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19th Congress.]

No. 319.

[2d Session.

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY, SHOWING THE CONDITION OF THE NAVY IN THE YEAR 1826.

COMMUNICATED, WITH THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE, DECEMBER 5, 1826.

The following report is respectfully submitted to the President of the United States by the Secretary of the Navy:

On the 2d January, 1823, the law entitled "An act to increase the navy of the United States" authorized the building of four ships, to rate not less than 74 guns each, and six ships to rate 44 guns each.

On the 29th of April, 1816, the law entitled "An act for the gradual increase of the navy of the United States" was passed, and authorized the building of nine ships, to rate not less than 74 guns each, and twelve ships to rate not less than 44 guns each, including within these numbers one 74 and three 44 gun ships, authorized by the preceding act. By these two laws, therefore, twelve ships of not less than 74 guns, and fifteen ships of not less than 44 guns, were directed to be built.

Of these twelve 74s, seven have been launched, and five are in various stages of forwardness. Of the fifteen 44s, one was burnt on the stocks in the Navy yard at Washington, in the year 1814, and may be considered as replaced by the one lately purchased; four have been launched; seven are on the stocks; and the frames of the remaining three have been contracted for. (See paper I, accompanying the report of the Navy Commissioners.)

By the law of the 2d January, 1813, $2,500,000 were appropriated; by that of 29th April, 1816, and a subsequent law of 3d March, 1821, $8,000,000 were appropriated to carry the object of those laws into execution, amounting in all to $10,500,000. The appropriation of $8,000,000 included a previous sum of $600,000 for "the purchase and supply of a stock of every description of timber required for ship building and other naval purposes." This appropriation expires with the present year. It was not founded on any specific estimate of the cost of building and equipping the number of vessels authorized, and is not sufficient to accomplish the object. What addition may be necessary, there are not competent means within the reach of the Department at this time to ascertain with accuracy. Nothing more, however, will be required during the next year, as there remain, of the former appropriations, about $800,000, which is more than can be usefully expended.

At the time of the passage of the law of 1816, there were three ships of the line, the Independence, Washington, and Franklin; four frigates of the 1st class, the Constitution, United States, Guerriere, and Java; and three of the 2d class, the Congress, Constellation, and Macedonian. These, added to the number authorized by the law before mentioned, and the frigate purchased in August last, under the authority of the law of 11th May, 1826, will give, when they are all completed, twelve ships of the line, seventeen frigates of the 1st class, and three frigates of the 2d class; to which may be added the Fulton, which is used at present as a receiving ship at New York.

There are also in our navy two ships of 24 guns each, the Cyane, captured in 1815, and the John Adams; and four sloops-of-war of 18 guns; to these were added, by the law of 3d March, 1825, ten sloops-

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of-war, to carry not less than twenty guns; making, when completed, sixteen vessels of nearly the same class, and which may be ranked under the denomination of sloops-of-war. There are also four schooners of 12 guns, and three other vessels used as receiving ships.

In the report from this Department, of the 2d December, 1825, it was stated that three of the sloops-of-war authorized by the act of the 3d March, 1825, would be completed within the year. Since that time those three have been finished, and are now at sea. One has been recently launched; will be immediately put in commission. The others are far advanced, and the whole would have been entirely completed if the contractors for certain portions of the materials had not produced disappointment, by failing to comply with their contracts within the times specified. They will all be launched during the next year, and may be ready for sea in six weeks after launching, if no difficulty should be experienced in procuring seamen. (See paper I.)

From this statement it will appear that the whole naval force, authorized by law, consists of twelve ships of the line, (exclusive of two on Lake Ontario,) seventeen frigates of the 1st class, three frigates of the 2d class, sixteen sloops-of-war, four schooners of 12 guns, and 3 other vessels. The whole of these, with the exception of three of the frigates, could be prepared for active service at sea in a few months, should the situation and interests of the nation demand their employment. For their names and other particulars I refer to paper I, and Naval Register of 1827.

By the law of 9th March, 1814, the sum of $500,000 was appropriated "for the purpose of building, equipping, and putting into service one or more floating batteries, adapted to attack, repel, or destroy ships of the enemy which might approach the shores or enter the waters of the United States." This law was executed in part by the purchase of one steam engine, and the building of one vessel, the Fulton. In other respects it has been unexecuted, in consequence, it is presumed, of the peace which soon succeeded its enactment.

By the 3d section of the law for the gradual increase of the navy, passed in April, 1816, the President was authorized to cause to be procured the steam engines and all the imperishable materials necessary for building and equipping three steam batteries on the most approved plan, and best calculated for the defence of the ports and harbors of the United States. The frames of the three vessels have been procured; two of the engines with all their appurtenances, and part of the third engine purchased.

The steam engines and vessels procured were of the best construction known at the time; it is probable that others, of more approved form, both for economy and power, might now be obtained.

This is a subject to which it is presumed legislative attention will, before long, be directed. By the law just referred to, it is manifest that Congress, at the time of its passage, looked to this species of vessels as an efficient means of protection for our ports and harbors; and subsequent experience and improvements have justified the opinion.

The powerful agency of steam has been constantly yielding, both in point of economy and skill, to the improvements of the age, and there can now be little hazard in anticipating that, at no very distant period, it will be employed in propelling a large number of the vessels used for the protection of the maritime frontiers of all countries; and in none can they be used with more advantage than in this. The peculiar formation of our coast, harbors, and estuaries renders them an indispensable addition to the line of fortifications and defences which the nation is constructing with such prudent forecast.

A minute detail of the employments and services of our armed vessels at sea does not seem to be required. The year has presented few incidents which are uncommon, of deep interest, or requiring legislative action. It may be truly said of all our squadrons, that they have enjoyed good health, have faithfully performed the duties entrusted to them, doing credit to the skill and patriotism of our officers, and justifying the expense to which the nation is subjected in supporting them. Paper M furnishes a list of the vessels in commission, with their stations. It will be perceived that few changes have been made in the vessels employed in active service.

The frigate Brandywine and sloop-of-war Erie have returned from the Mediterranean; the former to relieve the frigate United States; the latter is in ordinary, and her place will in a few days be supplied by the new sloop-of-war Warren, Master Commandant L. Kearny.

The West India squadron has been diminished: 1st. By the sale of the brig Spark, she being so far decayed that it "was not for the interest of the United States to repair her;" 2d. By placing the schooner Fox at Baltimore as a receiving vessel, she being in such a state that she could not any longer be profitably employed as a cruising vessel; and, 3dly. The store ship Decoy has been sold, such arrangements having been made as rendered her no longer useful.

The Brazilian squadron remains the same as at the close of the last session of Congress, consisting of the Macedonian, Cyane, and Boston.

The Pacific squadron has not in any respect been changed, but the Brandywine and Vincennes are on their passage to relieve the frigate United States and sloop-of-war Peacock. It was the purpose of the Department to add to the relief squadron the sloop-of-war Lexington, but other employment became necessary for her, under the resolutions of Congress. That vessel has been employed in a cruise among the fisheries, and in the melancholy, yet grateful duty of removing the remains of Commodore Perry, and will now be sent, for a time, to the West Indies.

In obedience to the resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 18th of May last, directing "that the Secretary of the Navy be instructed to 'cause the remains of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry to be removed from the Island of Trindad, in a public vessel of the United States, and to have the same conveyed to Newport, State of Rhode Island,'" the Secretary of the Navy, as soon as a vessel could be commissioned for that purpose, and at as early a day as the safety of those employed would permit, dispatched the sloop-of-war Lexington, under the. command of Master Commandant William B. Shubrick, with such instructions as were supposed proper on an occasion so interesting to the national feeling, and with a letter from Mr. Vaughan, the British minister in this country, to the Governor of Trindad, to both of whom the thanks of the Department are due for the facilities afforded in accomplishing the object. Master Commandant Turner, who was with Commodore Perry at the moment of his death, and attended his funeral, was directed to accompany Master Commandant Shubrick. Information was also given to the relatives and friends of Commodore Perry, in Rhode Island, that they might be enabled to make suitable preparations for receiving and paying funeral honors to his remains. The Lexington sailed from New York on the 12th of October, and I am this moment apprised that she reached Newport on the 27th of November. The instructions and correspondence of the Department on this subject, with the report of Master Commandant Shubrick, are annexed, marked N.

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The squadron in the Mediterranean has remained under the command of Commodore Rodgers, and been actively and usefully employed in cultivating the friendship of the powers bordering on that sea, and in affording protection to our commerce and interests. Some extracts from his correspondence, marked O, will explain the nature of the services of the squadron, and the manner in which they have been performed.

The presence of a respectable naval force in that quarter is demanded by our growing commerce, and by the continued and perhaps increasing dangers to which it is subjected by the present state of the contest between Greece and Turkey. Several of the vessels will return home in the course of the year, but their places will be supplied by others. Private letters just received prove that piracies of the worst kind are daily increasing, and that our force cannot safely be diminished.

The squadron in the Pacific has continued to be useful to the interests of the nation. The termination of active war between Spain and the South American governments bordering on that ocean has relieved our commerce from some of the evils under which it suffered; but, the unsettled state of the governments and people, with the mass of individuals who have been thrown out of employment on the land and the water, expose it to others which require the presence and active exertions of a competent naval force on the whole coast, from California to Cape Horn.

Commodore Jones, one of our most experienced and prudent officers, has been ordered to succeed Commodore Hull in the command of the squadron, and, should the force already sent not be sufficient to protect our interests, an addition to it will be made if practicable.

Our extensive interests in every part of the Pacific, and the difficulties which not unfrequently occur in the neighborhood of many of the islands, render the occasional presence of a public force among them very important It was the intention of the Department that Commodore Hull should, previous to his return, visit the Society and Sandwich Islands, look to the interests of our commerce there, acquire a better knowledge than is now possessed, both of its extent and necessities, and of the best means and mode of defending and promoting it. But his duties on the coast have forbidden him to be absent; he has, however, under the orders of the Department, dispatched, at different times, the Dolphin and Peacock, to accomplish those objects as far as practicable. The report of their cruises has not yet reached the Department.

Information was received of war between Brazil and Buenos Ayres, soon after the Cyane sailed, in December last, which rendered an additional number of vessels there necessary. These were provided under the act of appropriation of 5th April, 1826, and the new sloop-of-war Boston, Master Commandant B. V. Hoffman, sailed on the 11th April; the frigate Macedonian, Commodore Biddle, on the 13th June.

The presence of this force in that quarter has been essentially useful, by the relief which it has afforded to our vessels and fellow-citizens in many cases, and by the impression which it has produced, that, if assailed, protection was at hand.

The Emperor of Brazil established a blockade of an extensive coast, resting solely upon principles which have been uniformly resisted by our government; its operation has, to a great degree, been counteracted by the interposition of our officers, as will be seen by the accompanying correspondence, marked Q and R.

The view of our interests in the West Indies, so far as they are connected with the services of the navy, is more gratifying than at any time during the last four years. The zeal, enterprise, and skill of our officers, which received commendation in the last annual report, have continued to merit it; and it is satisfactory to add that not one case of piracy, within the range of the cruising grounds of our squadron, has been brought to the knowledge of the Department. The health of the officers and men has also received strict attention, and has been preserved to as great an extent as on any other station. (See paper S.) Commodore Warrington has been invited to the Navy Board, and Captain Ridgley appointed to succeed him.

The benefits resulting from the cruise of the schooner Porpoise over the fishing grounds at the northward, during the last year, confirmed the propriety of sending a vessel, during the late fishing season, to perform a like service. Master Commandant Shubrick, sailed in the Lexington for that purpose, from New York, on the 12th June, and returned on the 4th September; having in the meantime examined the greater part of the coasts and shores frequented by our fishermen. His reports, a copy of some of which accompany this communication, show that much good has resulted from the attention of government to this important interest of the nation, and that it will be well not to relax on this subject. More diversified and extensive benefits are not produced by the employment of any one of our public vessels. (See paper T.)

A law of 3d March, 1825, appropriated $100,000 for the establishment of a Navy yard and depot on the coast of Florida. By the report from this Department, of 2d December, 1825, Congress was informed of the measures which had been taken to execute the law, and of the selection which had been made. Since that time the yard has been laid out, the wharves, buildings, &c., located, and the whole are satisfactorily progressing under the superintendence of the Commissioners of the Navy. There still remain unexpended about $60,000, which will be insufficient to complete the whole, as the erection of works in that portion of the Union is very expensive.

On the 10th day of May last a letter was directed by the chairman of the Naval Committee of the House of Representatives to the Secretary of the Navy, inquiring "whether the arrangements made by the Department for executing the act of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be injuriously interfered with if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the government be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, for the naval service, a ship of equal or rather superior force, if the same can be procured for the United States on advantageous terms." This letter was received and answered the 12th of that month. On the 11th May a law was passed, authorizing the President "to cause the building of one of the ships to be suspended, and to cause to be purchased a ship of not less than the smallest class authorized to be built."

In the execution of this law, the Secretary of the Navy, on the 29th of May, appointed Commodores Bainbridge, Chauncey, and Jones to examine two vessels, then lying at New York, with as little delay as practicable, and furnish a full report of their state and qualities, with an estimate of their value. On the 21st of June they reported that they had examined the two ships, and thought the one called the Liberator the best adapted to the public service of the United States; that from her form and dimensions they should judge favorably of her qualities, and estimating her value at $233,570.97.

