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Buddhism and society, Buddhist Ethics

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Buddhist Peace Fellowship
Description/subject: Engaged Buddhism
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Buddhist Peace Fellowship discussion group
Description/subject: "This group is set up for discussion, announcements, and matters of interest pertaining to Socially Engaged Buddhism in the U.S. and the world at large"
Language: English
Subscribe: bpf-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
Alternate URLs: More information: http://www.bpf.org
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


Title: Buddhist Relief Mission
Description/subject: "The Buddhist Relief Mission, established in 1988, supports Buddhist charities, education and welfare projects throughout the world". Buddhist publications, Scholarships for monks, Buddhists in prison, Buddhist schools, Sangha hospitals, Refugee ordinations, Buddhist orphanages, Monastery support.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Engagierter Buddhismus
Description/subject: "Diese Internet-Seiten möchten Sie mit den Inhalten und der Bewegung für gesellschaftlich engagierten Buddhismus bekannt machen und Ihnen das internationale Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten mit seinen Zielen, Ideen, Aktivitäten und Kontaktmöglichkeiten vorstellen. Engagierter Buddhismus Gesellschaftlich, humanitär und ökologisch engagierter Buddhismus hat seine Wurzel und Entstehung in der Lehre und Lebenspraxis des Gautama Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddhas Weg gründet in der meditativen Erfahrung der Wirklichkeit und ist geprägt ist von tiefer Einsicht und großem Mitgefühl für alle Wesen. Sie und alle Phänomene erkennt er als untrennbar wechselseitig miteinander verbunden. Es gibt kein vom Anderen isoliertes, aus sich und für sich existierendes "Ich". Diese Erkenntnis - im Buddhismus "Erwachen" (bodhi) genannt - läßt uns den tiefsten Grund unseres Leidens erkennen wie auch unser unbegrenztes Potential menschlicher Möglichkeiten (genannt "Buddhaschaft"). Darum hat der Weg des Buddha die umfassende Verwirklichung des Menschen und die Befreiung aller lebenden Wesen vom Leiden zum Ziel. Engagierter Buddhismus ist die Bemühung, eine hieran orientierte, globale "Kultur des Erwachens" zu verwirklichen..."
Language: Deutsch, German, English
Source/publisher: Das Internationale Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Network of Engaged Buddhists
Description/subject: "... It is a distinguish network of activists, spiritual leaders and academics, mainly Buddhists of all sects, at international level that addresses the social issue and commits the social services based on spirituality with collaboration from non-Buddhist fellows. INEB members conduct the activities in variety of issues to serve their own community on decentralization basis. But the members are supportive of one another. The secretariat office will maintain flow of information and support by offering a program to fortify members' capacity and organizing joint activities. Issues of Interest: INEB has firm confidence in compassion, non-violence and co-existence as revealed by The Buddha. Confrontation with suffering, analysis and actions to put out suffering, particularly in the modern world context is the core mission. The issues of interest revolve around integration of spirituality and social activities. Issues that INEB emphasized included peace reconciliation, ecology, women issue and empowerment, health, education, human rights, community building, alternative development, role of spiritual leaders in modern world context, etc..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Network of Engaged Buddhists
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Journal of Buddhist Ethics
Description/subject: A rich mine of docs, including archives of Journal of Buddhist Ethics and on engaged Buddhism and Buddhism and human rights...... "The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is the first academic journal dedicated entirely to Buddhist ethics. We promote the study of Buddhist ethics through the publication of research and book reviews and by hosting occasional online conferences. Our subject matter includes: * Vinaya and Jurisprudence * Medical Ethics * Philosophical Ethics * Human Rights * Ethics and Psychology * Ecology and the Environment * Social and Political Philosophy * Cross-cultural Ethics * Ethics and Anthropology * Interfaith Dialogue on Ethics ....."
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


Title: Sarvodaya: The Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement of Sri Lanka
Description/subject: "In thousands of villages, Sarvodaya has fostered the development of a society in which peace permeates through all levels of the society -- starting at the individual and village level. While sometimes criticized for its qualitative mode of operation, it is precisely such a deeply grounded approach that can prove most effective in breaking the cycle of violence. "This study found that the project has had considerable impact on peace building and prevention of conflict..." "Sarvodaya News; Sarvodaya Initiative for Peace; Endowment Fund; Sarvodaya USA Partnership Projects; Sarvodaya Overview ;Sarvodaya Philosophy; The Sarvodaya Library; Related Links; Virtual Shramadana Camp. LOts of material on the site.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Buddhist Channel -- Bringing Buddha Dhamma Home
Description/subject: News dealing with social and political angles on Tibetan and other Buddhist traditions
Language: English, French, Francais
Source/publisher: The Buddhist Channel
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 August 2006


