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Dialogue/transition: resources

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support (website)
Description/subject: "...A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support is meant to present a wide variety of case studies documenting and explaining specific country experiences. It also identifies creative, human, and material resources available to Missions, the ways in which Missions and diplomats have supported requests in the past, and describes how such support has been applied. A review of these experiences bears out the validity of our belief in our inter-dependence. It will hopefully also provide practitioners with encouragement, counsel, and a greater capacity to support democrats everywhere.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community of Democracies, Council for a Community of Democracies
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.diplomatshandbook.org/
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2012

Title: Albert Einstein Institution
Description/subject: "The Albert Einstein Institution is a nonprofit organization advancing the study and use of strategic nonviolent action in conflicts throughout the world. We are committed to the defense of freedom, democracy, and the reduction of political violence through the use of nonviolent action. Our goals are to understand the dynamics of nonviolent action in conflicts, to explore its policy potential, and to communicate this through print and other media, translations, conferences, consultations, and workshops."... Downloadable books on this site include: There Are Realistic Alternatives by Gene Sharp: "There Are Realistic Alternatives is a short, serious introduction to nonviolent struggle, its applications, and strategic thinking. Based on pragmatic arguments, this piece presents nonviolent struggle as a realistic alternative to war and other violence in acute conflicts. It also contains a glossary of important terms and recommendations for further reading." 54 pp. 2003" Languages available: English, Arabic ....198 Methods of Nonviolent Action" "Practitioners of nonviolent struggle have an entire arsenal of "nonviolent weapons" at their disposal. Listed are 198 of them, classified into three broad categories: nonviolent protest and persuasion, noncooperation (social, economic, and political), and nonviolent intervention." Languages available: English....On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking About the Fundamentals by Robert Helvey: "On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict delves into the question of how to build a strategy for nonviolent struggle. Covering a variety of topics--such as ways to identify a movement's objectives, preparing a strategic estimate for a nonviolent struggle, and operational planning considerations--this publication contains insights on the similarities between military and nonviolent strategy. It represents a major new contribution to this field of study. Additional topics covered in the book include psychological operations and propaganda, contaminants that may affect the efficiency of a nonviolent movement, and providing consultations and training for members of movements and organizations".... From Dictatorship to Democracy by Gene Sharp: "From Dictatorship to Democracy is a serious introduction to the use of nonviolent action to topple dictatorships. Originally published in 1993 in Thailand for distribution among Burmese dissidents, this booklet has since been translated into seventeen different languages and spread worldwide.". 88 pp. 2003....The Anti-Coup by Gene Sharp and Bruce Jenkins: As coups are one of the primary ways through which dictatorships are installed, this piece details measures that civilians, civil society, and governments can take to prevent and block coups d'état and executive usurpations. It also contains specific legislative steps and other measures that governments and non-governmental institutions can follow to prepare for anti-coup resistance". 64 pp. 2003....The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle by Gene Sharp: "Nonviolent action . . . is capable of wielding great power even against ruthless rulers and military regimes," writes Sharp, "because it attacks the most vulnerable characteristic of all hierarchical institutions and governments: dependence on the governed." Abstracted from Sharp's classic three-volume work, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, this monograph summarizes the core concepts behind the technique of nonviolent struggle." 19 pp. 1990, 1994.Languages available: English, Arabic, Burmese, Russian, Spanish....National Security Through Civilian-based Defense by Gene Sharp" "This publication offers an introduction to civilian-based defense. It also identifies significant research areas and policy studies that are relevant to advancing the field." 93 pp. 1985....Toward Research and Theory Building in the Study of Nonviolent Action by Ronald McCarthy and Christopher Kruegler: "The authors offer their thoughts about developing theory and conducting research in the emerging field of nonviolent action." 35 pp. 1993 .
Language: English and 20 other languages
Source/publisher: Albert Einstein Institution
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 June 2007

Title: Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (Cambodia)
Description/subject: Several studies on Burma/Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2012

Title: Conciliation resources
Description/subject: An International Service for Conflict Prevention and Resolution "CR's organisational objective is to provide practical and sustained assistance to people and groups in areas of armed conflict or potential violence who work at community or national level in order to prevent violence or transform conflict into opportunities for social, economic and political development based on more just relationships..." International resource for local or national peace and conflict prevention initiatives. Supports sustained practical activities to prevent or transform violent conflicts. The website, especially in the Accord Series, contains a large number of online documents which provide "detailed narratives and analysis of specific war and peace proceses...a practical resource for reflection for all those engaged in peacemaking activities..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conciliation Resources
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Conflict Information Consortium
Description/subject: Conflict Information Consortium Brochure The University of Colorado Conflict Information Consortium, directed by Guy and Heidi Burgess, was founded in 1988 as a multi-disciplinary center for research and teaching about conflict and its transformation. With its primary focus on difficult and intractable conflicts, the Consortium has pioneered efforts to use rapidly advancing information technologies to provide citizens in all walks of life with the information that they need to deal with conflicts more constructively. The Consortium sees such efforts to enhance and mobilize the skills of the general population as critical to efforts to deal with complex, society-wide conflicts.
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Colorado
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://3cg.colorado.edu/drupal_pacs/
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2010