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Controversies having arisen between the persons interested in the vessel, which were submitted to arbitration, some delay took place in making the purchase, but instructions were eventually given to the Navy agent at New York to lay the papers before the district attorney, and obtain from him an opinion as to the right and power of the arbitrators to transfer the title to the United States. In obedience to instructions, and with the approbation of all persons concerned and interested in it, he made the purchase for the sum estimated as the value, and the vessel is now at the Navy yard in Brooklyn, N. Y. She is a valuable ship, calculated to perform much service, and will be fitted for sea in a short time. The papers relating to the execution of this law will be found annexed, and marked U.

In compliance with the joint resolution of the 22d May, requesting the President to cause an examination and accurate survey to be made by a skillful engineer of a site for a dry dock at the Navy yard, at Portsmouth, N. H., Charlestown, Mass., Brooklyn, N. Y., and Gosport, Va. Loami Baldwin, Esq., was employed to make the necessary surveys and examinations. He has been diligently engaged in the work, and it is hoped that he will be able to make his report in a few days. As soon as it is received, it will be communicated, together with the instructions under which he acted, and the views of. the Department on the subject.

In the act making appropriations for the support of the navy for the year 1826, there is an item of $10,000 for a survey of the harbors of Savannah and Brunswick, in Georgia, Beaufort, in South Carolina, and Baltimore, in Maryland, "with a view to ascertain the practical facilities of those places for naval purposes." In the execution of this law, a survey was commenced, under the superintendence of Captain R. T. Spence, and, after his unexpected and lamented death, was committed to Master Commandant Claxton, then upon the Baltimore station, with the aid of Lieut. Sherburne and other officers.

A report upon the subject, accompanied by a chart, has been made to the Department, but is not now communicated, because the surveys of the other places mentioned in the law have not been completed; and it is believed to be more correct to present the whole at one view.

The remaining surveys are progressing, under the superintendence of Lieut. R. F. Stockton, and will be finished with the least practicable delay, when they will be presented, with that of Baltimore.

The correspondence marked W will show the situation of the African agency and slave trade.

It was anticipated, at the commencement of the year, that a large number of Africans would be sent to the agency, but a delay in the decision of the claim to a part of them has hitherto prevented. This delay has occasioned a great expense to the United States, but no remedy is perceived. Brought to this country by no act of their own, there is no principle of justice on which they can either be made slaves by the government, or turned loose among our fellow-citizens to suffer. They must be carried somewhere out of the limits of the United States, and a more economical mode does not seem practicable.

On the 1st of January, 1826, a balance of $32,401.63 remained of the appropriation of $100,000 made in 1823, which was carried to the surplus fund; but a reappropriation of $32,000 was made during the last session; of this sum $22,220.81 have been expended, leaving a balance at this time of only $9,779.19, which it is believed will not be sufficient to meet the existing and necessary claims upon the fund during the ensuing year. Another appropriation will therefore be required.

It is probable that, in a few weeks, the question respecting the Africans in Georgia will be determined, in which event there will be from 100 to 160 in that State, and about 15 from Louisiana, to be sent to the agency, for whose reception provision has been made.

No vessel has been dispatched to the coast of Africa for several months, until within a few days. It was the purpose of the Department to order the brig Spark on that service; but, upon her arrival from the West Indies, she was found too much out of repair, and consequently sold. The schooner Shark, Lieut. Otho Norris, left Norfolk about a week since, with orders to remain one or two months, as occasion may require, and afford such protection to the agency as its situation shall demand. After performing this duty, the Shark will cruise a short time in the neighborhood of La Guayra, and then resume her station in the West India squadron.

In the report of the President at the commencement of the last session of Congress, and in other communications from the Department, several evils under which the marine corps and the naval service labored, and which could only be relieved by legislative interference, were exhibited, in the hope that a remedy would be provided. It would be unnecessary, and perhaps improper, to renew the representations respecting them. Reference is made to the views and opinions heretofore expressed, and it is respectfully added that the marine corps and the service still continue to feel, sensibly, the necessity of a remedy for some of the inconveniences there suggested.

A few subjects of importance are not mentioned in this report, because they must hereafter be presented to Congress, in answer to resolutions passed, and calls made, during the last session.

Paper X contains a list of the officers of the navy and marine corps who have died since the 2d December, 1825.

Paper Y contains a list of resignations during the same period.

Paper Z contains estimates for the service of the navy and marine corps for the year 1827. Respectfully submitted.

SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD.

Navy Department, December 2, 1826.

M.

List of vessels of the United States navy in commission, their commanders, and stations.

IN THE MEDITERRANEAN.

North Carolina, 74 guns

Commodore John Rodgers.

Constitution, 44 guns

Captain D. T. Patterson.

Ontario, 18 guns

Master Commandant J. B. Nicholson.

Warren, 18 guns

Master Commandant L. Kearney.

Porpoise, 12 guns

Lieut. Commanding Benjamin Cooper.

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IN THE WEST INDIES.

Constellation, 36 guns

Commodore Charles G. Ridgley.

John Adams, 24 guns

Master Commandant J. Wilkinson.

Hornet, 18 guns

Master Commandant A. Claxton.

Grampus, 12 guns

Lieutenant Commanding W. K. Latimer.

IN THE BRAZILS.

Macedonian, 36 guns

Commodore James Biddle.

Cyane, 24 guns

Captain Jesse D. Elliott.

Boston, 18 guns

Master Commandant B. T. Hoffman.

IN THE PACIFIC.

United States, 44 guns

Commodore Isaac Hull.

Peacock, 18 guns

Master Commandant Thomas Ap Catesby Jones.

Dolphin, 12 guns

Lieutenant Commanding John Percivial.

Brandywine, 44 guns

Commodore Jacob Jones, to relieve the frigate United States

Vincennes, 18 guns

Master Commandant William B. Finch, to relieve the Peacock

ON SPECIAL SERVICE.

Lexington, 18 guns

Master Commandant William B. Shubrick.

Shark, 12 guns

Lieutenant Commanding Otho Norris.

N.

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING THE REMOVAL OF THE REMAINS OF COMMODORE OLIVER H. PERRY.

Navy Department, September 8, 1826.

Sir: As soon as the U. S. sloop Lexington, under your command, can be prepared for a cruise of two months, you will proceed to the Island of Trinidad, to perform the duty prescribed by the resolution of the House of Representatives, of which I enclose a copy.

On your arrival at Port Spain, you will communicate to the proper authority in the island the object of your government in sending you, and request permission to remove the remains of Commodore Perry.

Having obtained the permission, you will receive them on board the Lexington, with your colors half-mast, and a salute suited to the rank which Commodore Perry held in the navy of the United States. Your colors will remain half-mast so long as you continue in the harbor.

His friends at Newport, R. I., have been apprised of your departure, and will be ready to receive the body.

On your arrival at that place you will again wear your colors half-mast, and when the body is taken from the vessel fire another salute, and, with your officers and men, unite in such funeral services as may be performed by the citizens of that place; after which you will return to New York.

In selecting you for this deeply interesting duty, the Department relies with confidence on the exercise of your correct judgment and feelings, and expect that you will discharge it in a manner suited to the respect due to the memory of Commodore Perry—to the feelings of his friends—and to the national gratitude for his patriotic services, and the national pride in his pure fame.

I enclose to you extracts of a letter from an officer in the navy, who was present at the burial of Commodore Perry, which may be useful to you.

I am, respectfully, &c., SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD.

Captain William B. Shubrick, commanding U. S. Sloop-of-War Lexington, New York.

Navy Department, October 17, 1826.

Sir: I beg the favor of you to have the enclosed letters delivered to the mother and widow of Commodore Perry. Their object; is to announce to them the time when the resolution of the House of Representatives will probably be executed.

Captain Shubrick, in the Lexington, has sailed to Trinidad, and will probably arrive in Newport, with the remains, in about 40 or 50 days. He is commanded to deliver them to the friends of Commodore Perry, and to unite in the funeral services which may be performed by the citizens of that place. Will you do me the favor to give such information as may be proper and necessary on the subject?

I am, respectfully, &c.,

SAMUEL. L. SOUTHARD.

Hon. Dutee J. Pearce, Newport, R. I.

Navy Department, October 17, 1826.

Madam: The House of Representatives of the United States, on the 18th May last, passed a resolution, instructing the Secretary of the Navy to cause the remains of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry to be removed from the Island of Trinidad, in a public vessel of the United States, and to have the same conveyed to Newport, State of Rhode Island.

The duty to be performed was of a character not to be unnecessarily postponed; and I have at the earliest moment in my power devoted the Lexington, commanded by Captain Shubrick, to its discharge.

He is directed to bring the remains to Newport, and deliver them to the friends of Commodore Perry, and will probably arrive there in forty or fifty days from this time.

I rely with confidence on the correct judgment and feelings of Captain Shubrick, to discharge this service in a manner suited to its interesting character; and I rejoice that the remains will be received by those who will best know how to pay that respect which private affection and public gratitude demand. I am, very respectfully, &c.,

SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD.

Mrs. Elizabeth Perry, Newport, R. I.

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Captain Wm. B. Shubrick to the Secretary of the Navy.

Newport, November 27, 1826.

I have had the honor to announce to you my arrival in this harbor, with the remains of the late Commodore Perry.

My letter of the 13th ult. informed you of my departure from New York.

I anchored in the Gulf of Paria, after a passage of seventeen days, on the evening of the 31st, and on the 1st of November got up to Port of Spain. On anchoring, I addressed a letter (a copy of which accompanies this, marked A) to the governor, and, that evening, received the answer marked B. On the morning of the 2d, after exchanging salutes with the fort, I waited on the governor, who expressed his readiness to afford me every facility in the execution of my commission, and his wish to have the remains attended, on removal, with such military honors as I might think proper. As the commodore had been interred in the most splendid manner, by the same governor, I thought it most proper to decline any further parade, which I did in the most delicate manner. The governor, however, caused a car to be prepared especially for the purpose, and to be drawn from the cemetery to the wharf by his own carriage horses; his secretary, and other members of his family, giving their personal attendance.

At the wharf, the remains were received by the boats, with a proportion of the officers and crew of this ship. During the time they were rowing off, I caused minute guns to be fired, half-masting the colors at the firing of the first gun.

The remains were received on board under a salute from the marine guard, the officers and men uncovered, and the music playing a dead march.

On the afternoon of the 3d, I addressed a letter (copy marked C) to the governor, and at 10 o'clock, on the morning of the 4th, the wind being favorable, I got under way, and made sail from the harbor, the fort saluting me with 17 guns, which I returned with a like number.

I received from Captain Turner the most ready and important assistance, in disinterring and getting on board the remains; and it is, in a manner, owing to his exertions, that I was enabled to leave Trinadad in so short a time, which was very desirable, the rainy season not being over, and the place, consequently, sickly. My return passage has been longer than I expected, owing to frequent calms in the Caribbean sea, and a succesion of northwest gales on the coast.

The Lexington having, for the last six months, been almost constantly at sea, and in every variety of climate, requires to be thoroughly overhauled before going on another cruise.

A.

Captain Shubrick to Sir Ralph James Woodford, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Island of Trinidad.

United States Ship Lexington, November 1, 1826.

I have the honor to make known to your excellency the arrival in the harbor of Port Spain of the United States ship Lexington, under my command.

Having being charged by my government with the melancholy duty of conveying to his native country the remains of Commodore Perry, I have anchored in this harbor for that purpose; and I pray that your excellency will enable me to carry into execution the views of my government, by granting me permission to disinter and take from the island the said remains.

I have the honor to forward herewith a letter for your excellency, entrusted to my charge by his Majesty's minister near the Government of the United States.

B.

Copy of a letter from Sir Ralph Woodford, Governor of the Island of Trinidad, to Captain William C. Shubrick.

St. Ann, November 2, 1826.

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 1st instant, acquainting me of your arrival, in the United States ship Lexington, for the purpose of receiving and conveying to his native country the remains of the late Commodore Perry.

In conceding the request, made in the name of your government, I have to assure you of my readiness to afford every assistance to the object of your commission that you may consider to depend upon me.

I have also to acknowledge the receipt of the letter of his Majesty's minister at Washington, entrusted to your care, and to express the satisfaction it will afford me to receive you at my residence during your stay in the island.

C.

Captain William B. Shubrick to Governor Ralph James Woodford.

U. S. Ship Lexington, November 8, 1826.

Having received the remains of the late Commodore Porter on board, I am about to leave the harbor of Port Spain, and I avail myself of this occasion to express to your excellency my sense of, and to tender my thanks for, your kind attentions during my stay at the island under your excellency's government.

I shall take great pleasure in making known to my government the generous facilities afforded me by your excellency in the execution of my melancholy commission.

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O.

COPIES AND EXTRACTS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE OF COMMODORE JOHN RODGERS.

Extract of instructions from Commodore John Rodgers to David Beacon, Esq., commanding United States sloop Erie, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Port Mahon, February 18, 1826.

The United States Ship Erie, under your command, being ready for sea, I have to desire that you proceed with her to the Archipelago for the protection of our commerce in that sea, and particularly that to and from Smyrna, which is so important as to forbid its being neglected, in the present state of the war subsisting between the Turks and Greeks, for a single day. The season of the year is rapidly approaching when danger is most to be apprehended from such small craft as have hitherto committed piracies among the islands of the Archipelago, under the Greek flag.

On leaving this, in order to obtain such information as will enable you to afford the most effectual protection to our trade, you will proceed direct to Smyrna, where, on your arrival, I would recommend your consulting our consul, Mr. Offley, by whose advice and information you will be able to afford it the most ample and extensive protection.

In the performance of your duties your own judgment will point out to you the necessity of abstaining from, yourself, and preventing in all others under your command, the commission of any act which might tend in the slightest degree to compromit the neutrality of the United States.

