Foreign Companies Should Likewise Rethink Cooperation with the Regime (Editorial); Sino-Myanmar Strategic Cooperation; China’s COSL Extends Contract with Daewoo for Nanhai II; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part II: Daewoo International and KOGAS Are Required by their Corporate Policies and the Environmental Policy of South Korea to Prepare an EIA Now (Lars Thompson); China-Burma Oil Pipeline Approved; Sino-Burma Pipeline will Set off More Relocations; Arakan Gas Will Pipe Straight to India.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (323K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 11
          Date of publication: April 2006
          Description/subject: April 18, 2006:The Day of Global Action Against Daewoo; Lives Suffering from Oil Companies need Support (Editorial); Seven Burmese and Two Chinese Officers Injured in Mine Explosion; Chinese Oil Exploration: Pumping Resident’s Blood?; More Gas Found in Myanmar Offshore Block; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part I: Sustainable Development Requires an EIA (Lars Thompson); In Myanmar Vist, Indian President Jockeys with China for Energy.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (339K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin Vol. 1, Issue 10
          Date of publication: February 2006
          Description/subject: Shwe Gas Pipeline Project to India: Another Yadana Begins?; Myanmar to Lay Gas Pipeline to New Capital, As energy hungry foreign companies are searching for oil and Paper says; South Korea: Burma’s Biggest Investor (Herman); 3 More Blocks in Myanmar Under Gas Exploration; Anti-Gas Pipeline Campaign Voice Concern; Myanmar PM headed to China; India Hires Belgium Company to Conduct Feasibility Report for Shwe Pipeline.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team
          Format/size: pdf (188K, 1.5MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-10.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin Vol. 1, Issue 9
          Date of publication: January 2006
          Description/subject: Discovery of Block A-3 Sends Daewoo Stock Soaring, Promts futher Protest; Deal with China Boon to Brutal Burmese Junta (Editorial); Senior General Than Shwe Awarded ‘Third Worst Dictator in the World’; Than Shwe’s Gas Powered Regime to Look now on China (Jockai&PK); China Replaces India in Deal for Shwe Gas; Business with Myanmar Thrives Amid Diplomatic Stress (Daniel Ten Kate); Foreign Investment in Myanmar Reaches $7.76 bln; Shwe Gas Consortium Continues Appraisals of Extensive Shwe Gas Block.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team
          Format/size: pdf (195K, 1.8MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-09.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 29 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 8
          Date of publication: November 2005
          Description/subject: COSL Signs Deal with Daewoo to Provide Offshore Drilling Services; Forced Labour In Burma’s Arakan State Capital Sittwe; Total’s Settlement will not Quell Rights Campaign; Daewoo among the 474 Foreign Companies Supporting Burma’s Military Regime; Tankers Could Carry Gas to India (Thet Khaing); Burma is Asia’s Economic Basket Case; Myanmar Pipeline Back on Course as Delhi relents on sops for B’desh.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (172K, 1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-08.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 7
          Date of publication: October 2005
          Description/subject: World Wide protests against Daewoo International over Shwe Gas Development; Foreign Investment Directly Promotes the Violation of Human Rights in Burma (Editorial); Arakanese Inside Burma Protested the Shwe Gas Project of Daewoo and Junta; Daewoo Signs Deal With Shwe Gas Partners for Burma’s Gas Block A-3; Burmese Fuel Hike a Threat to Subsistence; Negotiations Continue Over Shwe Gas despite Bangladeshi Demands.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (251K, 1.6MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-07.pdf
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 6
          Date of publication: September 2005
          Description/subject: Shwe Gas Movement Urges Bangladeshis to Stem Shwe Pipline Project; Cozy Relationship with Burmese Military Regime (Editorial); Confiscation of Private Land Continues in Arakan State; Arakan and Chin Suffer Forced Labor under Shwe Gas Pipeline Project; India Looks East for Gas (Siddharth Srivastava); Thai Plan Undersea Pipe for Shwe Gas; Over 10,000 Giant Sea Perch Dead, Hilsa Deformed: Daewoo & Shwe Block A1 Gas Exploration; India, Bangladesh Agree on Tri-nation Gas Pipeline;
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (570K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 5
          Date of publication: July 2005
          Description/subject: Shwe Gas Issue Raised in ILO’s Special Sitting; Arakanese Villagers Are Being Forced to Aid in the Construction of the Gas Pipeline Between Burma and India; Shwe Gas may be exported to Thailand - Burma is looking for US$ 4 billion in investments to develop the Shwe fields; Burma Visit Highlights India’s “look East” Strategy (Sarath Kumara); Shwe Gas Pipeline Threatens Millions of Lives along Kaladan River (Dale); India will continue talks with Bangladesh.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (429K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 4
          Date of publication: June 2005
          Description/subject: Kyauk Taw Township Residents Displaced, Refugees Settle in Bangladesh; Natural Gas Found instead of Water from Digging a Tube well in Arakan; “Daewoo Out of Burma” - The US Campaign for Burma (USCB) may Launch Their New International Campaign; Shwe Campaign Roundtable Talks; Unocal: What’s The Big Surprise (Dr. Joe Duarte); Oil-Hungry Neighbors are The Primary Supporters of the Burma Junta (Jockai); Kaladan Project Survey completed - Tri-Nation Gas Pipeline, Road and Waterway.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (471K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 3
          Date of publication: May 2005
          Description/subject: Foreign Investment in Oil Threatens Livelihood of Local People in Burma (Jockai); Human Rights Activists Protest Against TOTAL in the US for Burma Involvement; Mohona Holding Ltd. Begin Negotiation for Tri-Nation Gas Pipeline Project; AASYC joins hands with Bangladeshi activists against the tri-nation gas pipeline project; Burma’s Murlky Water: Enviromental Impacts of The Shwe Offshore Gas Project (Jay Chou); Three Hydro-Power Plants Are Being Built in Military Bases in Arakan State; Essar Oil Signs for Two Exploration in Arakan, Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (584K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 2
          Date of publication: April 2005
          Description/subject: Protesters Demand India Not to Cooporate With Burma; Toxic Shwe (Jockai); Shwe Gas Activists Met Korean Human Rights Ambassador; Youth in Arakan Erected Signboards Against Daewoo; Profits at Gunpoint: Unocal’s Pipeline in Burma Becomes a Test Case in Corporate Accountalility (Daphne Eviatar); Anti-Shwe Gas Groups Want Daewoo Out of Burma.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (695K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


          Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue. 1
          Date of publication: March 2005
          Description/subject: Activists Demand Referendum on Gas Extraction; Gas Pipeline a Threat to National Security;International Campaign Launched to Pressure Total; Bangladesh Imposes Conditions for Gas Pipeline Transit; Daewoo Drills Natural Gas In Shwe Again; Out of Burma: Cross-Border Resource Extraction (Edith Mirante); Activists in Dhaka Protest Against Gas Pipeline.
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
          Format/size: pdf (371K)
          Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


    • Government of Myanmar (oil and gas)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) - upstream
      Description/subject: "Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) is the 100% State Owned Enterprise and is responsible for Upstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Paras and tables include: Oil and Gas Bearing Areas of Myanmar, Oil and Gas Fields of Myanmar, Natural Gas Pipelines of Myanmar, Capabilities of Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, Onshore and Offshore Blocks of Myanmar. It invites cooperation in the sector, with paras on Objectives of Production Sharing Contract, Current Operating Multi-national Companies, Major Discoveries in Offshore Area (incl. paras on Yadana and Yetagun fields), Available Blocks, Exploration and Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas with Multi-national Companies, Details of production-sharing contracts, Onshore Natural Gas Pipelines existing, under construction and planned.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) - downstream
      Description/subject: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise ("MPE") is a "100% State Owned Economic Enterprise responsible for Downstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Lists its refineries and plants producing urea fertilizer, methanol, LPG, bitumen, carbon dioxide, lubricants etc. and invites cooperation in this sector
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.energy.gov.mm/downstreampetroleumsubsector.htm
      Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


