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Tourism

  • Tourism - descriptive/analytical, critical - global

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Arbeitskreis Tourismus und Entwicklung (AKTE)
    Description/subject: Basel-based activist tourism NGO. Took part in the campaign against "Visit Myanmar 1996 Year". Covers Burma. Most material in German. Very professional.
    Language: Deutsch, some English.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Business and Human Rights: a resource website -- Tourism
    Description/subject: 452 items...Some Burma-specific links....narrow down from Advanced Search
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Business and Human Rights
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


    Title: DestiNet - Sustainable Tourism Information & Communications Portal
    Description/subject: Some useful links by way of browsing from the top bar. The search engines do not seem to work very well - too many dead links ..."DestiNet helps you to develop sustainable consumption and production in the tourism sector, both in the tourism value chain or at destination level. DestiNet is tourist destination information service that supports networking of various sustainable tourism stakeholders. The portal offers a number of services including the option to submit EVENTS or NEWS and to suggest new links on relevant TOPICS, TOOLS or STAKEHOLDERS. DestiNet is jointly administrated by the European Environment Agency (EEA), ECOTRANS a European network of experts and organisations in the tourism sector, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Tourism Organization (UN WTO). The main objective of DestiNet is to provide a user-friendly environment for the tourism stakeholder community to showcase best practices and share knowledge within DestiNet partnership (EEA, ECOTRANS, UNEP, WTO) and its users. Based on this, the creation of Sustainable Tourism Knowledge Networks is now underway. Such networks will tackle issues relevant to developing, enhancing, and evaluating policy measures and the success of regulatory and voluntary actions concerning tourism and tourism destinations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: DestiNet
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 March 2012


    Title: ECPAT
    Description/subject: "ECPAT is a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. It seeks to encourage the world community to ensure that children everywhere enjoy their fundamental rights free from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation... The ECPAT acronym stands for ' End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes'... ECPAT has Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC)."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ECPAT
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ecpat.org.uk/
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Equations - ‘Who Really Benefits from Tourism?’
    Description/subject: "We are a research, campaign and advocacy organisation. We study the social, cultural, economic and environmental impact of tourism on local communities. We believe that tourism should be non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. A question that has been central to our work and directs much of it is ‘Who Really Benefits from Tourism?’..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Equations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 March 2012


    Title: TEN - Tourism European/Ecumenical Network
    Description/subject: "TEN stands for Third World Tourism Ecumenical European Net. It is a network of development agencies, aid agencies, church groups, solidarity groups and individuals who are active in the field of tourism and the effects it has on the people of the Third World. This working group understands Third World tourism within the context of the North-South-conflict and denounces and fights unjust practices in tourism. TEN acts as a partner to the Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism (ECTWT) as well as to other issue-oriented nets. Members of TEN try to raise consciousness and awareness on the effects of tourism to the people in the receiving countries of the Third World. Those effects should be researched and discussed from a development point of view. Similar problems within European tourism may also be considered in the endeavour towards more just societies. to support all attitudes which avoid the "touristic consumption" of other peoples, countries and cultures or which help to create equal relations among peoples of different countries. to encourage all means which increase the positive aspects within tourism and to fight all its negative aspects: That means tourism has to be measured by the criteria of contributing to building just, participatory and sustainable societies. TEN should look for cooperation with the tourism industry and with partners at all levels within the receiving countries..."
    Language: Deutsch, English
    Source/publisher: TEN - Tourism European/Ecumenical Network
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ten-tourism.org/
    Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


    Title: Tourism Concern
    Description/subject: "The UK's leading resource for ethical and sustainable tourism"....Search Results in TC For "burma": Burma: Not Black and White - Burma: Not Black and White... Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma - Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma... What others say on tourism to Burma.... - What others say on tourism to Burma.... News - To go or not to go? Burma update... News - New petition demands Lonely Planet withdraws Burma guidebook... Burma - Burma... News - Burma and Lonely Planet: A personal look back... Displacement of People - Displacement of People... Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition - Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition... Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures - Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures... Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott - Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott... Campaign with us - Campaign with us... Tsunami of Tourism - Tsunami of Tourism... Campaigns - Campaigns... Displacement - Displacement... Working conditions - Working conditions... Past Campaigns - Past Campaigns... FAQs for Tourists - FAQs for Tourists... News - Burmese refugees trapped by tourism.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: World Tourism Organisation
    Description/subject: Industry and Govt. body with UN connections. Publishes lots of tourism statistics. NB its Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, which was endorsed by ECOSOC in 2001. The Code has, in theory, a supervisory mechanism, but with no means, so far as I can see, for the actual victims of tourism development to bring complaints.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Red Card for Tourism?
    Date of publication: February 2002
    Description/subject: "10 principles and challenges for a sustainable tourism development in the 21st Century.... In the light of the poor progress of sustainable development ten years after the Rio Earth Summit, tourism could be shown the red card: - sent-off, back to training - a demand that tourism leaders learn to practise "fair play" and contribute to sustainable development, as should be expected from the representatives of one of the world's leading industries! The call is launched by representatives of the network for sustainable tourism development DANTE in preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002 in Johannesburg."
    Author/creator: Christine Pluss, Martina Backes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: DANTE (The NGO Network for Sustainable Tourism Development)
    Format/size: pdf (997K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Tourism in SE Asia

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: New Frontiers
    Description/subject: "This section presents tourism articles in a developmental and environmental context, the bi-monthly bulletin Southeast Asia Tourism Monitor that monitors tourism development in Southeast Asia, as well as tourism-related statements and action alerts. It focuses on tourism issues affecting local communities and the natural environment and highlights voices who usually have little opportunity to influence policy-making structures."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tourism Investigation & Monitoring Team (T.I.M. Team)- Third World Network.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Tourism and Regional Integration in Southeast Asia
    Date of publication: May 2013
    Description/subject: SUMMARY: "Regional cooperation for the development and promotion of tourism is receiving more political and economic attention, particularly in the context of globalization and regionalization. In the interconnected Southeast Asian region, tourism development has become one of the high-priority development cooperation areas. The state is the main actor or driver in crystallizing regional cooperation and integration, while development partners and the private sector are the key supporters and implementers of the tourism development projects. It is argued that the regionalism-tourism development linkage has mutual and causal relationships, which reinforce each other and move along the same trajectory. The incentives and benefits generated from the tourism industry encourage other economic sectors to develop, which generates a chain of spillover effects. Learning from Southeast Asian regional cooperation and integration, we can see that tourism is one of the key industries in connecting the region through three dimensions: people, institutions and infrastructure. Tourism cooperation is widespread; regional interest and regional tourism products are becoming common regional public goods. The concept of sovereignty over the tourism sector is relatively much more flexible and negotiable than with other sectors. Integration of tourism products and the connectivity of tourism services and infrastructure are the objectives of regional cooperation on tourism. Within the discourse of the regionalism-tourism nexus, it is argued that regionalism supports tourism based on the existing high level of political will and commitment, multi-stakeholder partnerships, institutional and regulatory development, sub-regional cooperation framework, tourism’s collective attractiveness, and deterritorialization (time and space compression) through infrastructure connection and cross-border facilitation. On the other hand, tourism promotes regionalism by promoting cooperative culture, development and poverty reduction, identity construction, development of social inclusion and institutions, and the improvement of human connectivity."
    Author/creator: Vannarith Chheang
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE JETRO - VRF Series No. 481
    Format/size: pdf (690K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2013


  • Tourism in Burma - articles

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: WTTC tourism competitive index: Burma
    Description/subject: Industry assessment of tourism in Burma - * Price Competitiveness; * Human Tourism; * Infrastructure; * Environment; * Technology; * Human Resources; * Openness; * Social... By most counts, Burma ranks close to the bottom in a country comparison.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Travel and Tourism Council
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma to rejoin U.N. tourism group
    Date of publication: 16 May 2012
    Description/subject: "Burma is seeking renewed membership in the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO ), according to UNWTO Secretary-General Taleb Rifai. He said President Thein Sein officially informed him that Burma wanted to rejoin the organization, as it is in the midst of upgrading its tourism sector..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


