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Foreign investment in oil and gas

  • Oil and gas - general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Oilwatch-SEA
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: oilwatch-SEA
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 November 2004


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar delays energy tender to improve transparency
    Date of publication: 05 September 2012
    Description/subject: Myanmar has delayed an oil and gas exploration tender to meet the transparency standards of the Western energy majors lining up, many for the first time, to invest in the rapidly reforming nation, a senior energy ministry official said.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reuters via Arakan Oil Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


    Title: Burma’s Frontier Appeal Lures Shadowy Oil Firms
    Date of publication: 09 May 2012
    Description/subject: While the major non-American Western oil companies adopt and wait-and-see policy and US firms remain barred by Washington’s sanctions, shadowy oil enterprises are gaining footholds in Burma. Among firms which have recently won licenses to explore for oil and gas are little-known businesses based in Panama, Nigeria and Azerbaijan—countries where corporate accountability can be murky. Not only does the bidding process remain opaque, the pedigree of some of the participants is too..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 May 2012


    Title: Natural Gas Export Revenue, Fiscal Balance and Inflation in Myanmar
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "While natural gas exports have brought a large amount of foreign currency revenue to the Government of Myanmar, their contribution to reducing monetization of the fiscal deficit and disinflation has been obscure. The immediate reason is that under the country's dual exchange rate system, the revenue is converted at the grossly overvalued official rate which undervalues it in terms of the local currency by 1/200. However, devaluation would only improve the fiscal balance and not reduce the excess money supply since the central bank cannot sterilize the impact of the foreign reserve increase. As a policy reform to utilize the revenue for disinflation, this study proposes deregulation of the strict controls on foreign exchange."... Keywords: Myanmar, Disinflation, Natural Resource Exports, Dual Exchange Rates
    Author/creator: Koji KUBO
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO
    Format/size: pdf (495K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


    Title: The Caribbean Connection
    Date of publication: August 2008
    Description/subject: Gas and oil companies are using offshore tax havens to disguise their investments in Burma... "BANGKOK — GAS and oil companies are using British offshore tax havens in the Caribbean and Bermuda to disguise their investments in Burma, avoiding international sanctions and public attention. Enlarge Image Despite US and EU sanctions, intended to isolate the military regime and force democratic change, Burma’s natural gas industry in particular is booming. Some of the investment comes from neighboring China, Thailand and India, countries that oppose sanctions. However, human rights campaigners say there is still considerable financial involvement by Western companies—and much of it is camouflaged..."
    Author/creator: William Boot
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


  • Arakan (Shwe) gas field

    • Shwe gas field and pipeline -- reports and articles

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: The Shwe Gas Movement
      Description/subject: "The SHWE Gas Movement is concerned with a natural gas pipeline project presently unfolding in Western Burma... In cooperation with Burma's military junta, a consortium of Indian and Korean corporations are currently exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State in Western Burma. Discovered in December 2003, these fields--labeled A-1, or "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold)--are expected to hold one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. These Shwe fields could well become the Burmese military government's largest single source of foreign income... However, for the people of Burma this project will likely bring more suffering than benefits. It is the opinion of the SHWE Gas Movement that the following issues are very likely outcomes if the pipeline project goes ahead unchecked:... Exploitation of the Voiceless: In order to transport the gas to India, a pipeline corridor is already being cleared in the minority Burmese states of Arakan and Chin. Moreover, the area is becoming increasingly militarised and forced labour is occurring in the context of infrastructure development... Large-scale Human Rights Abuses and Militarisation: As experience with two previous international Burmese gas pipeline projects -- the Yadana and the Yetagun -- suggest, forced relocation of villagers, forced labour, torture, rape and extrajudicial killings will result from the Shwe project... Environmental and Cultural Destruction: Because proper social and environmental impact assessments have not been carried out, the extent of the project's impact on the local population and environment can hardly be determined, but the Burmese military has a long history of environmental and cultural degradation... The Entrenchment of the Burmese Military Regime: Just as the Yadana and Yetagun projects provided a context for the Burmese military regime to extend its reach into minority and opposition areas, so too is the Shwe project providing an excuse to further militarize and exploit the frontier areas of Arakan and Chin state. Meanwhile, when the money from this project begins flowing into the junta's coffers, this will only increase the military's grip over the rest of Burma. Burma's current state of affairs is well known. The regime's poor human rights record has led most governments and many international organisations and institutions to condemn Burma's state terror and pass sanctions and investment bans against the country. This approach, also supported by the majority of Burma's opposition movement and Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is meant to apply economic and political pressure on the regime and kick-start a process of democratisation. At the same time, several countries, such as the regional neighbours Thailand, India, China and Malaysia, promote constructive engagement with the regime as opposed to international isolation. According to their arguments, constructive engagement will promote economic development, integrate the country into the international community, and eventually instigate a full transfer to democracy. To date, however, progress in democratisation and human rights is yet to show, which seriously questions the viability of constructive engagement. Indeed, most foreign investment and development projects have caused more suffering than good because of the direct involvement of Burma's military. Thus, as argued by the Nobel Laureate and winner of the 1990 elections in Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, "until we have a system that guarantees rules of law and basic democratic institutions, no amount of aid or investment will benefit our people." We, the SHWE Gas Movement, ask the governments and corporations involved to halt the project until there is assurance that the people of the whole of Burma and Western Burma in particular can participate in the decision-making process and benefit from this project and not suffer the same fate as the people affected by the Yadana and the Yetagun pipelines. We ask you for your support in achieving this goal."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 March 2005


      Individual Documents

      Title: Statement by Local Residents at Ramree Island regarding Shwe Gas Project, Deep Sea Port, and Oil and Gas Pipeline (English, Burmese, Chinese)
      Date of publication: 02 May 2013
      Description/subject: "Construction of Daewoo’s Shwe gas project, as well as CNPC’s Maday deep sea port and oil and gas pipeline have damaged our (local people’s) livelihoods and environment in Kyauk Phu Township since 2009. Additionally, there has been ongoing forcible land confiscation, providing no compensation or a limited amount of compensation for the confiscated rice farms and lands. We, the local affected people, were not informed or consulted by the companies regarding the positive or negative impacts of the projects before the implementation of these projects until today. Furthermore, we were not informed of whether an EIA or SIA had been conducted before the implementation of the projects. Therefore, we have been deeply concerned about the possibility of the total destruction of our major livelihoods such as farming and fishing, as the projects have already negatively impacted our livelihoods..."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ, Chinese
      Source/publisher: Local Residents at Ramree Island (20 local groups and villages)
      Format/size: pdf (64K-English; 63K-Burmese; 144K-Chinese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Ramree_Oil_and_Gas_Statement-bu.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Ramree_Oil_and_Gas_Statement-ch.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


      Title: "There is no benefit, they destroyed our farmland" (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 08 April 2013
      Description/subject: WITH SUBSTANTIAL SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS, INCLUDING A PHOTO ESSAY...Selected Land and Livelihood Impacts Along the Shwe Natural Gas and China-Myanmar Oil Transport Pipeline from Rakhine State to Mandalay Division..."Yesterday, we published a photo essay and companion report highlighting the severe impacts of the Shwe natural gas and Myanmar-China oil transport pipelines on the lives and livelihoods of local communities living around these mega-projects. Set for operation later this year, these Chinese and Korean led projects will transport Myanmar and foreign resources to China while providing little benefits to communities; lands have been taken, destroyed and damaged with inadequate compensation to make way for the dual pipelines and associated infrastructure. Based on over one year of on-the-ground fact-finding inside Myanmar by EarthRights International, the photos and essay amplify the voices of communities who are calling for the projects to be suspended or diverted to avoid ongoing harms..."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
      Format/size: html (87K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/multimedia/essay/photo-essay-selected-impacts-shwe-natural-gas-myanmar-c...
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Shwe-Essay-Selected-Impacts-Myanmar-Language.pdf
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Shwe-Photo-Essay-Captions-Myanmar-Language.pdf
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/daewoo-land-acquisition-english.pdf
      http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/Daewoo-Land-Acquisition-Burmese.pdf
      http://www.earthrights.org/campaigns/press-coverage-shwe-gas-and-myanmar-china-oil-projects
      http://www.earthrights.org/campaigns/civil-society-reports-statements-shwe-and-myanmar-china-oil-an...
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


      Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 17 December 2012
      Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012


      Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 07 November 2012
      Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
      http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%2... (Summary in Chinese)
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


      Title: Sold Out - Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma
      Date of publication: 07 September 2011
      Description/subject: "Construction of various project components to extract, process, and export the Shwe gas - as well as oil trans-shipments from Africa and the Middle East - is now well underway. Local peoples are losing their land and fishing grounds without finding new job opportunities. Workers that have found lowpaying temporary jobs are exploited and fired for demanding basic rights. Women face unequal wages, discrimination in the compensation process, and vulnerabilities in the growing sex industry around the project. Resentment against the so-called Shwe Gas Project is growing and communities are beginning to stand up against abuses and exploitation. Despite threats and risk of arrest, farmers and local residents are sending complaints to local authorities. Laborers are striking for better pay and working conditions and women running households are demanding electricity. Burma’s military government is exporting massive world-class natural gas reserves found off the country’s western coast, sacrificing the country’s future economic security and dashing chances of electrification and job creation. The “Shwe” offshore fields will produce trillions of cubic feet of natural gas that could be used to spur economic and social development in one of the world’s least developed nations. Instead it will be piped across the country to China, fuelling abuses and conflict along its path. Meanwhile active fighting has broken out between armed resistance groups and government troops in the area of the pipeline corridor in northern Burma. The Korean, Chinese and Indian companies involved in this project are taking tremendous risks with their reputations and investments. Social tensions, armed conflict, human rights abuses, and lack of project standards have raised concerns in investor circles and caused at least one pension fund to divest from the Korean fi rm Daewoo International, the main developer of the gas fields. Genuine development can only be achieved when community rights and the environment are protected, affected peoples share in benefits, and transparency and accountability mechanisms are in place. The Shwe Gas and China-Burma Pipelines projects must be suspended and all financing frozen or divested until such conditions exist..."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB - English; 4.2MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/SoldOut(bu)-red.pdf
      http://www.shwe.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/SoldOut-Web-Verstoin.pdf
      http://www.shwe.org/campaign-update/sold-out-new-report/
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


      Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
      Date of publication: 15 December 2010
      Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
      Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


      Title: Overview of Land Confiscation in Arakan State
      Date of publication: June 2010
      Description/subject: Introduction: "The following analysis has been compiled to bring attention to a wider audience of many of the problems facing the people of Burma, especially in Arakan State. The analysis focuses particularly on the increase in land confiscation resulting from intensifying military deployment in order to magnify security around a number of governmental developments such as the Shwe Gas, Kaladan, and Hydropower projects in western Burma of Arakan State...Conclusion: "The SPDC's ongoing parallel policy of increasing militarisation while increased forced land confiscation to house and feed the increasing troop numbers causes widespread problems throughout Burma. By stripping people of the land upon which peopl's livelihoods are based, whilst providing only desultory compensation if any at all, many citizens face threats to their food security as well as water shortages, a decrease or abolition of their income, eradicating their ability to educate their children in order to create a sustainable income source in the future. Additionally, the policy of using forced labour in the Government's construction and development projects, coupled with the disastrous environmental effects of many of these projects, continues to create severe health problems throughout the country whilst simultaneously stifling the local economy so that varied or sustainable work is difficult to become engaged in. All of this often leads to people fleeing the country in search of a better life."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: All Arakan Students' and Youths' Congress (AASYC)
      Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 16 June 2010


      Title: Corridor of Power - China’s Trans-Burma Oil and Gas pipelines
      Date of publication: 07 September 2009
      Description/subject: Introduction: "On June 16, 2009 China's Vice-President Xi Jinping and Burma's Vice-Senior General Maung Aye signed a memorandum of understanding relating to the development, operation and management of the "Myanmar-China Crude Oil Pipeline Projects." After years of brokering deals and planning, China has cemented its place not only as the sole buyer of Burma's massive Shwe Gas reserves, but also the creator of a new trans-Burma corridor to secure shipment of its oil imports from the Middle East and Africa. China's largest oil and gas producer -the China National Petroleum Corporation or CNPC - will build nearly 4,000 kilometers of dual oil and gas pipelines across the heartland of Burma beginning in September 2009. CNPC will also purchase offshore natural gas reserves, handing the military junta ruling Burma a conservative estimate of one billion US dollars a year over the next 30 years. Burma ranks tenth in the world in terms of natural gas reserves yet the per capita electricity consumption is less than 5% that of neighbouring Thailand and China. Burma already receives US$ 2.4 billion per year - nearly 50 percent of revenues from exports - from natural gas sales but spends a pittance on health and education; one reason it was ranked as the second-most corrupt country in the world in 2008. Entrenched corruption combined with energy shortages have led to social unrest in the conflict-ridden country; unprecedented demonstrations in 2007 were sparked by a spike in fuel prices. An estimated 13,200 soldiers are currently positioned along the pipeline route. Past experience has shown that pipeline construction and maintenance in Burma involves forced labour, forced relocation, land confiscation, and a host of abuses by soldiers deployed to the project area. A lack of transparency or assessment mechanisms leaves critical ecosystems under threat as well. Yet it is not only the people of Burma who are facing grave risks from these projects. The corporations, governments, and financiers involved also face serious financial and security risks. A re-ignition of fighting between the regime and ceasefire armies stationed along the pipeline route; an unpredictable business environment that could arbitrarily seize property or assets; and public relations disasters as a result of complicity in human rights abuses and environmental destruction all threaten investments. The Shwe Gas Movement is therefore calling companies and governments to suspend the Shwe Gas and Trans-Burma Corridor projects; shareholders, institutional investors and pension funds to divest their holdings in these companies; and banks to refrain from financing these projects unless affected peoples are protected."
      Language: English, Burmese (press releases in also in Chinese and Thai)
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB, 2.3MB, English version; 7.7MB, Burmese version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.shwe.org/ (press releases in English, Burmese, Chinese and Thai)
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Corridor_of_PowerSGM-bu.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/CorridorofPower-SGM-red.pdf (English)
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2009