      Title: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) - downstream
      Description/subject: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise is the State-owned Organization vested with authority and responsibility to carry out retail and whole sale distribution of Petroleum products in Myanmar. The Enterprise has conducted the effective and intensive distribution of Petroleum Products, dedicated to Agriculture, Fishery, Transport, Power Generation, Defense, Construction and Industries in the Government Sector and also to the Private Sector from the existing 4 Main Fuel Terminals, 26 Sub Fuel Terminals, 11 Aviation Depots and 256 Filling Stations." Lists its terminals and filling stations and carries an interesting little invitation regarding "Import of Crude Oil, Diesel Fuel and Motor Gasoline on a Deferred Basis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Development Project of Energy and Resources in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 March 2009
      Description/subject: Contents: Who is Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)?... Oil Companies Jointly Working with MOGE by Production Sharing Basis... Current Oil and Gas Projects in Myanmar... Future Oil and Gas Projects in Myanmar... Future Gas Production Trend.
      Author/creator: U Aung Htoo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)
      Format/size: ppt (2.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 01 June 2009


      Title: "The Irrawaddy" Business
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: Burma row brews over US state law • UK clothing firm cuts Burmese ties •
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Oil and gas discussion group

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burmaoil
      Description/subject: Discussion of the oil companies' investment in Burma.
      Subscribe: subscribe@yahoogroups.com
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Yadana Field - (Total, Chevron, PTTEP, MOGE)
      UNOCAL, a former partner in the consortium, was bought by Chevron

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Chevron in Myanmar
      Description/subject: As one of four partners, a Chevron subsidiary has a nonoperating, minority interest in the Yadana gas field offshore Myanmar in the Andaman Sea and in a 249-mile (401-km) natural gas pipeline. The Yadana Project is operated by Total, a French international energy company, and is helping meet the increasing demand for energy in Southeast Asia.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chevron
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: Chevron website
      Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chevron
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.chevron.com/search/?k=myanmar&text=myanmar&Header=FromHeader&ct=All%20Types
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: Total Burma pages -- pages birmanie
      Description/subject: "Total’s presence in Myanmar (Burma) has been surrounded by controversy and misperception. The European Parliament has denounced the “dire political situation”* in Myanmar and the International Labour Organization (ILO) regularly criticizes the country’s “widespread and systematic” resort to forced labor. A number of Western companies have withdrawn from Myanmar under pressure from activist groups. The question now is what Total is doing there, what it has already done and why it is staying in Myanmar. Unfortunately, the world’s oil and gas reserves are not necessarily located in democracies, as a glance at a map shows. As a result, oil companies often face criticism and questions from civil society concerning their operations in countries with repressive regimes, their relations with governments, the security measures deployed to protect their facilities, and the way in which host countries spend oil revenues. Wherever we operate, we are dedicated to developing economically viable projects while adhering to national and international laws and ensuring compliance with our Code of Conduct. Long before joining the UN Secretary-General’s Global Compact initiative in 2002, we had demonstrated a constant commitment to responsible corporate citizenship and have always aimed to contribute to economic and social progress and environmental stewardship in our host countries. Total has been the subject of numerous allegations and accusations that challenge both our presence in Myanmar and our actions there. This web site provides a history of our engagement in Myanmar and describes the initiatives that have been implemented. Rather than respond to the unwarranted criticism, we want to restore balanced debate on whether a responsible multinational company can contribute positively to the economic and social development of a country that faces sharp internal divisions."
      Language: English, Francais, French (Alternate URL)
      Source/publisher: Total
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://birmanie.total.com/
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


      Title: Total website
      Description/subject: Company website...Search for Myanmar, Yadana etc.
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Total
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 15 December 2010
      Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
      Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


      Title: Energy Insecurity: How Total, Chevron, and PTTEP Contribute to Human Rights Violations, Financial Secrecy, and Nuclear Proliferation in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 05 July 2010
      Description/subject: "The oil companies Total (France), Chevron (US), and PTT Exploration & Production (PTTEP) (Thailand) have failed to stop human rights abuses occurring in relation to their natural gas project in Burma (Myanmar), abuses for which the companies bear responsibility and remain vulnerable to liability.1 The companies are financing the world’s newest nuclear threat with multi-billion dollar payments, and have refused to practice financial transparency, despite calls by the Burmese and international community. As Burma braces itself for its first elections in 20 years, elections widely discredited as unfair, it is not too late for the companies to change course..."...TABLE OF CONTENTS: Methodology... Executive Summary... Chapter I: Continuing Abuses: Human Rights Violations and the Yadana and Pipeline, 2009-2010: i Targeted Killings; ii Mandatory Military Trainings: Protecting the Pipeline Corridor; iii Forced Labor; iv What’s Green is not Always Good: Land Confiscation for Forest Conservation Areas ; v The Companies’ Legal Liabilities for Complicity in Human Rights Abuses.... Chapter II: Revenue Secrecy: Total, Chevron, and PTTEP’s Payments to the Junta and Refusals to Practice Revenue Transparency: i A Global Call for Revenue Transparency in Burma 15; ii Total’s Response; iii Chevron’s Response; iv Binding Mechanisms for Revenue Transparency.... Chapter III: The Yadana Natural Gas Project Revenue: i Introduction: Financing the World’s Newest Nuclear Threat; ii Yadana Project Revenue Totals; iii Yadana Project Revenue Distribution.... Conclusion.... Recommendations.... Appendix A: Yadana Gas Revenue Calculations.... Appendix B: A Call for Total, Chevron, and PTTEP to Practice Revenue Transparency in Burma (Myanmar), April 27, 2010.... Appendix C: Total and Chevron’s Responses to the Global Call for Revenue Transparency.... Endnotes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Earth Rights International (ERI)
      Format/size: pdf (1.37MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


      Title: Total Impact 2.0: A Response to the French Oil Company Total Regarding Its Yadana Natural Gas Pipeline in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 16 December 2009
      Description/subject: On September 10, 2009 EarthRights International (ERI) published almost 200 pages of new research in two publications linking the oil giants Total S.A., Chevron Corporation, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand Exploration and Production Company Ltd. (PTTEP), and the Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) to forced labor, killings, high-level corruption, and authoritarianism in connection to their Yadana natural gas pipeline in military-ruled Burma. The reports also document the flawed corporate social responsibility programs implemented by Total, the operator of the project, and reveal for the first time that the pipeline in Burma has generated more than US$7 billion dollars for the companies and the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)... On October 15, 2009 Total publicly released a 12-page response to ERI... This publication, Total Impact 2.0, is a detailed and fact-based rejoinder to Total's response to ERI. It finds that while the company may be softening to criticism and to the idea of engagement with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) such as ERI, it has yet again misled the general public, investors and policymakers regarding the impacts of their pipeline project in Burma. This report finds that the companies are still linked to violent abuses such as forced labor and killings in their project area, and that their project has generated multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese military regime.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (3.57MB)
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2009


      Title: Total in Myanmar - Update, September 2009: Our Response to the Allegations Contained in the ERI Report September 2009
      Date of publication: 15 October 2009
      Description/subject: "In September 2009, EarthRights International published a report entitled Total Impact that makes serious allegations against Total. We would like to set the record straight..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Total
      Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://burma.total.com/
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2009