Title: Crisis Management Initiative
Description/subject: Mission Statement Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) is an independent, non-profit organisation that innovatively promotes and works for sustainable security. CMI works to strengthen the capacity of the international community in comprehensive crisis management and conflict resolution. CMI's work builds on wide stakeholder networks. It combines analysis, action and advocacy. Background CMI was founded in 2000 by its Chairman President Martti Ahtisaari. The headquarters of the organisation are in Helsinki, Finland. Our role Crisis Management Initiative * Promotes sustainable security in a pioneering way * Brings together actors to seek solutions to security challenges * Engages in capacity building among the international community in conflict prevention, resolution and transformation * Advocates solutions for security * Uses comprehensive approaches that bind together security and development, good governance, justice and reconciliation CMI's activities are divided into two programmes - Crisis Management Programme and Conflict Resolution Programme - , and the Martti Ahtisaari Rapid Reaction Facility.
Language: English, Finnish
Source/publisher: Crisis Management Initiative
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2008

Title: Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC)
Description/subject: We envisage a world in which people are able and willing to prevent and transform violent conflicts peacefully. We believe in: - a multi-track approach - the importance of local capacities for peace - partnerships with local organisations - long-term engagement - impartiality The ECCP as a Secretariat The European Centre for Conflict Prevention holds the secretariat for the Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict. As the secretariat, the ECCP provides services to the network proactively. It coordinates and supports its activities with particular attention to priority programmatic areas. For more information about other Networks that the ECCP is involved in, please visit our Networks section.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Handbook for bloggers and cyber-dissidents
Description/subject: Do something good by creating your blog with us... Blogs get people excited. Or else they disturb and worry them. Some people distrust them. Others see them as the vanguard of a new information revolution. Because they allow and encourage ordinary people to speak up, they�re tremendous tools of freedom of expression. Bloggers are often the only real journalists in countries where the mainstream media is censored or under pressure. Only they provide independent news, at the risk of displeasing the government and sometimes courting arrest. Reporters Without Borders has produced this handbook to help them, with handy tips and technical advice on how to to remain anonymous and to get round censorship, by choosing the most suitable method for each situation. It also explains how to set up and make the most of a blog, to publicise it (getting it picked up efficiently by search-engines) and to establish its credibility through observing basic ethical and journalistic principles...Contents: Bloggers, the new heralds of free expression; What�s a blog ?; The language of blogging; Choosing the best tool; How to set up and run a blog; What ethics should bloggers have ? Getting your blog picked up by search-engines; What really makes a blog shine ? Personal accounts: - Germany - Bahrain - USA - Hong Kong - Iran - Nepal How to blog anonymously; Technical ways to get around censorship; Ensuring your e-mail is truly private; Internet-censor world championship.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontieres)
Format/size: html, pdf (1.6MB, 3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.rsf.org/IMG/icones/pdf-dist.png (high resolution, for print)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2007

Title: International Peace Research Association (IPRA)
Description/subject: "The purpose of IPRA is to advance interdisciplinary research into the conditions of peace and the causes of war and other forms of violence. To this end, IPRA shall encourage worldwide cooperation designed to assist the advancement of peace research and, in particular: to promote national and international studies and teaching related to the pursuit of world peace; to facilitate contacts and cooperation between scholars and educators throughout the world; and d to encourage worldwide dissemination of results of peace research."
Language: English
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://soc.kuleuven.be/iieb/ipraweb/index.php?action=home&cat=home
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)
Description/subject: "PRIO's overall research is organized into four Strategic Institute Programmes: Conditions of War and Peace Foreign and Security Policies Ethics, Norms and Identities Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding..."
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Mahatma Gandhi -- online publications
Description/subject: Online materials by and about Mahatma Gandhi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gandhian Institution Bombay, Sarvodaya Mandal
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.mkgandhi-sarvodaya.org
Date of entry/update: 09 January 2012