    Title: Burma boykottieren oder buchen?
    Date of publication: 23 January 2008
    Description/subject: Wer in diesen Wochen durch das ärmste Land Asiens reist, begegnet wenigen Touristengruppen, aber einer wissbegierigen Bevölkerung, der Besucher herzlich willkommen sind. Ein 18-jähriger Informatik-Student, der auf dem Mandalay-Hügel die Mitglieder einer deutschen Reisegruppe anspricht, erläutert: „Wir wurden hier zwar Augenzeugen der Ereignisse, aber sonst wissen wir so gut wie nichts. Tourismus nach den Aufständen 2007; tourism after the uprisings 2007
    Author/creator: Jürgen Diebäcker
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Der Westen
    Format/size: Html (42 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Schweizer Geschäft mit Burmareisen
    Date of publication: 10 October 2007
    Description/subject: Im vergangenen Jahr beförderten die rund 30 Reiseveranstalter laut Schätzungen der Pacific Travel Association etwa 4'800 Schweizer Reisende nach Burma. Vor gut sechs Jahren, als der Schweizer Gewerkschaftsbund die Veranstalter aufgrund der flagranten Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Lande zum Rückzug aus Burma aufforderte, waren es etwa 20 Veranstalter, die rund 3'500 Reisende nach Burma schickten. Entgegen den Interpretationen in den Medien deuten die Zahlen darauf hin, dass weniger die Reisenden als die Reiseveranstalter resistent gegenüber Boykottaufrufen für Burmareisen sind. Tourismus-Statistiken; statistics on tourism; Swiss travel agencies in Burma;
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung, fairunterwegs.ch
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2007


    Title: Roy’s Rough Burma Guide
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Thirty years after its first appearance a lot has changed—but much else hasn’t
    Author/creator: Jim Andrews
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Tiffin Time Again
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: Government involvement helps restore shine to Rangoon's Strand Hotel... "Rangoon is a picture book of architectural gems from the years of British colonialism. But visitors have a frustrating time discovering them. The city streets so carefully planned and built in the mid-19th century have been allowed by neglectful Burmese post-colonial governments to fade and crumble. Layers of soot and grime accumulated over the years make it difficult to detect exquisite art nouveau and solid Victorian and Edwardian features of buildings that, in their time, would not have looked out of place in bourgeois areas of London..."
    Author/creator: Jim Andrews
    Language: Engllish
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Welcome to the Real Burma
    Date of publication: May 2005
    Description/subject: Tour guides aren’t scared to tell the truth... "Burma’s independent tour guides can sometimes be refreshingly independent. San Tha Kyaw, the guide who welcomed us aboard the bus at the start of our package tour of Burma, was clearly no apologist for the regime, and his patter raised some eyebrows among our group. A Burmese soldier rests in front of a stupa in the archaeological zone of old Pagan “We are now driving along Pyay Road,” he informed us as we approached the city from the airport. “As we drive you will see that some parts of Yangon are not illuminated. That is because the government has established a rotating system to provide electricity to different parts of the city at a time. Our country is rich, but the people are poor. Our riches are taken by the military and big business.” As the bus approached University Avenue, San Tha Kyaw informed us that Aung San Suu Kyi’s home was on this road. “But you cannot go there. She is under house arrest. She is a very nice lady, she is upright.” A glowing description of Aung San Suu Kyi’s background, her life and achievements followed. “I can say that 99.9 percent of our people like her. Only 0.1 percent do not, and those are in the military.”..."
    Author/creator: Tara Monroe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Mandalay: Birmas letzte Königsstadt
    Date of publication: 02 June 2003
    Description/subject: Mandalay - allein der Klang des Namens war Grund genug, nach Myanmar zu reisen. Und noch immer leuchten goldene Pagoden und weiße Stupas in der Sonne und das Straßenleben fasziniert. Eine Radtour durch die Goldene Stadt; description of a trip to Mandalay
    Author/creator: Antje Blinda
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Format/size: Html (86 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Mong La: Burma's City of Lights
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: "Cosmopolitan, garish and connected to the outside world via Internet and mobile phones, visitors to Mong La wonder if they are really in Burma anymore... For a while it seems like a road to nowhere. Only army checkpoints and small clusters of huts indicate some life. Then, quite suddenly, the view widens into a valley and the road changes from dirt to tar. At dusk the city ahead looks like a space shuttle that descended upon earth. Abundant neon lights line the buildings. Along a wide avenue, street lamps flash like fireworks. This is Mong La, the capital of Special Region Number Four in eastern Shan State. One wonders if this is still Burma. "Yuan," demands an old woman selling water when she is given kyat. A Chinese employee in the hotel hands over the key without the form filling and other paperwork so typical of the bureaucratic control elsewhere in the country. A condom in the basket of toiletries suggests there are other freedoms to be enjoyed too..."
    Author/creator: Joan Williams
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Stefan Loose Reisebuchverlag
    Date of publication: 23 July 2001
    Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar" on this German travel site.
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Stefan Loose Reisebuchverlag
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Mit dem Tomatenbeet unterwegs
    Date of publication: 01 April 2001
    Description/subject: Am Inle-See im Herzen Myanmars scheint es niemanden zu geben, der sich auf dem Wasser, in kippeligen Einbäumen und auf schwimmenden Beeten nicht ebenso sicher bewegt wie an Land. Für Europäer ist es deshalb eine wackelige Angelegenheit mit dem Einheimischen Suu Suu im Boot zu sitzen.Travelling lake Inle
    Author/creator: Susanne Drießle
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Spiegel Online
    Format/size: Html (80 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Mit dem Salonwagen durch Myanmar - 2000
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: Beschreibung einer Zug-Rundreise durch Burma; a journey through Burma by rail.
    Author/creator: Ernst Löschmann
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Format/size: Html (90 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Interview with Informed Tourism
    Date of publication: May 1998
    Description/subject: The Irrawaddy recently spoke to an "informed tourist" who shared his impressions of Burma after a visit to see the country with his own eyes.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol.. 6, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Introducing ecotourism" and other business-related articles
    Date of publication: February 1998
    Description/subject: Introducing ecotourism ...More State firms to be privatized ...Hydroelectric deal signed with China ... Norway imports more from Burma ... MOGE signs contract with oil companies ... Burma-Japan economic agreement ... Satellite deal with Shinawatra ... Iron sheet factory begins production ... Australia to produce pearl ... Pro-golf tournament planned/.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Tourism in Burma - Development

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) 46271-001:
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan 2013 - 2020
    Date of publication: June 2013
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "As a result of sweeping political and economic reforms, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is enjoying unprecedented tourism growth. Between 2011 and 2012, visitor arrivals increased by 29.7% and, for the first time in its history, Myanmar received over 1 million international visitors. Other key drivers of growth include the rapid expansion of scheduled inbound flights, eased tourist visa-on-arrival privileges at gateway airports, improving business and investment conditions, and the growing demand for international travel among regional and long-haul markets. Although Myanmar possesses diverse and extensive cultural, natural, and historic assets, it has only begun to develop its enormous tourism potential. Due to the income- and employment-generating opportunities it creates, tourism is a global industry with special economic significance to developing countries. Consequently, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has prioritized tourism development in its Framework for Economic and Social Reforms. To help ensure that tourism growth delivers broad and equitable social, economic, and environmental benefits, GOM adopted the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy in 2012. The policy is also endorsed by the Myanmar Tourism Federation (MTF), and is highly acclaimed by both civil society and development partners. The vision for tourism in Myanmar, as set out in the Responsible Tourism Policy is “we intend to use tourism to make Myanmar a better place to live in—to provide more employment and greater business opportunities for all our people, to contribute to the conservation of our natural and cultural heritage and to share with us our rich cultural diversity. We warmly welcome those who appreciate and enjoy our heritage, our way of life, and who travel with respect.” In this context, the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (MOHT)—the agency mandated by GOM to oversee the systematic development of tourism—prepared the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan (the Master Plan). The Master Plan adopts this vision for tourism in Myanmar and the nine aims of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy as its guiding principles. It sets out strategic programs, priority projects, and activities in a long-term implementation framework covering 2013–2020 and a short-term action plan for 2013–2015. The goal of the Master Plan is to maximize tourism’s contribution to national employment and income generation, and ensure that the social and economic benefits of tourism are distributed equitably. Key objectives for each strategic program are listed below."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, The R epublic of the Union of Myanma
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB-reduced version; 4.32-0rigtinal)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.harrison-institute.org/Myanmar%20Tourism%20Master%20Plan%202013-2020.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2013