      Title: En Birmanie, la junte pompe l’argent de Total
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: Dans un rapport que «Libération» dévoile en exclusivité, l’ONG Earth Rights révèle les liens entre le groupe pétrolier français et la dictature de Rangoun.
      Author/creator: ARNAUD VAULERIN
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: Getting it Wrong: Flawed "Corporate Social Responsibility" and Misrepresentations Surrounding Total and Chevron's Yadana Gas Pipeline in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Since the early 1990s, two western oil companies have partnered with the Burmese military regime in a remote corner of southern Burma (Myanmar) on one of the world's most controversial development projects: The Yadana Gas Project by France-based Total and US-based Chevron. "Yadana", which means "treasure" in Burmese, is a large-scale project that transports natural gas from Burma's Andaman Sea to Thailand through an overland pipeline that passes through a secluded and environmentally sensitive region in southeast Burma. From the project's beginning, the Burma Army has been tasked with providing security for the companies and the pipeline and has committed widespread and systematic human rights abuses against local people. Well-documented allegations of violent and systematic abuses include extrajudicial killings, rape, torture, forced labor, land confiscation, and forced relocation. Many of these abuses and others are ongoing and are documented in the ERI report "Total Impact"(2009). Total and Chevron have repeatedly denied complicity in abuses committed by the Burma Army against people living in the pipeline area. The truth has been laid bare, however, through multiple lawsuits brought by Burmese villagers in U.S. and European courts, in out-of-court settlements between the companies and victims of abuses, as well as in detailed and firsthand documentation by EarthRights International and others, published in numerous advocacy reports since 1996. Rather than accept responsibility to mitigate harms caused by their operation, to this day Total and Chevron continue to misrepresent their impacts in Burma, to the detriment of the people directly affected by the project and the people of Burma as a whole. This report documents in detail how impact assessments commissioned by Total were flawed in methodology and factually inaccurate and incomplete, particularly those undertaken by the Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) of US-based CDA Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA). It also documents and analyzes brazen misrepresentations of the project by the oil companies, who continue to claim that there are no abuses in the pipeline area and that their project in Burma is wholly positive. CDA describes its Corporate Engagement Project, under the rubric of which it has conducted field assessments for Total in Burma, as an initiative that aims to help companies ensure that their operations' impacts on local communities are positive rather than negative. Branded as "independent experts" by Total, CDA has visited Burma five times since 2002 and published five reports based on a mere 20 days in the pipeline region. The reports promote an overall favorable view of Total and Chevron's impacts and presence in Burma. This is in stark contrast to the enormous body of evidence and testimony of villagers in the Yadana region collected by ERI and other organizations since the mid-1990s. This report and its companion, "Total Impact", are intended to provide an accurate and current picture of the Yadana Project. Part I of this report details CDA's myriad flaws in Burma in no less than 10 areas pertaining to its methodology for assessing Total's impacts in Burma, and ranging from its naive and misguided attempts to conduct "open" interviews with villagers in Burma's repressive and closed society, to their failure to adequately assess impacts in villages just outside the narrowly-defined pipeline corridor. Among other oversights, CDA interviewed villagers within earshot and eyesight of military intelligence, soldiers, Total staff, and through interpreters provided by Total. Information obtained in such compromised settings is questionable in any human rights investigation or impact assessment, but especially in Burma where retaliation against critics of the regime and its business partners is well-documented. The fact that CDA failed to take proper security precautions for those it interviewed, who in advance of CDA's visits were warned by the Burma Army about criticizing the companies, further casts doubt on CDA's findings. Even if the conclusions of the CDA reports were not compromised by these and other methodological flaws described in Part I of this report, the reports have been repeatedly distorted and publicly misrepresented by Total and Chevron. Part II of this report catalogues the companies' perversions of their presence in Burma as well as the companies' public misuse of the CDA reports. For example, Total has repeatedly made false, bold and unsubstantiated claims to have eradicated forced labor in the pipeline corridor, and has claimed further that both CDA and the ILO have found there is no forced labor in the pipeline corridor, which is untrue: This report documents that neither CDA or the ILO have ever stated that forced labor has been eradicated in the pipeline corridor. On the contrary, forced labor is prevalent and ongoing in the pipeline corridor; even more so in the entire pipeline area. EarthRights International's documentation indicates that human rights abuses connected to the Yadana Project are ongoing and systematic, that the companies are responsible for these crimes, and that Total and Chevron have misrepresented their impacts in Burma. There is a great deal the companies could do to improve their presence in Burma. "Getting it Wrong" concludes that the Yadana Project is far from a model of responsible investment under difficult conditions, and CDA's assessments of the project should no longer be relied upon as accurate or credible."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (980.66 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/printpdf/1455
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: L’image, une obsession pour Total
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: Sur la Birmanie, le groupe communique à tour de bras, quitte à arranger les faits..."Des rapports, un site internet, des courriers, une charte, des interviews, des visites guidées… Total sait communiquer et le fait à tout va. Car le groupe a du pain sur la planche : l’Erika, AZF, profits records, Birmanie… «Notre image n’est clairement pas très bonne», déplorait en mai le directeur général de Total, Christophe de Margerie..."
      Author/creator: ARNAUD VAULERIN
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: Total et Chevron mis en cause pour leur soutien au régime Birman
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: "Total et le groupe pétrolier américain Chevron enrichissent la junte birmane avec un projet gazier et pétrolier, et dissimulent les exactions commises par les forces de sécurité sur les populations locales. C'est ce qu'affirme, jeudi 10 septembre, l'ONG américaine EarthRights International (ERI) dans deux rapports distincts. "Le projet de gaz de Yadana de Total et Chevron a généré 4,83 milliards de dollars pour le régime birman". La très grande majorité de cet argent, assure l'ONG échappe au budget national et repose dans des banques basées à Singapour, l'Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC) et le groupe DBS. Total est présent en Birmanie depuis 1992 sur le champ gazier de Yadana, dont il possède 31,24 %. Chevron détient pour sa part 28 % des parts de ce champ, qui représente 60 % du volume des exportations de gaz de la Birmanie vers la Thaïlande. Les deux groupes sont régulièrement cités dès lors que sont évoquées des sanctions renforcées contre la junte birmane..."
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: "Le Monde.fr" avec AFP
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: Total Impact: The Human Rights, Environmental, and Financial Impacts of Total and Chevron's Yadana Gas Project in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Two western oil companies are currently partnered with the Burmese military regime in a remote corner of southern Burma (Myanmar) on one of the world's most controversial development projects: The Yadana Gas Project by the France-based Total and the US-based Chevron. "Yadana", which means "treasure" in Burmese, is a large-scale project that transports natural gas from the Andaman Sea across Burma's Tenasserim region to Thailand, where it generates electricity for the Bangkok metropolitan area. The gas is transported through an overland pipeline that passes through the dense jungle and rugged terrain of a secluded and environmentally sensitive ethnic area in southeast Burma. From the project's beginning, the Burma Army has been tasked with providing security for the companies and the pipeline and has committed widespread and systematic human rights abuses against local people. EarthRights International (ERI) has been documenting human rights abuses related to the Yadana Project since 1994, and new evidence collected through 2009 attests to the on-going violent abuses committed by the Burma Army providing security for the companies and the project. Abuses include extrajudicial killings, torture, and other forms of ill-treatment; widespread and systematic forced labor; and violations of the rights to freedom of movement and property. Based on new and original evidence, this report further documents the Burma Army's role in the construction phase of the Yadana Project as well as its continuing connection to the companies and the pipeline. Rather than acknowledge its inherent and close relationship with Burma's armed forces, Total has traditionally denied the connections between its company and the Burma Army in its project area, raising important ethical questions about the company's willingness to misrepresent its material risks to investors and shareholders. In addition to the localized human rights impacts in the pipeline region, the Yadana Project has been a significant factor in keeping the Burmese military regime financially solvent. This report documents for the first time the aggregate revenue generated by the Yadana Project for the ruling SPDC, from 2000 to 2008. Rather than contribute to Burma's economic development, the billion dollar revenues from the project have instead contributed to high-level corruption: the revenue is not accounted for in Burma's national budget and according to reliable sources it is stored in two offshore banks in Singapore. Moreover, there are apparent correlations between the SPDC's increasing financial wherewithal and its overall authoritarian behavior. While the severity and seriousness of the human rights and financial impacts of the Yadana Project are logical focal points of concern, the environmental impacts of the project cannot be discounted. This report presents information that details serious problems with Total's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), a document which ERI obtained through US courts and which is now part of the public record; details of which are published here for the first time. Villagers in the pipeline corridor also report ongoing adverse impacts associated with an ill-conceived environmental protection group established and supported by Total in the pipeline corridor. Rather than acknowledge or attempt to mitigate these and other known impacts of the Yadana Project, Total CEO Christophe de Margerie has publicly told critics to "go to hell" and instead focused resources on public relations, including claims that the Yadana gas has made neighboring Bangkok a cleaner city. Total has also systematically whitewashed their complicity in abuses and authoritarianism in Burma in three key ways: first, and most directly, Total has commissioned a number of impact assessments by the US-based CDA Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA), which the corporations tout as evidence that the Yadana Project hurts no one and benefits many. These impact assessments and their fundamental flaws are the subject of the ERI report "Getting it Wrong" (2009). Second, the companies repeatedly misuse both these impact assessments and third-party reports and statements, asserting that others support their claims that there are no abuses in the pipeline area. Third, the companies promote their local "socio-economic" program and declare that it provides economic, educational, and health benefits to every person in the pipeline corridor. While many of the companies' socio-economic efforts might be desirable in theory, local villagers argue that these programs have not worked the way the companies claim they do, if at all. Moreover, ERI has found that the true effectiveness of these local projects have never been independently or fully examined and verified; and regardless of the effectiveness of these programs, they do not exonerate the companies from accountability for complicity in human rights violations and they do not erase the deeper national impacts connected to the revenue stream from the Yadana Project to the SPDC. Total and Chevron's impacts in Burma are profound. ERI makes several specific demands of the companies and calls on the corporate and investment community and policymakers to seriously consider the ethics of Total and Chevron's operations in Burma, and to heed the recommendations included at the end of this report."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (2.95MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: Une dictature qui se rit des sanctions - Analyse
      Date of publication: 10 September 2009
      Description/subject: Les mesures économiques contre le régime restent sans effet. Cibler le secteur des hydrocarbures serait plus efficace, mais pas sans danger..."Pas question de sanctionner la compagnie privée française Total qui est, aux côtés de la Chine, un des plus gros investisseurs en Birmanie. Le 11 août, suite à la condamnation de l’opposante et prix Nobel de la Paix Aung San Suu Kyi à 18 mois de résidence surveillée supplémentaires, l’Union européenne a décidé de nouvelles mesures punitives contre la junte militaire au pouvoir. Celles-ci comprennent des interdictions de visa à des personnalités birmanes et des gels d’avoirs de membres de la junte. Elles s’ajoutent à de nombreuses mesures déjà prises depuis 1996, telles que l’interdiction d’exportation d’armes. Il n’a absolument pas été question de sanctions dans le domaine stratégique du gaz et des hydrocarbures, qui auraient concerné Total. L’éventualité de mesures punitives touchant le pétrolier français n’a même pas été vraiment évoquée dans les discussions entre les pays de l’UE. «Il n’y a pas eu de débat approfondi sur cette question», nous affirmait hier un diplomate européen..."
      Author/creator: PHILIPPE GRANGEREAU
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