Should it be found unsafe to permit vessels to leave Smyrna without convoy, you will afford it to such a distance west of the Island of Serigo as to ensure their safety, returning again to Smyrna as soon as the nature of the service you are on, and the information you may receive from any other quarter requiring your attention, will permit.

Extracts of a letter from Captain David Deacon to Commodore John Rodgers, dated—

U. S. Ship Erie, Smyrna, March 18, 1826.

In compliance with your order, bearing date 18th February, 1826, I proceeded with this ship for the Archipelago, and have great pleasure of informing you of my safe arrival, with all the American vessels I have met with, at this anchorage.

On the 1st of March, fell in with, supplied with fuel, and took under convoy the American brig Seaman, belonging to New York, bound to Smyrna.

On the 7th, fell in with, supplied with water, and took under convoy the American brig Smyrna, bound to Smyrna.

The Greeks have retaliated on the Austrians by capturing three vessels said to be loaded with stores for the Turks; this happened a few days ago, at Milo; two Greek brigs boarded the convoy under two Austrian brigs; the Austrians told the Greeks that if they persisted they should fire into them; the Greeks answered, very well, they were ready to return it; the Austrians then called on a Dutch frigate for assistance, but the Dutchman declined interfering; in the meantime the Greeks carried the Austrian merchantmen over to Napoli di Romania. I overhauled one of the Hydra cruisers in the Bay of Smyrna; he had boats out capturing everything Turkish; I observed to him the vessels astern were my convoy, and Americans; he said we were then good friends, and he would always treat them well.

Extract of a letter from Commodore John Rodgers to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Gibraltar Bay, May 13, 1826.

The Erie, if her crew will not consent to re-enter for a longer term, and which I am led to think very doubtful, I shall be obliged to send to the United States, the necessity of which I shall regret, particularly at this time, as the war between Greece and the Porte seems now to be drawing to a crisis; and unless Russia declares war against the latter, (as some think she will,) or England and the principal continental powers interpose as mediators between her and the Ottoman government, (as others seem inclined to believe they will do,) the unfortunate Greeks will be obliged, it is thought, to have recourse to increased acts of piracy, and, in this event, that the commission of such acts will not be, as heretofore, confined to small boats only.

Should such a change take place prior to my departure for the Archipelago (for which I shall depart to-morrow) as to render the presence of more than a sloop-of-war necessary, I shall leave the Constitution there, with the Ontario, until the affairs of Greece assume such a shape as to permit one or both of these vessels to be drawn from that quarter, without risk. It is confidently believed, if the Greeks lose Missolonghi, that they cannot maintain themselves in the Morea, and that, in such an event taking place, they will be obliged to seek refuge among the barren islands of the Archipelago, where, to avoid starvation, a large portion of the population will necessarily be forced to turn pirates.

Copy of instructions to Master Commandant John B. Nicholson, United States ship Ontario, from Commodore John Rodgers, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Harbor of Milo, August 21, 1826.

In the present state of the war between the Porte and Greece, it has become absolutely necessary that one vessel-of-war, at least, should be kept in the Archipelago, for the protection of our commerce; and, in consequence thereof, I am induced to assign to the Ontario, under your command, that duty.

In the performance of this service you will have a delicate part to act. It will be expected of you to exercise much vigilance, and, at the same time, much discretion; for whilst, on the one hand, you will be required to afford to our merchant vessels trading in those seas the most ample protection the force under your command will admit of, it will be equally expected that you abstain from meddling with the affairs of either of the parties at war, from giving to other nations (beyond what your duty requires in the suppression of piracy) the protection of our flag, and from intermingling its name, or identifying its character or our commercial interests, with those of any nation, in any way that might compromit ourselves by affecting the neutral position we have hitherto sustained, and which it is the desire of our

--733--

government most earnestly still to maintain. You will keep me informed of your own proceedings, by every opportunity that offers, as well as of everything of a political nature that may transpire in this quarter, which you may think it desirable for me to be apprised of.

Mr. Offley, our consul at Smyrna, with whom you will confer from time to time as to the mode most likely to ensure to our commerce the necessary protection, will, on your requisitions, furnish such few stores and provisions as you may stand in need of, to pay for which, and to meet the other necessary disbursements of the ship, I have furnished your purser with bills on London to the amount of £1,000 sterling—calculated to produce about $5,000—and $4,000 loaned him by my authority, by the purser of this ship, together making about $9,000, exclusive of the funds previously remaining in his hands. When there are no American vessels at Smyrna requiring convoy, you will do well by spending a portion of your time at Milo, and occasionally running out as far as Cape St. Angelo and Cerigo, to meet and afford protection to such as may be bound to Smyrna. Until the warm weather is over, I would advise your not remaining at Smyrna for any length of time.

Copy of a letter from Commodore John Rodgers to the Hon. the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Port Mahon, September 11, 1826.

My letters of the 25th and 28th June last, from Smyrna, by the brig General Boliver, bound to Boston, will have made you acquainted with the movements and proceedings of the squadron, up to that time, and this, together with the accompanying communication, dated at Vourla, the 18th of July, (marked A,) but which I have had no opportunity of sending until now, will put you in possession of its movements and employment subsequently to that date. On the 22d of July, three days after my return to Vourla from an excursion to the Dardanelles, with this ship, the Constitution, Ontario, and Porpoise, (for the particulars of which permit me to refer you to the accompanying letter of the 18th of July,) the Erie joined me, having been employed, during her separation from the other vessels of the squadron, in convoying the brig General Bolivar clear of the islands. On the 10th of last month, finding the term of service of the crew of the Erie was about to expire, I dispatched her under orders to communicate with the consulates of Tripoli and Algiers, and to proceed from the latter place to Mahon, there to replenish her provisions and water, and wait my arrival for orders to return to the United States. On the 11th, the day after the departure of the Erie, I sailed with this ship, the Constitution, Ontario, and Porpoise, for the Island of Milo, and taking a circuitous route, by Mytilene, Scio, Negropont, and Cape Colonna, arrived and anchored at Milo on the 15th, at which, as the communication between the Morea and it is more frequent than with any other island in the Archipelago, I continued until the 21st ultimo, for the purpose of obtaining the latest and most correct information possible, in regard to the actual situation of Greece, before my final departure from that sea. The day I left Milo, after getting to sea, I parted company with the Ontario, which vessel I have stationed in the Archipelgo, with instructions to her commander, of which the enclosed is a copy, marked B, to protect our commerce in that quarter. On leaving the Archipelago, I shaped a course for Malta, having directed Mr. Henry, our consul at Gibraltar, to send all letters for the squadron, that might come to his hands, in time to reach that place by the first of September. On arriving off Malta, which was on the 29th ultimo, I sent a boat in to communicate with Mr. Pulis, our consul, and bring off any letters which might have reached him.

I now learnt from him that the mail of the August packet, which usually arrives between the 25th and 31st of the month, was still due, and thinking it probable that Mr. Henry might have received letters from the Department for me, during my absence, and have forwarded them by the packet, I made sail for Mahon, accompanied by the Constitution, leaving the Porpoise to wait the arrival of the packet, until the 8th instant, to bring such letters as might have been forwarded by her from Gibraltar.

I reached this port yesterday, in company with the Constitution, where I found the Erie, she having arrived here six days before.

The enclosed copies of Captain Deacon's letter, and the letters of Mr. Shaler and Mr. Morillo, Nos. 1, 2, 3, (the latter left by Mr. Anderson in charge of the affairs of the American consulate at Tripoli) will show the peaceable footing on which we stand with those two regencies.

The Erie is now replenishing her water and provisions, and as soon as she is ready for sea I shall dispatch her for New York, to receive your orders for the discharge of her crew.

She is a fine ship, and will require but little expense to equip again for sea; and as the services of more than one vessel of her class will be necessary for the protection of our trade in the Archipelago, so long- as that sea continues infested, as it now is, by pirates, I hope you may find it soon convenient to send her, or some other sloop to supply her place, on this station.

No robberies have, as yet, been committed upon any American vessels since the first appearance of the squadron in the Archipelago, notwithstanding those of every other nation have suffered more or less; even the English and French, of late, have had several vessels plundered, and some of very valuable cargoes, notwithstanding the former has six or seven vessels-of-war, and the latter nine or ten in that sea.

The Austrians, although they keep as many as ten or twelve sail constantly at Smyrna and among the islands, have had upwards of fifty vessels plundered during the last six months; in one or two instances the crew of the vessel has been murdered.

After dispatching the Erie for the United States, I shall leave here (on the arrival of the Porpoise from Malta) for Gibraltar, to supply the pursers of the several vessels with the necessary sums of money, on account of pay for the next six months, and to purchase such few articles of stores as are not sent from the United States.

The officers and crews of the vessels of the squadron have been peculiarly healthy during the past summer, there not having been a single death among the officers, and only four, out of upwards of 1,800 men, since we left Gibraltar.

Copy of a letter of Wm. Shaler, Esq., enclosing extract from journal of consulate at Algiers, to Commodore John Rodgers, commanding U. S. naval forces in the Mediterranean.

Algiers, August 30, 1826.

I had the honor to receive your letter of the 10th inst., by Captain Deacon. I, herewith enclosed, send you a transcript of the journal of this consulate, which contains everything of any moment since your departure from Algiers. I also send, by Captain Deacon, a copy of a book which I lately published in the United States, on this country, which please to accept as a mark of my friendly consideration.

--734--

Extract from the journal kept in the consulate of the United States in Algiers, from the 1st to the 25th, inclusive, of August, 1826.

August 3. Sailed the Algerine squadron on a cruise, consisting of five schooners of 22, 14, and 6 guns. It is believed they are destined against Spanish commerce.

August 18. Arrived this morning an Algerine cruiser accompanied by a large ship, supposed to be her prize. The Dutch consul was early informed that this vessel was of his nation, and at 9 o'clock he visited the minister of marine and conversed with the captain of the ship. He informed the consul that this vessel, measuring 500 tons, belonged to Curacoa, was owned by himself, a citizen of that island, and that her cargo was principally American; that she had sailed from Curacoa to Campeachy in Mexico, where she was laden with Campeachy wood, her present cargo, and was bound for Marseilles; and that when within 60 miles of that port was captured by the Algerine squadron because she was not provided with a Mediterranean pass. The minister remarked to the consul that, according to the ancient usages of Algiers, a vessel found navigating the Mediterranean, without this passport, was liable to confiscation. The consul replied that the absence of this passport might be reason for bringing in a friendly vessel for examination, but furnished no right to condemn. He had examined the ship's papers, had found her to be the property of a Dutch citizen, and he therefore formally demanded restitution.

The minister deferred his decision.

August 19. All the dragomans were called to the marine and directed to invite their respective consuls to a divan, to be held to-morrow, to decide upon the legality of the prize, and to be composed of the raises, or captains of the Algerine navy and the corps consulaire.

August 20. At eleven o'clock this morning the consular corps assembled at the marine, where were also present the Algerine captains, The minister, addressing the Dutch consul, said the subject of the prize ship would now be discussed.

The consul premised, by formally declaring that the legality of a Dutch prize was a question which in nowise affected the representatives of other powers, and to a decision of which they were not competent. But, denying their jurisdiction, the consul did not object to the expression of their opinions, as to the nationality of the vessel. Her papers being found to be in the usual form, the consul formally demanded restitution. The treaty of Holland with the regency was then read, which stipulates that, in such cases as the present, the vessel should be liberated, but the cargo confiscated. This brought the cargo into discussion, a part of which appeared to be the property of citizens of the United States. The United States consul made a like preliminary declaration as the Dutch consul, of the incompetency of the divan to judge a case between the regency and the United States.

The bills of lading having been examined, the larger part of the cargo was found to have been shipped on account of merchants in Boston. This the consul formally claimed as American property. For the lesser part of the cargo he made no demands, as the evidence of its being American property was not sufficient, but said that he would write for information, and, if proved to be such, he would claim of the regency.

To the demand of the consul upon the larger part of the cargo, the minister made two objections: 1st. Informality;- as the bill of lading did not declare the owners to be citizens of the United States. 2d. Insufficiency; because this paper did not prove the property to be American. The cargo must therefore be detained, till it could be verified by more abundant proof.

To the first objection the consul replied, that it was not usual or necessary to identify the owners' citizenship; that, in the present case, being merchants of Boston, they were protected by our laws. To the second he answered, that commercial usages knew of no other proofs of property laden on vessels; that no greater was now required or would be sought. He therefore demanded the restitution of that part of the cargo, as being absolutely American property. The minister rejoined, we have suspicions of its being Spanish property; if you are assured of its American ownership, give us your personal responsibility for it, if, eventually, it should be ascertained to be Spanish; otherwise the cargo must be confiscated. The consul declined this proposition peremptorily. He could not consent to personal responsibility for what he was bound to protect from official duty, but was willing to give his receipt for the property, which by the bill of lading appeared to be bona fide American.

This being refused, he warned the minister not to confiscate this part of the cargo, as it would become his duty to claim it with damages. The minister then requested the Danish consul to pronounce the confiscation of the property. It was accordingly declared. The consul at a late hour dispatched his dragoman to the palace, to demand an audience of the Dey, which was granted, with the request of his highness that it should be held the same evening.