Title: Myanmar Egress
Description/subject: [Our Mission] Promoting and nurturing democracy through fenovation (sic) of highly intelligent and politically motivated citizenry of the country: Capacity Building & Supplier of change agents... Feeding related policy inputs to the governing body : Think-Tank... Public Opinion Shaping via public media and opinion polls... Promote issues on enviroment that in turn will serve the long-term benefit of the country.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Egress
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2012

Title: Transnational Institute Burma Project
Description/subject: Important papers on Burma/Myanmar including: Financing Dispossession; Ending Burma’s Conflict Cycle?; Conflict or Peace? Ethnic Unrest Intensifies in Burma; Burma's Longest War: Anatomy of the Karen Conflict; Ethnic Politics in Burma: The Time for Solutions; A Changing Ethnic Landscape: Analysis of Burma's 2010 Polls; Unlevel Playing Field: Burma’s Election Landscape; Burma’s 2010 Elections: Challenges and Opportunities; Burma in 2010: A Critical Year in Ethnic Politics...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 March 2012

Individual Documents

Title: Dearth of ideas in Myanmar transition
Date of publication: 13 December 2013
Description/subject: "On paper, few countries have had as good a year as Myanmar. It has seen the lifting of economic sanctions, the write-off of a substantial portion of the country's debts, strong levels of gross domestic product (GDP) growth, the winning the Association of Southeast Asia Nations' (ASEAN) chairmanship, the hosting of the World Economic Forum on East Asia, and praise from almost every government, donor and economic institution in the world. This progress report is surprising considering that 2013 also brought evidence of the government's role in stoking religious hatred across the country, the number of internally displaced people resulting from civil conflict and land grabbing burgeoned, and the country continued to languish towards the bottom of almost every global economic and social index. The wheels of Myanmar's transition are in motion; progress is being made, but obstacles remain before the reform process realizes its potential. Few people have contested this narrative of progress - in a sense, the impossibility of being able to contest this is what makes it such an effective rhetorical device..."
Author/creator: David Baulk
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014

Title: A Good Office? Twenty Years of UN Mediation in Myanmar
Date of publication: 05 November 2012
Description/subject: "The UN Secretary-General’s good offices on Myanmar, now in their twentieth year, have been one of the longest such diplomatic efforts in the history of the organization. With Myanmar now in the midst of major political, economic, and social reforms, and questions invariably being raised about the future of those “offices,” it is an opportune time to revisit the history and achievements of the past twenty years of mediation efforts... This 100+-page report tells the story of UN mediation efforts in Myanmar through the lens of four special envoys: Alvaro de Soto, Razali Ismail, Ibrahim Gambari, and Vijay Nambiar. It examines the various strategies and achievements over the past 20 years and provides lessons for Myanmar and, more broadly, for the Secretary-General’s good offices in other regions of the world. The report argues that the conditions for success or failure lie in the readiness of the parties for conflict resolution, the scope of the mandate, the clarity of objectives, the impartiality of the mediator, and the presence or absence of strong leadership from the Secretary-General himself. ...This study has chronicled and narrated the UN’s good offices effort in Myanmar as told through the lens of those most involved. It is largely limited to the UN side of the story and in no way pretends to be a comprehensive or definitive history of the mediation effort in Myanmar. While limited in scope, the recurring themes, various approaches tested, and shortcomings observed do allow some important conclusions to be made and lessons to be drawn. The following analysis refers primarily to the time prior to the transfer of power from the SPDC to a quasi-civilian government in March 2011 and the start of the reforms that followed. The final section then takes a brief look at the status of the good offices in August 2012, sixteen months into Myanmar’s democratic transition and the options going forward..."
Author/creator: Anna Magnusson & Morten B. Pedersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Peace Institute (IPI)
Format/size: pdf (795K-OBL version; 3.65MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ipacademy.org/images/pdfs/ipi_ebook_good_offices.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2012

Title: Helping Education to Keep Pace with Reform
Date of publication: 12 March 2012
Description/subject: Need for translations into Burmese of key texts
Author/creator: David Steinberg
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012