  • Tourism in Burma - critical

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Fair Unterwegs - Burma
    Date of publication: 29 June 2007
    Description/subject: Kritisches Reiseportal, nicht gewinnorientiert, gibt unabhängige Informationen, Hintergrund über Reisen in Burma, Kennziffern, Energiebilanz, Links zu Nachrichten, Critical information about tourism, statistics, energy balance, background information, general news, non-profit
    Author/creator: Arbeitskeis Tourismus und Entwicklung, Schweiz
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Fair Unterwegs
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2007


    Title: Arbeitskreis Tourismus und Entwicklung (AKTE)
    Description/subject: Basel-based activist tourism NGO. Took part in the campaign against "Visit Myanmar 1996 Year". Covers Burma. Most material in German. Very professional.
    Language: Deutsch, some English.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: New Frontiers
    Description/subject: "This section presents tourism articles in a developmental and environmental context, the bi-monthly bulletin Southeast Asia Tourism Monitor that monitors tourism development in Southeast Asia, as well as tourism-related statements and action alerts. It focuses on tourism issues affecting local communities and the natural environment and highlights voices who usually have little opportunity to influence policy-making structures."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tourism Investigation & Monitoring Team (T.I.M. Team)- Third World Network.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burma Campaign UK - tourism pages
    Description/subject: "Tourism is an important source of income for the dictatorship in Burma, providing it with millions of pounds every year. Forced labour has been used to develop many tourist facilities. Democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi has asked tourists not to visit Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign UK
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


    Title: Tourism Concern
    Description/subject: "The UK's leading resource for ethical and sustainable tourism"....Search Results in TC For "burma": Burma: Not Black and White - Burma: Not Black and White... Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma - Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma... What others say on tourism to Burma.... - What others say on tourism to Burma.... News - To go or not to go? Burma update... News - New petition demands Lonely Planet withdraws Burma guidebook... Burma - Burma... News - Burma and Lonely Planet: A personal look back... Displacement of People - Displacement of People... Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition - Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition... Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures - Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures... Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott - Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott... Campaign with us - Campaign with us... Tsunami of Tourism - Tsunami of Tourism... Campaigns - Campaigns... Displacement - Displacement... Working conditions - Working conditions... Past Campaigns - Past Campaigns... FAQs for Tourists - FAQs for Tourists... News - Burmese refugees trapped by tourism.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar tourism after the boycott
    Date of publication: 23 November 2012
    Description/subject: "The touristification of Myanmar has begun. The Ministry of Hotels and Tourism declared tourism the country’s ‘national priority sector’ in its Responsible Tourism Policy (RTP), released in September. In the same month, the Ministry had signed the Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam Tourism Cooperation (CLMV), which aims to welcome 25 million visitors in the region, with four million ‘exchange visitors’ in each country, over the period 2013-2015. Myanmar’s tourism infrastructure was already strained by half a million tourists in the first half of 2012, compared to almost 400,000 in 2011. Myanmar’s membership of CLMV is not only un-legislated and un-democratic but it also ignores ‘value over volume’ advice by the UNWTO. As the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party is widely expected to be voted out in the 2015 elections, the CLMV is seen as the former generals’ unscrupulous attempt to make hay while the sun shines..."
    Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


    Title: Evicted from an Earthly Paradise
    Date of publication: 16 January 2010
    Description/subject: "...When people come to the beaches of Chaung Tha and Ngwe Saung in Irrawaddy Division, they immediately feel their stress melt away. The warm sand, clear blue sky and bluish-green water bring relief to the weary souls of Burmese city dwellers and world travelers alike. But for many of the original residents of these famous resort areas, life here is anything but paradise. Although they once lived simple but comfortable lives as coconut growers, many local people now barely scrape by on what they can earn from wandering the beaches with food to sell to tourists. And even this income is often denied them by police and resort owners, who regard them as little more than a blight on the local tourism industry. Many foreign and local tourists flock to the beaches of Ngwe Saung and Chaung Tha from December to April. There are now 18 hotels in Ngwe Saung, 13 in Chaung Tha and another 25 bungalows waiting to accommodate visitors from near and far. Most have appeared in the past decade, after a land grab by the government cleared the way for cronies of Burma's ruling junta to develop prime seaside properties. For beach vendors like Mya Mya, who carries trays of grilled seafood on her head all day long—her face covered with a thick layer of thanakha paste to protect her skin from the scorching sun—there is no forgetting that these beaches once belonged to her and others like her. “We used to own these lands once,” she says, looking vacantly at the Ngwe Saung seashore Like many other people who lived in this area before property developers moved in and turned it into a upscale tourism hotspot, Mya Mya and her family lost their coconut plantation in 2000, when the government confiscated their land..."
    Author/creator: Kyi Mai
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 January 2010


    Title: Forbidden Glimpses of Shan State
    Date of publication: 17 November 2009
    Description/subject: Message from SWAN: Debate continues to rage about whether or not tourists should visit Burma and risk giving money and legitimacy to the Burmese military regime. We have fed into this debate by exposing atrocities such as sexual violence, torture and murder by the regime’s troops in areas of Shan State out of bounds for foreign visitors, and urging the denial of all forms of support for the regime while these abuses continue. However, we realize that little attention has been given to more subtle forms of repression by the regime in Shan State, particularly related to culture. Given that experiencing local “culture” is a primary aim of tourists visiting Burma, we feel it is important to expose how Shan State culture, religion and history are being distorted and erased, and gradually replaced by the regime’s own homogenized and arti􀆤 cially imposed “Myanmar culture.” Most of this book deals with these aspects of culture which may be unknown to the average tourist. We have focused on Shan culture, but the process of repression is cultures in Shan State and other parts of Burma. We have also included photos of areas of great beauty in Shan State that are out of bounds to tourists, but which may soon be lost forever due to the regime’s development plans, funded by Thai and Chinese investors. Finally, we have included information about some of the prominent political prisoners from Central Burma languishing in remote Shan State prisons – they will never be physically seen by tourists but their presence should be a constant reminder to us all of the cruel reality of repression in Shan State and the rest of Burma today.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
    Format/size: pdf (4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


    Title: Treading Warily
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: Where showing visitors around can get a well-meaning guide into big trouble...
    Author/creator: Withaya Huanok
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008


    Title: Gewerkschaften rufen zum Burma-Boykott auf
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Reisende mögen von Reisen nach Burma absehen, Reiseveranstalter ihre Reiseangebote nach Burma streichen sowie Fluggesellschaften ihre Flüge nach Burma aussetzen, heißt es im Boykottaufruf des Europäischen gewerkschaftlichen Verbindungsausschuss für Tourismus (European Trade Union Liaison Committee on Tourism – ETLC), der Ende Oktober in Portimão, Portugal, veröffentlicht und dort den Teilnehmenden des Europäischen Tourismus Forums ausgehändigt wurde; call of labour unions for a boykott of Burma
    Author/creator: Christine Kamp
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Tourism Watch
    Format/size: HTML (16 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2008


    Title: Schweizer Geschäft mit Burmareisen
    Date of publication: 10 October 2007
    Description/subject: Im vergangenen Jahr beförderten die rund 30 Reiseveranstalter laut Schätzungen der Pacific Travel Association etwa 4'800 Schweizer Reisende nach Burma. Vor gut sechs Jahren, als der Schweizer Gewerkschaftsbund die Veranstalter aufgrund der flagranten Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Lande zum Rückzug aus Burma aufforderte, waren es etwa 20 Veranstalter, die rund 3'500 Reisende nach Burma schickten. Entgegen den Interpretationen in den Medien deuten die Zahlen darauf hin, dass weniger die Reisenden als die Reiseveranstalter resistent gegenüber Boykottaufrufen für Burmareisen sind. Tourismus-Statistiken; statistics on tourism; Swiss travel agencies in Burma;
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung, fairunterwegs.ch
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2007