The consul, accompanied by the secretary of the consulate, repaired to the palace at 4 o'clock P. M. The consul addressing the Dey said, he was doubtless well informed of all the circumstances connected with the prize ship lately brought to this port, and of the grounds upon which a part of her cargo was claimed as American. His highness replied, that the only difficulty presented to the restitution of the American part of the cargo was the insufficiency of proof to verify it; that he well knew the stipulations of the late treaty of Algiers with the United States, for he was not, as other Deys, unable to read, and would most scrupulously observe them. If the most precious cargo of the Indies were brought here, and proved to be American, it should be esteemed sacred, and immediately restored. But in the present case there exist suspicions of the truth of the bill of lading, and which of itself is not sufficient evidence of ownership. To assure ourselves, we require of you, as an act of official duty, to give us your personal obligation to answer our demands, if the cargo be ultimately proved not to be American.

To the arguments and demands of his highness the consul replied, that no property floating on the seas was accompanied by other or more explicit papers than was the cargo in question; it was fully identified as American, and, as such, he claimed it.

The present controversy of the regency with Spain created no right to vex the property of friends, under pretext of searching for that of the enemy. Whatever suspicious his highness might entertain of the ownership, it was not for the consul to remove them, but by declaring the proof to be legal and regular.

The demand of his highness for the personal guaranty of the consul was inconsistent with the nature and dignity of his office. If the property were detained, it would become his duty to report to his government, and to the United States naval commander in the Mediterranean, when he would be required to claim it with damages. After some further conversation, in which the Dey expressed the elevated

--735--

sentiments of a just and magnanimous prince, he agreed to liberate the property named, and accept the receipt which was this morning proposed to the minister of marine.

August 21. The minister determined this morning to unload the ship in search of any articles not expressed in the manifest. He had actually taken off one lighter load, when, upon the representation of the Dutch consul, he was satisfied to receive the captain's declarations to the truth of his manifest.

The vessel and cargo being liberated, they will sail on the 24th instant.

Copy of the receipt given by the consul to the minister of marine.

I, William Shaler, consul general of the United States in Algiers, declare that a portion of the cargo of the Dutch vessel, the Curacoa, captured and brought into this port by cruisers of the regency, which, according to the bill of lading copied below, appears to be bona fide the property of American citizens, has, by order of his highness, the Bashaw, been delivered over to me, in conformity with the sixth article of the treaty subsisting between the United States and Algiers.

bill of lading.

Shipped, in good order, and well conditioned, by John L. McGregor, per order of Cushing Stetson, on board the Dutch ship called the Curacoa, whereof Cushing Stetson is master, now lying in the port of Campeachy, and bound for Gibraltar, and a market, to say: Six thousand seven hundred and twenty pounds logwood, for account of Messrs. William Thompson & Co. and Z. G. Lamsen, Boston, being marked and numbered as in the margin, and are to be delivered in like good order and condition, at the port of discharge, (the dangers of the sea excepted) unto order, or assigns, he or they paying freight for the said logwood, with primage and average accustomed. In witness whereof, the master or purser of said vessel hath affirmed to twelve bills of lading, all of this tenor and date, one of which being-accomplished, the others to remain void. Dated in Campeachy, the 18th of May, 1826. Weight not accountable; all on board to be delivered.

CUSHING STETSON.

ENDORSEMENT.

Campechy, May 17, 1826.

The within logwood is to be held subject to the order of Messrs. Henry & McCall, merchants, Gibraltar, until payment be made of two thousand nine hundred and five dollars and eighteen and three-fourth cents, being amount advanced by John L. McGregor on said logwood.

CUSHING STETSON.

John L. McGregor.

In testimony of which I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal of office, in the city of Algiers, this 23d day August, 1826.

WILLIAM SHALER.

Copy of a letter from J. Morillo, Esq., chargé d'affaires of the United States consulate, to Captain Deacon, United States ship Erie, dated—

Tripoli, August 18, 1826.

I have received your communication of yesterday's date, requesting to know the actual state of our political relations with this regency.

In answer to which, I have the pleasure to assure you that our interests continue in the most favorable state with the Bashaw and his government. His highness has at all times shown the most friendly disposition towards the United States, as well as to me individually, and to every one connected with the consulate.

P.

COPIES AND EXTRACTS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE OF COMMODORE ISAAC HULL.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Chorillos, Peru, December 21, 1825.

The Dolphin having been dispatched on a long cruise to the Mulgrave Islands, and the Peacock having been constantly on service, and it appearing to me of the first importance that the commerce and citizens of the United States should not be left without proper protection, whilst our ships are compelled to discharge their valuable cargoes in an open roadstead, such as Chorillos, where they are exposed to many difficulties from the heavy swell that is constantly setting in, and scarcely a day passes, but some of the ships require assistance of some kind.

For the last eight or ten months there have been constantly in the Bay of Chorillos from ten to thirty valuable American merchant ships, with valuable cargoes, lying in a situation where they had no protection from the shore, as there is not a gun mounted in the place.

Situated as our commerce has been on this station, and it having been generally believed that a Spanish force would be sent out to relieve the garrison at Callao, and in the event of which, our ships would be still more exposed, I hope you will consider sufficient reasons for my remaining here, and not having left the station for the purpose directed in your letter.

The moment the castles of Callao are given up, and our ships can lie in safety in the bay, I shall lose no time in visiting Chili, for the purpose of executing your instructions, or before, if it can be done consistently with the public interest.

--736--

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 30, 1825.

Our commerce is very much exposed, and would be more so in the event of an attempt being made by the Spanish government to relieve the garrison at Callao, by sending out a force for that purpose; nor should I consider it proper to leave the coast, at the moment the English and French are increasing their forces. The French have now eight sail of ships-of-war at Valparaiso, consisting of frigates, sloops-of-war and schooners. The British have one line of battle ship, and several frigates and sloops-of-war—in all, six or eight sail, and neither England or France have as many merchant ships on the coast as we have; under all these circumstances, my present intention is to send the Peacock to the Sandwich Islands. Captain Jones is an excellent and humane man, and an intelligent officer; and I am sure will do all that can be required of him.

In the event of his going, I shall furnish him with a copy of your letter, and call his particular attention to your wishes.

The Peacock is now at Valparaiso. By the time she returns, and the Dolphin joins me, some changes may take place, that will allow this ship to leave the coast without injury to the service.

General La Mar arrived last evening from Guayaquil, to take the command of Lima. He is said to be an excellent man, and much good is anticipated from his government. I had the pleasure of landing him and his family with my boats; and, I have great pleasure in saying, that I am on the best terms, not only with the officers of government here, but with the commanders of the foreign ships that are on this station; they invariably treat our officers with attention and great respect. As yet, not the slightest unpleasant occurrence has taken place between our officers and those of other ships-of-war.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 31, 1825.

I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of the boarding book of this ship, which will show, in an imperfect manner, the number and description of vessels that have been boarded.

Soon after I arrived in this sea, I endeavored to get at, not only the number and description of vessels arriving at the different ports, but the amount of their cargoes, and every particular relating to them, agreeably to the form of the boarding book, but I found it impracticable; for the captains and the supercargoes would not give the information required; indeed, many of them took offence, on being asked many of the questions by the boarding officer, and wanted to know what business I had to inquire about the cost of their cargoes; and it frequently happened that they would not inform the officer what the cargo consisted of; indeed, very few of them would give the information asked.

The list, however, imperfect as it is, will give you some idea of the extent of our commerce on this coast; and have to regret that it has not been in my power to furnish you with a more correct view of it.

--737--

A list of merchant vessels boarded by the United States frigate United States, Isaac Hull, commander, during the period from March 30, 1824, to December, 1825.

 

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Master's name.

Owners' names.

Where built or belonging.

Lading.

Number of—

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1824.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valparaiso

March 30

Ship Eagle

Kelly

Starbuck

Nantucket

Sperm oil

260

22

 

Whale voyage

Nantucket

do

do

Potosi

R. Baldwin

 

New York

Flour and sundries

300

 

 

New York

 

do

do

Tartar

Thos. R. Gerry

Bryant & Sturgis

Boston

Flour and dry goods

300

 

 

Boston

 

Callao

May 2

Potosi

R. Baldwin

 

New York

Flour and sundries

370

11

 

Valparaiso

 

do

May 3

Brig Gratitude

 

 

Liverpool

Whiskey

 

 

 

do

Callao.

do

May 8

Ship Providence

Bowers

E. Carrington & Co

Providence

Ballast

360

15

2

Coquimbo

do

do

May 10

China

Wm. Putnam

Jos. Peabody

Salem

Flour and dry goods

370

 

 

 

 

do

do

Brig Winifred

C. W. Gelston

C. W. Gelston

Alexandria

Ballast

 

 

 

 

 

do

do

Peru

W. Johnson, jr

Steph & Philips

Salem

Flour and dry goods

187

0

2

Quilca

Callao.

do

do

G. P. Stephenson

W. Pacill

Isaac Maum

Baltimore

 

240

8

 

Baltimore

do

do

do

Ship America

Dickoven

Tibbitts & Whitney

New York

Flour and dry goods

447

28

4

New York

do

do

do

Brig Frederick

James Penney

Tudor

Stonington

Ballast

147

10

 

do

Pisco.

do

May 11

Ship Clara

John Jones

James Bosley

Baltimore

Flour, bread, &c

297

16

 

Baltimore

Callao.

do

May 14

Brig Dragon

Chiswell

Pat. Mulleston

do

Rice and cocoa

167

 

 

Huanchaco

do

do

May 19

Hebe

Nickson

Wm. Guthrie

London

Tallow

229

13

2

California

do

do

May 21

Col. Young

Henry Potter

James Goldia

Calcutta

Ballast

200

11

4

Valparaiso

do

do

May 27

Ship Tartar

Gerry

Bryan & Sturgis

Boston

Flour and dry goods

300

 

 

Coquimbo

do

do

Juno 4

Brig La Pera

 

 

 

Ballast

 

 

 

Pisco

do

do

do

Nancy

Charles Sumner

Field & Edenton

New York

do

141

 

 

Huasco

Valdivia.

do

do

Ship J. Boggs

John Jenkins

John Beggs

Lima

Dry goods

154

17

2

St. Blas

Callao.

do

Juno 11

Earl Wellington

Potts

do

do

do

130

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

Juno 14

Isabella

Lindsay

C. Silk

London

General cargo

225

14

 

do

do

do

Juno 20

Earl Egremont

R. Johnson

Johnson

do

Flour

230

14

2

do

do

do

do

Peruvian

W. Dalling

W. Dalling

 

Dry goods

216

15

6

do

do

do

do

Andes

King

T. & J. Brockley

 

do

208

15

 

Quilca

do

do

Juno 26

Grecian

Halbour

Halbour

Baltimore

Cheese and vegetables

230

13

4

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Minerva

Lambert

W. & T. Roach & Co

Beaufort, S. C

General cargo

230

12

 

do

do

do

Juno 26

Britannia

Lorton

Thomas Stage

England

Oil

310

24

1

do

do

do

July 2

Duncan Forbes

A. Lovid

Alexander Forbes

Aberdeen

Wheat

134

8

 

Quilca

do

do

do

Antelope

Rennowsay

Dowsons

London

Produce of Mexico

157

10

6

Ct. of Mexico

 do

do

do

Royal Sovereign

R. H. Dare

R. H. Dare

Margate

Sugar rice and indigo

100

8

2

Sansanta

Valparaiso.

Huanchaco

July 27

Fiposhire

Robinson

Robinson,

London

Rice

144

12

2

Guyaquil

Huanchaco.

do

July 28

Brig Fortuna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callao

do

do

do

Camden

Porter

Harrison

Calcutta

Salt

131

12

 

Huasco

do

Callao

August 17

Liberty

N. Hurd

Jesse Hurd

Chatham, Ct.

Wine and dry goods

289

20

 

Havre de Grace.

do

do

do

Gov. Clinton

Bassett

N. L. & P. Griswold

New York

Flour and dry goods

383

20

 

Valparaiso

do

do

August 17

Cadet

Woodbury

J. Hubbot

Boston

Wax

207

12

4

do

Manilla.

--738--

A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Master's name.

Owners' names.

Where built or belonging.-

Lading.

Number of—

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1824.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callao

August 17

Ship Neptune

Land

Miff, Colhoun & Co

Philadelphia

Flour and rice

292

13

 

Huacho

Callao

do

August 23

Canada

John H.

B. Messick

Baltimore

Rice and tobacco

210

14

2

Huacho

do

do

August 24

Lively

Hasting

Heath

London

Aguardiente

50

6

 

Pisco

do

do

do

America

Tibbet

S. Whitney

New York

Ballast

447

20

4

Huanchaco

do

do

September 5

Tuscan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samanca

do

do

September 21

Livonia

Murphy

 

London

Dry goods

170

11

 

Huacho

do

do

September 24

Wabash

John M'Cay

James Bosley

Baltimore

Sundries

312

11

2

Quilca

Canton

do

September 28

Duncan Forbes

Al. Lovid

Alex. Forbes

Aberdeen

Wheat

134

7

 

Huacho

Callao

do

October 1

Chevy Chase

Murphy

Brothers & Bogg

London

 

53

6

 

Huacho

Pisco

do

do

Fame

Urquhart

 

Liverpool

General cargo

107

13

 

Liverpool

Callao

do

October 2

North Point

W. Patton

Donnell & Son

Baltimore

Sundries

480

22

4

Baltimore

do

do

October 4

Brig Antelope

Reynoldson

Dowson & Co

London

Pisco

157

10

6

Pisco

To Leeward

do

October 6

James Laurence

Ford

Henry Pratt

Philadelphia

Sundries

209

0

 

Pisco

 

do

October 7

Peruvian

W. Darling

W. Darling

Liverpool

Aguardiente

248

16

4

Pisco

 

do

October 8

Leopold

Hunter

Cochran

Leith

Dry goods

186

9

2

Valparaiso

Callao

do

October 12

President

Whooten

A Massey & Co

Philadelphia

Sundries

177

14

2

Valparaiso

do

do

October 15

Dragon

Chiswell

Pat. Mullison

Liverpool

Pisco

167

6

 

Pisco

Huacho

do

October 18

Erin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

do

October 20

Ship Lion

Green

 

Portsmouth

Sundries

337

10

 

Baltimore

Callao

Huancho

October 25

Henry

Davis

 

Portsmouth, N. H.