      Title: A Governance Gap: The Failure of the Korean Government to hold Korean Corporations Accountable to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Regarding Violations in Burma
      Date of publication: 15 June 2009
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report is intended to inform the upcoming meetings of the OECD Investment Committee in Paris, France in 2009. It documents substantive errors in the Korean NCP’s interpretations of the OECD Guidelines, and its failure to achieve functional equivalence with other NCPs. EarthRights International (ERI) and the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM) request the Investment Committee to address the governance gap within the OECD Guidelines system of implementation by acknowledging the Korean NCP’s errors in interpretation, and by clarifying certain aspects of Guidelines with respect to the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case. Chapter 1 provides an updated context of the situation in Burma, highlighting the environmental and human rights, political, and economic situations, with particular attention to updates on the impacts of natural gas development in the country. Chapter 2 describes the OECD Guidelines specific instance procedure and the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. in October 2008. Chapter 3 explains structural shortcomings and conflicts of interest at the Korean NCP, noting that these are problems that appear to pervade the NCP system, raising important questions about the ability of the Guidelines to have their desired effect. Chapter 4 describes specific substantive problems with the Korean NCP’s decision in the Shwe case, noting how the NCP decided in favor of the companies on every count, concluding that the complaint did not merit further attention. Chapter 5 highlights the ways in which the Korean NCP’s decision is inconsistent with decisions of other NCPs, most notably with decisions by the French and UK NCPs. Chapter 6 makes specific requests of the OECD Investment Committee with respect to clarifying certain aspects of the Guidelines and taking effective action to improve the performance of the Korean NCP. Appendix A of this report is an unofficial English translation of the Korean NCPs decision. The text of the complaint filed by ERI and SGM et al. is available at www.earthrights.org."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International, Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (496MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/A_Governance_Gap-ERI.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: COMPLAINT TO THE SOUTH KOREA NATIONAL CONTACT POINT UNDER THE SPECIFIC INSTANCE PROCEDURE OF THE OECD GUIDELINES FOR MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES
      Date of publication: 29 October 2008
      Description/subject: REGARDING NATURAL GAS DEVELOPMENT BY DAEWOO INTERNATIONAL AND KOREA GAS CORPORATION (KOGAS) IN BURMA (MYANMAR)... FILED BY EARTHRIGHTS INTERNATIONAL (ERI) ON BEHALF OF THE SHWE GAS MOVEMENT (SGM)... CO-COMPLAINANTS ARE: THE KOREAN HOUSE FOR INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY (KHIS); KOREAN CONFEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS (KCTU); FEDERATIONS OF KOREAN TRADE UNIONS (FKTU); CITIZEN'S ACTION NETWORK (CAN); PEOPLE FOR DEMOCRACY IN BURMA; WRITERS FOR DEMOCRACY OF BURMA; HUMAN RIGHTS SOLIDARITY FOR NEW SOCIETY; THE ASSOCIATION FOR MIGRANT WORKERS' HUMAN RIGHTS; BURMA ACTION KOREA... OCTOBER 29, 2008....."...EarthRights International (ERI), on behalf of the Shwe Gas Movement (SGM), brings this complaint alleging that Daewoo International and the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) have breached and will continue to breach a number of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (the “Guidelines”) related to their activities in Burma (Myanmar).1 These breaches are related to the companies’ exploration, development, and operation of the natural gas project in Burma known as the Shwe Gas Project, meaning “gold” in Burmese (hereinafter “Shwe Project”)....".....CONTENTS: I. Introduction 4 i. Identity and Interest of the Complainants 4 ii. Identity of the Corporations Involved 4 iii. Previous Contact between the Corporations and the Complainants 5 iv. Summary of Breaches by Daewoo International and KOGAS in Burma 5 v. Specific Requests of the South Korean NCP 7 II. Applicability of the Guidelines 8 i. Why Daewoo International and KOGAS, and this Complaint, are Subject to the Guidelines 8 ii. Why NCP Involvement is Requested and Necessary at this Time 8 III. Background on Burma 9 i. Geography and Demographics 9 ii. Government and Politics 10 iii. Economy 11 iv. Cyclone Nargis 13 v. Military Support 14 vi. Human Rights 14 IV. Background to this Complaint 17 i. Previous Natural Gas Projects and Human Rights Abuses: The Yadana and Yetagun Pipelines 17 ii. The Shwe Natural Gas Project of Daewoo International, KOGAS, et al 20 V. Specific Breaches of the Guidelines by Daewoo International and KOGAS 23 i. Section II.1, Enterprises should contribute to economic, social and environmental progress with a view to achieving sustainable development. 23 a) International Standards 24 b) Breaches of Section II.1 24 ii. Section II.2, [Enterprises should] Respect the human rights of those affected by their activities consistent with the host government's international obligations and commitments. 25 a) Customary International Human Rights Obligations 26 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 27 c) Breaches of Section II.2 28 iii. Sections III.1 & V.2, Enterprises should 1) ensure that timely, regular, reliable and relevant information is disclosed regarding their activities, structure, financial situation and performance and 2) provide timely information and consult with affected communities. 30 a) International Standards 30 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 31 c) Breaches of Section III.1 32 d) Breaches of Section V.2 33 iv. Section IV.1(c), Enterprises should contribute to the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour. 34 a) Customary International Law Regarding Forced Labour and Forced Portering 34 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 35 c) Obligations Under National Law 35 3 d) Breaches of Section IV.1(c) 36 v. Section V.3, [Enterprises should] Assess environmental impact and prepare an appropriate environmental impact assessment. 37 a) The Requirement for EIA Under Customary International Law 37 b) Obligations Under Treaty Law 39 c) Breaches of Section V.3 39 VI. Conclusion 42 VII. Contact Information of Representative of Complainants 43
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: pdf (249K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/OECDComplaint10.29-ENGLISH.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


      Title: Blocking Freedom: A case study of China's oil and gas investmert in Burma
      Date of publication: 21 October 2008
      Description/subject:  KEY POINTS - A Brief Summary: * Oil exploration by Chinese companies in Arakan, western Burma, precipitated a rare explosion of local anger in April 2007, resulting in damage to a Chinese drilling site, a crackdown by Burmese forces, and seventy villagers fleeing their homes.... * Burma's oil and gas resources are being exported while a majority of the people has no electricity. Exploration operations carried out without prior knowledge or consent of local residents and without impact assessments resulted in social and environmental abuses contrary to the claims of corporate social responsibility reports by the Chinese companies involved.... * Chinese investment in Burma's oil and gas sector is growing, with 16 blocks under contract for exploration. This investment also includes the purchase ofhuge offshore natural gas reserves, construction of cross-country pipelines, and the development of a deep sea port, which stand to amplify abuses across the country.... * While the military regime now takes in US$2.7 billion a year from the sale of natural gas, less than half of the earnings are publicly recorded. Revenue from the sale of new natural gas finds are destined to triple in the coming years. This includes the sale of gas from the Shwe gas project, which would generate an estimated US$24 billion over the next twenty years.... * Without rule of law, accountability or transparency mechanisms in Burma, Chinese and other companies operating in the country will become complicit in military abuses and conflict.... * Without assurance of adherence to basic international standards, Chinese and multinational oil and gas corporations in Burma need to s top investment and operations in Burma's oil and gas sector until such time as Burma has a genuine democratically-elected government, rule of law, and legislation guaranteeing the protection of human rights and the environment. At the same time, s hareholders, investors, and banks that support Chinese and other multinational oil and gas companies must divest their funds from projects in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
      Format/size: pdf (4.4MB - original; 3.9MB - burmalibrary version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/Blocking_Freedom-en.pdf
      http://shwe.org/media-releases/publications/file/Blocking%20Freedom%20English.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


      Title: China’s Game Plan for Burma
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: China’s ability to elbow out other contenders for the Shwe gas—from Thailand, Japan and South Korea, as well as India—underlines Beijing’s rising influence within the Burmese regime
      Author/creator: William Boot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Erdgas in Burma - ein Rohstoff und seine Folgen
      Date of publication: 15 November 2006
      Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Pläne der Shwe-Gas-Pipeline durch den koreanischen Daewoo-Konzern und andere internationale Teilhaber. Befürchtete Auswirkungen: Menschenrechtsverletzungen, Umweltzerstörung, Zerstörung der Lebensgrundlage, Einkommen für das Militärregime Shwe-Gas-Pipeline, Daewoo, GAIL, India, Shwe Gas Movement, report "Supply and Command"
      Author/creator: Andreas Berger
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Burma.Initiative Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf (322K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 December 2006


      Title: Gas Politics: Shwe Gas Development in Burma
      Date of publication: November 2006
      Description/subject: "In recent months, both China and India have signed agreements with the Burmese military junta indicating their willingness to buy gas from the proposed Shwe gas project in western Burma, with Thailand also expressing interest. If built, the Shwe project would be Burma’s largest gas development project ever. Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo analyse the events surrounding the recent agreements and the inevitable consequences if the project were to proceed..."
      Author/creator: Matthew Smith and Naing Htoo
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International, published in "Watershed" Vol. 11 No. 2, November 2005–June 2006
      Format/size: pdf (306K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008


      Title: Supply and Command - Natural gas in western Burma set to entrench military rule
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: Executive Summary" "A scramble for natural gas presently unfolding in western Burma is poised to provide the ruling military junta with its single largest source of income. The sale of the gas, mainly to regional neighbours, will further entrench the junta, insulating it from international pressure. The country's already abysmal human rights situation is set to worsen. A consortium of Indian and Korean corporations, in cooperation with the regime, has been exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State after the discovery of a "world class gas deposit" in wells labelled "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold) in late 2003. The Shwe wells are expected to lead to one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. Burma's strategic location between two of the world's largest and most energy-hungry countries (China and India) has accelerated the exploration and extraction process. Outcry over Burma's human rights record and its continued detention of democracy leader and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi has led to a series of actions by the international community, including moves to highlight Burma as a security threat at the UN Security Council. Yet the regime has continued its military expansion and offensives, particularly into ethnic border areas, in an effort to strengthen its hold. Since 1988, the number of infantry battalions based in the Western Command in Arakan and Chin states, the two western states that will be affected by the Shwe gas project, has increased from 3 to 43 battalions. The increased militarization has led to human rights abuses including forced labour, confiscation of land and assets, extortion, and violence. These abuses will surely be exacerbated by a further increase of troop levels to secure any gas pipeline in the area. Indeed, the effects of the project are already being felt by local fishermen. In April 2004, soldiers arrested fishermen inside an exclusion zone around exploratory rigs in the gas fields. The men were not aware of the restrictions as they had frequently gone fishing in that area. Regardless of this, they were beaten and thrown injail. Gas from the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in the east of the country is currently Burma's largest source of legal export revenue. The Shwe project, however, would increase the junta's income from gas by at least 150%. The junta stands to profit by approximately US$580-824 million per year or US$124 7 billion over the life of the project. Previous gas earnings have been directly linked with military arms purchases and allow the regime to continue its oppressive grip on the whole of Burma's population in defiance of international pressure. While the regime purchases more arms with gas revenues, the local population remains in poverty. Arakan and Chin states are both excluded from the national electricity grid; ninety percent of the population uses candles for light and firewood as their primary source of cooking fuel. People are denied their rights to participate in decision-making about any development projects, including the extraction of local resources. Two proposed pipeline routes to India traverse four areas classified as crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity, including one of the ten most vulnerable ecoregions in the world. Clearance paths either side of a pipeline that would disrupt animal migratory paths and the building of roads and infrastructure are • foreign governments, institutions, and civil society, of particular concern in these areas. The fate of at least three particularly in the region, to pressure businesses critically endangered animal species, the Arakan forest turtle, involved in the Shwe gas project to freeze all current the dugong, and the Irrawaddy river dolphin, will also be put into business with the military regime and refrain from question by the Shwe project. Environmental dangers involved further investment. in the commercial production and transport of natural gas such as chemical leakage and gas blowouts are a further concern. • the broader international community to continue to expose the dangers posed by the Shwe gas project. Several ancient historical sites - including the third Dhanyawaddy City that dates back to 580 BC - that are significant not only to Arakan people but to the understanding of the history of Southeast Asia lie within twenty kilometres of the proposed Shwe gas pipelines. Given the SPDC's record of destruction and disregard for culturally and historically important sites, including those in Arakan State, this proximity makes them vulnerable to ransacking and destruction during the development of the Shwe pipelines and associated infrastructure such as roads and military barracks. In order to address the potential social, economic, and environmental impacts of the Shwe gas project and to enable its benefits to be distributed equitably, Burma needs a democratic system of governance in which people can voice their concerns without fearing persecution. Without this, the Shwe project must not go forward. The Shwe Gas Movement urges: • all corporations and businesses involved in the Shwe project, either state or privately owned, to freeze all current business with the military regime and refrain from further investment and exploration until a dialogue can be held with a democratically-elected government."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shwe Gas Movement
      Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
      Date of entry/update: 14 July 2006


      Title: Another Yadana: The Shwe Natural Gas Pipeline Project (Burma-Bangladesh-India)
      Date of publication: 27 August 2004
      Description/subject: "In Burmese, Yadana refers to objects of religious veneration and, by extension, to people and objects of great worth.[1] The construction and maintenance of the Yadana Pipeline has forever changed that. For the thousands of people adversely affected by this multi-national energy project, the word has a very different meaning. Yadana is now synonymous with forced labor and severe human rights violations.[2] Another Yadana, sadly, is in the making. In January 2004, with the approval of the Burmese government, a consortium of South Korean and Indian companies announced plans to develop a massive natural gas field in the Gulf of Bengal, off the coast of western Burma. This new project, known as Shwe, which means “gold” in Burmese, is still in its early planning stages. In EarthRights International’s (ERI) view, an alarming number of similarities already exist between the Yadana Pipeline and the proposed Shwe Pipeline. If nothing is done, it appears likely that history will repeat itself. Forced labor and human rights abuses are still an ongoing problem throughout Burma, and it can be assumed that these violations will continue at any major development project site. At this point, little information on the proposed Shwe Project is publicly available. To help counter this problem ERI is now collaborating with a growing number of groups in the tri-state border region (Burma-Bangladesh-India) where the transnational pipeline is likely to be constructed. Together, the groups are working to raise local, regional and international awareness concerning the social and environmental impacts the massive Shwe Project is likely to have regionally. The Project is expected to cost between one and three billion U.S. dollars to build.[3] Future reports based on careful fact-finding are planned, as is an international campaign should the energy consortium move forward with the project..." N.B. map in pdf version.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EarthRights International
      Format/size: html, pdf (324K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Shwe_Project.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 27 August 2004