Title: Education in Transition: A Preliminary Study of Capacity Development for Civil Society Actors in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 21 February 2012
Description/subject: "Burma/Myanmar is currently in a transition with important ramifications for capacity development efforts. The present preliminary study explores some of the critical issues at stake for capacity development activities in order to better understand how the field as a whole can continue to undertake effective trainings and evolve to adapt to current trends. Of particular interest to the researchers is the question of how to teach human rights and social sciences in complex settings such as in Burma/Myanmar and how this field may evolve. The preliminary research has two research interests: contemporary issues of concern in capacity development which need to be addressed by the current stakeholders; and the interaction between the stakeholders within the capacity development network (including Burma/Myanmar participants, Burma/Myanmar organizations, universities, Thai based organizations, political groups, and so on). As a preliminary study, this report seeks to give some first impressions of the current situation of the capacity development field during a period of change in Burma/Myanmar. This research does not attempt to quantify the field or undertake a mapping of it. Rather, the preliminary study intends to draw out issues and concerns expressed by stakeholders in capacity development which can guide future directions of activity, development, and research. The capacity development field is large, yet there has been limited analysis of how this field works and few studies of how stakeholders adapt to current changes. This report wishes to contribute to the understanding of capacity development in the field of human rights and social sciences in three specific ways: • Understanding how and why young Myanmar people get involved in civil society activities. • Understanding how the capacity development field is structured and how it operates. • Understanding what organizational and quality concerns capacity development organizations should be addressing..."
Author/creator: Camilla Buzzi, Mike Hayes, Matthew Mullen
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Human Rights and Peace Studies, Mahidol University
Format/size: pdf (404K - OBL version; 484K - original))
Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights-mu.org/attachments/article/92/Education%20in%20Transition-IHRP.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2012

Title: Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict (video)
Date of publication: 08 December 2011
Description/subject: Please join us and authors Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan for a stimulating and informative discussion on their new book, Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. Throughout this volume, Chenoweth and Stephan argue that nonviolent campaigns have been more successful than armed campaigns in achieving ultimate goals in political struggles, even when used against similar opponents and in the face of repression. From case study analyses to aggregating datasets, they provide evidence that nonviolent campaigns are more likely to be perceived as legitimate, attract widespread domestic and international support, and neutralize the opponent’s security forces, among others.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Format/size: adobe flash (84 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2012

Title: Dancing with colors - a handbook on team-building, team work and conflict resolution (Burmese)
Date of publication: 01 January 2010
Description/subject: Handbook on team-building, team work and conflict resolution... Themes: being a good listener, a good communicator - Refrain from doing anything that makes you feel that you arc manipulating someone; Lead by example; have humility; appreciate your co-workers; have a clear vision; avoid arguments, listen to others, create a positive atmosphere, Don't take yourself too seriously..... Conflict Resolution: what is conflict? sources of conflict; factors effecting conflict - accommodation, compromise...collaboration...
Author/creator: Aye Aye Myint
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Community Capacity Building Committee
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - A5 version; 8.5MB - A4 version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Dancing_with_colors-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2011

Title: A DIPLOMAT’S HANDBOOK for Democracy Development Support
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: 2nd Edition.....Contains Burma/Myanmar case study..."..."A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support" is meant to present a wide variety of case studies documenting and explaining specific country experiences. It also identifies creative, human, and material resources available to Missions, the ways in which Missions and diplomats have supported requests in the past, and describes how such support has been applied. A review of these experiences bears out the validity of our belief in our inter-dependence. It will hopefully also provide practitioners with encouragement, counsel, and a greater capacity to support democrats everywhere....[It]identifies a “toolbox” of creative, human, and material resources available to Missions. It records ways in which Missions and diplomats have drawn from these tools in the past in the interest of democracy development support. The Handbook means to cover a full range of conditions and situations, from regimes which are flatly undemocratic and repressive, to phases of post-conflict recovery, to democratic transition and consolidation. The Handbook includes a representative variety of case studies documenting and explaining specific country experiences. It is important that each case study be seen for its specific contextual properties. Nonetheless, there are characteristics which obviously recur. Moreover, it should always be borne in mind that activities and outcomes in one locale can have ripple effects in the region and on wider or specific other relationships..."
Language: English (Spanish also available)
Source/publisher: Community of Democracies, Council for a Community of Democracies
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.diplomatshandbook.org/pdf/Handbook_Burma.pdf'>http://www.diplomatshandbook.org/pdf/Handbook_Burma.pdf (Burma/Myanmar case study)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2012

Title: Campaigning for Freedom of Expression - a handbook for activists
Date of publication: April 2005
Description/subject: "A 120 page manual that provides a toolbox of tips, best practice case studies and resources for campaigning" Though this very useful book is specifically related to campaigning on freedom of expression, it is reelvant to most areas of international advocacy.
Language: English
Source/publisher: IFEX
Format/size: pdf (1.92MB)
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2005

Title: Entwicklungspolitisches Engagement im Transformationsprozess
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: In der Zusammenfassung sind drei Szenarien zur Lösung des Konflikts und Verhaltensmaßregeln für ein internationales Engagement zu finden. Darüber hinaus werden die Hintergründe des Konflikts detailreich in ihren zahlreichen sozialen und wirtschaflichen Facetten dargestellt und Ansätze für ein deutsches bzw. europäisches Engagement aufgezeigt. Recommendations for international engagement; Social and economic conditions
Author/creator: Hingst, René
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Heinrich Böll Stiftung
Format/size: pdf (900kb)
Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/alt/downloads/asien/hingst_burma2003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 July 2010

