--496--

23d Congress.]

No. 537.

[1st Session.

ON THE EXPEDIENCY OF EQUALIZING THE PAY OF THE OFFICERS OF THE ARMY AND NAVY ACCORDING TO THEIR RELATIVE RANK.

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FEBRUARY 28, 1834.

Mr. Watmough, from the select committee appointed to inquire into the expediency of equalizing the compensation of the officers of the army and navy, and fixing the amount of compensation by law, instead of allowances now made by the Department, reported:

That they have maturely and deliberately investigated the subject-matter submitted to their charge, and are constrained to say that the plan proposed by the honorable Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments, purporting to equalize the pay of the officers, &c., &c., of the army and navy of the United States, has failed to effect its object; its assumptions have appeared to them unsound, and its principles unequal in their bearing. At the same time, your committee feel bound to state their convictions, that whatever injustice or inconsistency is apparent, must be imputed rather to the difficulties which embarrass the whole subject, than to any intention or design on the part of the distinguished gentlemen with whom the plan has originated. With the view to lessen or remove these difficulties, your committee have anxiously sought the most accurate and extensive information; they now proceed to submit the result of their labors.

Your committee have assumed the following principle as both just and expedient: That the organization of the army and navy having long been assimilated on the score of rank, as is evident by a reference to the annexed resolution, marked A, of November 15, 1776, and the subsequent regulation of 1818 appended thereto, should likewise be made to correspond on the score of compensation allowed the relative grades. A fair spirit of distributive justice demands that the salaries of officers of similar rank, performing similar duties, exposed to similar or greater dangers, and encountering equal if not greater responsibilities, should be made to approximate. The duties, the dangers, and the responsibilities of the naval service considered, your committee reflect, with pain, upon the disproportion between the salaries allowed those engaged in it, and the compensation enjoyed by other public officers employed in the civil departments of the government. A reference to the documents annexed, marked B, C, and D, will prove at once, no doubt to the surprise of many, how widely the principle of equal justice has been departed from in the past legislation of Congress, so far as concerns the interests of the navy of the United States

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Your committee fully appreciate the delicacy of the task they have assumed; they are well aware of the high standing and general intelligence of the army of the United States, of the services which it has rendered the country, of the exalted patriotism of its officers, and of its present efficient organization. They state, with pleasure, their conviction that it was no more than an act of justice, becoming a free and enlightened nation, to increase the compensation of the officers and soldiers of the army, at a time when the increased resources of the country fully justified such increased expenditure. But they confess themselves entirely at a loss to conceive why a similar act of justice has not been extended towards that branch of the service, whose existence is most consonant with the spirit of our institutions, and most congenial to the habits, feelings, and character of the great mass of our population. They confidently hope that the period has at length arrived when Congress will feel itself called upon, by an act of justice, to do away, in the minds of our gallant seamen, with all those jealousies and discontents which the unequal legislation hitherto pursued was so well calculated to engender, and establish that harmony between the two great arms of our national defence, which ought ever to prevail.

By the act of -----, the army was placed upon a footing of comfort and convenience, believed to be inferior to no service in the world. Its officers are exposed to no extraordinary duties; they are called upon to make few if any sacrifices; they are never transported to foreign countries, nor to climates prejudicial to their health; they are seldom if ever separated from their families, and with but few exceptions, and those but for short periods, they are enabled to spend their time in the best quarters which our luxurious cities or comfortable garrisons can afford. They are, for the most part, educated in the best possible manner, at the public expense, and immediately on leaving their school are provided with the means of subsistence, much greater than has been allowed to the exposed and weather-beaten sailor, who bears upon his brow the laurels of many victories. Notwithstanding all these advantages incident to a state of peace, their pay and emoluments have been on a gradual increase since the termination of the last war, while the means by which they could hope, and it is believed earnestly desire, to return a fair equivalent, have decreased in a proportionate ratio. Our foreign relations are at this period, and are long likely to continue to be, of a purely pacific character. There can arise no inclination on the part of our government to assume a belligerent or even a mediatorial attitude abroad, and there is less apprehension that the services of our army can be required at home. Our Indian relations have terminated in the utter expulsion, far beyond our borders, of all those powerful tribes which it was so essential at all times to overawe, while the great means of employment, once so mainly relied upon as the principal source of occupation for the skill, intelligence and science of the army, in the consummation of a system of internal improvement, have been almost entirely relinquished.