      Title: Four articles on new gas field off Arakan
      Date of publication: 20 January 2004
      Description/subject: 1. Daewoo makes giant gas discovery in Rakhine basin off northwestern Myanmar, "Oil and Gas Journal", Jan. 16; 2. Giant natural gas discovery off Myanmar, UPI, Jan. 16; 3. GAIL set to invest Rs 4000 crore to cart Myanmar gas, "Business Standard", Jan. 17; 4. Massive natural gas reserve confirmed in Rakhine State, Myanmar "Times", Jan. 19-25..."Daewoo International Corp., Seoul, and Korea Gas Corp. discovered 4 to 6 tcf of recoverable gas on Block A-1 in the nonproducing Rakhine basin shelf in the Bay of Bengal off northwestern Myanmar and plans to pursue other similar objectives on the block. The Shwe-1/1A wildcat is the first wildcat drilled in the Plio-Pleistocene section off northwestern Myanmar and the country's first offshore discovery since Yetagun gas field in the Gulf of Martaban 12 years ago, Daewoo said. This is Daewoo's first well on its first project as operator..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IFI Discussion Group
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


    • The Shwe Gas Movement

      • The Shwe Gas Movement website

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: The Shwe Gas Movement
        Description/subject: "The SHWE Gas Movement is concerned with a natural gas pipeline project presently unfolding in Western Burma... In cooperation with Burma's military junta, a consortium of Indian and Korean corporations are currently exploring gas fields off the coast of Arakan State in Western Burma. Discovered in December 2003, these fields--labeled A-1, or "Shwe" (the Burmese word for gold)--are expected to hold one of the largest gas yields in Southeast Asia. These Shwe fields could well become the Burmese military government's largest single source of foreign income... However, for the people of Burma this project will likely bring more suffering than benefits. It is the opinion of the SHWE Gas Movement that the following issues are very likely outcomes if the pipeline project goes ahead unchecked:... Exploitation of the Voiceless: In order to transport the gas to India, a pipeline corridor is already being cleared in the minority Burmese states of Arakan and Chin. Moreover, the area is becoming increasingly militarised and forced labour is occurring in the context of infrastructure development... Large-scale Human Rights Abuses and Militarisation: As experience with two previous international Burmese gas pipeline projects -- the Yadana and the Yetagun -- suggest, forced relocation of villagers, forced labour, torture, rape and extrajudicial killings will result from the Shwe project... Environmental and Cultural Destruction: Because proper social and environmental impact assessments have not been carried out, the extent of the project's impact on the local population and environment can hardly be determined, but the Burmese military has a long history of environmental and cultural degradation... The Entrenchment of the Burmese Military Regime: Just as the Yadana and Yetagun projects provided a context for the Burmese military regime to extend its reach into minority and opposition areas, so too is the Shwe project providing an excuse to further militarize and exploit the frontier areas of Arakan and Chin state. Meanwhile, when the money from this project begins flowing into the junta's coffers, this will only increase the military's grip over the rest of Burma. Burma's current state of affairs is well known. The regime's poor human rights record has led most governments and many international organisations and institutions to condemn Burma's state terror and pass sanctions and investment bans against the country. This approach, also supported by the majority of Burma's opposition movement and Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is meant to apply economic and political pressure on the regime and kick-start a process of democratisation. At the same time, several countries, such as the regional neighbours Thailand, India, China and Malaysia, promote constructive engagement with the regime as opposed to international isolation. According to their arguments, constructive engagement will promote economic development, integrate the country into the international community, and eventually instigate a full transfer to democracy. To date, however, progress in democratisation and human rights is yet to show, which seriously questions the viability of constructive engagement. Indeed, most foreign investment and development projects have caused more suffering than good because of the direct involvement of Burma's military. Thus, as argued by the Nobel Laureate and winner of the 1990 elections in Burma, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, "until we have a system that guarantees rules of law and basic democratic institutions, no amount of aid or investment will benefit our people." We, the SHWE Gas Movement, ask the governments and corporations involved to halt the project until there is assurance that the people of the whole of Burma and Western Burma in particular can participate in the decision-making process and benefit from this project and not suffer the same fate as the people affected by the Yadana and the Yetagun pipelines. We ask you for your support in achieving this goal."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Shwe Gas Movement
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 March 2005


      • "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" (English)

        Individual Documents

        Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 10, May 2010
        Date of publication: May 2010
        Description/subject: No Breakthrough against Forced Labour in Myanmar: ILO...Chinese Oil Companies Damages (sic) peoples’ lives in Burma (Editorial)...US Banks Involved in Shwe Gas Project...Shwe Gas Project Will be Completed by March 2013: Hyundai Heavy...Joseph Stiglitz: Developing Nations Need to Attempt to Reverse Natural Resource Curse...Vietnam & Myanmar sign Multiple Economic Pacts...Oslo-Listed Seadrill leaves Burma...India’s Essar Arm Gets Govt. Contract for ‘Kaladan Muli Modal Transit Transport Project’... China Signs Myanmar Pipeline Deal to Boost Oil Supply...First Village Forcibly relocated for Irrawaddy Dam Project.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (348K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


        Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 9, Dec-Jan, 09-2010
        Date of publication: January 2010
        Description/subject: -China Tie Economic with Burma’s Military Regime Including Energy Sector -CNPC Starts Work on $1.5 Billion Oil Pipeline and Oil Terminal in autumn -Burma Has Gas Money: No Financial Help Needed (Editorial) -Burma Control Import Sale Gasoline and Diesel Fuel -Burma Plans to Hand over 3 Yangon Ports to Private Firm -Burma Buys 20MiG-29 Fighter Jets -Malaysian and Singaporean Firms to explore oil and gas in Burma -Burma Is Not Broke -India to Obtain Stake in Shwe Gas Pipeline -Bangladesh, Burma to Resolve border Dispute -Five Facts about China-Burma Relation -Houses and Rice Fields Confiscated for China’s Oil Pipeline and Sea Port Project
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (203K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 February 2010


        Title: "Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 8
        Date of publication: November 2009
        Description/subject: Rights Groups Call for China to Halt Construction of Pipeline in Burma...China must halt oil and gas pipeline projects in Burma (Editorial)...CNPC starts China-Burma Oil pipeline construction with abuses...Hyundai Heavy to build US$ 1.4 billion Shwe Gas Plant in Burma...Why Dealing with Burma Is a Very Bad Idea...Army continues forced labour along gas pipeline in Burma’s Mon State...Singapore firm inks massive Myanmar gas deal...Burmese Junta Confiscates Public Oil Wells and Refinery for Chinese Company
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (523K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 December 2009


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 7
        Date of publication: July 2009
        Description/subject: China to Start Building Shwe Gas Pipeline in Sept Despite Concerns over Rights Abuses, June 27, 2009 (SGB)...Editorial: "China Deepens Burma Relationship"..."Korea Rejects Burma Gas Project Complaint" June 15, 2009 (DVB)..."Myanmar’s Trade Ties Let Junta Ignore Democracy Calls" By Daniel Ten Kate..."Asean’s Burma Burden - Sanctions can help bring down the junta" By Eva Kusuma Sundari, "Wall Street Journal Asia"...Six Villages relocated for Dam project in Arakan" 6/11/2009 (Narinjara News)..."Officials Fired Burmese Secret Tunnels’ Publicity", June 23, 2009 (The Nation).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (356K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 July 2009


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 6
        Date of publication: March 2009
        Description/subject: "China and Burma to Jointly Develop Oil and Gas Pipelines in Burma", March 28, 2009 (SGB)...Editorial: "Abuses Continue as China and India Battle Energy Interests In Burma"..."CNOOC Starts Myanmar Drilling Despite Uproar over Human Rights" By Erwin China, Singapore (Feb 26, 2009)..."Biofuel Gone Bad: Burma’s Atrophying Jatropha" By TIME Staff (Mar. 13, 2009)..."The Scramble For A Piece of Burma" By HANNAH BEECH/ Arakan State (Mar 19, 2009)..."Norway’s Vast Oil Wealth Fund Drops Chinese Firm" AP March 13, 2009..."Foreign investment in Myanmar doubled in 2008" AP, (March 19, 2009)..."South Korean Firm ,Seeks Mining Rights", Xinhua, Feb 6, 2009..."India’s Essar Oil Abuses Human Rights in Burma" March 21, 2009 (SGB).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
        Date of entry/update: 07 July 2009


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Volume 3, Issue 5
        Date of publication: January 2009
        Description/subject: Shwe Gas Will Be Piped to China for 30 Years Starting from 2012 - Construction to begin in 2009 despite human rights concerns...Editorial: "Big Oil Companies Flouting Intl. Standards in Lawless Burma"..."Human Rights Abuses in Myanmar?" By David Watermeyer (Dec 2008 / "The Korea Times")..."Myanmar’s Farmers Pay for China’s Oil Thirst", By Marwaan Macan-Markar Nov 4, 2008 (Inter Press Service)..."China Leads Surge in Foreign Investment in Myanmar during First 9 Months", Jan 5, 2009 (AP)..."Myanmar, Russia to Jointly Explore Oil, Gas", www.chinaview.cn 2008-09-09..."Vietnamese Companies to Explore Oil and Gas in Myanmar Offshore Area", www.chinaview.cn 2008-04-10..."Thai PTTEP’s Blocks M7 & M3: Lack of Commercial Viability Costs Millions" Jan 2009 (SGB)..."Thailand Delaying Plans to Build Another Gas Pipeline in Burma" Jan 2009 (SGB)..."Exploration heightens tensions between Burma and Bangladesh", Jan 21, 2009 (SGB).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (316K)
        Date of entry/update: 06 July 2009


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 4
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Indian Essar Oil Company Exploration Damages People Properties; Time for US’s Chevron to Leave Burma (Editorial); Gas Found During Tube Well Drilling in Arakan; Treasury Sanction on Myanmar Traffickers Implicate CNOOC (Forbes, 27 Feb 2008); Myanmar Resources Offer Few Riches; PTTEP and CNOOC Swap Gas Blocks in Burma; NZ govt under fire for Burma contract; Electric Power Sector Major Attractor of Foreign Investment in Myanmar; Russian Company to Explore Gold in Myanmar; Nobel Winners Seek UN Action for Arms Embargo and Targeted Banking Sanction on Burma; TOTAL OUT OF BURMA - Protesters in London called for French’s Total to stop fuelling oppression in Burma on Jan 19, 2008;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (300K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 July 2008


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 3
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: Indian Essar Oil Company Exploration Damages People Properties...Time for US’s Chevron to Leave Burma (Editorial)...Gas Found During Tube Well Drilling in Arakan...Treasury Sanction on Myanmar Traffickers Implicate CNOOC...Myanmar Resources Offer Few Riches...PTTEP and CNOOC Swap Gas Blocks in Burma...NZ govt under fire for Burma contract...Electric Power Sector Major Attractor of Foreign Investment in Myanmar...Russian Company to Explore Gold in Myanmar...Nobel Winners Seek UN Action for Arms Embargo and Targeted Banking Sanction on Burma...TOTAL OUT OF BURMA - Protesters in London called for French’s Total to stop fuelling oppression in Burma on Jan 19, 2008.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (222K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 2
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: Burma’s Oil and Gas: Events of 2007...China Wins Rights to Myanmar’s Gas...Gas-Rich Burma but harsh fuel price on citizens - People Protest for “Freedom from Starvation” (Editorial)...CNPC and Yunnan sign refining agreement - China plans to build an oil pipeline from Yunnan to Myanmar...Than Shwe’s Gas Powered Regime to Look now on China...Protests against Fuel Price Hike Break out Despite Junta Crackdown...Gas Sales to Thailand Account for 43% of Burmese Exports...Burma’s FDI more than Doubled: Thailand is the Largest Investor...Junta Proffers Entire Arakan Gas Reserve to China: Dual Oil, Gas Pipeline Plans Threaten Rights abuses in Burma...Burma, China, Russia: Oil and Arms China, Russia rejected Burma at UNSC...Burma Cashes up on Energy, But Locals in the Dark...World Wide Protests against the Shwe Gas Project...Foreign investment in Myanmar dominated by oil, gas and power...India signed US$ 150 million contract for 3 offshore blocks despite unrest in Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (338K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 3 No. 1
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: India signed US$ 150 million contract for 3 offshore blocks despite unrest in Burma... India’s oil minister noted the contract was a very happy development between two countries...Monks Back on Streets, Protests Continue...More companies need to withdraw (Editorial)...“Words” from Oil and Gas Companies: Refuse to Exit Burma...EU Sanctions Fall Short on Burma’s Major Revenue Earner, the Oil and Gas Sector...Japan Adds to Pressure on Burma...The Whole World must Act (By Gordon Brown, Oct 24, 07/Guardian)...Region’s Energy Needs Enable Burma Junta...Exploration proceeds off Myanmar as crisis boils...ICRC ‘Deeply Worried’ About Burmese Detainess...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch,
        Format/size: pdf (276K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 March 2008