Title: Electoral System Design
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: "...The choice of electoral system is one of the most important institutional decisions for any democracy. In almost all cases the choice of a particular electoral system has a profound effect on the future political life of the country concerned, and electoral systems, once chosen, often remain fairly constant as political interests solidify around and respond to the incentives presented by them. The choices that are made may have consequences that were unforeseen as well as predicted effects. Electoral system choice is a fundamentally political process, rather than a question to which independent technical experts can produce a single Ã?¯Ã?¿Ã?½correct answerÃ?¢ï¿½â�¢. The consideration of political advantage is almost always a factor in the choice of electoral systems. Calculations of short-term political interest can often obscure the longer-term consequences of a particular electoral system. The choice of electoral system can have a significant impact on the wider political and institutional framework: it is important not to see electoral systems in isolation. Their design and effects are heavily contingent upon other structures within and outside the constitution. Successful electoral system design comes from looking at the framework of political institutions as a whole: changing one part of this framework is likely to cause adjustments in the way other institutions within it work. Electoral systems are today viewed as one of the most influential of all political institutions, and of crucial importance to broader issues of governance. For example, it is increasingly being recognized that an electoral system can be designed both to provide local geographic representation and to promote proportionality; can promote the development of strong and viable national political parties, and ensure the representation of women and regional minorities; and can help to Ã?¯Ã?¿Ã?½engineerÃ?¢ï¿½â�¢ cooperation and accommodation in a divided society by the creative use of particular incentives and constraints..."....N.B. the Burmese version is dated 2003 and is shorter than the English and other versions, dated 2006.
Author/creator: Andrew Reynolds, Ben Reilly, Andrew Ellis
Language: Burmese, English, Arabic, French, Nepali, Spanish
Source/publisher: International Idea
Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 440K, English, 3.46MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/publications/esd/upload/ESD_Burmese_handbook.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 July 2010

Title: Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: The handbook provides practical advice on how to broker peace in countries emerging from deep-rooted conflict and outlines options negotiators can draw upon when trying to build or rebuild democracy. The handbook provides a thorough overview of democratic levers - such as power-sharing formulas, questions of federalism and autonomy, options for minority rights, constitutional safeguards and many others. It analyses actual negotiated settlements from places like Bosnia, Fiji, Northern Ireland, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea and South Africa. Written by international experts and experienced negotiators, the handbook is designed as a quick reference tool containing numerous case studies, fact sheets and practical examples.
Language: Burmese, English, Spanish, Bahasa Indonesia
Source/publisher: International IDEA
Format/size: pdf (English version 3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/publications/democracy_and_deep_rooted_conflict/upload/ddrc_full_en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2008

Title: Negotiating a political settlement in South Aftica: Are there lessons for Burma?
Date of publication: 2001
Description/subject: Report of Workshops held in Chiangmai, Thailand & New Delhi, India April 2000.The South African experience; Lessons Learned. Distinguishing between Burma and South Africa. The pre-negotiation phase -Creating the conditions for a negotiated settlement: Subjective and objective factors; Objective factors; International pressure; Economic pressures; Military factors; Internal mass opposition ; The sustainability of minority rule ; Subjective factors; Liberation movements; The regime; Making the negotiations option attractive. Establishing and sustaining the negotiating process: Dealing with preconditions: "Levelling the playing fields" ; Protecting the process from violence; Violent challenges to the negotiations; The National Peace Accord; Agreeing on the constitution-making process; Agreeing on the process; Phase one: Establishing binding principles prior to elections; Phase two: Operationalising the binding principles through the Constitution. The making of the constitution: Inclusivity; Popular participation; Confronting the past in order to face the future. Substantive choices in the South African: constitution-making process; The Constitutional State; Government of National Unity; Bill of Rights; Strong Parliament; Institutions supporting democracy; Electoral System; Language and Culture; Federal or regional decentralization; Decentralization and financial matters; Critical observations of the constitution; Detailed drafting; Cost of structures; Impractical provisions. Lessons from the South African negotiations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International IDEA
Format/size: PDF (193K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: World Movement for Democracy
Description/subject: "The World Movement for Democracy is a global network of democrats, including activists, practitioners, academics, policy makers, and funders, who have come together to cooperate in the promotion of democracy..."..."The Washington, DC-based National Endowment for Democracy (NED) initiated this nongovernmental effort..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Movemenf for Democracy
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2012