      Title: BLOOD MONEY: A Grounded Theory of Corporate Citizenship -- Myanmar (Burma) as a Case in Point
      Date of publication: 2009
      Description/subject: "...In this inquiry I have explored the multiple interactions between corporate, state and civil society actors through which understandings of ‘responsible’ corporate engagement in Myanmar are created, enacted and transformed. I have identified and conceptualised four social processes at work in these interactions, which I describe in the grounded theories of: (1) Commercial Diplomacy (describing the use of enterprise as a conduit for foreign policy by states, particularly as it relates to ‘ethical’ business activity) (2) Stakeholder Activism (critiquing the aims and strategies of transnational civil society organisations who advocate for ‘responsible’ corporate engagement) (3) Corporate Engagement (explaining variation in the motivations and terms of corporate engagement, specifically different forms of divestment or engagement, as strategic responses to stakeholder activism, commercial diplomacy and other factors which influence the enterprise context) (4) Constructive Corporate Engagement (a conceptual framework, grounded in multiple stakeholder-views and drawing from the international development discourses of state fragility and human security, for considering the potentially constructive impacts of corporate engagement). Working within and between these four theories, I generated an overarching grounded theory of (5) Corporate Citizenship in Fragile States. From these theories I offer a critical analysis of Corporate Citizenship as the normative basis for a new articulation between the economic, social and political spheres in pursuit of a more equitable global order..."
      Author/creator: Nicola M. Black
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Te Waananga o Waikato (The University of Waikato)
      Format/size: html; pdf (3.5MB) (553 pages)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.nickyblack.com/Nicky_Black/Corporate_Citizenship_and_Myanmar.html (Chapter-by-chapter)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/BM-Complete-NBlack%202009-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2010


      Title: The Human Cost of Energy: Chevrons Continuing Role in Financing Oppression and Profiting From Human Rights Abuses in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: April 2008
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report documents Chevron�s ongoing role in financing the military regime in Burma (Myanmar) and profiting from human rights abuses on the Yadana natural gas development project. It is based in part on over 70 formal interviews over the past five years, documenting conditions in the region of Burma affected by the Yadana gas pipeline, and corroborating information from ERI�s network of contacts, as well as ERI�s prior experience in documenting abuses on the Yadana Project dating back to 1994, and on documents that have become public through the groundbreaking human rights lawsuit Doe v. Unocal. ERI has published three previous reports on the Yadana Project, and filed Doe v. Unocal in U.S. courts on behalf of victims of the pipeline project who had suffered rape, murder, torture, and pervasive slave labor. Part 1 describes the background of the Yadana Project, which involves a pipeline constructed to carry gas from offshore fields, across Burma, and into Thailand. In 2005, Chevron became part of the Yadana Project through its acquisition of Unocal, one of the original developers of the project. The Burmese military junta, a brutal regime routinely condemned by the United Nations and the world community for its widespread violations of basic human rights, is one of Chevron�s partners in the project through its military-run oil company, Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise. Part 2 explains how the Yadana Project finances oppression. The project is the single largest source of income for the Burmese military; it was instrumental in bailing out the junta when it faced a severe financial crisis in the late 1990s, and it has enabled the regime to dramatically increase its military spending and continue its rule without popular support. Part 3 describes how Chevron was fully aware of the human rights abuses associated with the Yadana Project when it acquired Unocal in 2005, but nonetheless chose to stay involved with the project and the Burmese military. The Yadana pipeline is guarded by the Burmese army, and the human rights abuses committed by the army in the course of providing security have been widely reported and documented; victims of the project sued Unocal in U.S. courts in the landmark case Doe v. Unocal. Part 4 documents the continuing serious human rights abuses by the pipeline security forces, including torture, rape, murder, and forced labor. Seventeen years after abuses connected to the Yadana Project were first documented, and years after they were highlighted in Doe v. Unocal, these human rights abuses continue in the pipeline corridor. Residents and refugees fleeing the pipeline region report that they are still forced to work for the pipeline security forces, who continue to commit acts of violence and terrorize the local population. This forced labor occurs thousands of times each year. Part 5 debunks the oil companies� claims that life in the pipeline region has improved. While some villages have realized minimal benefits from the companies� socio-economic program, the benefits do not reach the entire population affected by the pipeline security forces. Even for the chosen �pipeline villages� life remains so difficult and dangerous that families continue to flee for the relative safety of the Thai-Burma border. Part 6 discusses Chevron�s response to the 2007 demonstrations in Burma against the military regime and the regime�s crackdown. Despite its threefold status as the largest U.S. investor in Burma, the military�s direct business partner, and a partner in the project that constitutes the largest source of income for the regime, Chevron has failed to take any noticeable steps to condemn the violent repression or to pressure the military to respect human rights. Finally, Part 7 describes Chevron�s ongoing potential legal liability for its role in the Yadana Project. Although the Doe v. Unocal litigation resulted in a settlement in 2005, that settlement only covers the claims of the victims involved in that suit; Chevron remains responsible for compensating the thousands of other residents of the pipeline region who have suffered abuse by pipeline security forces. Two appendices offer additional detail on oil and gas investment in Burma. Appendix A details the Shwe Project, a new gas project which could dwarf Yadana both in revenues for the military and in the abusive impact on the local population. The project is being developed by South Korea�s Daewoo International along with other companies from Korea, India and China. Appendix B briefly outlines China�s growing involvement in Burma, especially in the oil and gas sector. The Yadana Project remains a serious problem both for the people of Burma and for Chevron itself. In light of this, EarthRights International makes the following recommendations:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (2.63MB- English; 2.24 - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Human-Cost-of-Energy-Burmese.pdf
      http://www.earthrights.org/publication/human-cost-energy-chevron-s-continuing-role-financing-oppres...
      http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/Human_Cost_Of_Energy-ERI.pdf (2.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Report of Fifth CDA/CEP Visit to the Yadana Pipeline Myanmar/Burma February 9‐17 2008 in Myanmar/Burma February 18 in Bangkok, Thailand
      Date of publication: 18 February 2008
      Description/subject: "...In the spirit of collaborative learning, CEP has engaged with Total over a period of six years, visiting (among others) the Yadana pipeline joint venture project in Myanmar/Burma in October 2002, May 2003, November-December 2003, and April- May 2005. The Reports of these site visits are available on CDA’s web site. Building on these visits and pursuing the issues raised in the previous Reports, Mary B. Anderson, Executive Director of CDA1 and Brian Ganson, independent consultant, carried out a fifth in-country visit to Total and the Yadana Project between February 9 and February 19, 2008. The purpose of this trip, as with all CEP field visits, was to examine and report on the interaction between corporate operations and the lives of people in the pipeline corridor, as well as to assess the impacts of the corporate presence and operations on the wider context of Myanmar/Burma. Specifically, the focus in the pipeline area was to follow up on findings from previous CEP visits that raised concerns about village dependency on Total and the non-sustainability of the Socio-Eco projects when Total ultimately leaves the region. The focus of this trip with regard to the broader society was to consider how the changing environment of recent months has shaped the working environment for Total and the Yadana Project. Because in examining the operations of the Joint Venture Project, we engaged with the operational partner, Total, we consistently refer in this report to Total’s actions and impacts. However, our observations and analyses concern all the joint venture partners: Total, Unocal/Chevron, MOGE and PTTEP2. This Report begins with an Introduction in which we outline the approach and process of the field visit team. Section I covers the findings with regard to impacts in the pipeline corridor, the defined geographical region that encompasses the gas pipeline where Total conducts a Socio-Eco program in support of the twenty-five villages in the area. Section II of the Report then examines the broader context of Myanmar/Burma and considers how the ongoing presence and operations of Total and its partners in this context affect broader social and economic welfare..."
      Author/creator: Mary B. Anderson, Brian Ganson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action/Collaborative Learning Projects/Corporate Engagement Project
      Format/size: pdf (194K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 September 2009