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 12
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: Burmese Junta Confirms Agreement to Sell Shwe Gas to China; Protests against Fuel Price Hike Break out continually in Burma despite Junta Crackdown; Gas-Rich Burma but harsh fuel price on citizens -- People Protest for “Freedom from Starvation” (Editorial); ASEAN Lawmakers to China, India: Don’t Support Burmese Junta; Reaction on Burma’s Deteriorated Situation: “Wards of the Month”; Fuel Price Policy Explodes in Burma (Larry Jagan, "Asia Times"); India eyes more gas fields in Burma; China Conducts Survey for Oil Terminal in Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (322K)
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 11
        Date of publication: August 2007
        Description/subject: Gas Sales to Thailand Account for 43% of Burmese Exports; Save Our Natural Resources (Editorial); PTTEP Discovers Large Gas Deposit, Plans to Begin Production Next Year; China to Build Large Seaport in Arakan; China’s Thumb in every Burmese Pie (Larry Jagan); Bangladesh Looks to World Bank & ADB for Burmese Hydropower Investment; UN says Burma’s Junta is Fueling Poverty; ANC: Stop Arakan Hydropower Project.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (223K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 August 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 10
        Date of publication: June 2007
        Description/subject: Burma’s FDI more than Doubled: Thailand is the Largest Investor; Regime extends Suu Kyi detention; Foreign Investors have Burmese Blood on their Hands (Editorial); Hydropower and Oil&Gas Sectors Dominate Burma’s FDI; Burma Prefers China as Gas Buyer; India Sees Red (Anupama Airy); First as Tragedy, Second as Farce: PTT at a Crossroads (Matthew Smith); Thailand’s PTT Exploration discovers natural gas off Burma coast; Daewoo Sends Legal Experts to Burma; Russia to Build Nuclear Centre in Sanctions-Hit Burma (Conor Humphries); Villagers Attack Chinese Company in Arakan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (153K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 June 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 9
        Date of publication: May 2007
        Description/subject: SPDC Proffers Entire Arakan Gas Reserve to China: Dual Oil,Gas Pipeline Plans Threaten Rights abuses in Burma; End China Exchanges Its Support for Burma Gas (Editorial); China signs new hydropower deal with Burma; China Seeks route around the ‘Malacca Dilemma’ (Graham Lees,World Politics Watch); Burma Cashes up on Energy, But Locals in the Dark; Daewoo Consider Legal Action Against Burma: Gas To Go To China;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (457K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 April 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 8
        Date of publication: April 2007
        Description/subject: World Wide Protests against the Shwe Gas Project; Editorial: “No More Guns for Gas” - Stop Daewoo’s and India’s Arm Supplies to the Than Shwe Regime; Fishermen Suffer Navy Harassment as Daewoo Starts New Drilling; Burma’s Neighbors Hold the Key; Russian Companies to Explore Oil, Gas in Burma Inland area; Burma Introduces E-Gov System in New Capital - Daewoo, KCOMS to provide Info-and Comm- Tech; Thailand’s PTTEP Finds more Gas in Burma’s Block M-9, Spends US$ 200 million on Test Drilling; Action of March 26: Fourth Global Protest against the Shwe gas project, Daewoo and India’s arms supplies to the Burma regime; Despite US, EU Sanctions, New Contracts Continue for Burma’s Oil and Gas.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (323K)
        Date of entry/update: 13 April 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 7
        Date of publication: February 2007
        Description/subject: Mekong River and Burma: China’s two Plans for Secure Energy Transportation; Get Out of Burma, Activist Group Tells China (Editorial); Year 2007: MPRL and China Heighten Burma’s Energy Sector; Burma Finds Willing Arms Suppliers in Energy-Hungry Neighbors By Michael Black and William Couchaux | 03 Jan 2007 World Politics Watch Exclusive; India to Supply Weapons to Burma; Burma Prefers Arakan Gas as an LNG Project; Daewoo President Resigned; Nine Daewoo Oil Workers Kidnapped in Nigeria; Thailand’s PTTEP Has Discovered Gas in Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (301K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 February 2007


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.6
        Date of publication: January 2007
        Description/subject: Daewoo International President Lee Tae - Yong may face up to five years in prison for illegal arms exports to Than Shwe’s Regime; Beware! Foreign Investors Can Kill (Editorial); INDICTED! Burma Weapons Factory Daewoo Funded, Say Prosecutors Daewoo boss among 14 executives facing criminal charges, Shwe Gas Movement wants answer; Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas (continued from last month): Sino-Indian Interests and Rivalry in Burma; Six More Contracts Increased Burma’s Oil and Gas Sector in 2006; Activists in S.Korea Denounce Daewoo for Arms Supplies to Burma; Construction of Sittwe Port to Start in January - India’s grand Kaladan project that includes a major water way and pipeline to its North Eastern states is moving swiftly ahead. But at what price? Along the Kaladan River in Arakan State, land confiscations and forced labor have already arrived ahead of the development. Activists fear more will follow.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (159K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.5
        Date of publication: December 2006
        Description/subject: Global Protest Over Shwe Gas Project in Burma; Foreign Oil firms Block Change in Burma (Editorial); Forced Labor and Other Abuses Mounting Along the Indo-Burma Proposed Pipeline Route, By K.Murn Aung; Burma and Its Neighbours: The Geopolitics of Gas (The authors conclude that “while countries in the neighbouring regions - particularly India and Thailand, but also Australia and Japan - may have important roles to play, China wields far more leverage. For those who wish to influence Burma in a positive direction, it is therefore essential to consider ways that change could be stimulated with the active participation of China, whether through sanctions, constructive engagement and/or any form of dialogue”); Australia’s Danford Equities Signs Oil- Gas Exploration Deal With Burma; Thailand’s PTTEP to Begin New Offshore Drilling in Myanmar;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (242K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No.4
        Date of publication: November 2006
        Description/subject: Is Daewoo Arming the SPDC? - S.Korea Activists Demand Probe into Daewoo’s Alleged Arms Exports to Burma; It’s not too late for Thailand to change its Burma Policy (Editorial); Arakan Oil and Gas and Sea Port for China’s Energy Resource; Burma, China, Russia: Arms and Energy; The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now -- Part VI: The Construction of Pipelines to India and China Will Cause Futher Environmental Degradation and Human Rights Abuses, By Lars Thompson; Myanmar Hikes Income Taxes on Fuel Firms; Myanmar Will Reopen Six Blocks to Foreign Firms.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (234K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 3
        Date of publication: September 2006
        Description/subject: North East Students oppose Shwe Gas Pipeline; Burma Needs Support In Reality (Editorial); Thailand Joins the Race a Bid for Shwe Gas Reserves; Myanmar Energy Production Rising (Aaron Clark, Associated Press Writer); The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now Part V: The Nature of Natural Gas as a Harmful and Non-Renewable Natural Resource (By Lars Thompson); Myanmar Gas Pipeline to Bypass Bangladesh; Gas and Oil discovered in Myanmar (By Anuchit Nguyen, Bloomberg News); Acient Mrauk-U Palace Turned into Castor Oil Plantation (Narinjara News); Arakan Reserves May Satisy S-Korea’s Gas Needs for Five Years.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (128K)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, No. 2
        Date of publication: August 2006
        Description/subject: SGM Calls for Korean and Indian Firms to Withdraw from Burma; Resource Curse: Burma (editorial); Shocking Future along the Kaladan River By K. Murn Aung (SGB); The Shwe Gas Project Require an EIA Now. Part IV: International Law Requires That an Environmental Impact Assessment Be Prepared Now (Lars Thompson); Death Grip: - Despite international calls for reform, the ever-defiant SPDC maintains control over Myanmar with an Orwellian hand. Secrecy and paranoia abound, while rubbing elbows with Asia’s powerhouse nations keeps the regime in charge; Teachers, Students Arrested in Arakan; Two Arakanese women seek Justice; ANC Urges to End the Shwe Gas Project Fearing E-damages and HR Violations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (137K)
        Date of entry/update: 30 July 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 2, Issue 1
        Date of publication: July 2006
        Description/subject: Daewoo Ban Mariners in Arakan Sea; Continuing Seismic Surveys Adversely Impact the Marine Environment in Burma (Editorial); Myanmar must free forced labour plaintiffs by July 31: ILO; Land Confiscation And Other Human Rights Abuses Continue in Onshore Area: Arakan; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part III: ONGC and GAIL Corporate Policies as well as the Environmental Law of India Require an EIA Now (Lars Thompson); China and India’s New Battle Ground: Burma’s Arakan State (Herman_; Life Under Burma’s Military Regime - In the second article of a special series from inside Burma, the BBC’s Kate McGeown looks at the dayto- day problems facing ordinary people under the country’s repressive military regime; Daewoo Found Huge Gas Deposit in Arakan Offshore.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
        Format/size: pdf (230K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 July 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 12
        Date of publication: May 2006
        Description/subject: Activists Demonstrate to Halt Shwe Gas Project; Foreign Companies Should Likewise Rethink Cooperation with the Regime (Editorial); Sino-Myanmar Strategic Cooperation; China’s COSL Extends Contract with Daewoo for Nanhai II; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part II: Daewoo International and KOGAS Are Required by their Corporate Policies and the Environmental Policy of South Korea to Prepare an EIA Now (Lars Thompson); China-Burma Oil Pipeline Approved; Sino-Burma Pipeline will Set off More Relocations; Arakan Gas Will Pipe Straight to India.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (323K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 11
        Date of publication: April 2006
        Description/subject: April 18, 2006:The Day of Global Action Against Daewoo; Lives Suffering from Oil Companies need Support (Editorial); Seven Burmese and Two Chinese Officers Injured in Mine Explosion; Chinese Oil Exploration: Pumping Resident’s Blood?; More Gas Found in Myanmar Offshore Block; The Shwe Gas Project Requires an EIA Now - Part I: Sustainable Development Requires an EIA (Lars Thompson); In Myanmar Vist, Indian President Jockeys with China for Energy.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (339K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin Vol. 1, Issue 10
        Date of publication: February 2006
        Description/subject: Shwe Gas Pipeline Project to India: Another Yadana Begins?; Myanmar to Lay Gas Pipeline to New Capital, As energy hungry foreign companies are searching for oil and Paper says; South Korea: Burma’s Biggest Investor (Herman); 3 More Blocks in Myanmar Under Gas Exploration; Anti-Gas Pipeline Campaign Voice Concern; Myanmar PM headed to China; India Hires Belgium Company to Conduct Feasibility Report for Shwe Pipeline.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team
        Format/size: pdf (188K, 1.5MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-10.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 29 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin Vol. 1, Issue 9
        Date of publication: January 2006
        Description/subject: Discovery of Block A-3 Sends Daewoo Stock Soaring, Promts futher Protest; Deal with China Boon to Brutal Burmese Junta (Editorial); Senior General Than Shwe Awarded ‘Third Worst Dictator in the World’; Than Shwe’s Gas Powered Regime to Look now on China (Jockai&PK); China Replaces India in Deal for Shwe Gas; Business with Myanmar Thrives Amid Diplomatic Stress (Daniel Ten Kate); Foreign Investment in Myanmar Reaches $7.76 bln; Shwe Gas Consortium Continues Appraisals of Extensive Shwe Gas Block.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team
        Format/size: pdf (195K, 1.8MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-09.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 29 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 8
        Date of publication: November 2005
        Description/subject: COSL Signs Deal with Daewoo to Provide Offshore Drilling Services; Forced Labour In Burma’s Arakan State Capital Sittwe; Total’s Settlement will not Quell Rights Campaign; Daewoo among the 474 Foreign Companies Supporting Burma’s Military Regime; Tankers Could Carry Gas to India (Thet Khaing); Burma is Asia’s Economic Basket Case; Myanmar Pipeline Back on Course as Delhi relents on sops for B’desh.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (172K, 1MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-08.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 7
        Date of publication: October 2005
        Description/subject: World Wide protests against Daewoo International over Shwe Gas Development; Foreign Investment Directly Promotes the Violation of Human Rights in Burma (Editorial); Arakanese Inside Burma Protested the Shwe Gas Project of Daewoo and Junta; Daewoo Signs Deal With Shwe Gas Partners for Burma’s Gas Block A-3; Burmese Fuel Hike a Threat to Subsistence; Negotiations Continue Over Shwe Gas despite Bangladeshi Demands.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (251K, 1.6MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/SGB01-07.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 6
        Date of publication: September 2005
        Description/subject: Shwe Gas Movement Urges Bangladeshis to Stem Shwe Pipline Project; Cozy Relationship with Burmese Military Regime (Editorial); Confiscation of Private Land Continues in Arakan State; Arakan and Chin Suffer Forced Labor under Shwe Gas Pipeline Project; India Looks East for Gas (Siddharth Srivastava); Thai Plan Undersea Pipe for Shwe Gas; Over 10,000 Giant Sea Perch Dead, Hilsa Deformed: Daewoo & Shwe Block A1 Gas Exploration; India, Bangladesh Agree on Tri-nation Gas Pipeline;
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (570K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 5
        Date of publication: July 2005
        Description/subject: Shwe Gas Issue Raised in ILO’s Special Sitting; Arakanese Villagers Are Being Forced to Aid in the Construction of the Gas Pipeline Between Burma and India; Shwe Gas may be exported to Thailand - Burma is looking for US$ 4 billion in investments to develop the Shwe fields; Burma Visit Highlights India’s “look East” Strategy (Sarath Kumara); Shwe Gas Pipeline Threatens Millions of Lives along Kaladan River (Dale); India will continue talks with Bangladesh.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (429K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 4
        Date of publication: June 2005
        Description/subject: Kyauk Taw Township Residents Displaced, Refugees Settle in Bangladesh; Natural Gas Found instead of Water from Digging a Tube well in Arakan; “Daewoo Out of Burma” - The US Campaign for Burma (USCB) may Launch Their New International Campaign; Shwe Campaign Roundtable Talks; Unocal: What’s The Big Surprise (Dr. Joe Duarte); Oil-Hungry Neighbors are The Primary Supporters of the Burma Junta (Jockai); Kaladan Project Survey completed - Tri-Nation Gas Pipeline, Road and Waterway.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (471K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 3
        Date of publication: May 2005
        Description/subject: Foreign Investment in Oil Threatens Livelihood of Local People in Burma (Jockai); Human Rights Activists Protest Against TOTAL in the US for Burma Involvement; Mohona Holding Ltd. Begin Negotiation for Tri-Nation Gas Pipeline Project; AASYC joins hands with Bangladeshi activists against the tri-nation gas pipeline project; Burma’s Murlky Water: Enviromental Impacts of The Shwe Offshore Gas Project (Jay Chou); Three Hydro-Power Plants Are Being Built in Military Bases in Arakan State; Essar Oil Signs for Two Exploration in Arakan, Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (584K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue 2
        Date of publication: April 2005
        Description/subject: Protesters Demand India Not to Cooporate With Burma; Toxic Shwe (Jockai); Shwe Gas Activists Met Korean Human Rights Ambassador; Youth in Arakan Erected Signboards Against Daewoo; Profits at Gunpoint: Unocal’s Pipeline in Burma Becomes a Test Case in Corporate Accountalility (Daphne Eviatar); Anti-Shwe Gas Groups Want Daewoo Out of Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (695K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