Title: Think Sangha
Description/subject: "Buddhist" Intellectual Practice Tools for Integrating Spirituality & Social Change Work. "Think Sangha is a socially engaged Buddhist think tank affiliated with the Buddhist Peace Fellowship (BPF) and the International Network of Engaged Buddhists (INEB). We use a Buddhist sangha model to explore pressing social issues and concerns. The group's methodology is one based in friendship and Buddhist practice as much as theory and thought. The Think Sangha's core activities are networking with other thinker-activists, producing Buddhist critiques of social structures and alternative social models, and providing materials and resource persons for trainings, conferences, and research on social issues and grassroots activism..." "NEW! For the first time the entire contents of this 1997 publication are available here on-line"
Language: English
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.suanmokkh.org/ds/ts-orig1.htm
http://www.inebnetwork.org/news-and-medias/publications
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Discrimination: A Buddhist perspective
Date of publication: 17 August 2012
Description/subject: "...The Pali Canon has a very strong and unequivocal teaching that mental attachment is extremely detrimental – a biased view which asserts that people achieve freedom from suffering in any way other than their conduct is a distorted and perverted view. It is a mental attitude that leads to a very detrimental rebirth, and to pain and unhappiness in this life. It can be stated then with some certainty that in the Pali Canon there is a very strong teaching that any form of discourse that proposes a racist opinion is a wrong view, it will lead to suffering and, indeed, is dukkha itself. Those holding such opinions will not only suffer in the future but are themselves an expression of mental turmoil while holding such views. They are immersed in dukkha not metta."
Author/creator: Dr. Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: pdf (94K)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: Founding Human Rights within Buddhism: Exploring Buddha-Nature as an Ethical Foundation
Date of publication: 15 October 2010
Description/subject: Abstract In this article, I hope to suggest (1) a fertile ground for human rights and social ethics within Japanese intellec-tual history and (2) a possible angle for connecting Dōgen‖s ethical views with his views on private religious practice. I begin with a review of the attempts to found the notion of rights within Buddhism. I focus on two well-argued attempts: Damien Keown‖s foundation of rights on the Four Noble Truths and individual soteriology and Jay Garfield‖s foundation of rights on the compassionate drive to liberate others. I then fuse these two approaches in a single concept: Buddha-nature. I analyze Dōgen‖s own view on the practice-realization of Buddha-nature, and the equation of Buddha-nature with being, time, empti-ness, and impermanence. I end with tentative suggestions concerning how Dōgen‖s particular view on Buddha-nature might affect any social ethics or view of rights that is founded on it.
Author/creator: Anton Luis Sevilla
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Buddhist Ethics Volume 17, 2010
Format/size: pdf (317 K)
Alternate URLs: http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/2010/10/15/human-rights-founded-on-buddha-nature/
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


Title: Same Robes, Different Roles
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: Burmese monks in Sri Lanka find that their local counterparts wield far more power than they could ever imagine having in their homeland... "For centuries, Burmese monks have been traveling to Sri Lanka, both to study the Buddha’s teachings and to help their Sinhalese brethren restore the monastic order on the island after periods of foreign domination. Burmese monks walk along Galle Face Green, a promenade near Colombo’s city center. (PhotO: NEIL LAWRENCE/THE IRRAWADDY) These days, however, it is the Burmese monks who are more likely to feel under siege. Since the crackdown on the Saffron Revolution in 2007, the Burmese regime has imposed ever more stringent restrictions on monks seeking to further their studies abroad—reinforcing their sense that despite their revered status as religious leaders, they are increasingly regarded as second-class citizens. For those who do make it to Sri Lanka—according to one Burmese embassy official in Colombo, there are some 250 Burmese monks now living in the country—this sense is deepened by the contrast with what they see in the society around them..."
Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


Title: Thai Buddhists Help Needy Burmese Children
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "Needy children in Burma will benefit from an initiative launched by the Phuttika Network, a coalition of “socially engaged’’ Buddhists in Thailand..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