      Title: Chevron’s Links to Burma Stir Critics to Demand It Pull Out
      Date of publication: 04 October 2007
      Description/subject: "Chevron Corp. of San Ramon is drawing harsh criticism for its business ties to Burma, the Asian nation conducting a brutal military crackdown. The company owns part of a natural gas project in Burma, where soldiers crushed pro-democracy protests last week and killed at least 10 people. U.S. sanctions prevent most U.S. companies from working in Burma, but Chevron's investment there existed before the sanctions were imposed and continues under a grandfather clause. As a result, the company is one of the few large Western companies left in the country. Now Chevron faces pressure to pull out..."
      Author/creator: David R. Baker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: San Francisco Chronicle
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/10/04/4303/
      Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


      Title: Why Total Agrees to Compensation in Forced Labor Suit - An Interview with Jean Francois Lassalle
      Date of publication: December 2005
      Description/subject: "Two days after French oil giant Total made a 5.2 million euros (US $6.12 million) out-of-court settlement to end a suit by 12 Burmese accusing the company of involvement in forced labor to build a natural gas pipeline, a Total executive explained why his company agreed to settle. In a phone interview with The Irrawaddy, Total’s vice president for exploration and production Jean Francois Lassalle claimed his company is paying compensation despite the fact “we’ve never used forced labor.” The eight plaintiffs and four witnesses had brought the suit against Total in 2002, claiming forced labor was used by Total in building its Yadana pipeline from Burma to Thailand from 1995-1998. This is what Lassalle told "The Irrawaddy":..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: Total pollue la démocratie – stoppons le TOTALitarisme en Birmanie
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: "...Total a conclu des accords commerciaux avec le régime militaire birman après qu’il eut refusé, au lendemain des élections de 1990, de céder le pouvoir au parti élu démocratiquement, la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie (LND). Nous soutenons dans ce rapport que les activités de Total en Birmanie, notamment le projet gazier de Yadana, constituent un soutien moral et fi nancier direct à la junte militaire. Cette junte militaire se livre quotidiennement et de façon régulière à de très nombreuses violations des droits de l’Homme en Birmanie. Le régime a systématiquement recourt au travail forcé et opprime les minorités ethniques et les groupes d’opposition. Quels que soient les arguments théoriques avancés par le groupe pétrolier français, faisant valoir un lien entre investissement et développement1, Total n’exerce en fait aucun contrôle sur la manière dont les revenus tirés de Yadana sont utilisés par la junte et rien ne permet de penser que ces fonds serviront à l’amélioration des conditions de vie de la population. En Birmanie, environ 40 % du budget national sont consacrés à l’armée et des sommes minimes sont allouées à l’éducation et la santé. Qui plus est, le régime militaire se replie de plus en plus sur lui-même. L’investissement de Total en Birmanie ne se traduit en rien par une ouverture du régime sur l’extérieur..."
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: FIDH, Agir-ici, Actions Birmanie, France Libertes
      Format/size: pdf (477.4K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


      Title: Total pollutes democracy - Stop TOTALitarianism in Burma
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: "...The history of Total in Burma is complex and problematic. It began commercial negotiations with the military regime after the junta refused to cede power to the democratically elected National League for Democracy (NLD) following the 1990 elections. This report shows that Total activities in Burma, particularly the Yadana Gas Project, have provided direct and substantial political and fi nancial support to the military junta. The military junta in Burma perpetrates widespread and systematic abuses of human rights on a daily basis. The regime routinely uses forced labour and severely oppresses ethnic minorities and opposition groups. In spite of theoretical arguments regarding the relationship between investment and development1, Total has no control over the way the Yadana project revenue is used by the military government and there is nothing to suggest that this money will be used, in any way, to improve conditions in Burma. In fact, approximately 40% of the national budget is spent on the military, with infi nitesimal amounts being spent on health and education. The military regime is also becoming increasingly closed to external observation and scrutiny. Up to now, Total’s investment in Burma has not resulted in an opening of the regime to international dialogue. The human rights violations perpetrated by the Burmese Army in the Yadana pipeline area also demonstrate the nature of the regime Total is dealing with, as well as Total’s own legal responsibility for acts carried out by those state actors. Embroiled in the actions occurring in and around the pipeline area, Total was complicit in these human rights violations. It knew the Burmese military would be engaged to secure the pipeline, it was aware of the abuses carried out by the military and it failed to take adequate steps to prevent these abuses. The social projects and compensation offered by Total does not absolve from acknowledging its responsibility and from providing appropriate compensation to all victims..."... N.B. THERE'S SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE FILE -- IT GETS STUCK ON P30 AND CAN ONLY BE DOWNLOADED WITH INTERNET EXPLORER.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: FIDH, Agir-ici, Actions Birmanie, France Libertes
      Format/size: pdf (482K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


      Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project. Field Visit: April 17 – May 6, 2005 (Fourth Visit)
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: "The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tension or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the context in which they operate. Based on this analysis, CEP helps companies to develop management tools and practical options to address local challenges and stakeholder issues. The CEP team visited Thailand and the Yadana operations in Myanmar/Burma from April 17 – May 6, 2005. This is the fourth visit of the CEP team to the Yadana project and to Thailand. This trip was a follow up visit to previous site visits conducted in December 2003, May 2003 and October 2002. This report should be read in conjunction with the three previous reports available at our website: www.cdainc.com/cep. During the visit to Myanmar/Burma and Thailand, CEP spoke with a broad range of stakeholders to gain a better understanding of people’s perspectives concerning Total’s operations in Myanmar/Burma. Although Total’s name is mentioned throughout this report, our observations concern all venture partners; Total, Unocal, MOGE (Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise) and PTTEP (Thai National Exploration and Production Company). The introductory part of this report explains the approach taken during this visit. The first section lays out the observations made in the pipeline area. Section two discusses the findings during our meetings on a national level with stakeholders in Yangon and Mandalay, and section three describes the observations on an international level based on discussions with stakeholders in Thailand, the United States and Europe. Sections I, II and III are organized as observations and options for change..."
      Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Ana Paula do Nascimento
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: TOTALITARIAN OIL - TOTAL Oil: fuelling the oppression in Burma
      Date of publication: February 2005
      Description/subject: "...Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. TOTAL Oil, the fourth largest oil company in the world, is in business with Burma’s dictatorship. It has been in Burma since 1992 against the wishes of Burma’s elected leaders, many of whom are being detained by the Junta. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma’s pro-democracy leader, has said that “Total has become the main supporter of the Burmese military regime.” 1 She told the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur that “TOTAL knew what it was doing when it invested massively in Burma while others withdrew from the market for ethical reasons.” She added, “the company must accept the consequences. The country will not always be governed by dictators.” The National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won 82 percent of the seats in Burma’s 1990 election. It has called on foreign companies not to invest in Burma because of the role investment plays in perpetuating dictatorship in that country. All the major ethnic leaderships from Burma have whole-heartedly supported this position too. Therefore, the mandate from which companies are asked not to invest in Burma comes from within the country. This report gathers together much of the available evidence relating to TOTAL’s role in fuelling the oppressive dictatorship in Burma. Broadly, it covers human rights abuses associated with TOTAL’s gas pipeline, TOTAL’s financing of Burma’s dictatorship and TOTAL’s influence on French foreign policy and therefore on European Burma policy as a whole. TOTAL’s presence in Burma has consequences far beyond its 63-kilometre pipeline across Burmese territory. Its destructive influence goes to the heart of international policy towards one of the world’s most brutal regimes. For that reason, it is essential for all those who want change in Burma to deal with the problem of TOTAL Oil. As long as TOTAL remains in Burma, the dictatorship will be satisfied that the chances of real pressure against it are unlikely..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Buram Campaign UK
      Format/size: pdf (691K)
      Alternate URLs: http://burmacampaign.org.uk/images/uploads/total_report.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: The Burma-Thailand Gas Debacle
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "Thailand’s state-controlled gas firm signed up for two expensive gas deals that it later realized it didn’t want. Burma has used the revenue to finance an arms build-up. In 1989 with the treasury bare, Burma’s ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, as the junta then called itself, opened up petroleum exploration to foreign oil companies. In the short term Rangoon profited from signing bonuses paid for exploration blocks. If any of the firms struck commercially viable oil or gas, Burma would collect free rents from petroleum exports that would help maintain an unelected, unpopular administration in power..."
      Author/creator: Bruce Hawke
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      Title: US Businesses Fret over Unocal Cases
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: "For the first time, an American corporation is going to trial for human rights abuses committed by a government with which it did business. Unocal, the US $11 billion oil company headquartered in El Segundo, California is being held liable by a group of Burmese villagers for human right abuses committed by a business partner in Burma in a case before the California Superior Court. The case, John Doe et al versus Unocal, has caused disquiet within the US business community..."
      Author/creator: Anna Sussman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project. Field Visit Report November 22 – December 6, 2003 (Third Visit )
      Date of publication: February 2004
      Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: "The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities in the context in which they work. Based on this analysis, CEP helps companies to develop management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. Against this background, Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant, and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP, visited Thailand and Myanmar/Burma from November 22 – December 6, 2003 to visit the Yadana pipeline joint venture project, operated by Total. This trip was a follow-up to our previous visits conducted in October 2002, and in May 2003. This report should be read in combination with the two earlier reports, which are available at: www.cdainc.com/cep. Our purpose, as in all CEP field visits, was to examine both the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. Because we examined the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to Total’s role as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners: Total, Unocal, MOGE and PTTEP. After the introduction, in which we explain our approach, the report is divided into two parts. The first section reports on the direct and indirect impacts of the Yadana project within the so-called pipeline corridor. This is the geographical area on both sides of the pipeline that Total has defined as the local working environment on which it focuses its attention. Direct impacts take place through the Socio-Economic Program (referred to in the report as Socio-Econ Program) implemented by the company. Indirect impacts occur simply through the presence of the company and its effects on human rights in the pipeline corridor. The second section explores a range of opinions of Myanmar people not living in the pipeline corridor on a variety of topics such as freedom, expectations concerning the company, and the impacts of sanctions on the country. We report these “voices” of people because for the company to ensure its presence has a positive impact on society, it first needs to gain a better understanding of how it can respond to the aspirations of those beyond the pipeline corridor also impacted by its activities. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. In all of CEP’s efforts, we work to establish partnerships between groups with different agendas with the ultimate objective of increasing the positive impact that companies have, or can have, on the quality of life of people where they operate. The purpose of this report, as of our earlier reports, is to contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders on the options for positive corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context..."
      Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Doug Fraser
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
      Format/size: pdf (275K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project Field Visit: April 22 – May 2, 2003 (Second Visit)
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort, involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the contexts in which they work. Based on site visits, CEP aims to identify and analyze the challenges for corporations that recur across companies and across contexts. Based on the patterns that emerge, CEP develops management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. In this context, Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant, and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP, visited Myanmar from April 22 – May 3, 2003 to visit the Yadana pipeline project, operated by Total, as a follow up to our first visit conducted in October 2002. This visit was the second CEP visit to the Yadana Project in what is planned as a series of three visits. To avoid duplication, this report should be read in combination with the first report (available at http://www.cdainc.com/cep/cep-casestudylist.htm). Our purpose, as in all CEP field visits, was to examine the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. The CEP team intends to visit Thailand to explore allegations from several international NGOs that people originating from the pipeline area were displaced into Thailand. If people had to leave Myanmar/Burma recently for reasons related to the pipeline or the presence of oil companies, this would be important for CEP to know. The trip will serve the following purposes: * To learn additional information related to the impact of the pipeline on local civilians. We want to address the possibility that we only hear positive stories about the pipeline from people currently residing in the corridor, while people that were possibly forced to leave the corridor might tell of a different reality... * To verify why CDA’s observations in the pipeline area differ from the observations in some of the reports produced by international NGOs about the impact of the pipeline on the local contexts... * To explore rumors in the business community in Thailand and Myanmar/Burma (and among NGOs themselves) that some NGOs make a “business” of producing allegations against companies, based on testimonies from Myanmar/Burmese refugees. This is of concern to CEP because if CEP is unable to confirm allegations that “NGOs fabricate “evidence,” it supports the credibility of the NGOs that make allegations or advocate on behalf of Myanmar/Burmese refugees. On the other side, if the fabrication of evidence is confirmed, this would support sentiments in the business community that allegations should not be taken seriously. This undermines the ability of individuals with genuine grievances against companies to be heard... We attempted to arrange the trip from Bangkok to Northern Thailand to precede this visit, but logistically it was not feasible (during the water festival), and therefore the trip has been postponed to coincide with the third visit. Because we were examining the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to Total’s role as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners. The point of departure for any CEP visit is what we observe on site and what we hear that is substantiated both by examples and by consistent repetition. Although familiarity with the history of a project and region is indispensable for understanding current operations and policies, we neither validate nor invalidate past operational policies or their impacts, unless we observe these in current dynamics. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. We hope, as well, that this report will contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders, on the options for corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context. After the introduction, in which our methodology is explained, the report is divided into two parts. The first section reports on the direct and indirect impacts of the Yadana project within the pipeline area. Direct impacts take place through the Socio-Economic Program implemented by the company. But equally important, according to villagers, is the indirect impact of Total’s presence on the human rights situation in general, and forced labor in particular, in the immediate region. The second section explores the company’s impact on the broader national context. Addressing both the local impacts as well as the impacts of the pipeline on the national social and political level is a challenge for any company working in the country. In order to address these challenges, Total will need to develop a clear vision and coherent strategy to support this vision. We will discuss some of the building blocks for such a strategy and suggest options that could enable the company to constructively address these challenges while continuing its operations.
      Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Doug Fraser
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
      Format/size: pdf (285K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project Field Visit: October 18 - 30, 2002 (First Visit)
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: Corporate Engagement Project – Myanmar/Burma report November 2002...PREFACE: The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort, involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the contexts in which they work. Based on site visits, CEP aims to identify and analyze the challenges for corporations that recur across companies and across contexts. Based on the patterns that emerge, CEP develops management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. In this context, a team of three (Mary B. Anderson, President of the Collaborative for Development Action; Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant; and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP) traveled to Myanmar from October 18 – 30, 2002 to visit the Yadana pipeline project, operated by TotalFinaElf (TFE). Our purpose, as in all our visits, was to examine the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. While our focus was on these interactions at many levels, our review inevitably also included a consideration of the corporation’s effects on the human rights situation in the region of the pipeline and beyond in the country at large. The point of departure for any CEP visit is what we observe on site and what we hear that is substantiated both by examples and by consistent repetition. Although familiarity with the history of a project and region is indispensable for understanding current operations and policies, we neither validate nor invalidate past operational policies or their impacts, unless we observe these in current dynamics. Therefore, this visit was focused on analyzing present operations and policies and their positive or negative consequences on people living in the contexts of operations. This focus follows the same approach undertaken in all CEP work with corporations that participate in the Corporate Engagement Project. As a matter of principle, the Corporate Engagement Project works with all corporations who wish to be engaged and who express their interest in understanding and improving their relations with communities where they work. This visit was the first CEP visit to the Yadana Project in what is planned as a series of three. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. We hope, as well, that this report will contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders, on the options for corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context. Because we were examining the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to TotalFinaElf’s role (TFE) as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners.
      Author/creator: Mary Anderson, Doug Fraser and Luc Zandvliet
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
      Format/size: pdf (284K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