 

300

11

 

Baltimore

do

do

do

Isabella

Lindsay

C. Silk

London

Salt

225

14

 

 

Valparaiso

Callao

October 29

Brig Bolivar

Buchanan

Cochran & Son

Glasgow

Sundries

204

14

1

St. Lorenzo

St. Lorenzo

do

do

Sloop Success

A. Liman

Geo. Ross

London

Cocoa

28

4

 

Huacho

Pisco

do

do

Brig Erin

Mullaid

Wm. Brown

Liverpool

General cargo

188

12

 

Huacho

Callao

do

do

Rimack

Beckford

Alsop

New York

Cocoa

113

8

 

Huacho

do

do

do

Velocity

S. Brooks

H. Stantion

London

Sundries

151

10

 

Valparaiso

do

do

November 3

Elizabeth

R. Snowden

R. Snowden

Liverpool

Flour

180

10

 

Pisco

do

do

do

Lavinia

J. Murphy

J. Murphy

Liverpool

Pisco

137

10

 

Valparaiso

do

do

November 9

America

Eldridge

 

Philadelphia

Flour and provisions

296

14

2

Philadelphia

do

Ancon

November 15

Bolivar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At sea

December 11

Cora

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pisco

Ancon

Callao

December 14

Nautilus

Cunan

Geo. Nash & Co

Salem

Provisions, &c.

252

14

3

Valparaiso

do

do

December 18

Snipe

Haig

 

Calcutta

Copper

223

23

6

Copiopo

Calcutta

do

December 19

Enterprise

Clark

W. Bottomly

Lynn

Sundries

184

11

 

Ancon

Chorillos

1825.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chorillos

January 1

Olive Branch

Hutton

P. P. Ritchie

London

Provisions

204

 

 

 

do

--739--

A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Masters' name.

Owners' name.

Where built or belonging.

Lading.

Number of—

 

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1825.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chorillos

January 11

Brig Livonia

Wilson

Rd. Hodge

Sunderland

Bread and fruit

216

12

 

Valparaiso

Chorillos.

de

January 15

Packet

S. Tyler

Brown & Log

Providence

Sundries

205

7

4

Quilca

do

do

do

Ship Jane

Galager

Archer & Bispham

Philadelphia

do

327

18

2

do

do

do

do

Brig Laura

Holman

John Derby

Salem

Flour and dry goods

200

12

2

do

do

do

do

Ship Panther

Austin

J. C. Ellison

Boston

Flour, &c.

450

29

14

Boston

Coast of Peru.

Callao

January 17

Portia

Silliman

Silliman

Charleston

Flour

272

14

 

Valparaiso

Callao.

Chorillos

January 21

Dragon

Chiswell

G. Mollison

Liverpool

Pisco

170

10

 

Pisco

Chorillos.

do

January 23

Rubicon

Patterson

 

New York

Provisions

143

11

2

do

Lima.

do

February 12

Leopold

Woodbury

Wm. Cochran

 

General cargo

190

13

2

do

Chorillos.

do

February 14

Tartar

Gerry

Bryant & Sturges

Boston

Ballast

400

9

6

Quilca

do

do

do

Sereno

Hodges

Fish & Bridges

Boston

do

207

10

 

Guayaquil

do

do

February 18

Elizabeth

Rios

Peru

Chorillos

Soldiers

 

 

 

Pisco

do

do

do

Enterprise

Clark

Bottomly

Lynn

do

184

12

 

do

do

do

February 19

Clio

Jackson

 

Boston

Leather

 

 

 

Huacho

 

do

February 15

Minerva

Lombard

W. Rook & Co

New Bedford

Ballast

230

 

 

do

 

do

do

Heroine

Wm. Heath

Benj. Banks

Scituate, Mass

 

337

14

4

Boston

Boston

do

do

Brig Carlo

Hall

N. B. Gram

New York

Flour

225

8

2

Philadelphia

Uncertain.

do

do

Ship Portia

Silliman

Silliman

Charleston

do

272

15

1

Alexandria

Gibraltar,

do

do

Brig Active

Neal

W. P. Richardson

Salem

 

211

12

2

Salem

Uncertain.

do

do

Sereno

Hodges

Fish & Bridges

Boston

Ballast

207

11

 

Boston

do

do

do

Geo. Gardner

Davidson

Messick & Johnson

Baltimore

Assorted cargo

344

16

2

Baltimore

do

do

do

Ship Alfred

Zuill

Peter Harmony

New York

do

232

16

 

New York

Unknown.

do

do

Arethusa

Merrille

Thos. Sheaf

Portsmouth

do

319

15

1

Baltimore

Uncertain.

do

do

Brig Colon

Ford

I. Thorndike

Boston

do

208

12

2

do

Arica.

do

do

Nautilus

Curren

Nichols & Co

Salem

Flour

268

10

3

do

Uncertain.

do

do

Ship Wm. Penn

Smith

W. Patterson & Co

Baltimore

do

305

11

4

do

do

do

do

Jane

Galager

Archer & Bispham

Philadelphia

Sundries

327

18

2

Philadelphia

do

do

do

Gen. Brown

Copland

Eckford & Harmony

New York

Assorted

550

26

2

New York

do

do

do

Tartar

Gerry

Bryant & Sturges

Boston

Ballast

402

13

6

Canton

Canton.

do

do

Brig Garnet

Lewis

Ross & Brintnall

Boston

do

215

 

 

Boston

Uncertain.

do

February 21

Sch. Britannia

Brown

Weeks & Birch

Southampton

General cargo

106

8

4

Quilca

Chorillos.

do

February 24

Gen. Carreno

J. Bap. Ferand

 

Panama

do

47

6

 

Panama

do

do

February 27

Fipshire

Frero

Robinson

London

do

145

14

2

Huacho

do

do

do

Sarah and Georg

Gordon

E. Merrill

Portland

do

156

11

 

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Brig Nero

Horning

Nicholson

Liverpool

Jerk beef, &c.

124

8

 

do

do

Valparaiso

March 26

Olive Branch

 

 

 

Salt

 

 

 

Huacho

Valparaiso.

do

do

Columbia

 

 

Liverpool

Dry goods

 

 

6

Liverpool

do

--740--

A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Master's name.

Owners' names

Where built or belonging.

Lading.

Number of—

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1826.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valparaiso

March 29

Brig Pacific

Scott

Bacon & Richardson

Duxbury

 

127

11

 

Boston

Valparaiso

do

do

Stranger

Sumner

Ml. Hogan

Now York

Salt

230

11

3

Valdivia and

do

Coquimbo

May 18

Ship Cadmus

N. O. Carey

Israel Thorndike

Boston

Oil, 1,600 bbls

319

26

7

Eimeo.. [Chiloe.

Boston.

do

May 9

Hydaspe

Paddock

Flenning

Stonington

Oil, 1,650 bbls

315

23

 

Wahoo

Stonington.

do

May 12

Tarquin

Banker

D. Elkin

Nantucket

Oil, 1,700 bbls

310

19

 

Valparaiso

Edgarton.

do

May 6

Rose

S. Cottle,

J. Starbuck

do

Oil, 2,100 bbls

379

22

1

 do

Nantucket.

do

May 27

Brig Carlo

Hall

 

 

Flour

 

 

 

Chorillos

 

Chorillos

Juno 7

Ship Superior

Andrews

Brown & Jones

Providence

Sundries

375

20

4

Valparaiso

A market.

do

do

Brig Catalina

Walters

Panning

Peru

Rice, &c

 

 

 

Lumbraco

do

do

Juno 8

Ship Caroline

Cheever

Jos. Roops

Salem

Flour

321

16

4

Arica

Chorillos.

do

Juno 9

Brig Charlotte

Gambier

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callao

 

do

Juno 11

Ellen

Simpson

D. Hollion

London

Wine

134

9

4

 

 

do

Juno 19

Britomart

White

S. J. & J. Somer

do

Ballast

243

14

2

Callao

do

do

Juno 17

Adventure

Smith

Warrel

Liverpool

Merchandise

163

10

 

Quilca

 

do

Juno 18

Naiad

McClunie

 

Philadelphia

Assorted cargo

259

13

4

Arica

do

do

Juno 23

Divan

Wm. Whatson

 

Liverpool

Cocoa

180

10

 

Guayaquil

do

do

June 24

Stranger

G. White

O'Brian

New York

General cargo

225

9

1

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Winifred

Wm. Burry

Esquabourn

Alexandria

Ballast

200

7

 

Guayaquil

do

do

Juno 28

Sch. Four Brothers

Anto. Frera

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pisco

 

do

Jun© 29

Thalia

R. Hazzard

Hazzard

London

Spars, &c

206

10

 

Arica

do

do

July 1

Basteracha

Murphy

 

 

 

45

10

 

Quilca

do

do

do

Brig Livonia

P. Goodlet

Patriots

London

Officers

137

6

 

Huacho

do

do

do

Gratitude

Ml. Ariato

D. Mills

Sunderland

Sundries

155

9

 

Labraque

do

do

July 2

Ladiago

Wm. Quick

Patriots

Guayaquil

General cargo

196

10

 

Guayaquil

do

do

do

Jane

Kain

do

 

Timber, &c.

 

 

 

Quilca

do

do

do

Antelope

Reynoldson

Dawson

South America

Indigo

157

9

6

 

Lima.

do

July 4

Pelica

R. McClunie

Bishenter

Liverpool

Sundries

185

14

2

Liverpool

Chorillos.

do

do

San Pedro

Roberts

 

Valparaiso

 

 

10

 

Pisco

do

do

July 7

Potomac

Dexter

John H. Howland

New York

Provisions

200

9

2

Guanchaco

do

do

July 8

Lincoln

Thomas

Lincoln

Boston

Wine

210

10

 

St. Lorenzo

do

do

do

Sch. James Monroe

Forbes

Baltimore

 

Sundries

171

12

 

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Brig Sarah & Eliza

Plaskett

New York

 

Provisions

 

7

 

do

do

do

July 11

Ship Panther

Austin

Elery

New York

do

 

 

 

do

do

do

do

Brazilian

Hatch

Griswold

do

Sundries

240

7

 

Rio Janeiro

do

do

do

Midas

Hutchins

Messicks

Baltimore

do

265

2

 

Arica

do

do

July 14

Young Caledonia

McCanley

Robinson

Lima

Pisco

30

5

 

Pisco

do

do

July 15

Peruvian

Buckanam

Robins

do

do

 

 

 

do

do

--741--

A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

  

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Master's name.

Owners' names.

Where built or belonging. 

Lading.

Number of—

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1825.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chorillos

July 15

Ship Lovely Frances

Sullivan

 

London

Cococa

120

9

 

Guayaquil

Chorillos.

do

do

Herald

Brown

Nichols

Salem

Sundries

240

10

2

Arica

do

do

July 17

Brig Merope

Weiddy

Howland

New York

do

325

20

4

Guanchaco

do

do

July 21

Fatima

Christall

Ramsay

Philadelphia

do

170

10

2

do

do

do

July 25

Sch. America

Eldridge

Evans

do

Rice

 

 

 

do

do

do

July 27

Sea Serpent

Marshall

Gomes

New York

Cocoa

 

10

2

Guayaquil

do

do

do

Clyde

Vesterham

do

Liverpool

Provisions

220

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

July 28

Friendship

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

do

do

do

Nautilus

Curran

G. Nicholson

Salem

Ballast

 

 

 

San Lorenzo

do

do

July 30

Scotland

do

Findell

do

Sundries

252

13

2

Payta

do

do

do

Armada

do

Gibson

Scarborough

do

146

8

 

Quilca

do

do

do

Ship London

Edwards

Edwards & Stewart

New York

do

407

32

8

Arica

do

do

August 4

Brig Bolivar

Burton

 

Liverpool

do

200

15

2

St. Blas

do

do

do

Blutcher

Neil

 

do

do

200

15

2

do

do

do

do

Junius

Carter

F. Bage

Greenock

Firewood

115

10

2

California

do

do

August 8

Earl Wellington

Potts

W. Pottos

London

Sundries

132

11

2

Valparaiso

do

do

August 9

Gen. Suere

 

 

Peru

Pisco

141

8

 

Pisco

do

do

August 10

Sta. Teresa

 

Matled

Paita

Cocoa

90

11

 

Guayaquil

do

do

do

Ed. Francis

 

John Green

Guayaquil

 

100

6

 

Callao

do

do

August 13

Caledonian

Holman

Bagg

Liverpool

Sundries

365

23

14

Valparaiso

do

do

August 18

Sacrament

Manuel

Limbraco

 

do

100

9

 

 

do

do

August 21

Frederick

Penney

Nixon McCall

Connecticut

Ballast

140

10

 

Guayaquil

do

do

August 25

Rimac

Wm. Barney

Alsop

New York

Sundries

114

8

 

Guanchaco

do

do

August 29

Gov. Clinton

Hepburn

Griswold & Co.

do

do

360

17

2

New York

do

do

August 30

Dragon

Chiswell

Molison

Liverpool

do

176

0

 

Lambeaque

do

do

do

Eth. Ann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guanchaco

do

do

September 2

Mary

Laird

Scott

St. Andrew's

Sundries

190

12

1

Glasgow

do

do

September 8

Fortune

Cristall

Aguya

Lima

Ballast

177

2

2

Pisco

do

do

September 12

Ship Portia

Tripp

Hathaway

Valparaiso

Wheat

100

11

 

Valparaiso

do

do

September 19

Gamo

Mackey

Punster

do

Provisions

 

6

 

Arica

do

do

September 22

Anglo Gardiner

Blane

 

St. Mario

Sundries

358

18

 

Quilca

do

do

do

Brig Garnet

Lewis

Brumhall & Ross

Boston

Chili produce

195

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

September 26

Sch. Conception

Baker

Fernando Amito

Valparaiso

Pisco

85

7

 

Pisco

do

do

September 27

Britannia

Humphreys

 

St. Brieux

Linen

207

9

4

Arica

do

do

September 29

Cora

Dott

John Bayarbo

Chorillos

General cargo

197

10

 

do

do

do

October 3

Jane Corim

B. Junca

Ildondo & Ork

Bordeaux

Ballast

350

24

4

California

do

do

October 5

Brig Active

Neale

W. P. Richard

Salem

do

211

12

2

Guayaquil

do

--742--

A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded.