        Title: "The Shwe Gas Bulletin" Vol. 1, Issue. 1
        Date of publication: March 2005
        Description/subject: Activists Demand Referendum on Gas Extraction; Gas Pipeline a Threat to National Security;International Campaign Launched to Pressure Total; Bangladesh Imposes Conditions for Gas Pipeline Transit; Daewoo Drills Natural Gas In Shwe Again; Out of Burma: Cross-Border Resource Extraction (Edith Mirante); Activists in Dhaka Protest Against Gas Pipeline.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Arakan Gas Research Team, Thailand
        Format/size: pdf (371K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2006


  • Oil and gas discussion group

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burmaoil
    Description/subject: Discussion of the oil companies' investment in Burma.
    Subscribe: subscribe@yahoogroups.com
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • SPDC (oil and gas)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) - upstream
    Description/subject: "Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) is the 100% State Owned Enterprise and is responsible for Upstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Paras and tables include: Oil and Gas Bearing Areas of Myanmar, Oil and Gas Fields of Myanmar, Natural Gas Pipelines of Myanmar, Capabilities of Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, Onshore and Offshore Blocks of Myanmar. It invites cooperation in the sector, with paras on Objectives of Production Sharing Contract, Current Operating Multi-national Companies, Major Discoveries in Offshore Area (incl. paras on Yadana and Yetagun fields), Available Blocks, Exploration and Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas with Multi-national Companies, Details of production-sharing contracts, Onshore Natural Gas Pipelines existing, under construction and planned.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise (MPE) - downstream
    Description/subject: Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise ("MPE") is a "100% State Owned Economic Enterprise responsible for Downstream Petroleum Sub-sector". Lists its refineries and plants producing urea fertilizer, methanol, LPG, bitumen, carbon dioxide, lubricants etc. and invites cooperation in this sector
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.energy.gov.mm/downstreampetroleumsubsector.htm
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise (MPPE) - downstream
    Description/subject: Myanmar Petroleum Products Enterprise is the State-owned Organization vested with authority and responsibility to carry out retail and whole sale distribution of Petroleum products in Myanmar. The Enterprise has conducted the effective and intensive distribution of Petroleum Products, dedicated to Agriculture, Fishery, Transport, Power Generation, Defense, Construction and Industries in the Government Sector and also to the Private Sector from the existing 4 Main Fuel Terminals, 26 Sub Fuel Terminals, 11 Aviation Depots and 256 Filling Stations." Lists its terminals and filling stations and carries an interesting little invitation regarding "Import of Crude Oil, Diesel Fuel and Motor Gasoline on a Deferred Basis
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Energy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Development Project of Energy and Resources in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 March 2009
    Description/subject: Contents: Who is Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)?... Oil Companies Jointly Working with MOGE by Production Sharing Basis... Current Oil and Gas Projects in Myanmar... Future Oil and Gas Projects in Myanmar... Future Gas Production Trend.
    Author/creator: U Aung Htoo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE)
    Format/size: ppt (2.6MB)
    Date of entry/update: 01 June 2009


    Title: "The Irrawaddy" Business
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: Burma row brews over US state law • UK clothing firm cuts Burmese ties •
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Yadana Field - (Total, Chevron, PTTEP, MOGE)
    UNOCAL, a former partner in the consortium, was bought by Chevron

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Chevron in Myanmar
    Description/subject: As one of four partners, a Chevron subsidiary has a nonoperating, minority interest in the Yadana gas field offshore Myanmar in the Andaman Sea and in a 249-mile (401-km) natural gas pipeline. The Yadana Project is operated by Total, a French international energy company, and is helping meet the increasing demand for energy in Southeast Asia.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chevron
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Chevron website
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chevron
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.chevron.com/search/?k=myanmar&text=myanmar&Header=FromHeader&ct=All%20Types
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Total Burma pages -- pages birmanie
    Description/subject: "Total’s presence in Myanmar (Burma) has been surrounded by controversy and misperception. The European Parliament has denounced the “dire political situation”* in Myanmar and the International Labour Organization (ILO) regularly criticizes the country’s “widespread and systematic” resort to forced labor. A number of Western companies have withdrawn from Myanmar under pressure from activist groups. The question now is what Total is doing there, what it has already done and why it is staying in Myanmar. Unfortunately, the world’s oil and gas reserves are not necessarily located in democracies, as a glance at a map shows. As a result, oil companies often face criticism and questions from civil society concerning their operations in countries with repressive regimes, their relations with governments, the security measures deployed to protect their facilities, and the way in which host countries spend oil revenues. Wherever we operate, we are dedicated to developing economically viable projects while adhering to national and international laws and ensuring compliance with our Code of Conduct. Long before joining the UN Secretary-General’s Global Compact initiative in 2002, we had demonstrated a constant commitment to responsible corporate citizenship and have always aimed to contribute to economic and social progress and environmental stewardship in our host countries. Total has been the subject of numerous allegations and accusations that challenge both our presence in Myanmar and our actions there. This web site provides a history of our engagement in Myanmar and describes the initiatives that have been implemented. Rather than respond to the unwarranted criticism, we want to restore balanced debate on whether a responsible multinational company can contribute positively to the economic and social development of a country that faces sharp internal divisions."
    Language: English, Francais, French (Alternate URL)
    Source/publisher: Total
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://birmanie.total.com/
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


    Title: Total website
    Description/subject: Company website...Search for Myanmar, Yadana etc.
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Total
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 15 December 2010
    Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
    Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


    Title: Energy Insecurity: How Total, Chevron, and PTTEP Contribute to Human Rights Violations, Financial Secrecy, and Nuclear Proliferation in Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 05 July 2010
    Description/subject: "The oil companies Total (France), Chevron (US), and PTT Exploration & Production (PTTEP) (Thailand) have failed to stop human rights abuses occurring in relation to their natural gas project in Burma (Myanmar), abuses for which the companies bear responsibility and remain vulnerable to liability.1 The companies are financing the world’s newest nuclear threat with multi-billion dollar payments, and have refused to practice financial transparency, despite calls by the Burmese and international community. As Burma braces itself for its first elections in 20 years, elections widely discredited as unfair, it is not too late for the companies to change course..."...TABLE OF CONTENTS: Methodology... Executive Summary... Chapter I: Continuing Abuses: Human Rights Violations and the Yadana and Pipeline, 2009-2010: i Targeted Killings; ii Mandatory Military Trainings: Protecting the Pipeline Corridor; iii Forced Labor; iv What’s Green is not Always Good: Land Confiscation for Forest Conservation Areas ; v The Companies’ Legal Liabilities for Complicity in Human Rights Abuses.... Chapter II: Revenue Secrecy: Total, Chevron, and PTTEP’s Payments to the Junta and Refusals to Practice Revenue Transparency: i A Global Call for Revenue Transparency in Burma 15; ii Total’s Response; iii Chevron’s Response; iv Binding Mechanisms for Revenue Transparency.... Chapter III: The Yadana Natural Gas Project Revenue: i Introduction: Financing the World’s Newest Nuclear Threat; ii Yadana Project Revenue Totals; iii Yadana Project Revenue Distribution.... Conclusion.... Recommendations.... Appendix A: Yadana Gas Revenue Calculations.... Appendix B: A Call for Total, Chevron, and PTTEP to Practice Revenue Transparency in Burma (Myanmar), April 27, 2010.... Appendix C: Total and Chevron’s Responses to the Global Call for Revenue Transparency.... Endnotes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Earth Rights International (ERI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.37MB)
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: Total Impact 2.0: A Response to the French Oil Company Total Regarding Its Yadana Natural Gas Pipeline in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 16 December 2009
    Description/subject: On September 10, 2009 EarthRights International (ERI) published almost 200 pages of new research in two publications linking the oil giants Total S.A., Chevron Corporation, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand Exploration and Production Company Ltd. (PTTEP), and the Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) to forced labor, killings, high-level corruption, and authoritarianism in connection to their Yadana natural gas pipeline in military-ruled Burma. The reports also document the flawed corporate social responsibility programs implemented by Total, the operator of the project, and reveal for the first time that the pipeline in Burma has generated more than US$7 billion dollars for the companies and the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)... On October 15, 2009 Total publicly released a 12-page response to ERI... This publication, Total Impact 2.0, is a detailed and fact-based rejoinder to Total's response to ERI. It finds that while the company may be softening to criticism and to the idea of engagement with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) such as ERI, it has yet again misled the general public, investors and policymakers regarding the impacts of their pipeline project in Burma. This report finds that the companies are still linked to violent abuses such as forced labor and killings in their project area, and that their project has generated multi-billion dollar revenues for the Burmese military regime.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (3.57MB)
    Date of entry/update: 16 December 2009


    Title: Total in Myanmar - Update, September 2009: Our Response to the Allegations Contained in the ERI Report September 2009
    Date of publication: 15 October 2009
    Description/subject: "In September 2009, EarthRights International published a report entitled Total Impact that makes serious allegations against Total. We would like to set the record straight..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Total
    Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://burma.total.com/
    Date of entry/update: 16 December 2009


