References & Sources Consulted
The following sources were consulted when compiling information on the species for the database, preparing definitions of botanical terms, implementing the polyclave in Intkey, and served as sources of illustrations for plant characters.
Bailey, L. H. 1933. The Cultivated Conifers in North America: Comprising the Pine Family and the Taxads. MacMillan Co.: New York.
Britton, Nathaniel Lord. 1908. North American Trees. Henry Holt and Company: New York.
Core, Earle L. and Nelle P. Ammons. 1958. Woody Plants in Winter: A Manual of Common Trees and Shrubs in Winter in the Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada. The Boxwood Press: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Dallwitz, M. J. 1980. A general system for coding taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 29, 41–6.
Dallwitz, M. J., T. A. Paine, and E. J. Zurcher. 1993 onwards. User’s Guide to the DELTA System: a General System for Processing Taxonomic Descriptions. 4th edition. <http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/>
Dallwitz, M. J., T. A. Paine, and E. J. Zurcher. 1995 onwards. User’s Guide to Intkey: a Program for Interactive Identification and Information Retrieval. 1st edition. <http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/>
Dallwitz, M. J., T. A. Paine, and E. J. Zurcher. 2000 onwards. Principles of interactive keys. <http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/>
Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation and Uses, 5th ed. Stipes Publishing: Champaign, Illinois.
Duncan, Wilbur H. and Marion B. Duncan. 1988. Trees of the Southeastern United States. University of Georgia Press: Athens & London.
Elias, Thomas S. 1989. Field Guide to North American Trees. Grolier: Danbury, Connecticut.
Fernald, Merrrit Lyndon. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Co.: New York.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 2. Oxford University Press: New York & Oxford.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1997. Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 3. Oxford University Press: New York & Oxford.
Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd ed. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, New York.
Gray, Asa. 1879. Structural Botany, 6th ed. MacMillan and Company: London.
Hardin, James W., Donald J. Leopold and Fred M. White. 2001. Harlow and Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology, 9th ed. McGraw Hill: New York.
Harris, James G. and Melinda Woolf Harris. 1994. Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary. Spring Lake Publishing: Spring Lake, Utah.
Harris, James G. and Melinda Woolf Harris. 2001. Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary, 2nd ed. Spring Lake Publishing: Spring Lake, Utah.
Hickey, Michael and Clive King. 2000. The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hightshoe, Gary L. 1978. Native Trees for Urban and Rural America: A Planting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. Iowa State University Research Foundation: Ames, Iowa.
Kiger, Robert W. and Duncan M. Porter. 2001. Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Krüssmann, Gerd. 1985. Manual of Cultivated Conifers. Timber Press: Portland, Oregon.
Lawrence, George H. M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. The MacMillan Company: New York.
Preston, Richard J., Jr. and Valerie G. Wright. 1981. Identification of Southeastern Trees in Winter. The North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: Raleigh, North Carolina.
Radford, Albert E., Harry E. Ahles, and C. Ritchie Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Radford, Albert E., William C. Dickison, Jimmy R. Massey, and C. Ritchie Bell. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row Publishers: New York, Evanston, San Francisco, London.
Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn. 1999. Biology of Plants, 6th ed. Worth Publishers: New York.
Sargent, Charles Sprague. 1933. Manual of the Trees of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co.: Boston & New York.
Walters, Dirk R. and David J. Keil. 1996. Vascular Plant Taxonomy, 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing: Dubuque, Iowa.
Weakley, Alan S. 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, working draft as of March, 2005. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. <http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm>
Vidakovic, Mirko. 1991. Conifers: Morphology and Variation. Graficki zavod Hrvatske: Zagreb.
Zomlefer, Wendy B. 1994. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina & London.
Cite this publication as: ‘Stephen M. Seiberling, Alan S. Weakley, and Peter S. White (2005 onwards). Common Trees of the North Carolina Piedmont: Identification, Descriptions, Illustrations, and Glossary. Version: March 7, 2006. <http://www.ibiblio.org/openkey/intkey/>’.
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