    Title: Tourismus in Burma: Land der tausend Qualen
    Date of publication: 27 September 2007
    Description/subject: Das Elend ist groß, die Menschen werden zu Zwangsarbeit vergattert und überall lauern Spione. Burma ist ein Staat voller Repression, Furcht - und voller Schönheit. Wie reist man in einem Land, in dem ein brutales Regime regiert? SPIEGEL-ONLINE-Redakteurin Antje Blinda war in Burma unterwegs.
    Author/creator: Antje Blinda
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Spiegel Online
    Format/size: Html (86 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Burma: Neue Verordnung zum Ausspionieren von Tourismusgruppen
    Date of publication: 29 March 2007
    Description/subject: Eine neue Verordnung des Tourismusministeriums verpflichtet Reiseveranstalter, alle verdächtigen Aktivitäten von Gruppenreisenden an die Tourismusbehörden zu berichten. Nur so könnten Medienschaffende oder Drogenschmuggler, die sich gern in Touristengruppen einschleusten, enttarnt werden. Weitere statistische Angaben zum Tourismus von 2006 Statistics on Tourism 2006, Regulations for Tourism
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
    Format/size: html (17k)
    Date of entry/update: 15 August 2007


    Title: Traveling in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2007
    Description/subject: Vigorous restrictions o­n international visitors make military-controlled Burma an uneasy road to travel...
    Author/creator: Emma Larkin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: Reise mit AUA - LAUDA AIR und TAI PAN zu den Schaupltzen der Zwangsarbeit
    Date of publication: 09 March 2003
    Description/subject: "A trip to the sights of forced labour". Tourism and forced labour, forced relocation. Dieses "besondere Reiseerlebnis" ist in seinem Ablauf dem Katalog des Reisebros Tai Pan (www.taipan.at) in Wien entnommen. Tai Pan ist der wichtigste Kooperationspartner von AUA - Lauda Air beim Verkauf von organisierten Burma-Reisen. Mit Ausnahme der AUA - Lauda Air fliegt derzeit keine einzige europische Fluggesellschaft von Europa nach Burma. Diese bedient seit 5. Nov. 2002 die Strecke Wien - Rangoon/Yangon und bereits etwas lnger Italien (Milano) - Yangon.
    Author/creator: Burma Campaign Austria
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Indymedia Germany
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: A Human Rights Tourist Odyssey
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "A traveler’s journey offers a glimpse into the stark realities of the tourism industry in Burma...In Burma,... the ethical issues surrounding tourism run deeper than that of excessive consumption in the face of poverty while complicating simplistic trickle down theories of wealth transfer. Good portions of tourist dollars end up in the hands of the dictatorial government, and human rights abuses are often part and parcel of the regime’s preparations for tourists. While some proponents of tourism advocate that conscientious visitors avoid military owned establishments, this is not easy to do. Many of the hotels and restaurants in Burma, both large and small, are owned directly by the government, or are joint ventures with the Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings, a military holding company, or high-ranking military officers..."
    Author/creator: Mustafa Kemal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmesische Farbenlehre, oder: Wem hilft der Tourismus?
    Date of publication: 22 April 2002
    Description/subject: Zwei Farben, so spötteln Burmesen, dominieren die Fernsehbilder in ihrem Land: rot und grün. In der Tat zeigen die staatlich kontrollierten Nachrichten in monotoner Abfolge mit Vorliebe prominente Generäle (grün), wie sie buddhistischen Mönchen in ihren roten Roben Respekt erweisen und diese reich beschenken. Zwei Farben charakterisieren auch die kontroverse Diskussion über den Zustand des Landes: gold und rot. Kaum ein Werbeprospekt oder Reiseführer, in dem nicht das Image von Burma als das »Goldene Land« bemüht wird. Das buddhistische Land mit seinen goldenen Pagoden und pittoresken landschaftlichen Szenerien scheint wie von einer anderen Welt zu stammen und fasziniert daher wohl jeden, der sich mit ihm befasst. Rot hingegen sehen die Gegner des seit 40 Jahren regierenden Militärregimes, wenn es um die Schilderung der politischen Lage Burmas geht. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Tourismusboykott und der Frage, wie man einen nachhaltigen, armutsorientierten Tourismus gestalten kann. A discussion about tourism -boykott and forms of poverty-oriented tourism. Efficacy of sanctions.
    Author/creator: Martin H.Petrich
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 18, Nr. 1 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: html (22K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Tourism and human rights violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "In the beginning of 2000 the Than Daung Gyi tourist project, which the SPDC had originally hoped to build for Visit Myanmar Year 1996", was revived... the military confiscated the land, including the tea, coffee and dogfruit crops of the villagers,relocated the villagers, and began construction on new buildings. They have also started digging the town road...Villagers in the Ker Weh area have been forced to clear the way for the bulldozers and to dig out any big stones. They are not paid for the work, nor are they given any food..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NCGUB Human Rights Documentation Unit: "Human Rights Yearbook Burma (Myanmar) 2000"
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Sollten Sie nach Burma (Myanmar) fahren? Ein kleiner Diskurs mit Blick hinter die Kulissen
    Date of publication: 22 June 2001
    Description/subject: Sollten Sie nach Myanmar fahren? Es gibt keine einfache Antwort auf diese Frage. Myanmar bleibt unter fester militärischer Führung durch eine Junta, Meinungsverschiedenheiten werden hart unterdrückt, Privatmenschen werden gezwungen, für den Staat zu arbeiten und ein Anti-Regierungswitz wird mit Einkerkerung bestraft; Kritischer Exkurs eines Reiseveranstalters; A critical analysis of a german tour operator; Pro and contra tourism in Burma;
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Studien-Kontakt-Reisen (SKR)
    Format/size: html (17k)
    Date of entry/update: 15 September 2007


    Title: Isolation bewirkt Gleichgültigkeit
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: keywords: tourism, visit Myanmar year, human rights violations, forced labour, foreign exchange transactions, economics, military regime. Burma-Reisen: boykottieren oder buchen? Unter dieser Fragestellung veröffentlichten die "blätter des iz3w" in der Ausgabe 252 zwei Artikel, die sich mit dem Aufruf einiger tourismuskritischer Organisationen in Europa und Nordamerika zum Reiseboykott gegen Burma auseinandersetzt. Die Kritiker wollen verhindern, so die Herausgeber, dass die dortige Diktatur ihren ramponierten Ruf durch den Tourismus aufbessern und mit den Einnahmen den Militärapparat stärken kann. Im Rahmen der Reihe »FernWeh« greifen sie deshalb die Frage nach Sinn und Unsinn eines Burmaboykotts auf. Hilft der Verzicht auf Reisen nach Burma der demokratischen Bewegung im Lande, oder kann im Gegenteil der Tourismus - zumindest auf Umwegen zu ihrer Stärkung beitragen? Dieser Artikel beleuchtet mögliche positive Effekte von Reisen nach Burma.
    Author/creator: Hamish Keith, Deutsch von Caroline Willand
    Language: Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Blaetter des iz3w, Nr. 252
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Tourismus stützt die Diktatur
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: tourism, visit Myanmar year, human rights violations, forced labour, economics, military regime. Burma-Reisen: boykottieren oder buchen? Unter dieser Fragestellung veröffentlichten die "blätter des iz3w" in der Ausgabe 252 zwei Artikel, die sich mit dem Aufruf einiger tourismuskritischer Organisationen in Europa und Nordamerika zum Reiseboykott gegen Burma auseinandersetzt. Die Kritiker wollen verhindern, so die Herausgeber, dass die dortige Diktatur ihren ramponierten Ruf durch den Tourismus aufbessern und mit den Einnahmen den Militärapparat stärken kann. Im Rahmen der Reihe »FernWeh« greifen sie deshalb die Frage nach Sinn und Unsinn eines Burmaboykotts auf. Hilft der Verzicht auf Reisen nach Burma der demokratischen Bewegung im Lande, oder kann im Gegenteil der Tourismus - zumindest auf Umwegen zu ihrer Stärkung beitragen? Dieser Artikel erklärt, warum man jetzt noch nicht nach Burma reisen sollte.
    Author/creator: Lara Marsh, Deutsch von Martine Backers und Agnieszka Zimowska
    Language: Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Blaetter des iz3w, Nr. 252
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Nice Country - Shame About the Dictatorship
    Date of publication: January 2001
    Description/subject: Many Burmese have likened their country to a prison; but for foreign travelers, it's more of a "fascist Disneyland". Neil Lawrence recounts some of his experiences in the "Golden Land" of Myanmar, where repression rules behind a facade of peace and stability. Travels in a 'fascist Disneyland' reveal tensions behind a facade of stability. by Neil Lawrence Two large circles appear on the tourist map of Rangoon: One, just north of the city's downtown core, marks Shwedagon Pagoda, the spiritual center of Burmese Buddhism and the country's most famous tourist attraction. The other, slightly larger, is tucked away in the upper-left-hand corner of the map, just west of Mingaladon International Airport. Not exactly a tourist attraction, its name has a sinister resonance that at once evokes the "other" Burma: Insein Prison..."
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 15 October 2000
    Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Lonely Planet Set to Get Lonlier
    Date of publication: June 2000
    Description/subject: Lonely Planet, publisher of a series of popular travel guides, may be about to get a taste of the isolation that Burma's military regime has been living with for more than a decade after its latest edition of a guide to Burma claimed that "forced labor appears to be on the wane" in the country. Activists have targeted the company for a boycott, saying that the guide misrepresents the extent of human rights abuses in Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No .6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Wish You Wouldn't Go There
    Date of publication: March 1999
    Description/subject: "John Jackson of Burma Campaign [UK] recently met with Aung San Suu Kyi in Rangoon to discuss the NLD's policies on tourism to Burma. The Irrawaddy spoke with him in Bangkok before his return to London, to find out what he learned from meeting the opposition leader and other Burmese around the country..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 7, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amazing Lambi
    Date of publication: August 1998
    Description/subject: [Ecotourism and forced labour] 2nd article. Lambi marine park and other ecological tourism projects are touted as sound development by the Burmese government. But they are being built on the back of multiple human rights and environmental abuses,
    Author/creator: Win Htein
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Critics Decry 'Human Zoo' of Tribeswomen
    Date of publication: May 1998
    Description/subject: Thai police raided a camp in Chiang Mai province in February, after a local businessman was accused of holding a group of "long-necked" Padaung women from Burma as tourist attractions.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Notes on Burma Tourism
    Date of publication: October 1995
    Description/subject: "...Despite the situation in Burma, a growing number of tour groups are planning tours capitalizing on SLORC’s "Visit Myanmar Year 1996". Some tour companies appear to have picked up on the SLORC’s promotions and are fervently promoting these tours. In the USA, one such tour company is: Thomas P. Gohagan and Company 224 South Michigan Ave., Suite 220 Chicago, Illinois 60604 Tel: (312) 922-3002 Gohagan has mainly been targetting University Alumni associations, getting them to offer tours to their members in the $5,000-7,000 range, centred around a cruise up the Irrawaddy River from Rangoon to Mandalay on the MV "Road to Mandalay". There are currently reports that Alumni Associations at Northwestern (Evanston, IL), Yale, Michigan (Ann Arbor), Indiana (Bloomington), University of Southern California, and many other Universities are currently promoting the tours to their Alumni (a full list would be useful if available). UCLA was also planning a tour, but cancelled it after being briefed on the situation in Burma. Gohagan is not only hitting Alumni Associations, but is also hitting groups interested in Art and Culture - the Chicago Art Institute is reportedly also planning a tour..."
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Tourism in Burma - promotional