When boarded.

Vessel's name.

Master's name.

Owners' name.

Where built or belonging.

Lading.

Number of—

Where from.

Whither bound.

Tons.

Men.

Guns.

1825.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chorillos

October 7

Sch. Ariel

Dixon

Brookbind

Whitehaven

General cargo

114

10

2

Arica

Chorillos.

do

October 10

Sea Serpent

Marshall

Fabian Gomes

Chili

Cocoa

100

6

2

Guayaquil

do

Callao

November 3

Rio

Smith

Smith & Co

 

Sugar, rice, &c.

250

10

4

Lambeaque

do

Chorillos

November 10

Macon

Smith

Smith

Antwerp

General cargo

200

11

2

Rio

do

do

November 18

North Point

Patten

J. Donnelson

Baltimore

do

480

21

4

Arica

do

do

November 20

Almado

Cross

Wm. Robinet

Guayaquil

Sundries

160

11

 

Guayaquil

do

do

November 24

Peru

Johnson

S. C. Philips

Salem

Flour, &c.

200

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

December 1

Pomona

Chas. Gaspar

Holands

London

Timber

57

6

 

Chiloe

do

do

December 3

Sarah George

Hordon

Merrit

Portland

Cocoa

106

11

2

Guayaquil

do

do

do

Flor. del Mar

Rodriguez

do

Guayaquil

Wheat

 

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

December 4

Tersiana

Jenning

Gomes

Lima

Pisco

 

 

 

Pisco

do

do

do

Rubicano

Obejo

Loro

do

Pisco

257

15

 

do

do

do

December 6

Emerald

Salverson

Bunster

N. America

 

100

 

 

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Fermina

Baker

Beacha

Guayaquil

Sundries

220

10

 

Aricon

do

do

December 7

Peruvian

Prunier

Brunner

London

Wheat

121

8

 

Valparaiso

do

do

do

Franco. Isabella

Usher

Whitehouse

do

Rice

29

4

 

Huanchaco

do

Salinas Bay

December 8

Success

Ross

Ross

do

Salt

75

 

 

Chorillos

Coquimbo.

do

December 11

Olive Branch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

do

do

do

Diligent

Pettit

 

Antwerp

Salt

75

 

 

Huanchaco

Chorillos.

do

do

Thalia

Hazard

 

London

Salt

200

 

 

 

do

Huacho

December 12

Ship Peruvian

Mary

Christopher & Sons

North river

110 bbls. oil

331

22

 

Nantucket

Uncertain.

do

do

Gelgond

Brock

G. Howland

Scituate

10 bbls. oil

333

22

 

New Bedford

New Japan.

do

December 21

Elizabeth

Snow

Douglas

Baltimore

Sundries

300

11

4

Valparaiso

Chorillos.

do

December 23

Laura

Centre

Hollings

New York

do

234

13

4

do

do

do

December 27

Cherub

Casson

Clint

New Castle

Wheat

200

12

 

Talcahuana

do

do

December 28

Porter

Callan

Porter

 

Sundries

106

12

 

Arica

do

do

do

Ayachuco

Murphy

Begg

Lima

do

100

12

 

do

do

do

do

Peruvian

Salis

Pettretan & Sons

 

do

329

21

6

Quilca

do

--743--

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 31, 1825.

I have had the honor to receive your two letters of 24th May last, relative to the state of affairs on this coast, and expressing a hope that, from the changes that have taken place since I have been in this sea, I could be enabled to leave the coast for the purpose of visiting the neighborhood of the Sandwich and Friendly Islands, and return by the way of the coast of California and Mexico.

I regret to state that the changes, though great, that have taken place, are not such as, at the time you wrote, might have been supposed; as, in consequence of the holding out of the castles of Callao, contrary to the expectations of every one, and directly contrary to the articles of capitulation, the situation of our commerce has not received all the benefit that we had reason to hope and believe it would, when we were first made acquainted with the surrender of the Spanish army, and the articles of capitulation that followed, as it was confidently believed that the castles of Callao would be given up, and that our ships would immediately have the benefit of the fine Bay of Callao, and the protection of the castles, when in the possession of the patriots, and that, within a very few months, there would be a settled and permanent government in Peru.

In consequence, however, of the obstinacy of General Rodil, in holding the castles of Callao, our ships have been driven from the bay, and have been compelled to discharge their cargoes in an open roadstead at Chorillos, for the last twelve months, where there is constantly a heavy swell setting in, which causes them to roll very heavy, and frequently for several days in succession boats cannot land without great danger; many boats have been stove by the violence of the surf, and many lives have been lost; and in many instances great damage has been done to the cargoes when landing, and in transporting the goods to Lima; nor have the changes in the affairs of the government of Peru been such as was anticipated, indeed it can hardly be called a government. General Bolivar has been called to the interior, and has been absent many months, and little has been done by those left in charge of the government to establish a permanent and regular form for one; little has been done but to keep up a close siege and blockade of Callao, which has been done at an immense expense, and has caused the patriots to keep up a large force before Callao, and in the neighborhood of Lima.

The Congress is soon to meet at Lima, and General Le Mar arrived the day before yesterday to take the command, it is believed, civil and military, and it is believed much good will result from the changes that are about to take place.

Such has been the state of affairs for the last six months, I have considered it proper to remain at Chorillos for the protection of our merchant ships, to give them such aid as they might require, in the event of the surrender of the castles, which has been expected from day to day for the last ten or eleven months.

Should the situation of affairs in Peru and Chili remain as they now are, and have been for many months past, I shall deem it improper for this ship to leave the coast to visit the islands as directed, and as I have, in part, anticipated your wishes by sending the Dolphin the precise route pointed out by you, my present intention is, to wait her return, as she may be expected in about six weeks or two months, and ascertain the result of her cruise, and immediately dispatch the Peacock or this ship in furtherance of your orders of the 24th; much, however, will depend on the state of Peru and Chili, and the report of the Dolphin on her return, which vessel goes, this ship or the Peacock; and I most earnestly hope that, in using my best judgment and discretion, I shall decide in a way that will meet your approbation.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States Frigate United States, Callao Bay, January 24, 1826.

I have the honor herewith to forward the articles of capitulation of the castles of Callao, which have this moment been furnished to me by the politeness of Sir Murray Maxwell, commander of the Briton, now at anchor under the castles.

My officers that landed at Callao represent the town as being in a most deplorable state; many houses are entirely destroyed, and the patriots are now burying the dead from their dwellings, where they have perished for want of food; some of them appear to have been dead many days.

The Peacock is now in sight, standing for this bay, and I hope she will arrive in time for me to forward any letters or news that Captain Jones may have from Valparaiso.

The merchant ships are all at Chorillos, and will remain there until the town of Callao is in a state to open a communication with the shipping and Lima. I shall send the Peacock to Chorrills, to give our ships such aid as they may require in coming to this bay. They will all be down in three or four days."

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States Frigate United States, Callao Bay, January 21, 1826.

As the war is now at an end on this side of Cape Horn, and as, in all probability, the Spanish government will despair of ever getting a foothold, either in Chili or Peru again, I respectfully submit to you my opinion as to the force that appears to me best calculated to give protection to our commerce on this coast, in a state of peace, or until regular governments are established in Chili and Peru; for, until regular governments are established, it appears to me absolutely necessary that we should have a naval force in this sea, as, in all probability, the governments of Chili and Peru will now lay up their ships of war and discharge their crews; and as there will be no employment for them, and as the service they have been employed in for years past has been such as to give them the worst habits, and the most of them, officers as well as men, totally devoid of principle, I have no doubt but they will resort to plunder and piracy for a living, unless a force is kept on the coast to prevent it. I should, therefore, recommend one or two large sloops, and one schooner, on the coasts of Chili and Peru, and two schooners to the northward; one of them stationed on the coast of Mexico, and the other still further north. These vessels to be kept constantly moving up and down the coast, by which means our commerce would be protected, and our merchants would have a constant and safe communication with the United States, by way of Panama, and the commanding officer on the station would receive intelligence from home, by that route, much sooner than by Cape Horn.

--744--

Our commerce is daily increasing on the whole coast, and particularly by the way of Panama to Guayaquil, and along the coast to the northward; and heretofore, the state of this part of the trade has been such, and our force so limited, that a vessel could not be spared to give protection to our commerce on that coast, although frequent applications have been made by the merchants for a vessel to be sent there.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States' Frigate United States, Coquimbo, March 28, 1826.

I am convinced that our commerce has been heretofore, and will be for many months, more exposed on the coast of Peru, than at Valparaiso or on the coast of Chili. I remained at Valparaiso twenty-six days, which enabled me to accomplish the object of my visit there; and as there was no necessity for my remaining there longer, everything relating to our commerce being quiet where this ship would be of use, I sailed for this port on my way to Lima, intending to call in at all the intermediate ports, between here and that place, where our merchant ships visit.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, Peru, April 25, 1826.

I have the honor to report to you my return to this port, after an absence of nearly three months. I remained four weeks at Valparaiso: touched for a few days at the intermediate posts, (Coquimbo, Huasco, Arica and Quilca.) The three last-mentioned places I never before had it in my power to visit; they are each much frequented by our merchant vessels, and I was happy to find that our countrymen were there treated with respect.

I received every mark of civility from the authorities of the government at each place, and having visited them in this ship, will, I think, have a favorable effect.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, May 26, 1826.

As this vessel sails immediately, I have only a moment to inform you that the officers and crews of this ship and the Peacock are in good health, and that nothing of recent date has taken place to interrupt our commerce on this side of the Cape. We have now a large number of valuable ships on this coast, with valuable cargoes, and I am sorry to say they have come to a bad market, and must suffer great loss.

The Peacock is under orders to proceed in execution of that part of your instructions directing me to go with this ship, or dispatch one of the vessels under my command, to the Sandwich and other islands in the Pacific ocean, for the protection of our commerce. Captain Jones is directed to run down the coast as far as Paita, for the purpose of laying in stock and other articles for his crew, which are absolutely necessary, and cannot be purchased here. From Paita he will proceed direct to the Marquesas, and remain there as long as in his judgment is necessary; and from the Marquesas he is directed to visit Otaheite and such other of the Society Islands as to him may appear necessary in furtherance of the object of his cruise; he is then to visit the Sandwich Islands, and after remaining there as long as may be necessary to accomplish the object of his visit, he is to use his discretion as to going to the coasts of California and Mexico. Should he arrive at the Sandwich Islands in time to visit the coasts of California and Mexico before the term of service of his crew shall have expired, and his ship in every other way in a condition to perform the cruise, he is ordered to do so; but should there be any uneasiness among his crew on account of their time being out, or any other circumstance that, in his opinion, the good of the service requires it, he is to return to this port from the Sandwich Islands, touching in at the ports to the northward, on the coast of Peru, to give protection to our ships that are daily leaving here for ports to the northward.

The Peacock has a healthy and fine crew, and no pains have been spared to fit her in the best possible manner for the cruise she is to perform.

(Here follows in the original documents a correspondence of Captain J. D. Elliot, of the navy, and others, relating to affairs with Brazil, which will be found in volume 6, on Foreign Relations, No. 238, from page 277 to 293, inclusive.)

Extracts from a letter from Commodore James Biddle, dated—

United States Frigate Macedonian, Bio Janeiro, September 11, 1826.

Your general order of 10th July last, making known the lamented death of our venerable and venerated fellow-citizen, John Adams, was received last evening by an arrival from Baltimore. Your general order of the 7th of the same month, to which it refers, has not yet been received; and I could not, therefore, know the funeral honors, as they had been prescribed by the Department. At sunrise, this ship and the Boston displayed their colors half-mast, and so continued them throughout the day. Each ship fired thirteen minute guns at sunrise, at noon, and at sundown.

The death of the illustrious patriots, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, will be lamented by the enlightened and the good in every part of the world, without regard to the distinctions of climate or nation. The British men-of-war in this harbor testified their respect on the occasion, by displaying their colors at half-mast; and I wrote a note to Captain King, the senior officer, expressive of my thanks for the respectful manner in which the ships under his command had noticed this mournful dispensation of Providence.

I shall leave orders here for Captain Elliot to testify the national respect for the character and services of these illustrious citizens, and the national sorrow for their loss, in like manner with ourselves, should he not have previously paid funeral honors at some other port.

--745--

S.

EXTRACT OP A LETTER FROM COMMODORE WARRINGTON.