Title: Putting Compassion into Action
Date of publication: July 2008
Description/subject: Do Burmese people really understand the meaning of compassion? Not according to a prominent Buddhist monk who has taken a leading role in Cyclone Nargis relief efforts... MAE SOT, Thailand — "“HOW did you feel when you heard that people were homeless, that monks had lost their monasteries and had nowhere to stay? Over 130,000 people were killed and 2.4 million suffered badly. How did you feel?” The monk who asked these questions paused and looked at his audience of around 3,000 people at the Tawya Burmese monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. A patient is comforted by Sitagu Sayadaw in a clinic in the Irrawaddy delta. He continued: “If you felt concerned and afraid for them, that’s good. It means you have compassion.” But before anyone could take too much satisfaction in that thought, he added: “That’s good, but it’s not good enough.” The speaker was Dr Ashin Nyanissara—better known as Sitagu Sayadaw [abbot]—one of Burma’s most respected monks. He was in Mae Sot in late June to give a dhamma talk on compassion—and to ask the local Burmese community, estimated to be tens of thousands strong, to support relief efforts in the Irrawaddy delta, where millions still struggle in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis. Since the cyclone struck on May 2-3, Sitagu Sayadaw has been rallying his followers to come to the assistance of their compatriots in the delta and the former capital, Rangoon, which also suffered substantial damage. His message was simple: Compassion is important, but it doesn’t amount to much unless it is accompanied by action. “If you lack compassion, you will be an irresponsible person,” the 71-year-old abbot told his attentive audience, who were seated both inside the monastery’s main building and outside on the ground. “But compassion in mind and in words alone won’t help the refugees in the cyclone-affected area,” he added. “Such compassion won’t bring food to people in need.”..."
Author/creator: Lyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


Title: BUDDHISM, POWER AND POLITICAL ORDER
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: "Weber’s claim that Buddhism is an otherworldly religion is only partially true. Early sources indicate that the Buddha was sometimes diverted from supramundane interests to dwell on a variety of politically related matters. The significance of Asoka Maurya as a paradigm for later traditions of Buddhist kingship is also well attested. However, there has been little scholarly effort to integrate findings on the extent to which Buddhism interacted with the political order in the classical and modern states of Theravada Asia into a wider, comparative study. This volume brings together the brightest minds in the study of Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Their contributions create a more coherent account of the relations between Buddhism and political order in the late pre-modern and modern period by questioning the contested relationship between monastic and secular power. In doing so, they expand the very nature of what is known as the ‘Theravada’. This book offers new insights for scholars of Buddhism, and it will stimulate new debates..."
Author/creator: Ian Harris (ed)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Routledge
Format/size: pdf (1.81MB)
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: TIME FOR TRANSFORMATION
Date of publication: November 2002
Description/subject: "Sulak Sivaraksa is a prominent Thai social critic and intellectual, and a pioneer in what he calls "socially engaged Buddhism." His ideas have been widely published and in 1995 he was honored with the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the Alternative Nobel Peace Prize. He spoke to The Irrawaddy about the challenges confronting Burma, Thailand and Buddhism, and America�s role in the war on terror..."
Author/creator: Sulak Sivaraksa (Interview)
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 10, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY FOR PROTECTION OF WILD ASIAN ELEPHANTS IN MYANMAR: A RESOURCE GUIDE
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: Keywords: Burmese elephants, Burma. I. THE ASIAN ELEPHANT: A. Cultural; B. Ecological and Conservation Issues; C. Conservation Measures... II. BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY: A. Need for Spiritual Approach; B. Buddhism; C. Deep Ecology; D. Wildlife (poaching); E. Forest Protection (D and E are considered the two major elephant threats)... III. DHAMMA/ECOLOGY GLOSSARY... IV. APPENDIX: DHAMMA/DEEP ECOLOGY EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES... " Dr. Henning’s resource guide, which combines Buddhist principles and Asian elephant conservation in Myanmar, is an innovative approach to Asian elephant conservation. I have never seen someone with a biological background such as Dr. Henning’s attempt this approach in such a clear, concise manner. I found the resource guide to be an excellent potential teaching tool not only for Myanmar but also for any Buddhist country in which elephant conservation is an issue. I could easily envision this guide as the first in a series of written materials that deals with such conservation issues, perhaps beyond elephants. I would think that any individuals or agencies interested in conserving Asian elephants would be interested in this guide and would want to help make it available to a wider audience."... "The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), an endangered species listed in Appendix I of CITIES, is thought to number between 34,000 to 56,000 in thirteen Asian countries. According to U Uga, there are less than 4,000 elephants in the wild in Myanmar, which has the largest population in the ASEAN countries (India has a larger population for the continent). The total Asian elephant population is less than 10 percent of its more glamorous cousin-the African elephant. The Myanmar elephant is internationally endangered and is regarded as a worldwide flagship species. Throughout their range states, the wild elephant is severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and fragmentation into small isolated groups. Many population biologists believe that nowhere in Asia is there a single wild population large enough to avoid inbreeding over the long term. ..."
Author/creator: Daniel H. Henning PhD
Language: English
Source/publisher: Daniel H. Henning
Format/size: pdf (832K)
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