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Lonely Planet: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 07 September 2009
    Description/subject: # When to go # Sights # Money & Costs # Getting there & around # History ..."Travelling to Myanmar presents an ethical decision - Should you go? Check the warning below or go to our responsible travel section..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lonely Planet
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/myanmar-burma/travel-tips-and-articles/76954
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
    Description/subject: Substantial, upgraded site.... About Myanmar| About Us| Destination| Eco-Tourism| Festival| Tourist Map| Services| Tour Itinerary| Embassy| Useful Link| Article| Publication| Latest News| Tourist Complaint| Photo Gallery| DOs & DON'Ts| Star Ranking Hotels....."The legendary "Golden Land" - this is still the Myanmar of today. Certainly one of the most exotic countries in the world-aland of astounding beauty and charm that moved Kipling to pen these apt words: "quite unlike any land you will ever know". Paradise... Myanmar is a paradise to discover, a destination for discerning travellers to explore and experience the mystical charms of the East in all its diversity - rich archaeological sites, glittering pagodas, a wealth of cultures, colourful festivals and arts. Myanmar is also blessed with an awe-inspiring range of natural sights - idyllic land- scape, lush fertile plains, vast virgin jungles, majestic snowcapped mountains, pristine beaches washed by crystal clear waters, fragrant pine trees and sunflowers bathed in abundant sunshine. But most of all, perfectly complemented by a most gracious and hospitable people...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Mission Geneva, Tourism page
    Description/subject: Tourist attractions, information and articles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Mission, Geneva,
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


    Title: Today in Myanmar - Myanmar Life, Culture, Custom, Travel, Information
    Description/subject: * Myanmar History * Hotels & Accommodation * Travel Advice * Myanmar Life * Travel stories * Culture & Custom * Information * Myanmar News * Places in Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Today in Myanmar
    Format/size: html, Wordpress
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan 2013 - 2020
    Date of publication: June 2013
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "As a result of sweeping political and economic reforms, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is enjoying unprecedented tourism growth. Between 2011 and 2012, visitor arrivals increased by 29.7% and, for the first time in its history, Myanmar received over 1 million international visitors. Other key drivers of growth include the rapid expansion of scheduled inbound flights, eased tourist visa-on-arrival privileges at gateway airports, improving business and investment conditions, and the growing demand for international travel among regional and long-haul markets. Although Myanmar possesses diverse and extensive cultural, natural, and historic assets, it has only begun to develop its enormous tourism potential. Due to the income- and employment-generating opportunities it creates, tourism is a global industry with special economic significance to developing countries. Consequently, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has prioritized tourism development in its Framework for Economic and Social Reforms. To help ensure that tourism growth delivers broad and equitable social, economic, and environmental benefits, GOM adopted the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy in 2012. The policy is also endorsed by the Myanmar Tourism Federation (MTF), and is highly acclaimed by both civil society and development partners. The vision for tourism in Myanmar, as set out in the Responsible Tourism Policy is “we intend to use tourism to make Myanmar a better place to live in—to provide more employment and greater business opportunities for all our people, to contribute to the conservation of our natural and cultural heritage and to share with us our rich cultural diversity. We warmly welcome those who appreciate and enjoy our heritage, our way of life, and who travel with respect.” In this context, the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (MOHT)—the agency mandated by GOM to oversee the systematic development of tourism—prepared the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan (the Master Plan). The Master Plan adopts this vision for tourism in Myanmar and the nine aims of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy as its guiding principles. It sets out strategic programs, priority projects, and activities in a long-term implementation framework covering 2013–2020 and a short-term action plan for 2013–2015. The goal of the Master Plan is to maximize tourism’s contribution to national employment and income generation, and ensure that the social and economic benefits of tourism are distributed equitably. Key objectives for each strategic program are listed below."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, The R epublic of the Union of Myanma
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB-reduced version; 4.32-0rigtinal)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.harrison-institute.org/Myanmar%20Tourism%20Master%20Plan%202013-2020.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 October 2013