Commodore Lewis Warrington to the Secretary of the Navy.

U. S. Ship Constellation, Pensacola, August 10, 1826.

The John Adams is on the south side of Cuba: the Hornet is on the north side, watching the old Bahama Straits, Matanzas, and the Double Headed Shot Keys.

No piracies have been committed since my last letters. Depredations on our commerce are fortunately unheard of where they were formerly so frequent, and no interruption has been experienced by it.

I shall be off Cuba in a few days. The squadron enjoys health, and this ship to an uncommon extent.

T.

CORRESPONDENCE IN RELATION TO THE CRUISE OF THE SLOOP-OF-WAR LEXINGTON FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE FISHERIES.

Copy of a letter from W. B. Shubrick to Stephen Thacher, Esq., collector at Eastport, dated—

U. S. Ship Lexington, June 19, 1826.

I have arrived in this harbor, on my way to the fishing grounds frequented by the citizens of the United States, for the purpose of protecting the said citizens in their rights; and, at the same time, observing that they do not, on their part, give any just cause of complaint by trespassing on the rights of others.

I request that you will have the goodness to give me any information that you may have received on these subjects, and point out to me the fishing grounds most frequented by our citizens during this and the two ensuing months.

S. Thayer, deputy collector, to Master Commandant W. B. Shubrick.

Custom House, Lubec, June 24, 1826.

In answer to your letter of the 19th instant, I beg leave, in the absence of Mr. Thacher, to observe, that no information, which ultimately proved to be true, has been received the present year, that the rights of our citizens engaged in the fisheries have been infringed. The presence of an armed vessel of the United States on this station, the past fishing season, with the expectation that one would be sent, the present year, to protect our rights, has had, without doubt, a most salutary effect.

The places most frequented by our citizens engaged in the fisheries, during the present and two succeeding months, are the Grand Menan banks; the Nova Scotia shore, from Annapolis to Cape Sable; the Bay Chaleur, round the Magdalen Islands; the Straits of Belleisle, and the Labrador coast, as far as the Great Bay of Esquimaux.

Master Commandant W. B. Shubrick to the Secretary of the Navy.

U. S. Ship Lexington, Eastport, June 26, 1826.

Since my letter of the 13th instant, in which I had the honor to announce to you my arrival at this place, I have conversed with the deputy collectors for Eastport and Lubec, and have the satisfaction to say that I cannot learn from them, or from any other source, that any interruption has been given to the pursuits of the citizens of the United States engaged in the fisheries, this season.

U. S. Ship Lexington, New York, September 5, 1826.

Sir:

In my letters of the 18th and 20th June, and the 6th of July, I had the honor to make you acquainted with my proceedings up to the last date.

After leaving Eastport, I passed south of the North Seal Island, west of the Island of Grand Menan, and along the coast of Nova Scotia, as far as Cape Canso. Passing through the Gut of Canso, I anchored at Entry Island, one of the Magdalen groupe. Leaving the Magdalen Islands, I made the Island of Newfoundland at Cape Ray, run down the northeast coast of the island, and anchored at the Bay of Islands. From the Bay of Islands, I continued down the coast of Newfoundland as far as Cape Rich, from which I crossed over to the coast of Labrador, and anchored at Blanche Sablon, and coasted from thence as far as 54 deg. 45 min. north, visiting, either with the ship or boats, all the harbors most resorted to by American fishermen.

I did not go farther north, because the navigation had become very unsafe, from the immense quantities of ice on the coast, and I could not learn that any fishermen had gone beyond Greedy Island, in 53 deg. 45 min. north.

On the 1st of August, being then in 54 deg. and 45 min. north, the ice extended, in apparently a solid body, from northwest to southeast. Returning through the Straits of Belleisle, I met, on the 9th of August, the British sloop-of-war Orestes, Captain William Jones, and we anchored nearly at the same time, at Isle au Bois. After exchanging civilities in the most cordial manner, Captain Jones and myself visited, together", the fishing establishments of Blanche Sablon and Brasdor.

A few days before I fell in with the Orestes, she had run against an island of ice, and lost her bowsprit. Fogs and strong southwest winds kept us together for a week, during which time the most friendly intercourse was kept up between the officers of the two ships.

After leaving Isle au Bois, I passed again along the north coast of Newfoundland, to Cape Ray, between Cape Ray and Cape North, and along the coasts of Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia, with the intention of going again to Eastport; but, in consequence of light winds and thick fogs, I did not get to Cape Sable until the 29th ult.; when, finding I could not go into the Bay of Fundy without a very

--746--

great probability of being detained after the 15th of September, I determined to make the best of my way to this place.

The American fishermen in the Bay of Fundy have not experienced any interruption in their pursuits this season, nor have any complaints, so far as I could learn, been made against them. They, as well as the inhabitants of Eastport, speak in terms of approbation of the conduct of the present commander of the English brig-of-war Dotterel. Many of the difficulties complained of hitherto in the Bay of Fundy, have arisen from the circumstance of our fishermen, belonging to Eastport, Machias, and Lubec, having formed matrimonial connections with the inhabitants of Grand Menan, and being induced thereby to visit the harbors of that island for other purposes than "for shelter," "repairing damages," "purchasing wood," or "obtaining water."

While in the Bay of Fundy I saw no British cruiser, except the one mentioned in my letter of the 6th of July. On the coast of Nova Scotia I saw not one American fisherman. I spoke almost every schooner that I saw, but they all proved to be from the small settlements on the coast, except an English schooner from Quebec, bound to Jamaica.

The American fishermen who have resorted to the Magdalen Islands, have not, that I could learn, at any time experienced any interruption, either from the cruisers or from citizens of any nation. They have taken their fish on the shoals around the islands, and, by agreement with the inhabitants, made (or cured) them on Amherst Isle, one of the group, loaded their vessels, and gone home; mutual harmony subsisting all the time.

On the northwest coast of Newfoundland, not one American fisherman is to be found: they have been obliged to abandon all the fishing grounds around the islands, in consequence of the vexatious conduct of the French cruisers, and the agents for the French fishing establishments on the coast, who have driven them from the harbors, at times when shelter, if not absolutely necessary, was very desirable; not allowing them to procure wood or water, or even to take fish enough for their immediate use. This conduct operates with great severity on our citizens, as the best harbors in the Straits of Belleisle are on the Newfoundland side, abounding in fish and bait, and affording great facilities for procuring wood and water. From this coast the ice clears at least a fortnight earlier than from the opposite one of Labrador, and hence, fish are to be taken here so much earlier. It was the custom of our fishermen, formerly, to take one-third, and sometimes one-half of their fares on the Newfoundland side, and thence cross to Labrador at as early a period as they can now commence their fishing. On crossing over to the coast of Labrador, American fishermen are to be found in great numbers, from Phillipian Bay to Cape Charles; they have uninterruptedly pursued their occupation of taking fish, and only in one instance, that I could learn, has there been any demands made on them for the privilege of drying them on shore.

At Brasdor, a Mr. Jones, who claims to be proprietor of the surrounding rocks, has demanded from each American vessel, one, and sometimes two quintals of fish, for the privilege of drying them on shore; this has generally been acquiesced in cheerfully; some of the fishermen, however, complained to me, that they thought it an unjust exaction, because they doubted if Jones could prove his ownership in the rocks, they being separated from the main land. I conversed with Jones on the subject, and he promised me that he would procure from the proper office at St. Johns a copy of an official record, which would satisfy any doubts that might be entertained by the fishermen, or by any American officer who might visit that place hereafter. My own opinion is, that Jones only exercises a right that is clearly his; he resides at this place all the year, and is, therefore, an inhabitant, as well as proprietor of the soil.

There have not been so many vessels employed in fishing this season as for several seasons past, and very few have gone further north than Cape Charles. At Greedy Island, where Captain Parker found twenty or thirty sail, I found but one; at Indian Island none, and not more than six altogether; have gone as far as 53 deg. 30 min. north.

In all my intercourse with the fishermen, I have been at great pains to impress on their minds that, while it is the intention of the government to protect them in all their rights, it is, at the same time, bound to prevent them from trespassing on the rights of others; and that I should feel it equally my duty to report any misconduct on their part, as to resent any injury done to them.

It gives me great pleasure to be able to say, that the conduct of all my officers has been perfectly satisfactory. I have, during a cruise made perilous by immense quantities of ice, thick, and almost constant fogs, inaccurate charts, and pilots unused to any vessel larger than a fishing smack, received from each, in his respective situation, the most zealous and efficient assistance.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. SHUBRICK.

Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy, Washington.

U.

PAPERS IN RELATION TO THE GREEK SHIP LIBERATOR.

House of Representatives, May 10, 1826.

Sir:

The Committee on Naval Affairs have instructed me to inquire of the Department of the Navy whether the arrangements made by the Department, for executing the act of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be injuriously interfered with if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the government be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, for the naval service, a ship of equal, or rather superior force, if the same can be procured for the United States on advantageous terms.

Your respectful and obedient servant,

H. R. STORRS, Chairman Naval Committee.

Hon. Sam'l L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.

--747--

Copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Hon. Henry B. Storrs, chairman of Naval Committee, House of Representatives, dated—

Mat 12, 1826.

In answer to your letter of the 10th, I have the honor to state that I do not perceive that the arrangements made by the Navy Department, for executing the law of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be, in any respect, injuriously interfered with, if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the Executive be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, a ship of equal or superior force. The timber may be so secured as to prevent any injury to it, and it will be necessary either for building or repairs at some future period.

Copy of instructions from the Secretary of the Navy to Commodores William Bainbridge, Isaac Chauncy, and Jacob Jones, dated—

Mat 29, 1826.

At the late session of Congress a law was passed, of which I enclose a copy.

It is understood that there are now lying at New York two vessels coming within the description contained in the law, built by or under the agency of G. G. & S. Howland, and of Le Roy, Bayard & Co.

It is the wish of the Department that you examine those vessels, with as little delay as practicable, and furnish a full report of their state and qualities, with an estimate of their value.

Copy of a letter from Commodores William Bainbridge, Jacob Jones, and I. Chauncy, to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

Washington, June 21, 1826.

We have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 26th ultimo. We examined the ships therein referred to, and think the one called the Liberator the best adapted for the public service of the United States. Her size is that of a forty-four of the first class. She appears to have been faithfully built, though her frame, being of white oak, is, as respects the material, greatly inferior to that of the ships building under the law for the gradual increase of the navy.

With respect to the "state and qualities" of this ship, we can only observe that she is new, and appears to be sound throughout; and from her form and dimensions, we should judge favorably of her qualities.

We have carefully prepared, and now respectfully submit, the accompanying estimate (A) as to her value, including her cannon and carronades, and such quantity of shot (particularly mentioned in the estimate) as is allowed to a vessel of her class about to proceed on a cruise, of the kind stated in the inventory.

Copy of instructions from the Secretary of the Navy to J. K. Paulding, Esq., Navy agent, New York, dated—

August 12, 1826.

I enclose to you an estimate of the value of the sixty gun ship, now lying at New York, said to have been built by Le Roy, Bayard & Co., and G. G. & I. S. Howland, for the agents of the Greek government. By this estimate you will perceive that certain materials for its equipment are embraced in the general amount. The legal title of the ship is now said to be in the arbitrators who were selected to settle the controversy between the builders and the Greek agents.

You are hereby instructed to place the papers before the district attorney of the United States for the State of New York, and obtain from him an opinion as to the right and power of the arbitrators to transfer the title to the United States, should a purchase be made; and if it be his opinion that a good title can be made, you will obtain from him the papers necessary and proper to make the conveyance legal, and purchase said vessel from those authorized to sell it for the amount of said estimate, viz: $230,570.97.

You may permit the agents or owners of the other Greek vessels to take from this any articles which are on board, designed for its equipment, deducting from the amount of the estimate the estimated value of such articles as are taken.

Should you make the purchase, let the vessel be delivered immediately to Commodore Chauncy. The amount of the purchase money has been remitted to you by this day's mail.

It is desired that not the least delay be permitted in concluding this transaction.

A.

Estimate of the value of the ship-of-war, the Liberator.

Wood of every description for the hull, with a live oak frame, would cost $65,000.
In this frame there are about 24,000 cubical feet. Live oak costs $1.42*, and white oak is estimated at 60 cents;
difference 82 1/2 cents per cubical foot, $19,800, deducted from the $65,000, leaves

$45,200 00

Iron

9,795 00

Copper and composition

27,140 00

Standing and running rigging, cables, hawsers, and messengers, per inventory

12,698 00

Chain cables, [75 fathoms of 1 58, 45 do of 1 3/4]

1,822 80

Boats, with oars complete

1,885 00

Water casks, 33,300 gallons

3,330 00

Blocks

5,000 00

Sails

17,000 00

Anchors

4,474 00

Labor of every description

55,000 00

Kentlege, 100 tons

4,000 00

Galley

2,000 00

--748--

Armament; 32 34-pound cannon

$13,566 00

3,000 32-pound shot, and 900 32-pound grape

7,004 00

30 42-pound carronades

5,550 00

1,215 42-pound shot, and 500 42-pound grape

1,680 00

Gun carriages, and all the apparatus belonging to the armament,
including the stores in the gunner's department, the magazine furniture,
the forge, bellows, and all the articles belonging to the blacksmith's department,
per inventory

13,426 17

$230,570 97

Copy of a letter from Commodore Bainbridge to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

August 25, 1826.

We have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 25th instant, with Mr. Constavlo's, in which he claims an allowance for the masts and spars of the Liberator, as not having been included in the general estimate as to her cost.