Title: Buddhism and Human Rights Online Conference
Date of publication: October 1995
Description/subject: "Welcome to "Buddhism and Human Rights," an Online Conference sponsored by the _Journal of Buddhist Ethics_. Thank you for choosing to participate in the first electronic conference ever attempted in Buddhist Studies. Those of us at the _Journal of Buddhist Ethics_ are truly excited to be venturing forth into new intellectual territory in an attempt to make important scholarship on Buddhism and Human Rights available to the widest possible audience. We hope you enjoy the conference and feel free to contribute to it in a constructive and productive manner. Consistent with our previous announcements, participation in the conference is structured on three levels: (1) conference papers, which were prepared in advance and are already posted in the JBE, (2) conference panelists, who have prepared advance statements, also posted in the JBE, and who will facilitate the discussions of the papers, and (3) conference members who "attend" by subscribing, free of charge, and who offer comments, questions, and observations at their discretion. Because we are exploring uncharted territory, it is rather difficult to anticipate the volume of participant response. As such, all comments, questions, and observations will be monitored. We will post as many of these as we possibly can (screening out any submissions deemed inappropriate for publication by the editors). It is our fond desire that the fine papers prepared for the conference will provoke serious, thoughtful discussion that reflects the deep concerns of the conference's constituents, while at the same time preserving the spontaneity that hopefully emerges in any conference setting..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Buddhist Ethics" via Ahimsa Coffeehouse
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: Dhamma, Ethics and Human Rights
Date of publication: December 1994
Description/subject: "...At the heart of Buddhist ethics is inter-responsibility, or Bodhicitta; what His Holiness the Dalai Lama calls Universal Responsibility. In the Theravada we speak of Samma-sankappa or Right Thought, which leads to Bodhi, the Awakened Mind. This principle is expressed in everyday terms by the teaching of loving-kindness, non-violence, compassion, and particular responsibilities. For monks and nuns these are set down in the rule or Vinaya; for lay people in the Sigalovada Sutta and for rulers in the Dasarajadhamma. In the early, organic societies the Buddha was addressing, these specific responsibilities were assumed to be adequate guidelines for human behaviour, with no need to identify the corresponding rights. In modern, fragmented societies, however, where the fulfillment of responsibilities cannot be guaranteed by the immediate community, the corresponding rights are specified and protected by States and International Organisations. In large part these bodies derive their legitimacy from their protection of human rights. A State which does not guarantee the enjoyment of human rights by its people loses its claim to legitimacy..."
Author/creator: Sayadaw U Rewata Dhamma
Language: English
Format/size: html (31K)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2005


Title: The Rajadhammasangaha
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: "The Rajadhammasangaha" was presented to King Thibaw in December 1878. The first printing was c.1915. This translation by L.E.Bagshawe is from the version edited with a biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and published by the Sape U Publishing House in 1979... "On the seventh waxing day of Nadaw...the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi finished the writing of his book Rajadhammasangaha and presented it to King Thibaw. The author describes it pleasantly as “a book of the proper behaviour for Kings and other high officers of government”. The Pagan Wundauk U Tin, however, says “it is a book of admonishment addressed to King Thibaw.” And in this he speaks the direct truth. In this book the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi documents the proposals for changes in the system of government that were planned from the time of King Mindon. His intention in writing the book, he says, is, “In bygone times of the Buddha-to-be there were good and excellent Kings who guarded the well-being of all living creatures; like them may our own King, Lord of the Saddanta Elephant and Lawful King, under the Law guard the well-being of all living creatures like that of his own beloved children.” This expressed intention has a further meaning. Under an autocracy we cannot really say that the monarch rules with the single-minded wish to rule all living creatures on the same terms as his own children. If he is brought to the point where he must consult the "living creatures", we may be able to say that he regards them on equal terms with his own children. If there is no law requiring consultation, his guardianship becomes dubious..."
Author/creator: By the Yaw Mingyi U Hpo Hlaing (the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi). Edited with biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and translated from the Burmese by L.E. Bagshawe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Rajadhammasangaha-print.pdf (configured for print)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2004