    Title: Myanmar Travel Directory (2010-2011)
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: 148 illustrated pages of tourist destinations and activities in Myanmar.....1 Introduction: "Myanmar Travel Directory is a collective effort of Union of Myanmar Travel Association in bringing out current information on touring and traveling at Myanmar. Directory has a complete list of UMTA members by their respective website addresses, from where information on detailed tour programs, highlights of tour sites and tour services could be found. People of Myanmar has fine and sound cultures in traditional ways, of which natural hospitality is one. UMTA members regard that it is their responsibility to support and raise such cultures. Green forests, treasured natural resources, coastal beaches, traditional habitats of each ethnic group are among rich inheritances to which we are obligated to treat responsibly. Golden land, Myanmar is situated between Holy Ganges of Indian sub-continent and Great Mekong of Indo-China, 582 miles (936 km) at its widest breadth. From Himalaya to Andaman Sea, River Ayeyarwady flows for 1,500 miles of her whole entirety on the land, enabling civilizations to flourish. At midway of her passage Central Yoma Range breaks briefly for the river to shift slightly toward West and merged with River Chindwin. Chindwin itself has its source at Himalaya and flows parallel and between River Brahmaputra of India and Ayeyarwady. By the seawards, Rakhine Coast, Ayeyarwady Delta and Tanintharyi Coast, in total of 1385 miles coastal line rim on Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Martaban and Andaman Sea. Natural and cultural splendors of land thrive on monsoon rain and great rivers of the land. Favourable climate and geography support wide variety of flora and fauna to grow in the form of dense rain forests. Civilizations then follow. In the year 2001, a team of anthropologists found fossilized remains of primates from 49 to 33 million years’ time at Pondaung, Central Myanmar. There are evidences of 20,000 year old Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures in wall paintings of Padalin Cave, near Myittha. By the archeological evidences Mon established civilizations in Ayeyarwady Delta and Tanintharyi Coast around 250 BC, their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi was founded around the port of Thaton. By the 2nd century AD towards 9th century, city kingdoms of Beikthano, Mongmao, Sriksetra, and Hanlingyi were founded by Pyu tribes in central Myanmar. And lineage of Rakhine kingdom was established in 4th century AD which traced back to 5th century BC. Bagan was founded during 845~850 AD, but only at 1044 AD King Anawrahta unified the city states into nationhood which stretched about the size of present day Myanmar. During the reign of King Anawrahta, Theravada Buddhism has taken root amidst different practices of Buddhism and animism. Theravada Buddhism has ever been in the psyche of populace that the faith never diminishes even by conflicts or wars. Cultures of the land as defined and shaped by ever changing situations always has this faith embedded. Bagan Empire lasted until early 14th. century to be disintegrated into city states again. Nationstates were reestablished successively each time, Hantharwady Empire was founded by Bayintnaung (1552~1581), and Alaungpaya (1752~1760) reunited the nation as Konbaung Kingdom. In 1886 British colonial power annexed the whole country after three wars. Independent is gained on 4th January, 1948, as the result of continuous political movements against British rule, where the crucial movement being historic Pinlone Treaty which was signed on 12 February 1947. Presently the country is still in developing stage, and tourism industry is also among the rest of sectors in gaining momentum. Private sector investments, Foreign Direct Investments and Joint Ventures are allowed in the industry. Ministry of Hotels and Tourism undertakes to give regulatory guidance in the industry, and to generate tourism growth. Professionalism and good business practices are essential values of UMTA members and we believe that Association is one unitive body to promote the industry."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Union of Myanmar Travel Association (UMTA)
    Format/size: pdf (7.8MB - OBL version; 10.7MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.umtanet.org/UMTA.pdf
    http://umtanet.org/
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2010


    Title: Myanmar Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
    Description/subject: Mainly photos: Myanmar Map In Detail... Tourist Centres Zone... Main National Races... Cultural Attractions... Eco - Tourism Sites... Beaches... Myeik Archipelagos... Festivals... Flora & Fauna... Fruits & Flowers... Soft Adventures... Trekking And Mountaineering... All Photos... Bridges... PrizeWinning Photos 2003... Photo Contest 2004... PrizeWinning Photos.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SPDC
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


    Title: Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board
    Description/subject: "Mystical Myanmar" ... solid site, with substantial links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2008


  • Tourism in Burma/Myanmar - the debate

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Lonely Planet: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 07 September 2009
    Description/subject: # When to go # Sights # Money & Costs # Getting there & around # History ..."Travelling to Myanmar presents an ethical decision - Should you go? Check the warning below or go to our responsible travel section..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lonely Planet
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/myanmar-burma/travel-tips-and-articles/76954
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Responsible Tourism
    Description/subject: "...VFB recognizes that the political situation in Burma is very complex and nuanced, and that there is no simple solution. Many Burma campaign groups feel that economic sanctions and a tourist boycott are the solution and on this point we disagree. However like all Burma campaign groups, our ultimate goal is to help the people of Burma achieve freedom, democracy and basic human rights, and it is our belief that these things can only take hold in an environment of cooperation and communication, embracing different viewpoints. We welcome and encourage debate on the issue of tourism in Burma and hope to use this space as an open forum where all voices can be heard..."
    Source/publisher: Voices for Burma
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Responsible Tourism in Myanmar: Current Situation and Challenges
    Date of publication: 10 December 2012
    Description/subject: "...There is an urgent need for a critical debate on mass tourism in Myanmar, particularly the viability and frailty of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy that is soon to be framed by the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan. ‘One of the most fascinating aspects of travel in Myanmar is the opportunity to experience a corner of Asia that, in many ways, has changed little since British colonial times,’ says the Lonely Planet. It remains to be seen how this place of authenticity will be reshaped by mass tourism as a force of globalisation in the near future, and how the state of Myanmar will responsibly respond to the challenges brought about by mass tourism..."
    Author/creator: Ko Ko Thet
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Center Prague.
    Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ecoburma.com
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


    Title: Burma boykottieren oder buchen?
    Date of publication: 23 January 2008
    Description/subject: Wer in diesen Wochen durch das ärmste Land Asiens reist, begegnet wenigen Touristengruppen, aber einer wissbegierigen Bevölkerung, der Besucher herzlich willkommen sind. Ein 18-jähriger Informatik-Student, der auf dem Mandalay-Hügel die Mitglieder einer deutschen Reisegruppe anspricht, erläutert: „Wir wurden hier zwar Augenzeugen der Ereignisse, aber sonst wissen wir so gut wie nichts. Tourismus nach den Aufständen 2007; tourism after the uprisings 2007
    Author/creator: Jürgen Diebäcker
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Der Westen
    Format/size: Html (42 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Nach Burma reisen oder nicht?
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Eine kritische Debatte über Tourismus nach Burma mit konkreten Handlungsempfehlungen für Reisende; debate on tourism in Burma; tips for travellers
    Author/creator: Christine Pluess, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
    Format/size: PDF
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Burma - was jetzt?
    Date of publication: 17 October 2007
    Description/subject: Das Departement des Äussern rät von Burmareisen ab. Die Veranstalter haben die nächsten Abflüge annulliert und die Gäste – wie betont wird – kostenlos umgebucht. An den Programmen wird aber festgehalten. Wer eine später gebuchte Reise absagen möchte, wird vermutlich zur Kasse gebeten. Auch wenn die Ausschreibungen für Reisen in das „zauberhafte Land der Goldenen Pagoden“ tunlichst verschwiegen haben, was die erschreckenden Meldungen und Bilder jetzt zu Tage bringen – wie gewaltsam nämlich die einheimische Bevölkerung unterdrückt wird und wie eindringlich die legitim gewählten demokratischen Kräfte des Landes ausländische Investoren und Reisende seit Jahren dazu auffordern, nicht nach Burma zu kommen, bevor demokratische Verhältnisse herrschen; Tourismus-Branche; Tourismus-Boykott; Aufstände 2007; Interview mit NCGUB; Tourism industry; boycott of tourism; protests 2007; Interview with NCGUB-Member
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung, Fairunterwegs.ch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


    Title: Fueling Repression or Assisting the Oppressed?
    Date of publication: February 2007
    Description/subject: Burma’s tourism industry has grown in recent years, despite a shaky start, but the debate about whether “to go or not to go” rages o­n..."
    Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: Thai Tourists in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2007
    Description/subject: History book prejudices fade away as increasing numbers of Thais visit their largest neighbor
    Author/creator: Sai Silp
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: The Moral Minefield
    Date of publication: February 2007
    Description/subject: So you’re planning to visit Burma? Then read this first... "One question often posed by foreign friends and visitors who come to my office is whether they should visit Burma. I find it difficult to offer a straightforward answer...
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: ZDF-Programm "Reise ins Glück"
    Date of publication: 18 December 2006
    Description/subject: Als exklusive Unterhaltungsshow wollte das Zweite Deutsche Fernsehen (ZDF) zum Neujahr eine Art „Traumschiff“-Sendung unter dem Titel „Kreuzfahrt zum Glück“ mit Burma als Kulisse ausstrahlen. Auf die Proteste von tourismuskritischen und Menschenrechtsorganisationen sicherte die öffentlich-rechtliche Anstalt ZDF zu, dass rund um die Unterhaltungssendung über die politische und soziale Situation in Burma informiert würde, auch auf den Seiten vom ZDF. In Burma werden massivst Menschenrechte verletzt, auch im Zusammenhang mit der forcierten Tourismusentwicklung. Protests against TV Show;
    Author/creator: Christine Plüss, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
    Format/size: Html (16k)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