With the navy of the United. States the case is widely different. At its first institution it was equipped but for a specific and temporary purpose. The confined and crippled resources of the country at that period admitted of no more enlarged or expanded view; many of our most patriotic and enlightened statesmen resisted the policy; they deemed it inconsistent with the nature of our institutions, and at variance with that principle of rigid economy upon which they considered their permanency to depend. They thought likewise that the day was far distant when the limited; and at that period crippled resources of the country would be so enlarged as to admit the establishment of a navy capable of contending successfully with the well organized fleets of Europe. These fears have long since vanished. The invincibility of British seamanship is proved to have been entirely imaginary.

The resources of our country have increased beyond all former example. The necessity which first induced the building of a few ships-of-war to protect a growing commerce, and avenge the insults offered to our flag, has extended itself to a commerce which has now reached every quarter of the globe, and produced a corresponding necessity of increased means of defence. The heroic valor of our seamen has proved itself equal to every emergency, and firmly established them in the affections of their countrymen. In fine, every reason which at first prompted an aversion to a permanently established navy, has been removed, and the absolute utility and general policy of such means of defence universally admitted.

The course, therefore, of every administration, sanctioned by the unanimous voice of the people, has been to render our naval force as efficient as possible. An annual appropriation provides for its gradual increase. Immense sums are expended in creating navy yards, and providing vast stores of timber, and of all the materiel necessary for a state of war. The places of such ships as decay or become useless from age are immediately supplied, and no act of legislation, which tends to engraft this great system upon the general policy of the country, is ever refused or rejected. Yet, notwithstanding the steady purpose thus manifested throughout; notwithstanding the ample provision made for the officers of the army; by a strange and remarkable incongruity, the interests of those of the navy have been entirely overlooked. A reference to the document B above alluded to, cannot fail to excite serious attention. The disclosure of the fact that no increase of compensation to the officers of the navy has taken place since the formation of the government, must operate powerfully upon the minds of the representatives of the people to obtain from them that justice to the gallant seaman which has been so long delayed. A hundred acts of legislation are to be found, making the most ample provision for the materiel of the service, scarce one which tends even remotely to foster its morale; and the nation will learn with surprise that the appeals of those who have so gloriously sustained the honor and triumph of her flag, and dispelled the chimerical apprehensions of naval invincibility abroad, have been invariably treated by Congress with the most mortifying indifference and neglect.

Your committee cannot perceive anything in the nature of the two services to justify so glaring a disparity of treatment.

The navy is our right arm of defence. It retrieved the fading glory of our country in the late war, and bore our flag in triumph over every sea. Its annals are adorned with deeds of the most chivalric spirit. It restored our violated rights, and shielded our commerce when attacked; and to it, and it alone, must the country ultimately look for the protection of her liberties, and the defence of her institutions against all foreign aggressions. The navy must no longer be considered as a temporary expedient; upon it is devolved a trust of the greatest national importance—the protection of a vast commerce, and the maintenance, with becoming dignity and intelligence, of all the foreign relations of the country.

The question naturally arises, can this be effectively performed under its present organization? How can that service prosper whose officers experience a sense of inferiority in being denied emoluments equivalent to those in the corresponding service of their own country?

Degradation and poverty cannot excite to emulation nor ensure success.

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It is apparent that every means have been adopted by Congress to make the army efficient, and to create, during a state of peace, the nucleus of a large and well organized establishment for the exigencies of war.

The policy of this no one means to question. Under a view of all concurrent circumstances, the necessity of such course does not appear quite so clear.

In case of any future war, it cannot be expected that the land forces of the republic will be called, to any very great extent, into action. Hereafter, all our wars must be essentially, and in the very nature of things, maritime. But admitting that the army is to be the main means of defence to be relied upon, will it be denied that its organization could not be completed in an incredibly short period of time? The elements of an efficient land force exist everywhere throughout our territory. They are to be found in the military enthusiasm of our people, and in their hardy, active, and enduring habits. The well-disciplined regiments of volunteers with which all parts of our country abound, are another source mainly to be relied upon, to afford a fine body of recruits for the army in all its gradations of rank. Upon the whole, it cannot be doubted that a land force could be effectually organized for any exigency, from the means which exist in the nature of circumstances, and with little or no regard to the fostering hand of government, in much less time, and at infinitely less expense, than would be unavoidably required to place our naval force upon a footing of anything like equality with any of the navies of Europe, much less with that of Great Britain, our great commercial rival. It is all-important, therefore, that the timely and liberal provisions which have been extended to the army of these United States should be made to reach the more important interests of the navy, and that its officers might be relieved from the embarrassments under which they are at present known to labor.