Title: Buddhism and the Race Question
Date of publication: 1974
Description/subject: Conclusion: "In the foregoing pages we have tried to show that Buddhism stands for the oneness of the human species, the equality of man, and the spiritual unity of mankind. The differences among the so-called races as far as their physical characteristics go are negligible. The differences in cultural attainment are due to historical circumstances and not to any innate aptitudes with which some of the ”cultured” races, whether of the East or West, are favoured by nature or God. All men likewise, irrespective of their race, caste or class, have the capacity to reach the heights of moral and spiritual attainment. Man’s destiny is to develop as a spiritual being and therefore what really matters is the degree of his moral and spiritual development. This has no connection with birth in any particular race or caste since the ”meanest”, “humblest” of mankind may have the potentialities for attaining the very highest in this respect in this life, so that we have no right to despise any person whatever his station in life may be. The harbouring of racial and caste prejudice is moreover detrimental to one’s mental health and spiritual state and it is a characteristic of the spiritually enlightened that they shed them and act with love and impartiality towards all. Race and caste discrimination are also inimical to social progress since they bring about artificial and unreal divisions among human beings where none exist and hinder harmonious relations...."
Author/creator: G. P. Malalasekera & H. N. Jayatilleke
Language: English
Source/publisher: Buddhist Publication Society (The Wheel Publication No. 200/201)
Format/size: pdf (233K)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: BUDDHIST ECONOMICS
Date of publication: 1973
Description/subject: "... "Right Livelihood" is one of the requirements of the Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path. It is clear, therefore, that there must be such a thing as Buddhist economics. Buddhist countries have often stated that they wish to remain faithful to their heritage. So Burma: “The New Burma sees no conflict between religious values and economic progress. Spiritual health and material well-being are not enemies: they are natural allies.” 1 Or: “We can blend successfully the religious and spiritual values of our heritage with the benefits of modern technology.” 2 Or: “We Burmans have a sacred duty to conform both our dreams and our acts to our faith. This we shall ever do.” 3 All the same, such countries invariably assume that they can model their economic development plans in accordance with modern economics, and they call upon modern economists from so-called advanced countries to advise them, to formulate the policies to be pursued, and to construct the grand design for development, the Five-Year Plan or whatever it may be called. No one seems to think that a Buddhist way of life would call for Buddhist economics, just as the modern materialist way of life has brought forth modern economics. Economists themselves, like most specialists, normally suffer from a kind of metaphysical blindness, assuming that theirs is a science of absolute and invariable truths, without any presuppositions. Some go as far as to claim that economic laws are as free from "metaphysics" or "values" as the law of gravitation. We need not, however, get involved in arguments of methodology. Instead, let us take some fundamentals and see what they look like when viewed by a modern economist and a Buddhist economist..."
Author/creator: E.F. Schumacher
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered"
Format/size: pdf (72K)
Date of entry/update: 16 January 2005


Title: Dasa Raja Dhamma (The Ten Duties of Rulers)
Date of publication: 0400
Description/subject: The basic framework of Buddhist ethics for rulers is set out in the "Ten Duties of the King" (dasa-raja-dhamma)... "We cannot assign a definite date to the Jataka stories. Taking into account archaeological and literary evidence it appears that they were compiled in the period, the 3rd Century B.C. to the 5th Century A.D. They give us invaluable information about ancient Indian civilization, culture and philosophy. The Jataka stories have been very popular in the Buddhist world."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Jataka
Format/size: html (9K)
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2005


Title: The Practice which leads to Nibbāna (Part 1)
Description/subject: (Compiled and Translated by U.Dhamminda)_Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa_ INTRODUCTION: The method of practising meditation that is taught at Pa Auk Tawya Monastery is based on the explanation of meditation found in the Visuddhimagga commentary. Because of that the method involves several stages of practise which are complex, and involved. These stages include a detailed analysis of both mentality and matter according to all the categories enumerated in the Abhidhamma and the further use of this understanding to discern the process of Dependent Origination as it occurs in the Past, Present, and Future. Therefore people who are unfamiliar with the Visuddhimagga and the Abhidhamma will have difficulty in understanding and developing a clear picture of the practice of meditation at Pa Auk Tawya. For foreigners who cannot speak Burmese this problem is made even more difficult. This introduction has been written to help alleviate these difficulties by presenting a simplified example of a successful meditator’s path of progress as he develops his meditation at Pa Auk Tawya. This we hope will enable you to understand a little better the more detailed sections of the book which are the actual instructions for those who are practising meditation. It also must be stressed from the beginning that this book is intended for use by people who are actually undergoing a course of meditation at the centre under the guidance of Pa Auk Sayadaw....."
Author/creator: Pa Auk Sayadaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Dhamma Web
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.dhammaweb.net/html/viewpage.php?page=2
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010