    Title: En Birmanie, la junte pompe l’argent de Total
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: Dans un rapport que «Libération» dévoile en exclusivité, l’ONG Earth Rights révèle les liens entre le groupe pétrolier français et la dictature de Rangoun.
    Author/creator: ARNAUD VAULERIN
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: Getting it Wrong: Flawed "Corporate Social Responsibility" and Misrepresentations Surrounding Total and Chevron's Yadana Gas Pipeline in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Since the early 1990s, two western oil companies have partnered with the Burmese military regime in a remote corner of southern Burma (Myanmar) on one of the world's most controversial development projects: The Yadana Gas Project by France-based Total and US-based Chevron. "Yadana", which means "treasure" in Burmese, is a large-scale project that transports natural gas from Burma's Andaman Sea to Thailand through an overland pipeline that passes through a secluded and environmentally sensitive region in southeast Burma. From the project's beginning, the Burma Army has been tasked with providing security for the companies and the pipeline and has committed widespread and systematic human rights abuses against local people. Well-documented allegations of violent and systematic abuses include extrajudicial killings, rape, torture, forced labor, land confiscation, and forced relocation. Many of these abuses and others are ongoing and are documented in the ERI report "Total Impact"(2009). Total and Chevron have repeatedly denied complicity in abuses committed by the Burma Army against people living in the pipeline area. The truth has been laid bare, however, through multiple lawsuits brought by Burmese villagers in U.S. and European courts, in out-of-court settlements between the companies and victims of abuses, as well as in detailed and firsthand documentation by EarthRights International and others, published in numerous advocacy reports since 1996. Rather than accept responsibility to mitigate harms caused by their operation, to this day Total and Chevron continue to misrepresent their impacts in Burma, to the detriment of the people directly affected by the project and the people of Burma as a whole. This report documents in detail how impact assessments commissioned by Total were flawed in methodology and factually inaccurate and incomplete, particularly those undertaken by the Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) of US-based CDA Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA). It also documents and analyzes brazen misrepresentations of the project by the oil companies, who continue to claim that there are no abuses in the pipeline area and that their project in Burma is wholly positive. CDA describes its Corporate Engagement Project, under the rubric of which it has conducted field assessments for Total in Burma, as an initiative that aims to help companies ensure that their operations' impacts on local communities are positive rather than negative. Branded as "independent experts" by Total, CDA has visited Burma five times since 2002 and published five reports based on a mere 20 days in the pipeline region. The reports promote an overall favorable view of Total and Chevron's impacts and presence in Burma. This is in stark contrast to the enormous body of evidence and testimony of villagers in the Yadana region collected by ERI and other organizations since the mid-1990s. This report and its companion, "Total Impact", are intended to provide an accurate and current picture of the Yadana Project. Part I of this report details CDA's myriad flaws in Burma in no less than 10 areas pertaining to its methodology for assessing Total's impacts in Burma, and ranging from its naive and misguided attempts to conduct "open" interviews with villagers in Burma's repressive and closed society, to their failure to adequately assess impacts in villages just outside the narrowly-defined pipeline corridor. Among other oversights, CDA interviewed villagers within earshot and eyesight of military intelligence, soldiers, Total staff, and through interpreters provided by Total. Information obtained in such compromised settings is questionable in any human rights investigation or impact assessment, but especially in Burma where retaliation against critics of the regime and its business partners is well-documented. The fact that CDA failed to take proper security precautions for those it interviewed, who in advance of CDA's visits were warned by the Burma Army about criticizing the companies, further casts doubt on CDA's findings. Even if the conclusions of the CDA reports were not compromised by these and other methodological flaws described in Part I of this report, the reports have been repeatedly distorted and publicly misrepresented by Total and Chevron. Part II of this report catalogues the companies' perversions of their presence in Burma as well as the companies' public misuse of the CDA reports. For example, Total has repeatedly made false, bold and unsubstantiated claims to have eradicated forced labor in the pipeline corridor, and has claimed further that both CDA and the ILO have found there is no forced labor in the pipeline corridor, which is untrue: This report documents that neither CDA or the ILO have ever stated that forced labor has been eradicated in the pipeline corridor. On the contrary, forced labor is prevalent and ongoing in the pipeline corridor; even more so in the entire pipeline area. EarthRights International's documentation indicates that human rights abuses connected to the Yadana Project are ongoing and systematic, that the companies are responsible for these crimes, and that Total and Chevron have misrepresented their impacts in Burma. There is a great deal the companies could do to improve their presence in Burma. "Getting it Wrong" concludes that the Yadana Project is far from a model of responsible investment under difficult conditions, and CDA's assessments of the project should no longer be relied upon as accurate or credible."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (980.66 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/printpdf/1455
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: L’image, une obsession pour Total
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: Sur la Birmanie, le groupe communique à tour de bras, quitte à arranger les faits..."Des rapports, un site internet, des courriers, une charte, des interviews, des visites guidées… Total sait communiquer et le fait à tout va. Car le groupe a du pain sur la planche : l’Erika, AZF, profits records, Birmanie… «Notre image n’est clairement pas très bonne», déplorait en mai le directeur général de Total, Christophe de Margerie..."
    Author/creator: ARNAUD VAULERIN
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: Total et Chevron mis en cause pour leur soutien au régime Birman
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: "Total et le groupe pétrolier américain Chevron enrichissent la junte birmane avec un projet gazier et pétrolier, et dissimulent les exactions commises par les forces de sécurité sur les populations locales. C'est ce qu'affirme, jeudi 10 septembre, l'ONG américaine EarthRights International (ERI) dans deux rapports distincts. "Le projet de gaz de Yadana de Total et Chevron a généré 4,83 milliards de dollars pour le régime birman". La très grande majorité de cet argent, assure l'ONG échappe au budget national et repose dans des banques basées à Singapour, l'Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC) et le groupe DBS. Total est présent en Birmanie depuis 1992 sur le champ gazier de Yadana, dont il possède 31,24 %. Chevron détient pour sa part 28 % des parts de ce champ, qui représente 60 % du volume des exportations de gaz de la Birmanie vers la Thaïlande. Les deux groupes sont régulièrement cités dès lors que sont évoquées des sanctions renforcées contre la junte birmane..."
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: "Le Monde.fr" avec AFP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: Total Impact: The Human Rights, Environmental, and Financial Impacts of Total and Chevron's Yadana Gas Project in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Two western oil companies are currently partnered with the Burmese military regime in a remote corner of southern Burma (Myanmar) on one of the world's most controversial development projects: The Yadana Gas Project by the France-based Total and the US-based Chevron. "Yadana", which means "treasure" in Burmese, is a large-scale project that transports natural gas from the Andaman Sea across Burma's Tenasserim region to Thailand, where it generates electricity for the Bangkok metropolitan area. The gas is transported through an overland pipeline that passes through the dense jungle and rugged terrain of a secluded and environmentally sensitive ethnic area in southeast Burma. From the project's beginning, the Burma Army has been tasked with providing security for the companies and the pipeline and has committed widespread and systematic human rights abuses against local people. EarthRights International (ERI) has been documenting human rights abuses related to the Yadana Project since 1994, and new evidence collected through 2009 attests to the on-going violent abuses committed by the Burma Army providing security for the companies and the project. Abuses include extrajudicial killings, torture, and other forms of ill-treatment; widespread and systematic forced labor; and violations of the rights to freedom of movement and property. Based on new and original evidence, this report further documents the Burma Army's role in the construction phase of the Yadana Project as well as its continuing connection to the companies and the pipeline. Rather than acknowledge its inherent and close relationship with Burma's armed forces, Total has traditionally denied the connections between its company and the Burma Army in its project area, raising important ethical questions about the company's willingness to misrepresent its material risks to investors and shareholders. In addition to the localized human rights impacts in the pipeline region, the Yadana Project has been a significant factor in keeping the Burmese military regime financially solvent. This report documents for the first time the aggregate revenue generated by the Yadana Project for the ruling SPDC, from 2000 to 2008. Rather than contribute to Burma's economic development, the billion dollar revenues from the project have instead contributed to high-level corruption: the revenue is not accounted for in Burma's national budget and according to reliable sources it is stored in two offshore banks in Singapore. Moreover, there are apparent correlations between the SPDC's increasing financial wherewithal and its overall authoritarian behavior. While the severity and seriousness of the human rights and financial impacts of the Yadana Project are logical focal points of concern, the environmental impacts of the project cannot be discounted. This report presents information that details serious problems with Total's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), a document which ERI obtained through US courts and which is now part of the public record; details of which are published here for the first time. Villagers in the pipeline corridor also report ongoing adverse impacts associated with an ill-conceived environmental protection group established and supported by Total in the pipeline corridor. Rather than acknowledge or attempt to mitigate these and other known impacts of the Yadana Project, Total CEO Christophe de Margerie has publicly told critics to "go to hell" and instead focused resources on public relations, including claims that the Yadana gas has made neighboring Bangkok a cleaner city. Total has also systematically whitewashed their complicity in abuses and authoritarianism in Burma in three key ways: first, and most directly, Total has commissioned a number of impact assessments by the US-based CDA Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA), which the corporations tout as evidence that the Yadana Project hurts no one and benefits many. These impact assessments and their fundamental flaws are the subject of the ERI report "Getting it Wrong" (2009). Second, the companies repeatedly misuse both these impact assessments and third-party reports and statements, asserting that others support their claims that there are no abuses in the pipeline area. Third, the companies promote their local "socio-economic" program and declare that it provides economic, educational, and health benefits to every person in the pipeline corridor. While many of the companies' socio-economic efforts might be desirable in theory, local villagers argue that these programs have not worked the way the companies claim they do, if at all. Moreover, ERI has found that the true effectiveness of these local projects have never been independently or fully examined and verified; and regardless of the effectiveness of these programs, they do not exonerate the companies from accountability for complicity in human rights violations and they do not erase the deeper national impacts connected to the revenue stream from the Yadana Project to the SPDC. Total and Chevron's impacts in Burma are profound. ERI makes several specific demands of the companies and calls on the corporate and investment community and policymakers to seriously consider the ethics of Total and Chevron's operations in Burma, and to heed the recommendations included at the end of this report."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (2.95MB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: Une dictature qui se rit des sanctions - Analyse
    Date of publication: 10 September 2009
    Description/subject: Les mesures économiques contre le régime restent sans effet. Cibler le secteur des hydrocarbures serait plus efficace, mais pas sans danger..."Pas question de sanctionner la compagnie privée française Total qui est, aux côtés de la Chine, un des plus gros investisseurs en Birmanie. Le 11 août, suite à la condamnation de l’opposante et prix Nobel de la Paix Aung San Suu Kyi à 18 mois de résidence surveillée supplémentaires, l’Union européenne a décidé de nouvelles mesures punitives contre la junte militaire au pouvoir. Celles-ci comprennent des interdictions de visa à des personnalités birmanes et des gels d’avoirs de membres de la junte. Elles s’ajoutent à de nombreuses mesures déjà prises depuis 1996, telles que l’interdiction d’exportation d’armes. Il n’a absolument pas été question de sanctions dans le domaine stratégique du gaz et des hydrocarbures, qui auraient concerné Total. L’éventualité de mesures punitives touchant le pétrolier français n’a même pas été vraiment évoquée dans les discussions entre les pays de l’UE. «Il n’y a pas eu de débat approfondi sur cette question», nous affirmait hier un diplomate européen..."
    Author/creator: PHILIPPE GRANGEREAU
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: "Liberation.fr"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 September 2009


    Title: BLOOD MONEY: A Grounded Theory of Corporate Citizenship -- Myanmar (Burma) as a Case in Point
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: "...In this inquiry I have explored the multiple interactions between corporate, state and civil society actors through which understandings of ‘responsible’ corporate engagement in Myanmar are created, enacted and transformed. I have identified and conceptualised four social processes at work in these interactions, which I describe in the grounded theories of: (1) Commercial Diplomacy (describing the use of enterprise as a conduit for foreign policy by states, particularly as it relates to ‘ethical’ business activity) (2) Stakeholder Activism (critiquing the aims and strategies of transnational civil society organisations who advocate for ‘responsible’ corporate engagement) (3) Corporate Engagement (explaining variation in the motivations and terms of corporate engagement, specifically different forms of divestment or engagement, as strategic responses to stakeholder activism, commercial diplomacy and other factors which influence the enterprise context) (4) Constructive Corporate Engagement (a conceptual framework, grounded in multiple stakeholder-views and drawing from the international development discourses of state fragility and human security, for considering the potentially constructive impacts of corporate engagement). Working within and between these four theories, I generated an overarching grounded theory of (5) Corporate Citizenship in Fragile States. From these theories I offer a critical analysis of Corporate Citizenship as the normative basis for a new articulation between the economic, social and political spheres in pursuit of a more equitable global order..."
    Author/creator: Nicola M. Black
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Te Waananga o Waikato (The University of Waikato)
    Format/size: html; pdf (3.5MB) (553 pages)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nickyblack.com/Nicky_Black/Corporate_Citizenship_and_Myanmar.html (Chapter-by-chapter)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/BM-Complete-NBlack%202009-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2010


    Title: The Human Cost of Energy: Chevrons Continuing Role in Financing Oppression and Profiting From Human Rights Abuses in Military-Ruled Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report documents Chevron�s ongoing role in financing the military regime in Burma (Myanmar) and profiting from human rights abuses on the Yadana natural gas development project. It is based in part on over 70 formal interviews over the past five years, documenting conditions in the region of Burma affected by the Yadana gas pipeline, and corroborating information from ERI�s network of contacts, as well as ERI�s prior experience in documenting abuses on the Yadana Project dating back to 1994, and on documents that have become public through the groundbreaking human rights lawsuit Doe v. Unocal. ERI has published three previous reports on the Yadana Project, and filed Doe v. Unocal in U.S. courts on behalf of victims of the pipeline project who had suffered rape, murder, torture, and pervasive slave labor. Part 1 describes the background of the Yadana Project, which involves a pipeline constructed to carry gas from offshore fields, across Burma, and into Thailand. In 2005, Chevron became part of the Yadana Project through its acquisition of Unocal, one of the original developers of the project. The Burmese military junta, a brutal regime routinely condemned by the United Nations and the world community for its widespread violations of basic human rights, is one of Chevron�s partners in the project through its military-run oil company, Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise. Part 2 explains how the Yadana Project finances oppression. The project is the single largest source of income for the Burmese military; it was instrumental in bailing out the junta when it faced a severe financial crisis in the late 1990s, and it has enabled the regime to dramatically increase its military spending and continue its rule without popular support. Part 3 describes how Chevron was fully aware of the human rights abuses associated with the Yadana Project when it acquired Unocal in 2005, but nonetheless chose to stay involved with the project and the Burmese military. The Yadana pipeline is guarded by the Burmese army, and the human rights abuses committed by the army in the course of providing security have been widely reported and documented; victims of the project sued Unocal in U.S. courts in the landmark case Doe v. Unocal. Part 4 documents the continuing serious human rights abuses by the pipeline security forces, including torture, rape, murder, and forced labor. Seventeen years after abuses connected to the Yadana Project were first documented, and years after they were highlighted in Doe v. Unocal, these human rights abuses continue in the pipeline corridor. Residents and refugees fleeing the pipeline region report that they are still forced to work for the pipeline security forces, who continue to commit acts of violence and terrorize the local population. This forced labor occurs thousands of times each year. Part 5 debunks the oil companies� claims that life in the pipeline region has improved. While some villages have realized minimal benefits from the companies� socio-economic program, the benefits do not reach the entire population affected by the pipeline security forces. Even for the chosen �pipeline villages� life remains so difficult and dangerous that families continue to flee for the relative safety of the Thai-Burma border. Part 6 discusses Chevron�s response to the 2007 demonstrations in Burma against the military regime and the regime�s crackdown. Despite its threefold status as the largest U.S. investor in Burma, the military�s direct business partner, and a partner in the project that constitutes the largest source of income for the regime, Chevron has failed to take any noticeable steps to condemn the violent repression or to pressure the military to respect human rights. Finally, Part 7 describes Chevron�s ongoing potential legal liability for its role in the Yadana Project. Although the Doe v. Unocal litigation resulted in a settlement in 2005, that settlement only covers the claims of the victims involved in that suit; Chevron remains responsible for compensating the thousands of other residents of the pipeline region who have suffered abuse by pipeline security forces. Two appendices offer additional detail on oil and gas investment in Burma. Appendix A details the Shwe Project, a new gas project which could dwarf Yadana both in revenues for the military and in the abusive impact on the local population. The project is being developed by South Korea�s Daewoo International along with other companies from Korea, India and China. Appendix B briefly outlines China�s growing involvement in Burma, especially in the oil and gas sector. The Yadana Project remains a serious problem both for the people of Burma and for Chevron itself. In light of this, EarthRights International makes the following recommendations:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (2.63MB- English; 2.24 - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Human-Cost-of-Energy-Burmese.pdf
    http://www.earthrights.org/publication/human-cost-energy-chevron-s-continuing-role-financing-oppres...
    http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/Human_Cost_Of_Energy-ERI.pdf (2.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: Report of Fifth CDA/CEP Visit to the Yadana Pipeline Myanmar/Burma February 9‐17 2008 in Myanmar/Burma February 18 in Bangkok, Thailand
    Date of publication: 18 February 2008
    Description/subject: "...In the spirit of collaborative learning, CEP has engaged with Total over a period of six years, visiting (among others) the Yadana pipeline joint venture project in Myanmar/Burma in October 2002, May 2003, November-December 2003, and April- May 2005. The Reports of these site visits are available on CDA’s web site. Building on these visits and pursuing the issues raised in the previous Reports, Mary B. Anderson, Executive Director of CDA1 and Brian Ganson, independent consultant, carried out a fifth in-country visit to Total and the Yadana Project between February 9 and February 19, 2008. The purpose of this trip, as with all CEP field visits, was to examine and report on the interaction between corporate operations and the lives of people in the pipeline corridor, as well as to assess the impacts of the corporate presence and operations on the wider context of Myanmar/Burma. Specifically, the focus in the pipeline area was to follow up on findings from previous CEP visits that raised concerns about village dependency on Total and the non-sustainability of the Socio-Eco projects when Total ultimately leaves the region. The focus of this trip with regard to the broader society was to consider how the changing environment of recent months has shaped the working environment for Total and the Yadana Project. Because in examining the operations of the Joint Venture Project, we engaged with the operational partner, Total, we consistently refer in this report to Total’s actions and impacts. However, our observations and analyses concern all the joint venture partners: Total, Unocal/Chevron, MOGE and PTTEP2. This Report begins with an Introduction in which we outline the approach and process of the field visit team. Section I covers the findings with regard to impacts in the pipeline corridor, the defined geographical region that encompasses the gas pipeline where Total conducts a Socio-Eco program in support of the twenty-five villages in the area. Section II of the Report then examines the broader context of Myanmar/Burma and considers how the ongoing presence and operations of Total and its partners in this context affect broader social and economic welfare..."
    Author/creator: Mary B. Anderson, Brian Ganson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action/Collaborative Learning Projects/Corporate Engagement Project
    Format/size: pdf (194K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 September 2009