Tour committee do not deem it of importance to enlarge more fully on this topic. The whole matter has been ably and eloquently discussed by a former committee of Congress, and will be found in report No 85 of the 2d session of 21st Congress, to which your committee respectfully ask a reference. They now proceed to the subject matter more immediately referred to them—the relative rank and pay of the officers of the army and navy.

The following is the relative rank between officers of the army and navy, as shown in the regulations for the government of the army, recommended by the Secretary of War, and adopted by Congress, viz:

A captain of the navy under 5 years ranks with a lieutenant colonel.

A captain of the navy over 5 years ranks with a colonel.

A captain of the navy over 10 years ranks with a brigadier general.

A captain of the navy over 15 years ranks with a major general.

A master commandant ranks with a major.

A lieutenant ranks with a captain.

Neither the pay nor the rations of a navy officer of any grade are affected by duration of service. A captain, if commanding a squadron, is by law entitled to $1,200 as pay and $1,460 for rations, making $2,660 per annum; if not commanding a squadron, then his pay and rations amount to $1,930. A master commandant is allowed $1,176.25 per annum.

The following shows the amount of the pay, &c., of certain officers of the army, considering each as commanding a separate post:

Major general

$6,512 64

Brigadier general

4,422 48

Colonel

2,941 32

Lieutenant colonel

2,372 32

Major

2,106 32

Captain

1,569 00

First lieutenant

1,443 00

Second lieutenant

1,383 00

Brevet second lieutenant

1,383 00

Cadets

338 00

These amounts of annual pay comprise the regular salary of each officer, with his double rations and other allowances. These, it is true, are only allowed at the discretion of the Executive, and it is fairly to be presumed are benefits not extended equally to all.

A view of the above statement at once makes manifest the glaring injustice under which the officers of the navy have for years labored. The only pretence for this has been the right to which they are entitled of prize money—a pretence so evidently unfounded, during a state of peace of so long continuance as the present, that it is not deemed important to say more in reference to it than simply to state the fact.

It is not pretended that the plan of the honorable Secretaries obviates this injustice. On the contrary, a reference to the annexed letter of the Secretary of the Navy, to be found among the documents accompanying this report, distinctly admits that the disproportion is not corrected by it. Tour committee concur with the honorable Secretary, and having, as they believe, fully established the injustice of the existing inequality, unanimously concur in the opinion that, on the principle stated in the outset of this report, "a perfect equality ought to be established in all cases between the two services.

This being admitted, the question arises, whether such perfect equality should be effected by further reduction of the pay of the army, or by increasing that of the navy, or by such moderate reduction of the highest rate of compensation in the army, and such addition to the present pay of officers in the navy of equal rank, as will produce that equality in the compensation of the officers of both branches of the service which seems to be contemplated by the resolution.

Tour committee have come to the conclusion, for various reasons, that the latter course should be pursued. By its adoption, they are enabled to correct one of the evils arising from partial legislation. It will be apparent to every one who may examine the present rate of compensation in the army, that there exists a great relative disproportion of pay to the service performed; this disproportion is the natural consequence of legislating too much in detail, of increasing the compensation of one particular grade, without reference to other grades in the service. Tour committee have not been able to discover on what principle, or by what rule, the Secretaries have proposed a higher rate of compensation to the "senior officer of the navy," where the rank established by law applies equally to all captains over fifteen years' standing, unless it was in contemplation to create the appointment of admiral. This, your committee neither feel themselves authorized to propose, nor do they consider it either necessary or expedient at the

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present period. They confine themselves, therefore, to the law as it now exists, establishing the relative rank.

The highest rank acknowledged under that law is that of a captain over fifteen years' standing, corresponding with that of a major general, the highest rank known in our army. Tour committee, therefore, forbear to disturb or affect the relative rank, so long established and so well defined, by allowing a greater compensation to the senior officer than to others of the same standing.