    Title: Boykottieren oder nicht?
    Date of publication: 01 December 2006
    Description/subject: Weltweit ist die Diskussion zu Wirtschaftssanktionen und Reiseboykott entbrannt: Gegen den Boykott wird argumentiert, Sanktionen würden nichts bewirken und bloss die bereits hart geknechtete Bevölkerung noch mehr strafen. BefürworterInnen stellen sich hinter die Argumente der demokratischen Opposition, die 1990 einen haushohen Wahlsieg errungen hat, aber von den Generälen nie zur Regierung zugelassen wurde: Die katastrophale humanitäre Situation sowie Hunger und Not unter der burmesischen Bevölkerung seien allein der Misswirtschaft der Generäle zuzuschreiben. Die überwiegende Mehrheit der burmesischen Bevölkerung lebe auf dem Land und profitiere in keiner Art und Weise vom Tourismus; im Gegenteil müsse sie für die Instandstellung von Strassen oder Eisenbahn Zwangsarbeit leisten. Die machthabenden Militärs jedoch nutzten den Tourismus, um ihr Image aufzupolieren, Devisen für die marode Staatskasse und die horrenden Militärausgaben zu erwirtschaften und Gelder aus Drogenhandel und anderen finsteren Geschäften zu waschen. Jede Reise, und führe sie ausschliesslich in private Unterkünfte, trage letztlich über Abgaben neues Geld in die Taschen der Generäle. Kritische Darstellung von Reiseveranstalter; Menschenrechtsverletzungen; Debate about travelling to Burma; Human Rights Abuses; Critical presentation of tour operators
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
    Format/size: Html (24k)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


    Title: Wish You Weren't There: An Interview with Yvette Mahon and Joe Cummings
    Date of publication: February 2005
    Description/subject: British campaign adds fuel to Burma tourism debate... "When Burma hosts the next Asean tourism fair, in January 2006, some notable names will be missing from the guest list. There will be no official British participation, for a start, following a strong statement this month by Prime Minister Tony Blair and the two other British parliamentary party leaders opposing tourism to Burma. They added their names to a list of more than 70 public figures supporting an anti-tourism campaign mounted by the Burma Campaign-UK. The campaign and the high profile support it has won within Britain have reignited the Burma toursim debate. Is a tourism boycott an effective way to force the Burmese generals to give up power, or does it hit the wrong people? Is it morally wrong to enjoy a holiday in Burma, or do tourists throw a lifeline to oppressed Burmese? The Irrawaddy asked two representatives of the contrary arguments to participate in a debate on the central issues..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2005


    Title: Golden Burma oder Terra nongrata?
    Date of publication: March 2003
    Description/subject: A discussion of the pro's and con's of tourism in Burma. Analysis of recent tourism related data. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Argumenten gegen und für einen Tourismus nach Burma. Im Zusammenhang mit der aktuellen Diskussion zu Burma/Myanmar wurde respect - Institut für Integrativen Tourismus und Entwicklung von österreichischen NGOs zur Unterstützung des Boykotts aufgefordert, gleichzeitig aber auch von österreichischen und deutschen MedienvertreterInnen um eine Stellungnahme gebeten. Durch einen kurzen Aufenthalt im Land und in Gesprächen mit Vertretern der burmesischen Exilregierung und zahlreichen internationalen Experten und Expertinnen sowie NGO's entstand diese Arbeit, zusätzlich fand eine intensive Literaturrecherche und Recherche im Internet statt. Im nebenstehenden Datei-Download sind die Ergebnisse dieser Forschungsarbeit angeführt.
    Author/creator: Christian Baumgartner, Daniel Predota, Margit Leuthold
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: respect - Institut für Integrativen Tourismus und Entwicklung
    Format/size: pdf-Datei (Teil 1 2306K; Teil 2 579K; Summary 2229K) Download von drei Dokumenten von der Hauptseite
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Sustainable/ethical tourism

    • Sustainable/ethical tourism (international)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Tourism Concern
      Description/subject: "The UK's leading resource for ethical and sustainable tourism"....Search Results in TC For "burma": Burma: Not Black and White - Burma: Not Black and White... Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma - Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma... What others say on tourism to Burma.... - What others say on tourism to Burma.... News - To go or not to go? Burma update... News - New petition demands Lonely Planet withdraws Burma guidebook... Burma - Burma... News - Burma and Lonely Planet: A personal look back... Displacement of People - Displacement of People... Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition - Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition... Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures - Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures... Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott - Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott... Campaign with us - Campaign with us... Tsunami of Tourism - Tsunami of Tourism... Campaigns - Campaigns... Displacement - Displacement... Working conditions - Working conditions... Past Campaigns - Past Campaigns... FAQs for Tourists - FAQs for Tourists... News - Burmese refugees trapped by tourism.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Tourism Concern's Ethical Tourism links
      Description/subject: About 30 links to groups/networks working on ethical tourism
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/resources/useful-links.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 March 2012


      Title: Tourism Concern's Related Organisations links
      Description/subject: Headings: UK development organisations and resources...TEN (Third World European Network)...Indigenous peoples
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/resources/useful-links.html
      Date of entry/update: 03 March 2012


    • Sustainable/ethical/responsible tourism (Burma/Myanmar)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Lonely Planet: Myanmar
      Date of publication: 07 September 2009
      Description/subject: # When to go # Sights # Money & Costs # Getting there & around # History ..."Travelling to Myanmar presents an ethical decision - Should you go? Check the warning below or go to our responsible travel section..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lonely Planet
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/myanmar-burma/travel-tips-and-articles/76954
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: "Responsible Tourism Policy" für Myanmar
      Description/subject: "Am 27. September 2012 fanden in Nay Pyi Taw, der Hauptstadt Myanmars, unter dem Titel „Tourism & Sustainable Energy: Powering Sustainable Development“ erstmals offizielle Feierlichkeiten zum jährlichen Welttourismustag der Vereinten Nationen statt. Die Veranstaltung eröffnete der Vizepräsident der Republik der Union Myanmar, Dr. Sai Mauk Kham. Neben Kabinettsministern und ranghohen Beamten waren auch Vertreter ausländischer Botschaften und Nichtregierungsorganisationen anwesend. Der Welttourismustag der Vereinten Nationen macht aufmerksam auf das Potential von Tourismus und die Auswirkungen auf politische, soziale und kulturelle sowie wirtschaftliche Werte. Für Myanmar, das über 50 Jahre von der internationalen Gemeinschaft isoliert war und zu einem der ärmsten Länder der Erde zählt, ist der Tourismus eine der wichtigsten Einnahmequellen. Wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt und die Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen für mehr als 54 Millionen Burmesen sind auch eine Voraussetzung für die Demokratisierung..."
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Hanns Seidel Foundation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


      Title: EcoBurma
      Description/subject: "EcoBurma is a non-profit project run by the Czech non-governmental organization Burma Center Prague that seeks to promote responsible travel to Burma through innovate awareness-raising and capacity-building."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EcoBurma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 September 2012


      Title: EcoBurma - travel to Burma / Myanmar
      Description/subject: "Description: EcoBurma is a non-profit project established in 2011 by the Czech NGO Burma Center Prague. It seeks to promote responsible travel to Burma through awareness-raising and capacity-building. It also provides a platform for discussion and data collection... Encouraged by the NLD’s recent declaration in support of responsible tourism to Burma, we have developed the project based on our experience with awareness-raising about traveling to Burma... Our Approach: * Empower People: We want locals in Burma to have the capacity to identify issues related to tourism and the strength to defend their rights. * Contribute Stories: We want to change the way people travel to Burma by raising their awareness. We won’t achieve this through classroom lessons, but through stories from travelers and locals. * Own Your Choices: We want you to make an informed decision about your trip to Burma, in every detail. The choice is yours.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: EcoBurma
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burma-center.org/en/traveling-to-burma/
      Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


      Title: Responsible Tourism
      Description/subject: "...VFB recognizes that the political situation in Burma is very complex and nuanced, and that there is no simple solution. Many Burma campaign groups feel that economic sanctions and a tourist boycott are the solution and on this point we disagree. However like all Burma campaign groups, our ultimate goal is to help the people of Burma achieve freedom, democracy and basic human rights, and it is our belief that these things can only take hold in an environment of cooperation and communication, embracing different viewpoints. We welcome and encourage debate on the issue of tourism in Burma and hope to use this space as an open forum where all voices can be heard..."
      Source/publisher: Voices for Burma
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2010