      Title: Pipelines That Bind
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: Even as they remain locked in conflict along their northern border, Thailand and Burma continue to foster their mutual economic dependency. Energy-hungry Thailand has announced that it will pay US$ 300 million payment for contracted gas from Burma by March 31, easing pressure on the cash-starved Burmese regime as it continues to mount offensives against insurgent groups along the Thai-Burma border. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand PTT has also revealed that it is negotiating to take an additional 10-15% over contracted volumes of natural gas from Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Breakthroughs and Bad News for Oil Investors
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: Thailand has finally decided to pay up, and Unocal feels vindicated, but investors in Burma's oil industry are still beset with problems, according to recent reports. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand PTT has revealed that it paid a consortium developing the Yadana offshore oilfield US $277 million at the end of July, ending two years of speculation over whether it would compensate the group for unused gas.
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: Totally Undeniable
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: While Judge Ronald Lew has dismissed the case charging Unocal withliability for human rights abuses, attorneys of the plaintiffs are encouraged by prospects for a successful appeal.
      Author/creator: Jed Greer and Tyler Giannini/EarthRights International
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Total Denial Continues - Earth rights abuses along the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in Burma
      Date of publication: May 2000
      Description/subject: "Three Western oil companies -- Total, Premier and Unocal -- bent on exploiting natural gas , entered partnerships with the brutal Burmese military regime. Since the early 1990's, a terrible drama has been unfolding in Burma. Three western oil companies -- Total, Premier, and Unocal -- entered into partnerships with the brutal Burmese miltary regime to build the Yadana and Yetagun natural gas pipelines. The regime created a highly militarized pipelinecorridor in what had previously been a relatively peaceful area, resulting in violent suppression of dissent, environmental destruction, forced labor and portering, forced relocations, torture, rape, and summary executions. EarthRights International co-founder Ka Hsaw Wa and a team of field staff traveled on both sides of the Thai-Burmese border in the Tenasserim region to document the conditions in the pipeline corridor. In the nearly four years since the release of "Total Denial" (1996), the violence and forced labor in the pipeline region have continued unabated. This report builds on the evidence in "Total Denial" and brings to light several new facets of the tragedy in the Tenasserim region. Keywords:, human rights, environment, forced relocation, internal displacement, foreign investment. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Earthrights International
      Format/size: pdf (6MB - OBL ... 20MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/files/Reports/TotalDenialCont-2ndEdition.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Rapport d'information N° 1859 depose par la Commission Des Affaires Étrangeres
      Date of publication: 13 October 1999
      Description/subject: Sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental.
      Author/creator: Mme Marie-Helene Aubert, M. Pierre Brana, M. Roland Blum (rapporteurs)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
      Format/size: 976K
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Rapport d'information N°1859 (Sommaire Des Comptes Rendus d'Auditions)
      Date of publication: 12 October 1999
      Description/subject: sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental. (Report by a French parliamentary commission on the political, social and environmental impact of oil companies, including Total's activities in Burma - French only)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
      Format/size: 953K
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/i1859-02.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Pipeline Politics
      Date of publication: February 1998
      Description/subject: "As long as there is no accountable government in Burma," explains opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, "I do not think the money generated by the gas pipeline can be said to be invested for the country as a whole...."
      Author/creator: By Yurdle
      Language: english
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Birmanie, la dictature du pavot
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: La drogue, petrole, la junte birmane, la France...Le livre de Francis Christophe (moins Introduction et Annexe). DU ROI THEBAW A LA FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION; LA MONTEE DE l'OPIUM EN BIRMANIE; L'ARRIVEE EN FORCE DU SLORC; LA REDDITION-REHABILITATION DE KHUN SA; LE SLORC, REINCARNATION DE LA DICTATURE PRECEDENTE; PARRAINAGES ET RESEAUX; LE PARAVENT DE L'ENGAGEMENT CONSTRUCTIF; LES AMIS DU SLORC; INDE-BIRMANIE: L'HEROINE BOUSCULE LE STATU-QUO; NARCO-REACTION EN CHAINE; EXCEPTION FRANCAISE; LA CHUTE de MANDALAY; MIRAGE ET TABOU SUR LA DROGUE; DIPLOMATIE PETROLIERE TOTAL EN BIRMANIE, L'IMPLANTATION; LE FARDEAU BIRMAN; SUCCES SUR LE TERRAIN, DIFFICULTES MEDIATIQUES; LES CIRCUITS POLITIQUES ET ECONOMIQUES; UNE FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION? UN ENGAGEMENT DESTRUCTEUR.
      Author/creator: Francis Christophe
      Language: Francais, French
      Format/size: 270K
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: BURMA, TOTAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS: DISSECTION OF A PROJECT:
      Date of publication: November 1996
      Description/subject: I - Project Description: A. Figures and facts; B. Development of the construction; C. The pipeline route and the protection of the construction sites; D. Methods of employment... II - Support for the junta: A. An act of moral and political support; B. Disregard for civil society and its legitimate representatives - TOTAL'S interest in upholding the junta; C. Economic support; D. Logistical and military support... III - A Judicial Void: A. The coup d'etat and the absence of rule of law; B. Burma's obligations under international law... IV - Human Rights Violations in conjunction with the Pipeline:- A. Militarisation: 1. Attacks on the project; 2. Reprisals... B. Forced relocation of the population: 1. Evictions from villages; 2. Expropriations... C. Forced labour: 1. Forced labour and the general infrastructure; 2. Forced labour and security; 3. The case of the Ye-Tavoy railway; 4. The porters of the Burmese army... D. Other violations: 1. Summary executions; 2. Torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading practices; 3. Rape and violence against women; 4. Violations of economic, social and cultural rights; 5. Environmental rights... V - Conclusions and Recommendations.
      Author/creator: Beatrice Laroche, Anne-Christine Habbard
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
      Format/size: pdf (437K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 August 2005


      Title: Birmanie, Total et les droits de l'Homme: dissection d'un chantier
      Date of publication: October 1996
      Description/subject: Rapport de situation (octobre 1996). Béatrice Laroche (adjointe à la délégation permanente de la FIDH auprès des Nations-Unies à New-York) et Anne-Christine Habbard (chargée de mission au Bureau Exécutif de la FIDH).
      Author/creator: Béatrice Laroche, Anne-Christine Habbard
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Total Denial - A Report on the Yadana Pipeline Project in Burma
      Date of publication: 10 July 1996
      Description/subject: "'Total Denial' catalogues the systematic human rights abuses and environmental degradation perpetrated by SLORC as the regime seeks to consolidate its power base in the gas pipeline region. Further, the report shows that investment in projects such as the Yadana pipeline not only gives tacit approval and support to the repressive SLORC junta but also exacerbates the grave human rights and environmental problems in Burma.... The research indicates that gross human rights violations, including summary executions, torture, forced labor and forced relocations, have occurred as a result of natural gas development projects funded by European and North American corporations. In addition to condemning transnational corporate complicity with the SLORC regime, the report also presents the perspectives of those most directly impacted by the foreign investment who for too long have silently endured the abuses meted out by SLORC for the benefit of its foreign corporate partners." ...Additional keywords: environment, human rights violations.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI) and Southeast Asian Information Network (SAIN)
      Format/size: pdf (310K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Yetagun Field (Petronas, JX Holdings, Inc. -- formerly Nippon Oil Corp., PTTEP, MOGE )
      Petronas (Malaysia; 40.91%), JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration (Japan; 19.31%),78 PTTEP (Thailand; 19.31%), and MOGE (Burma; 20.45%).79.....Premier Oil's Burma investment was taken over by Petronas.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Premier Oil (MYANMAR)
      Description/subject: Archival material
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/?lid=300
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 15 December 2010
      Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
      Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


      Title: Mitsubishi to Invest $70 Million in Yetagun
      Date of publication: July 2000
      Description/subject: Japanese trading company Mitsubishi Corporation has announced that it will provide US $70 million to build a floating storage offloading FSO facility for the Yetagun offshore oil and natural gas project in Burma by the end of July. [Nippon Oil, holder of 20% in Yetagun, merged with Mitsubishi Oil in April 1999 to form Japan's biggest oil company, the Nippon-Mitsubishi Oil Corporation(NMOC) known also as Nisseki Mitsubishi Oil Corp.]
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Premier Oil Admits Abuses in Burma
      Date of publication: 16 May 2000
      Description/subject: Executive denials crumble under pressure from rights groups and UK government.
      Author/creator: Terry Macalister
      Source/publisher: Guardian
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: Myanmar and Premier Oil public statement
      Date of publication: 12 April 2000
      Description/subject: Public statement by Amnesty International. "Amnesty International is astonished that Premier Oil, in response to a call by the UK Government that it withdraw from Myanmar, has said in a news wire report that the company's ongoing dialogue with Amnesty International 'had made a significant difference in Myanmar.' The organization does not believe that this is the case. In fact, the human rights situation there continues to be extremely grave ..."
      Language: English, Spanish
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/002/2000/en/3ddd5241-df5d-11dd-acaa-7d9091d4638f/asa1... (Spanish)
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/002/2000/en
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