On referring to the estimate, it appears that the wood of the masts and spars was included in the item of $65,000; the terms "masts and spars" were inadvertently omitted in the heading of that item: that the iron, as stated by Captain Chauncey, was also included, but it appears that the labor of making the masts and spars was not included in the general estimate for labor; we therefore think that the value of this labor should be allowed in addition to the amount of the general estimate. There is some difficulty in forming a precise estimate as to the cost of this labor, but we think that $3,000 would be a liberal allowance—say three thousand dollars.

Copy of a letter from B. Tillotson, Esq., to James K. Paulding, Esq., dated—

New York, August 22, 1826.

I have examined the papers submitted to me in relation to the purchase of the ship Liberator. I find that the ownership of the property was legally acquired by the arbitrators, who propose to convey, and are of opinion they are entitled to give a good title. The bill of sale to be executed by the arbitrators will of course be accompanied by delivery, and the register surrendered at the custom house by the parties.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Chauncey to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Navy Yard, New York, August 28, 1826.

In pursuance of your order of the 12th instant I took possession of the frigate called the Liberator, on the 23d inst., purchased by the Navy agent, and this morning she was brought to the Navy yard, where she is now moored.

W.

COPIES AND EXTRACTS RESPECTING THE AFRICAN AGENCY.

Secretary of the Navy to Dr. John W. Peaco, principal agent of the United States for liberated Africans, Washington.

Navy Department, December 28, 1825.

In virtue of the authority vested in him by the act of Congress, approved 3d March, 1819, the President of the United States has appointed you the principal agent of this government "upon the coast of Africa, for receiving the negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade, by the commanders of the United States armed vessels."

Your commission has been already prepared and delivered; and you will receive herewith a printed copy of the laws in relation to the slave trade, for your guidance.

The instructions heretofore given to those who have preceded you in the discharge of this duty, copies of which accompany this, will exhibit the views entertained by the Executive respecting the general concerns of the agency, at the various periods at which those instructions were written, and you will regard them as a guide to yourself on those points in which they have not been executed or altered, and in which the situation of the agency has not been changed since they were given. Time, and the progress made in improvements, since its first establishment, have lessened many of its wants, and in some respects varied its character.

You will perceive that all the agents have been particularly directed not to connect their views, or in any way to interfere with those of the Colonization Society. From the circumstance that they have been simultaneously clothed with powers, both from the government and the society, it has been found difficult rigidly to adhere to this part of their instructions, located at the same place, for mutual defence and accommodation: and the resources of the society sometimes falling short of the benevolent intentions of its supporters, the colonists have frequently been dependent on the supplies furnished by the government, for the use of the liberated Africans, for their own sustenance; and the agents, from motives of prudence and humanity, distributed provisions among the settlers, to preserve them from want and dispersion; but in this the government has probably sustained no loss. In return, the colonists have contributed their labor, in the erection of buildings and other improvements, and to the defence of the establishment from attacks, which, without their aid, might have proved fatal, and would certainly have required larger expenditures of money.

A question has recently been submitted, how far the government is disposed to sanction such a practice in future. The original instructions contemplated and authorized the employment of a certain num-

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ber of persons as mechanics, laborers, nurses, washers, &c., as a means of affording some stimulus and encouragement to the colonists in the infancy of the establishment, and the colonists were properly used in that way. How far a continuance of this course will be found necessary, or may be justified, must depend on the condition of the agency, and be determined by the discretion of the agent.

It is probable that Congress, in passing the law, and making appropriations for carrying it into effect, did not anticipate that the expense of the colony would rest upon the government. It was presumed that the society would furnish the means to meet the necessities of its own establishment. Such, however, has not been the case; but it is believed that they have gone to the extent of their funds, and it is probable that they have not now the ability to afford much further succor, should it be necessary. But, as the agency cannot be sustained without the aid of the colonists—as they will be found indispensable auxiliaries in case of attack—and as their services, both in labor and defence, will merit compensation, you are authorized, until further orders, to employ them in both, as you shall find expedient and proper, and to make them a fit allowance of provisions and supplies, as their necessities may require, and the interest of the agency demand; but in doing this, you will use the strictest economy.

Supplies from this country must always be precarious; and you will not fail, on all proper occasions, to impress upon their minds the necessity of their utmost endeavors to support themselves by labor and the products of the soil, and of not being dependent upon your assistance, or any other resources.

For the purpose of protection against attacks from the natives, should any of them manifest a disposition to be hostile, it would be prudent, as a measure of precaution, to teach both the colonists and the liberated Africans the use of small arms. Prom their remote and insulated situation, they must rely on their own exertions for defence by land. It is to be hoped, however, that the increase of numbers in the settlement, their preparations and constant readiness to repel invasion, together with the occasional presence of a vessel-of-war, will deter the natives from any future attempts to molest them.

The necessity of keeping a military force, in the pay of the government, is not sufficiently apparent to authorize such a step, in the present condition of the colony, or without farther evidence of its utility. It is believed that the residents can be more profitably employed in the cultivation of the soil, and the erection of buildings, and other improvements, required by an augmented population. By organizing themselves into a local militia, for occasional drill, at stated periods, all the purposes of a military force will be obtained, without incurring the expense. It should not be forgotten by them, that, while they are acquiring knowledge in the science of war, they are creating a safeguard for their own protection, as well as for that of the interests of the government. Heretofore the agency and colony have been mutually beneficial in this respect; without the presence of the colonists, the United States would have been subjected to greater charge for military protection, but without the assistance afforded by the government, in maintaining the colonists, they could not have succeeded in their plans. It is very desirable that the recaptured Africans should remain at the agency, so long as to acquire some knowledge of the arts and comforts of civilized life; but should any of them discover their nation and country, and desire to return to their homes, you will not oppose their wishes, but facilitate and promote them. For the large number of Africans now in Georgia, who have been decreed to be restored to liberty, and whom it is intended to remove to the agency, as soon as some preliminary steps are completed, it will be necessary to provide shelter and means of comfort on their arrival. It will be your duty to take immediate measures to prepare for their reception, as they will probably reach the colony by the time you are ready for them. Various buildings have, from time to time, been authorized, but their capacity for the accomodations of these Africans, in addition to those already there, cannot be determined, except by personal observation. A quantity of lumber and other articles has been purchased and shipped on board the Georgiana, and buildings have recently been erected with such materials as were on the spot. The plan fixed upon by the acting agent has no doubt been adopted, as most suitable to the climate. The buildings must be finished in the simplest and cheapest manner.

It is understood to be the intention of the Colonization Society to appoint Mr. Ashmun their principal agent on the coast. He has had the active charge of the agency of the government constantly since the resignation of Dr. Ayres, and occasionally previous to that event. He will be continued as your assistant agent. His salary was, heretofore, fixed at 1,500 dollars, until the further orders of the Department, and will cease upon your arrival. He will be allowed, from that time, at the rate of 1,200 dollars per annum. From his long residence in Africa, his experience in the affairs of the agency, and acquaintance with the manners and habits of the natives, you will derive advantage, and, it is not doubted, that his cordial co-operation will be promptly afforded in all matters tending to promote the interest of the establishment.

You will keep very exact and minute accounts of all expenses of the agency, of every description, and, as far as it is in your power, separate those which arise from the provisions and support given to the colonists, from the other expenditures for the agency for recaptured Africans. You will prepare quarterly statements of the condition of the settlement, its general health, and the progress made in the various departments, together with estimates of the wants of the agency, in advance, and care will be taken to supply those wants as early as practicable. Your accounts of expenditures must also be made out quarterly, and forwarded to the Fourth Auditor, for examination and settlement; prudence will dictate to you the necessity of taking duplicate or triplicate receipts for all payments. These you will transmit by the earliest conveyances. Whenever opportunities occur, by circuitous routes, for communicating with the Department, it would be well to avail of them, as direct ones are not frequent, and to send duplicates and even triplicates of all your communications, by different conveyances; and that no opportunity may be lost, you will be careful to have them regularly prepared, to take advantage of any conveyance that may offer. Commence your quarters with January, April, July, and October.

For the disbursements of the agency, and the purchase of supplies from transient traders, you will negotiate drafts upon the Department; and if it will facilitate the operation, or be any accommodation to the holders, you are authorized to make them payable wherever branches of the United States Bank are located. The sum of five thousand dollars, it is presumed, will be sufficient for the ensuing year. Should it be found more for the interest of the government, or impracticable to dispose of drafts on the United States, you are permitted to draw to the amount of five hundred pounds sterling on Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., bankers of the United States, London, with whom a credit will be established in your favor. For every bill you will transmit a letter of advice to the Department, stating the amount, rate of exchange, and necessity for drawing; and you will also advise Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., of every draft on them.

A claim of long standing has been preferred by K. Macauly, of Sierra Leone, which you will receive

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separate instructions to liquidate. In the event of your having to draw on London for the amount which may be due to him, your credit there will be extended to one thousand pounds.

The Navy agent at Norfolk has been directed to pay, upon your requisition, for two boats, with the necessary appendages. The small arms, and other military stores mentioned, will be provided from the Navy yard at Gosport. The hospital stores mentioned in the list furnished by you, you will purchase in Baltimore or Norfolk, on the best possible terms, and draw a requisition upon the agent there for the cost.

Your compensation has been fixed at $1,600 per annum, to commence from the first day of February last, and the further sum of $500, which will be allowed for providing the small stores requisite for your convenience on the passage, and on your arrival.

It is intended, in a short time, to send to the coast of Africa, for a cruise, one of the vessels-of-war, and hereafter to send one at intervals of three or four months, should the situation of the service permit it. In this there will be two objects—to give countenance to the agency, and to repress the slave trade. Your duty in reference to them will be, to acquire and furnish to the commanding officers all useful information in relation to these objects, and to give to our vessels all the assistance, especially in the medical branch of the service, in your power. Your skill may often be useful in advising and aiding the medical officers, in cases of sickness.

You will proceed, as early as practicable, to Norfolk, in the execution of the trust reposed in you by your appointment, and the duties enjoined by these instructions, to take passage on board the ship Georgiana, Capt. Cornick, which vessel has been chartered by the Colonization Society for the purpose of taking a number of emigrants, stores, &c., to Cape Mesurado.

The remoteness of the settlement from this country, the difficulty and tardiness of communications, render it necessary to trust much to the discretion of the agent. Relying with confidence upon the exercise of a sound judgment, a strict attention to economy, and unremitted endeavors for the improvement of those placed under your care, my best wishes for your individual welfare are united to those of a large portion of this nation, who look forward with earnest hope for the success of this beneficent undertaking.

Secretary of the Navy to Jehudi Ashmun, Esq., Cape Mesurado, Africa.

Navy Department, December 31, 1825.

Since my letter to you of 25th January last, I have received your several communications, 15th, 20th and 25th January; 11th and 22d February; 1st and 5th April; 15th June and 22d August, with their respective enclosures, the contents of all which have been duly noted.

Your representations of the situation of the agency and colony afford a pleasing proof of the increasing strength and improvement of the establishment, creditable to your zeal and the industry of those under your charge. The recent appointment of Dr. Peaco, as principal agent of the United States, will supersede that previously conferred on you, and your salary, as such, will cease from the time of his arrival. You will, however, be continued as his assistant agent, and allowed a compensation at the rate of $1,200 per annum.

I have no doubt that you will render Dr. Peaco all the assistance in your power, and that from your long residence in Africa, and acquaintance with the natives, you will be essentially useful to him.

I have directed the Fourth Auditor to furnish a statement of your account, which will accompany this; your salary has been calculated to the present day, and the balance that may be due will be paid to the Rev. Wm. Hawley, as your attorney, or in any other manner you may direct.

Secretary of the Navy to Hon. John Marshall, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Richmond, Virginia.

Navy Department, January 5, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 1st instant, requesting information concerning the negroes in Georgia, which were on board the Gen. Ramirez. Arrangements were made last summer for carrying into effect the decision of the Supreme Court, by transmitting its mandate to the United States district attorney in Georgia. Some difficulty has arisen in consequence of the Spanish claimant insisting that those decreed to be delivered to him should be determined by lot, instead of by proof on each individual negro. On a reference of the question to the circuit court, there was a division of opinion, and it was determined to submit it to the Supreme Court. This will cause some delay in the delivery of the Africans to the United States; many of them had been brought into Savannah, by those to whom they were hired, and put into the custody of the marshal, and the rest were soon expected.

Dr. Peaco, the agent appointed by the government, will take passage in the vessel chartered by the Colonization Society, which it is supposed will sail soon, and has been instructed to prepare for their reception. Immediately on his arrival, no time will be lost in sending these negroes to the agency, after the Supreme Court shall have decided upon the mode in which they are to be allotted.

Secretary of the Navy to R. W. Habersham, Esq., United States attorney, Savannah, Georgia.

Navy Department, January 3, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 22d ultimo, respecting the proceedings in the case of the negroes of the Ramirez. That portion of it which related to the decision of the Spanish rights, by lot, created surprise, as it was supposed that the question had been clearly settled by the opinion of the Supreme Court. But, in the present situation of the case, all that can be done is to expedite the settlement of the question, and the collection of the negroes, as much as possible; and I have only to request the favor of your active attention to every part of the case, and that I be constantly advised of the progress which you make.

Secretary of the Navy to John Nicholson, Esq., marshal of the district of Louisiana, New Orleans.

Navy Department, January 10, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 7th ultimo, enclosing a copy of one of 23d July, the original of which was also received in due time; but no directions were given at the moment, presuming that the necessary steps would have been taken to have the Africans brought to trial before the answer could have reached you.

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I have written to the district attorney