    Title: Chevron’s Links to Burma Stir Critics to Demand It Pull Out
    Date of publication: 04 October 2007
    Description/subject: "Chevron Corp. of San Ramon is drawing harsh criticism for its business ties to Burma, the Asian nation conducting a brutal military crackdown. The company owns part of a natural gas project in Burma, where soldiers crushed pro-democracy protests last week and killed at least 10 people. U.S. sanctions prevent most U.S. companies from working in Burma, but Chevron's investment there existed before the sanctions were imposed and continues under a grandfather clause. As a result, the company is one of the few large Western companies left in the country. Now Chevron faces pressure to pull out..."
    Author/creator: David R. Baker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: San Francisco Chronicle
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/10/04/4303/
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: Why Total Agrees to Compensation in Forced Labor Suit - An Interview with Jean Francois Lassalle
    Date of publication: December 2005
    Description/subject: "Two days after French oil giant Total made a 5.2 million euros (US $6.12 million) out-of-court settlement to end a suit by 12 Burmese accusing the company of involvement in forced labor to build a natural gas pipeline, a Total executive explained why his company agreed to settle. In a phone interview with The Irrawaddy, Total’s vice president for exploration and production Jean Francois Lassalle claimed his company is paying compensation despite the fact “we’ve never used forced labor.” The eight plaintiffs and four witnesses had brought the suit against Total in 2002, claiming forced labor was used by Total in building its Yadana pipeline from Burma to Thailand from 1995-1998. This is what Lassalle told "The Irrawaddy":..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Total pollue la démocratie – stoppons le TOTALitarisme en Birmanie
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: "...Total a conclu des accords commerciaux avec le régime militaire birman après qu’il eut refusé, au lendemain des élections de 1990, de céder le pouvoir au parti élu démocratiquement, la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie (LND). Nous soutenons dans ce rapport que les activités de Total en Birmanie, notamment le projet gazier de Yadana, constituent un soutien moral et fi nancier direct à la junte militaire. Cette junte militaire se livre quotidiennement et de façon régulière à de très nombreuses violations des droits de l’Homme en Birmanie. Le régime a systématiquement recourt au travail forcé et opprime les minorités ethniques et les groupes d’opposition. Quels que soient les arguments théoriques avancés par le groupe pétrolier français, faisant valoir un lien entre investissement et développement1, Total n’exerce en fait aucun contrôle sur la manière dont les revenus tirés de Yadana sont utilisés par la junte et rien ne permet de penser que ces fonds serviront à l’amélioration des conditions de vie de la population. En Birmanie, environ 40 % du budget national sont consacrés à l’armée et des sommes minimes sont allouées à l’éducation et la santé. Qui plus est, le régime militaire se replie de plus en plus sur lui-même. L’investissement de Total en Birmanie ne se traduit en rien par une ouverture du régime sur l’extérieur..."
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: FIDH, Agir-ici, Actions Birmanie, France Libertes
    Format/size: pdf (477.4K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


    Title: Total pollutes democracy - Stop TOTALitarianism in Burma
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: "...The history of Total in Burma is complex and problematic. It began commercial negotiations with the military regime after the junta refused to cede power to the democratically elected National League for Democracy (NLD) following the 1990 elections. This report shows that Total activities in Burma, particularly the Yadana Gas Project, have provided direct and substantial political and fi nancial support to the military junta. The military junta in Burma perpetrates widespread and systematic abuses of human rights on a daily basis. The regime routinely uses forced labour and severely oppresses ethnic minorities and opposition groups. In spite of theoretical arguments regarding the relationship between investment and development1, Total has no control over the way the Yadana project revenue is used by the military government and there is nothing to suggest that this money will be used, in any way, to improve conditions in Burma. In fact, approximately 40% of the national budget is spent on the military, with infi nitesimal amounts being spent on health and education. The military regime is also becoming increasingly closed to external observation and scrutiny. Up to now, Total’s investment in Burma has not resulted in an opening of the regime to international dialogue. The human rights violations perpetrated by the Burmese Army in the Yadana pipeline area also demonstrate the nature of the regime Total is dealing with, as well as Total’s own legal responsibility for acts carried out by those state actors. Embroiled in the actions occurring in and around the pipeline area, Total was complicit in these human rights violations. It knew the Burmese military would be engaged to secure the pipeline, it was aware of the abuses carried out by the military and it failed to take adequate steps to prevent these abuses. The social projects and compensation offered by Total does not absolve from acknowledging its responsibility and from providing appropriate compensation to all victims..."... N.B. THERE'S SOMETHING WRONG WITH THE FILE -- IT GETS STUCK ON P30 AND CAN ONLY BE DOWNLOADED WITH INTERNET EXPLORER.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: FIDH, Agir-ici, Actions Birmanie, France Libertes
    Format/size: pdf (482K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


    Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project. Field Visit: April 17 – May 6, 2005 (Fourth Visit)
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: "The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tension or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the context in which they operate. Based on this analysis, CEP helps companies to develop management tools and practical options to address local challenges and stakeholder issues. The CEP team visited Thailand and the Yadana operations in Myanmar/Burma from April 17 – May 6, 2005. This is the fourth visit of the CEP team to the Yadana project and to Thailand. This trip was a follow up visit to previous site visits conducted in December 2003, May 2003 and October 2002. This report should be read in conjunction with the three previous reports available at our website: www.cdainc.com/cep. During the visit to Myanmar/Burma and Thailand, CEP spoke with a broad range of stakeholders to gain a better understanding of people’s perspectives concerning Total’s operations in Myanmar/Burma. Although Total’s name is mentioned throughout this report, our observations concern all venture partners; Total, Unocal, MOGE (Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise) and PTTEP (Thai National Exploration and Production Company). The introductory part of this report explains the approach taken during this visit. The first section lays out the observations made in the pipeline area. Section two discusses the findings during our meetings on a national level with stakeholders in Yangon and Mandalay, and section three describes the observations on an international level based on discussions with stakeholders in Thailand, the United States and Europe. Sections I, II and III are organized as observations and options for change..."
    Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Ana Paula do Nascimento
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
    Format/size: pdf (116K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: TOTALITARIAN OIL - TOTAL Oil: fuelling the oppression in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2005
    Description/subject: "...Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. TOTAL Oil, the fourth largest oil company in the world, is in business with Burma’s dictatorship. It has been in Burma since 1992 against the wishes of Burma’s elected leaders, many of whom are being detained by the Junta. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma’s pro-democracy leader, has said that “Total has become the main supporter of the Burmese military regime.” 1 She told the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur that “TOTAL knew what it was doing when it invested massively in Burma while others withdrew from the market for ethical reasons.” She added, “the company must accept the consequences. The country will not always be governed by dictators.” The National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won 82 percent of the seats in Burma’s 1990 election. It has called on foreign companies not to invest in Burma because of the role investment plays in perpetuating dictatorship in that country. All the major ethnic leaderships from Burma have whole-heartedly supported this position too. Therefore, the mandate from which companies are asked not to invest in Burma comes from within the country. This report gathers together much of the available evidence relating to TOTAL’s role in fuelling the oppressive dictatorship in Burma. Broadly, it covers human rights abuses associated with TOTAL’s gas pipeline, TOTAL’s financing of Burma’s dictatorship and TOTAL’s influence on French foreign policy and therefore on European Burma policy as a whole. TOTAL’s presence in Burma has consequences far beyond its 63-kilometre pipeline across Burmese territory. Its destructive influence goes to the heart of international policy towards one of the world’s most brutal regimes. For that reason, it is essential for all those who want change in Burma to deal with the problem of TOTAL Oil. As long as TOTAL remains in Burma, the dictatorship will be satisfied that the chances of real pressure against it are unlikely..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Buram Campaign UK
    Format/size: pdf (691K)
    Alternate URLs: http://burmacampaign.org.uk/images/uploads/total_report.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: The Burma-Thailand Gas Debacle
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "Thailand’s state-controlled gas firm signed up for two expensive gas deals that it later realized it didn’t want. Burma has used the revenue to finance an arms build-up. In 1989 with the treasury bare, Burma’s ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, as the junta then called itself, opened up petroleum exploration to foreign oil companies. In the short term Rangoon profited from signing bonuses paid for exploration blocks. If any of the firms struck commercially viable oil or gas, Burma would collect free rents from petroleum exports that would help maintain an unelected, unpopular administration in power..."
    Author/creator: Bruce Hawke
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


    Title: US Businesses Fret over Unocal Cases
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: "For the first time, an American corporation is going to trial for human rights abuses committed by a government with which it did business. Unocal, the US $11 billion oil company headquartered in El Segundo, California is being held liable by a group of Burmese villagers for human right abuses committed by a business partner in Burma in a case before the California Superior Court. The case, John Doe et al versus Unocal, has caused disquiet within the US business community..."
    Author/creator: Anna Sussman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


    Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project. Field Visit Report November 22 – December 6, 2003 (Third Visit )
    Date of publication: February 2004
    Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: "The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities in the context in which they work. Based on this analysis, CEP helps companies to develop management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. Against this background, Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant, and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP, visited Thailand and Myanmar/Burma from November 22 – December 6, 2003 to visit the Yadana pipeline joint venture project, operated by Total. This trip was a follow-up to our previous visits conducted in October 2002, and in May 2003. This report should be read in combination with the two earlier reports, which are available at: www.cdainc.com/cep. Our purpose, as in all CEP field visits, was to examine both the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. Because we examined the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to Total’s role as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners: Total, Unocal, MOGE and PTTEP. After the introduction, in which we explain our approach, the report is divided into two parts. The first section reports on the direct and indirect impacts of the Yadana project within the so-called pipeline corridor. This is the geographical area on both sides of the pipeline that Total has defined as the local working environment on which it focuses its attention. Direct impacts take place through the Socio-Economic Program (referred to in the report as Socio-Econ Program) implemented by the company. Indirect impacts occur simply through the presence of the company and its effects on human rights in the pipeline corridor. The second section explores a range of opinions of Myanmar people not living in the pipeline corridor on a variety of topics such as freedom, expectations concerning the company, and the impacts of sanctions on the country. We report these “voices” of people because for the company to ensure its presence has a positive impact on society, it first needs to gain a better understanding of how it can respond to the aspirations of those beyond the pipeline corridor also impacted by its activities. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. In all of CEP’s efforts, we work to establish partnerships between groups with different agendas with the ultimate objective of increasing the positive impact that companies have, or can have, on the quality of life of people where they operate. The purpose of this report, as of our earlier reports, is to contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders on the options for positive corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context..."
    Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Doug Fraser
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
    Format/size: pdf (275K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project Field Visit: April 22 – May 2, 2003 (Second Visit)
    Date of publication: July 2003
    Description/subject: Moattama Gas Transportation Company Operator: Total Myanmar/Burma...PREFACE: The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort, involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the contexts in which they work. Based on site visits, CEP aims to identify and analyze the challenges for corporations that recur across companies and across contexts. Based on the patterns that emerge, CEP develops management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. In this context, Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant, and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP, visited Myanmar from April 22 – May 3, 2003 to visit the Yadana pipeline project, operated by Total, as a follow up to our first visit conducted in October 2002. This visit was the second CEP visit to the Yadana Project in what is planned as a series of three visits. To avoid duplication, this report should be read in combination with the first report (available at http://www.cdainc.com/cep/cep-casestudylist.htm). Our purpose, as in all CEP field visits, was to examine the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. The CEP team intends to visit Thailand to explore allegations from several international NGOs that people originating from the pipeline area were displaced into Thailand. If people had to leave Myanmar/Burma recently for reasons related to the pipeline or the presence of oil companies, this would be important for CEP to know. The trip will serve the following purposes: * To learn additional information related to the impact of the pipeline on local civilians. We want to address the possibility that we only hear positive stories about the pipeline from people currently residing in the corridor, while people that were possibly forced to leave the corridor might tell of a different reality... * To verify why CDA’s observations in the pipeline area differ from the observations in some of the reports produced by international NGOs about the impact of the pipeline on the local contexts... * To explore rumors in the business community in Thailand and Myanmar/Burma (and among NGOs themselves) that some NGOs make a “business” of producing allegations against companies, based on testimonies from Myanmar/Burmese refugees. This is of concern to CEP because if CEP is unable to confirm allegations that “NGOs fabricate “evidence,” it supports the credibility of the NGOs that make allegations or advocate on behalf of Myanmar/Burmese refugees. On the other side, if the fabrication of evidence is confirmed, this would support sentiments in the business community that allegations should not be taken seriously. This undermines the ability of individuals with genuine grievances against companies to be heard... We attempted to arrange the trip from Bangkok to Northern Thailand to precede this visit, but logistically it was not feasible (during the water festival), and therefore the trip has been postponed to coincide with the third visit. Because we were examining the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to Total’s role as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners. The point of departure for any CEP visit is what we observe on site and what we hear that is substantiated both by examples and by consistent repetition. Although familiarity with the history of a project and region is indispensable for understanding current operations and policies, we neither validate nor invalidate past operational policies or their impacts, unless we observe these in current dynamics. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. We hope, as well, that this report will contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders, on the options for corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context. After the introduction, in which our methodology is explained, the report is divided into two parts. The first section reports on the direct and indirect impacts of the Yadana project within the pipeline area. Direct impacts take place through the Socio-Economic Program implemented by the company. But equally important, according to villagers, is the indirect impact of Total’s presence on the human rights situation in general, and forced labor in particular, in the immediate region. The second section explores the company’s impact on the broader national context. Addressing both the local impacts as well as the impacts of the pipeline on the national social and political level is a challenge for any company working in the country. In order to address these challenges, Total will need to develop a clear vision and coherent strategy to support this vision. We will discuss some of the building blocks for such a strategy and suggest options that could enable the company to constructively address these challenges while continuing its operations.
    Author/creator: Luc Zandvliet and Doug Fraser
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
    Format/size: pdf (285K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: Yadana Gas Transportation Project Field Visit: October 18 - 30, 2002 (First Visit)
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: Corporate Engagement Project – Myanmar/Burma report November 2002...PREFACE: The Corporate Engagement Project (CEP) is a collaborative effort, involving multinational corporations that operate in areas of socio-political tensions or conflict. Its purpose is to help corporate managers better understand the impacts of corporate activities on the contexts in which they work. Based on site visits, CEP aims to identify and analyze the challenges for corporations that recur across companies and across contexts. Based on the patterns that emerge, CEP develops management tools and practical options for management practices that respond to local challenges and address stakeholder issues. In this context, a team of three (Mary B. Anderson, President of the Collaborative for Development Action; Doug Fraser, Independent Consultant; and Luc Zandvliet, Project Director of CEP) traveled to Myanmar from October 18 – 30, 2002 to visit the Yadana pipeline project, operated by TotalFinaElf (TFE). Our purpose, as in all our visits, was to examine the interaction between corporate operations and surrounding communities, as well as the impact of corporate operations on the wider context of conflict. While our focus was on these interactions at many levels, our review inevitably also included a consideration of the corporation’s effects on the human rights situation in the region of the pipeline and beyond in the country at large. The point of departure for any CEP visit is what we observe on site and what we hear that is substantiated both by examples and by consistent repetition. Although familiarity with the history of a project and region is indispensable for understanding current operations and policies, we neither validate nor invalidate past operational policies or their impacts, unless we observe these in current dynamics. Therefore, this visit was focused on analyzing present operations and policies and their positive or negative consequences on people living in the contexts of operations. This focus follows the same approach undertaken in all CEP work with corporations that participate in the Corporate Engagement Project. As a matter of principle, the Corporate Engagement Project works with all corporations who wish to be engaged and who express their interest in understanding and improving their relations with communities where they work. This visit was the first CEP visit to the Yadana Project in what is planned as a series of three. We invite feedback on the observations laid out in this report. We hope, as well, that this report will contribute to broader discussions within the company and between the company and stakeholders, on the options for corporate engagement in the Myanmar/Burma context. Because we were examining the operations of the Yadana project, in this report we consistently refer to TotalFinaElf’s role (TFE) as the operator of the project. However, our observations concern all joint venture partners.
    Author/creator: Mary Anderson, Doug Fraser and Luc Zandvliet
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Collaborative for Development Action
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007