      Title: Premier Stays in, Baker Hughes Pulls Out
      Date of publication: April 2000
      Description/subject: Premier Oil has said that it will not leave Burma as it was requested to do by the British government. "It is our intention to stay," said CEO Charles Jamieson, citing Premier's obligations to its partners in the controversial Yetagun gas project and his belief that "dialogue engagement" will work best to bring about political change in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Nippon, Mitsubishi Oil to Merge into Japan;'s Largest Oil Firm
      Date of publication: February 1999
      Source/publisher: Kyodo
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Pipe-Dreams?
      Date of publication: June 1997
      Description/subject: The largest shareholder and operator of Burma's Yetagun gas field, Texaco, has appointed an investment banker to seek buyers of Texaco's 42.9% stake in Burma's Yetagun gas field. Hassan Marican, president of Malaysia's Petronas, is considering purchasing Texaco's shares. During Texaco's annual shareholder meeting in May the company cited financial rather than human rights concerns as grounds for the sale.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Petronas Home Page
      Description/subject: Malaysian Government-owned company Petronas has the biggest block of shares in the Yetagun project, and also owns 25% of Premier Oil
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Japanese investment

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Myanmar–Japan Bilateral Investment Treaty
    Date of publication: 12 September 2014
    Description/subject: "...This note examines some of the key legal and policy implications of the Myanmar–Japan Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT). This treaty was signed on December 15, 2013 but, at the time of writing, does not appear to have entered into force. Although Myanmar is already a party to a handful of bilateral and multilateral investment treaties, the Myanmar–Japan BIT is particularly significant for two reasons. The first is that it is the first investment treaty to be negotiated and signed by the transitional government that took power in 2011. As such, it provides insights into how the current Government might approach other investment treaty negotiations over the coming years. The second reason is that the Myanmar–Japan BIT differs significantly from recent ASEAN investment treaty practice (to which Myanmar is a party). For one, the investment protection provisions of the Myanmar–Japan BIT use older- style language, thereby leaving leeway for investment tribunals to limit Myanmar’s policy space in a manner that would not be possible under the ASEAN investment treaties. Myanmar also appears to provide more extensive pre-establishment rights to Japan than it provides to ASEAN member states under the ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ASEAN CIA), and it could be argued that the rights granted to Japanese investors must now also be extended to investors of the other nine ASEAN states..."
    Author/creator: Jonathan Bonnitcha
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Institute for Sustainable Development
    Format/size: pdf (919K-reduced version; 1.63MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.iisd.org/sites/default/files/publications/myanmar-japan-bilateral-investment-treaty.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 September 2014


    Title: Mitsubishi to Invest $70 Million in Yetagun
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Japanese trading company Mitsubishi Corporation has announced that it will provide US $70 million to build a floating storage offloading FSO facility for the Yetagun offshore oil and natural gas project in Burma by the end of July. [Nippon Oil, holder of 20% in Yetagun, merged with Mitsubishi Oil in April 1999 to form Japan's biggest oil company, the Nippon-Mitsubishi Oil Corporation(NMOC) known also as Nisseki Mitsubishi Oil Corp.]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Gambling on Japan
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: In recent years Japan has attempted to assert itself as a major player on the Asian political stage, only to have its efforts rebuffed by its neighbors and its major strategic partner, the United States. But, writes Neil Lawrence, Asian countries struggling out of a major economic crisis may finally be ready to give Japan the leading role it has long coveted. But doubts remain about Japan's political values.
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Greedy" Regime Stuns Japanese
    Date of publication: February 2000
    Description/subject: Officials in Japan, historically Burma's largest creditor, have been left shaking their heads over the SPDC's latest efforts to tap into the wealth of Asia's richest nation.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2 (Business section)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "One Trip to Myanmar and Everyone Would Love the Country"
    Date of publication: December 1998
    Description/subject: Burma-Japan relations go back to before World War II, and the opinions of Japan's "old Burma hands" are often better informed about internal conditions than those of Western observers, even if one doesn't entirely agree with them. But a new Japanese perspective on Burma has emerged, which could be described as "Aung San Suu Kyi-bashing" or "hitching one's wagon to the star of Asian values."
    Author/creator: Donald Seekins
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. V No 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Panel Set to Examine EC's Complaint Against US Tax Treatment for FSCs
    Date of publication: 29 October 1998
    Description/subject: The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), on 21 October, established a panel to examine complaints by the European Communities and Japan that a Massachusetts law had violated provisions of the plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: WTO NEWS
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


    Title: Japan Seeks Respect - But from Whom?
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: Japan's resumption of ODA to Burma's junta begs questions about its motives and what its political values really are.
    Author/creator: LJN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Singaporean investment

    Individual Documents

    Title: Flying High
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: "There’s confidence in the air over Burma as a new airline prepares to take off... When a relatively unknown investment group came forward on April 1 with plans for another airline for Burma, some dismissed the announcement as an April Fool’s prank. With all the cards already stacked against Burma’s economy and turbulent aviation industry—in the form of tourism boycotts and tightened economic sanctions—who would be brave, or foolish, enough to bank on a brand new airline? The answer is Edward Tan, Chief Executive of Hong Kong-based Sunshine Strategic Investments, and a conglomerate of Sino-Burmese investors. The group is keen to give the Burmese people what Tan describes as "a better airline with better management."..."
    Author/creator: Anthony Faraday and Naw Seng
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 11. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    Title: Singapore Shrug
    Date of publication: August 2002
    Description/subject: "...Singapore�s economic relationship with Burma went through a honeymoon period that lasted through the mid-1990s, and ended about the time Burma joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) in July 1997�roughly coinciding with the start of a financial crisis that afflicted most of the region. Since then, Singapore�s enthusiasm for one of the region�s last investment frontiers has cooled dramatically. And to date, there has been little to indicate that Singaporean corporations are preparing for an equally dramatic reentry into Burma�s troubled economy..."
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 10. No. 6, July-August 2002
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Tourism
    See Tourism (top-level, Main Library)

  • Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings (UMEH)
    UMEH negotiates and enters joint ventures with foreign investors

    Individual Documents

    Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
    Date of publication: 20 November 2003
    Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


  • United States investment

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Chevron in Myanmar
    Description/subject: As one of four partners, a Chevron subsidiary has a nonoperating, minority interest in the Yadana gas field offshore Myanmar in the Andaman Sea and in a 249-mile (401-km) natural gas pipeline. The Yadana Project is operated by Total, a French international energy company, and is helping meet the increasing demand for energy in Southeast Asia.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chevron
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Chevron website
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chevron
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.chevron.com/search/?k=myanmar&text=myanmar&Header=FromHeader&ct=All%20Types
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: EarthRights International: Burma Project
    Description/subject: "EarthRights International's Burma Project collects vital on-the-ground information about the human rights and environmental situation in Burma. Since 1995, ERI has worked in Burma to monitor the impacts of the military regime's policies and activities on local populations and ecosystems. ERI's staff has gathered a vast body of valuable, rare information about the state of the military regime's war on its peoples and its environment. Through gathering testimonies, grassroots organizing, and distributing information through campaign work, the Burma Project has made a significant contribution to human rights and environment protection in Burma. Where possible, we link our grassroots fact-finding missions and community organizing with regional and international level advocacy and campaigning. We work alongside affected community groups to prevent human rights and environmental abuses associated with large-scale development projects in Burma. Currently, the Burma Project focuses on large-scale dams, oil and gas development, and mining. We share experiences and resources with local communities, as well as provide assistance relevant to community needs. Over the past 10 years the Burma Project has raised awareness about the alarming depletion of resources in Burma and their relationship to a vast array of human rights abuses, as well as the local, national, and regional implications of these practices."...Sections on Dams, Mining, Oil & Gas and Other Areas of Work.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org
    http://www.earthrights.org/taxonomy/term/148
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility
    Description/subject: Interfaith investment funds, Shareholder action, corporate responsibility, corporate accountability, selective purchasing, sanctions, business in Burma, divstment, companies, corporations, Halliburton, Unocal, Total, MOGE etc... search for Burma, Unocal etc.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Trillium Asset Management
    Description/subject: Socially responsible investment, selective purchasing, shareholder action, corporate withdrawal, disinvestment etc.
    Language: English
    Format/size: Search for Burma
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: US-ASEAN Business Council (Myanmar page)
    Description/subject: Many useful links but there are no events to display for this time period.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010