      Title: Tourism Transparency
      Description/subject: "Tourism Transparency is a non-government organization (NGO) that promotes political awareness amongst tourists to Burma. We raise awareness about the economic, social, environmental and political impacts of tourism. Our aim is to ensure tourists are not naive when they visit Burma. Burma’s government has a keen interest in promoting tourism and is looking for support from the international tourism industry. Tourism is becoming increasingly important for them to counter international condemnation of its violation of human rights. Tourism Transparency campaigns for an open and accountable tourism industry. Based on our extensive knowledge about tourism and our long involvement as political activists for Burma, we will present our research findings to you. We want to increase the positive impacts of tourism to boost the economy of Burma, a country that ranks as one of the poorest nations in the world. In order to minimize the negative impacts of tourism we raise awareness on the consequences of a-political tourists who turn a blind eye to issues of human rights. Tourism Transparency does not judge tourists if they decide to travel to Burma – we are happy to see aware and responsible travelers visiting the country and spending their money wisely! But we urge tourists to respect Aung San Suu Kyi and visit the country in a way that helps the Burmese people on the ground..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Tourism Transparency
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: MCRB Consults on Draft Tourism Sector-Wide Impact Assessment
      Date of publication: 30 September 2014
      Description/subject: MCRB held a consultation on the draft tourism sector-wide impact assessment in Yangon on: Monday 25 August – for business stakeholders, in English... Tuesday 26 August – for international NGO/government/advisory stakeholders, in English... Wednesday 27 August – for local civil society organisations, in Myanmar... Documents for discussion included the following:
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


      Title: Responsible Tourism in Myanmar: Current Situation and Challenges
      Date of publication: 10 December 2012
      Description/subject: "...There is an urgent need for a critical debate on mass tourism in Myanmar, particularly the viability and frailty of the Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy that is soon to be framed by the Myanmar Tourism Master Plan. ‘One of the most fascinating aspects of travel in Myanmar is the opportunity to experience a corner of Asia that, in many ways, has changed little since British colonial times,’ says the Lonely Planet. It remains to be seen how this place of authenticity will be reshaped by mass tourism as a force of globalisation in the near future, and how the state of Myanmar will responsibly respond to the challenges brought about by mass tourism..."
      Author/creator: Ko Ko Thet
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Center Prague.
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ecoburma.com
      Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


      Title: Myanmar tourism after the boycott
      Date of publication: 23 November 2012
      Description/subject: "The touristification of Myanmar has begun. The Ministry of Hotels and Tourism declared tourism the country’s ‘national priority sector’ in its Responsible Tourism Policy (RTP), released in September. In the same month, the Ministry had signed the Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam Tourism Cooperation (CLMV), which aims to welcome 25 million visitors in the region, with four million ‘exchange visitors’ in each country, over the period 2013-2015. Myanmar’s tourism infrastructure was already strained by half a million tourists in the first half of 2012, compared to almost 400,000 in 2011. Myanmar’s membership of CLMV is not only un-legislated and un-democratic but it also ignores ‘value over volume’ advice by the UNWTO. As the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party is widely expected to be voted out in the 2015 elections, the CLMV is seen as the former generals’ unscrupulous attempt to make hay while the sun shines..."
      Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


      Title: Dos and Don'ts for Tourists - How you can visit Myanmar Responsibly
      Date of publication: November 2012
      Description/subject: 30 cautionary cartoons, useful words and phone numbers
      Language: English,
      Source/publisher: Tourism Transparency, Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


      Title: ADB, Norway to Help Myanmar Manage Tourist Boom
      Date of publication: 11 October 2012
      Description/subject: MANILA, PHILIPPINES – The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Norway will help Myanmar cope with an exploding tourism sector with a $225,000 grant designed to generate a sustainable tourism master plan. “Myanmar is undergoing a period of dramatic change, and the skyrocketing number of tourists visiting the country is already putting existing tourism infrastructure under enormous strain,” said Putu Kamayana, Head of ADB’s Extended Mission in Myanmar. “To ensure benefits of the burgeoning tourism industry are sustainable and extend to more of Myanmar’s people, the country needs a comprehensive plan that respects culture and the environment.”
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


      Title: Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy (English and Burmese)
      Date of publication: 27 September 2012
      Description/subject: Contents: Minister's Introduction... Background... Responsible Tourism... Statement of Commitment... Our Vision... Our Aims... Action Points... Map of Myanmar... Stakeholder Involvement... Monitoring, Reporting and Revision
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, Myanmar Touriam Federation, Hanns Seidel Foundation (Germany)
      Format/size: pdf (English: 1.8MB-OBL version; 5.16MB-original. Burmese-3.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Myanmar_Responsible_Tourism_Policy-bu-red.pdf
      http://www.tourismtransparency.org/sites/default/files/Myanmar%20Responsible%20Tourism%20Policy%202...
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012


      Title: The Draft Responsible Tourism Policy for Myanmar formulated successfully
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: "From the 22nd of May to the 5th of June in workshops all over Myanmar and in a Concluding Conference more than 350 participants from public and private tourism sector expressed that tourism should be developed in a responsible and sustainable way. Local communities, local authorities and local initiatives should be integrated as much as possible. Additionally it was articulated to raise awareness campaigns about the (negative) impacts of tourism, especially focusing on child sex tourism and human trafficking. The Deputy-Minister for Hotels and Tourism, H.E. U Htay Aung, opening the concluding conference said in Nay Pyi Taw on 5th June: “The Ministry has repeatedly stated its commitment to uphold the principles of Responsible Tourism. We are fully aware that the success of tourism can be judged by the net benefit to the country and its people.” The aim he said: “ is a simple one – to encourage every travel company, operator, hotel and destination to take real action and show consumers that they not only care about the sustainability of the tourism industry in Myanmar but also the communities that are so often negatively affected by mass tourism. Responsible Tourism can be used to get competitive advantage..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Hanns Seidel Foundation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


      Title: Nay Pyi Taw Responsible Tourism Statement Taking Responsibility for Tourism – A working week on responsible tourism planning in Myanmar
      Description/subject: "This statement is the outcome of the Taking Responsibility for Tourism – A working week on responsible tourism planning in Myanmar. Prepared by Professor Harold Goodwin, Nicole Haeusler, Achim Munz and the public and private sector of the Myanmar tourism industry."
      Author/creator: Professor Harold Goodwin, Nicole Haeusler, Achim Munz
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: http://mekongtourism.org
      Format/size: pdf (81K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


  • Burma-related tourism in Thailand

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Coils of Custom
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: As tourism drops, many Padaung abandon the tradition of putting bronze coils on the necks of their daughters... "Though likened to “human zoos” whose residents are seemingly caged like exotic birds, the Padaung tourist villages of Mae Hong Son Province used to be relatively prosperous. U Ladu, the Padaung headman of Ban Nai Soi, said they can no longer count on tourists coming to see their “long neck” women, who are famous for the bronze coils wound around their necks, since the numbers of foreign visitors coming to the province has dropped sharply..."
    Author/creator: Aye Chan Myate
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


    Title: The Dragon Mothers Polish their Metal Coils
    Date of publication: September 2006
    Description/subject: "Estimated at less than 50,000, the Kayan tribe of Burma’s northeast have long been the essence of exotica, subject of curiosity, and source of "Ripley's Believe it Or Not" obsessions. Because of some of the women's traditional adornment of coiled metal rings, which enhance--or perhaps disfigure--their necks, the Kayans are also known by the name the lowland Burmese gave them: "Padaung," meaning "long necks." Years ago, National Geographic magazine x-rayed some Kayan women and determined that their necks had not been stretched, as it appeared. Actually, the women's collarbones had been pushed down to create the long-necked effect..."
    Author/creator: Edith Mirante
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Guernica"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2007


    Title: Tradition or Sideshow?
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: "Long-neck" women suffer indignity and discomfort for a meager livelihood... "Tribal tradition has placed 23 brass rings around Ma Ja's neck. And tribal tradition has condemned her to a life that she compares to the zoo existence of a caged animal. Ma Ja, a 23-year-old Padaung woman living in one of three so-called "long-neck" villages near Mae Hong Son in northern Thailand, is proud of her tradition, but she hates the life that it brings. "But what else can I do?" she asks. She earns 1,500 baht (US $38) a month and a few meager rations by parading with other long-neck women before camera-toting tourists who pay 250 baht ($6.25) to enter her village, Huay Sua Tao, one of three Padaung communities on the Mae Hong Son hill-tribetrail..."
    Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Critics Decry 'Human Zoo' of Tribeswomen
    Date of publication: May 1998
    Description/subject: Thai police raided a camp in Chiang Mai province in February, after a local businessman was accused of holding a group of "long-necked" Padaung women from Burma as tourist attractions.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003