    Title: Pipelines That Bind
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: Even as they remain locked in conflict along their northern border, Thailand and Burma continue to foster their mutual economic dependency. Energy-hungry Thailand has announced that it will pay US$ 300 million payment for contracted gas from Burma by March 31, easing pressure on the cash-starved Burmese regime as it continues to mount offensives against insurgent groups along the Thai-Burma border. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand PTT has also revealed that it is negotiating to take an additional 10-15% over contracted volumes of natural gas from Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Breakthroughs and Bad News for Oil Investors
    Date of publication: September 2000
    Description/subject: Thailand has finally decided to pay up, and Unocal feels vindicated, but investors in Burma's oil industry are still beset with problems, according to recent reports. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand PTT has revealed that it paid a consortium developing the Yadana offshore oilfield US $277 million at the end of July, ending two years of speculation over whether it would compensate the group for unused gas.
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Totally Undeniable
    Date of publication: September 2000
    Description/subject: While Judge Ronald Lew has dismissed the case charging Unocal withliability for human rights abuses, attorneys of the plaintiffs are encouraged by prospects for a successful appeal.
    Author/creator: Jed Greer and Tyler Giannini/EarthRights International
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Total Denial Continues - Earth rights abuses along the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in Burma
    Date of publication: May 2000
    Description/subject: "Three Western oil companies -- Total, Premier and Unocal -- bent on exploiting natural gas , entered partnerships with the brutal Burmese military regime. Since the early 1990's, a terrible drama has been unfolding in Burma. Three western oil companies -- Total, Premier, and Unocal -- entered into partnerships with the brutal Burmese miltary regime to build the Yadana and Yetagun natural gas pipelines. The regime created a highly militarized pipelinecorridor in what had previously been a relatively peaceful area, resulting in violent suppression of dissent, environmental destruction, forced labor and portering, forced relocations, torture, rape, and summary executions. EarthRights International co-founder Ka Hsaw Wa and a team of field staff traveled on both sides of the Thai-Burmese border in the Tenasserim region to document the conditions in the pipeline corridor. In the nearly four years since the release of "Total Denial" (1996), the violence and forced labor in the pipeline region have continued unabated. This report builds on the evidence in "Total Denial" and brings to light several new facets of the tragedy in the Tenasserim region. Keywords:, human rights, environment, forced relocation, internal displacement, foreign investment. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Earthrights International
    Format/size: pdf (6MB - OBL ... 20MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/files/Reports/TotalDenialCont-2ndEdition.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rapport d'information N° 1859 depose par la Commission Des Affaires Étrangeres
    Date of publication: 13 October 1999
    Description/subject: Sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental.
    Author/creator: Mme Marie-Helene Aubert, M. Pierre Brana, M. Roland Blum (rapporteurs)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 976K
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rapport d'information N°1859 (Sommaire Des Comptes Rendus d'Auditions)
    Date of publication: 12 October 1999
    Description/subject: sur le rôle des compagnies pétrolières dans la politique internationale et son impact social et environnemental. (Report by a French parliamentary commission on the political, social and environmental impact of oil companies, including Total's activities in Burma - French only)
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Assemblee Nationale (France)
    Format/size: 953K
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/i1859-02.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Pipeline Politics
    Date of publication: February 1998
    Description/subject: "As long as there is no accountable government in Burma," explains opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, "I do not think the money generated by the gas pipeline can be said to be invested for the country as a whole...."
    Author/creator: By Yurdle
    Language: english
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Birmanie, la dictature du pavot
    Date of publication: 1998
    Description/subject: La drogue, petrole, la junte birmane, la France...Le livre de Francis Christophe (moins Introduction et Annexe). DU ROI THEBAW A LA FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION; LA MONTEE DE l'OPIUM EN BIRMANIE; L'ARRIVEE EN FORCE DU SLORC; LA REDDITION-REHABILITATION DE KHUN SA; LE SLORC, REINCARNATION DE LA DICTATURE PRECEDENTE; PARRAINAGES ET RESEAUX; LE PARAVENT DE L'ENGAGEMENT CONSTRUCTIF; LES AMIS DU SLORC; INDE-BIRMANIE: L'HEROINE BOUSCULE LE STATU-QUO; NARCO-REACTION EN CHAINE; EXCEPTION FRANCAISE; LA CHUTE de MANDALAY; MIRAGE ET TABOU SUR LA DROGUE; DIPLOMATIE PETROLIERE TOTAL EN BIRMANIE, L'IMPLANTATION; LE FARDEAU BIRMAN; SUCCES SUR LE TERRAIN, DIFFICULTES MEDIATIQUES; LES CIRCUITS POLITIQUES ET ECONOMIQUES; UNE FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION? UN ENGAGEMENT DESTRUCTEUR.
    Author/creator: Francis Christophe
    Language: Francais, French
    Format/size: 270K
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: BURMA, TOTAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS: DISSECTION OF A PROJECT:
    Date of publication: November 1996
    Description/subject: I - Project Description: A. Figures and facts; B. Development of the construction; C. The pipeline route and the protection of the construction sites; D. Methods of employment... II - Support for the junta: A. An act of moral and political support; B. Disregard for civil society and its legitimate representatives - TOTAL'S interest in upholding the junta; C. Economic support; D. Logistical and military support... III - A Judicial Void: A. The coup d'etat and the absence of rule of law; B. Burma's obligations under international law... IV - Human Rights Violations in conjunction with the Pipeline:- A. Militarisation: 1. Attacks on the project; 2. Reprisals... B. Forced relocation of the population: 1. Evictions from villages; 2. Expropriations... C. Forced labour: 1. Forced labour and the general infrastructure; 2. Forced labour and security; 3. The case of the Ye-Tavoy railway; 4. The porters of the Burmese army... D. Other violations: 1. Summary executions; 2. Torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading practices; 3. Rape and violence against women; 4. Violations of economic, social and cultural rights; 5. Environmental rights... V - Conclusions and Recommendations.
    Author/creator: Beatrice Laroche, Anne-Christine Habbard
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
    Format/size: pdf (437K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2005


    Title: Birmanie, Total et les droits de l'Homme: dissection d'un chantier
    Date of publication: October 1996
    Description/subject: Rapport de situation (octobre 1996). Béatrice Laroche (adjointe à la délégation permanente de la FIDH auprès des Nations-Unies à New-York) et Anne-Christine Habbard (chargée de mission au Bureau Exécutif de la FIDH).
    Author/creator: Béatrice Laroche, Anne-Christine Habbard
    Language: Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Total Denial - A Report on the Yadana Pipeline Project in Burma
    Date of publication: 10 July 1996
    Description/subject: "'Total Denial' catalogues the systematic human rights abuses and environmental degradation perpetrated by SLORC as the regime seeks to consolidate its power base in the gas pipeline region. Further, the report shows that investment in projects such as the Yadana pipeline not only gives tacit approval and support to the repressive SLORC junta but also exacerbates the grave human rights and environmental problems in Burma.... The research indicates that gross human rights violations, including summary executions, torture, forced labor and forced relocations, have occurred as a result of natural gas development projects funded by European and North American corporations. In addition to condemning transnational corporate complicity with the SLORC regime, the report also presents the perspectives of those most directly impacted by the foreign investment who for too long have silently endured the abuses meted out by SLORC for the benefit of its foreign corporate partners." ...Additional keywords: environment, human rights violations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI) and Southeast Asian Information Network (SAIN)
    Format/size: pdf (310K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Yetagun Field (Petronas, JX Holdings, Inc. -- formerly Nippon Oil Corp., PTTEP, MOGE )
    Petronas (Malaysia; 40.91%), JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration (Japan; 19.31%),78 PTTEP (Thailand; 19.31%), and MOGE (Burma; 20.45%).79.....Premier Oil's Burma investment was taken over by Petronas.

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Premier Oil (MYANMAR)
    Description/subject: Archival material
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/?lid=300
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Broken Ethics:The Norwegian Government’s Investments in Oil and Gas Companies Operating in Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 15 December 2010
    Description/subject: "The Norwegian government has been accused of complicity in illegal land seizures, forced labour and killings, by investing national funds in international companies that operate inside Burma on projects where widespread abuses are alleged to have taken place. A state-controlled pension fund that is a repository for some of Norway's own oil wealth has invested up to $4.7bn in 15 oil and gas companies operating inside the South-east Asian country. The companies are accused of participating in projects where various human rights violations have taken place. Activists claim the pension fund is in breach of its own guidelines for responsible investment. The allegations come just days after Norway hosted the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony. Land confiscation, forced labour and other abuses are happening in connection with several gas and oil pipeline projects in Burma, according to Naing Htoo of EarthRights International, which is today publishing a report detailing the alleged abuses being committed by the Burmese government. "There's every indication abuses connected to these projects will continue, and, in some cases, worsen," he said. A number of those companies in which the Norwegian fund has investments have previously been accused in relation to controversial projects in Burma which has been controlled by a military junta since 1962. Among them are Total Oil of France, in which the Norwegian fund has an investment of $2.6bn, and the US-based Chevron Corp, in which the fund has $900m invested. EarthRights International insists that widespread violations continue to be committed by the Burmese army in support of many oil and gas projects that earn the regime millions of dollars. The group says that troops providing security for the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines have carried out extra-judicial killings..." ["The Independent"]
    Author/creator: Matthew Smith, Naing Htoo, Zaw Zaw, Shauna Curphey, Paul Donowitz, Brad Weikel, Ross Dana Flynn, and Anonymous Field Teams
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


    Title: Mitsubishi to Invest $70 Million in Yetagun
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: Japanese trading company Mitsubishi Corporation has announced that it will provide US $70 million to build a floating storage offloading FSO facility for the Yetagun offshore oil and natural gas project in Burma by the end of July. [Nippon Oil, holder of 20% in Yetagun, merged with Mitsubishi Oil in April 1999 to form Japan's biggest oil company, the Nippon-Mitsubishi Oil Corporation(NMOC) known also as Nisseki Mitsubishi Oil Corp.]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Premier Oil Admits Abuses in Burma
    Date of publication: 16 May 2000
    Description/subject: Executive denials crumble under pressure from rights groups and UK government.
    Author/creator: Terry Macalister
    Source/publisher: Guardian
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Myanmar and Premier Oil public statement
    Date of publication: 12 April 2000
    Description/subject: Public statement by Amnesty International. "Amnesty International is astonished that Premier Oil, in response to a call by the UK Government that it withdraw from Myanmar, has said in a news wire report that the company's ongoing dialogue with Amnesty International 'had made a significant difference in Myanmar.' The organization does not believe that this is the case. In fact, the human rights situation there continues to be extremely grave ..."
    Language: English, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/002/2000/en/3ddd5241-df5d-11dd-acaa-7d9091d4638f/asa1... (Spanish)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/002/2000/en
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: Premier Stays in, Baker Hughes Pulls Out
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: Premier Oil has said that it will not leave Burma as it was requested to do by the British government. "It is our intention to stay," said CEO Charles Jamieson, citing Premier's obligations to its partners in the controversial Yetagun gas project and his belief that "dialogue engagement" will work best to bring about political change in Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Nippon, Mitsubishi Oil to Merge into Japan;'s Largest Oil Firm
    Date of publication: February 1999
    Source/publisher: Kyodo
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Pipe-Dreams?
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: The largest shareholder and operator of Burma's Yetagun gas field, Texaco, has appointed an investment banker to seek buyers of Texaco's 42.9% stake in Burma's Yetagun gas field. Hassan Marican, president of Malaysia's Petronas, is considering purchasing Texaco's shares. During Texaco's annual shareholder meeting in May the company cited financial rather than human rights concerns as grounds for the sale.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Petronas Home Page
    Description/subject: Malaysian Government-owned company Petronas has the biggest block of shares in the Yetagun project, and also owns 25% of Premier Oil
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003