They now proceed to give some explanations of the bill submitted by them.

They have conformed the bill to the relative rank, and proposed fixed salaries to the officers of equal grade in the two branches of the service. The principle assumed recommends itself in a threefold light. It presents at a single glance the compensation allowed each grade. It graduates the pay to each, according to the service required and the expenses incident to each particular service; and, finally, in the simplest possible manner, it does equal justice to all.

So much positive good, however, is not to be obtained without some partial evil. The compensation to some classes of officers has necessarily been much reduced, and large additions made to that of others. To some, again, the proposed pay varies but little from that at present allowed; all this has been the natural result of the great and manifest disparity which has heretofore existed. Tour committee have considered that a just regard to the equal rights of this large and most estimable class of public officers demands the correction now proposed. They are deeply sensible of the delicacy of the task which has fallen to their charge, and rely with confidence on that high sense of honor which has always characterized our officers, justly to appreciate the motives which govern them.

A manifest disregard of responsibility and duty has occurred in the case of the masters commandant. It must be remarked here, that hitherto the compensation to this class of officers has been degradingly low; nor is it thought that the one proposed bears more than an equitable proportion to their station, or to the service required of them. The same remark applies to the lieutenants "and sailingmasters.

The annexed bill proposes to increase the pay of captains in the army and lieutenants in the navy, after ten years' service; for it is to be observed, that what might be considered a fair compensation for a young man just entering life, would be entirely inadequate to meet the increasing demands upon one who is burdened with the maintenance of a family. If these officers had any certainty of being raised to a higher grade within a reasonable period, they could, in some measure, afford to be badly paid for a time. This, however, is not the case; many have already served from sixteen to nineteen years, with very little hope of advancement. For this, your committee seek to establish some equivalent, certainly a very inadequate one; they therefore give them something to look forward to in lieu of promotion. It is believed that, by the scale established, no more than an act of justice is performed. The compensation of these grades will then barely compare with that of others in the civil department of government.

Tour committee do not think it expedient to allow first lieutenants higher pay than other lieutenants. It is feared that such a principle would prove detrimental to the discipline and harmony of the service. Influence would then be necessary to get these situations. Injustice would ensue. The most deserving could not always command the most influence. The honor of the situation ought of itself to be sufficient to induce the lieutenant to seek it; if it were otherwise, his fitness for it might well be questioned: of all situations, those of the navy should be the last to depend upon extraneous influence.

A proper estimate seems not to have been made of the office and duties of the medical officers of the navy. This grade certainly requires the highest order of intellectual and moral habit. It is believed great injustice is done them by the plan of equalization proposed by the Secretary. According to it, a surgeon of the highest grade, who may have been twenty years in the service, has allotted to him $1,600 when at sea, $1,400 at a yard, and $1,000 if he has just returned from a long cruise, although, in the course of it, his health may have been very much decayed, or his constitution entirely broken down; while a surgeon of a regiment receives $2,000 in every instance, with an extra allowance when in actual service. So likewise a passed surgeon of nine years, who may have been an assistant for ten years, would receive only half the pay of an army surgeon who has but just passed through his mateship.

Your committee have endeavored to correct this injustice in the graduations they propose.

It has appeared reasonable that a compensation, increased and graduated according to the duty required and responsibility assumed, should be allowed the passed midshipmen, as some inducement to a fine class of young men to continue in and devote themselves to the service.

Considering that the situations of boatswain and gunner require officers of peculiar skill, experience and tact, and that they have no hope of promotion in the service, your committee deem it just and proper that an ample compensation should be allowed these grades, to induce competent and confidential native-born American citizens to continue in them for life. So likewise with the carpenters and sailmakers.

The clerks in the navy yards are not noticed in the plan proposed by the Secretaries. Tour committee are induced to believe that they are laborious and faithful officers, and have therefore included them in the bill proposed, at an increased compensation, believed to be barely equal to the duties and responsibilities required of them.

The schoolmasters being already provided for in a bill now before the House, your committee do not deem it necessary to do more at present than notice the fact.

In conformity with the general principles and details thus laid down, your committee now respectfully submit the accompanying bill.

=============

A BILL to equalize and regulate the pay of the officers of the army and navy of the United States on a peace establishment.

Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the following sums be paid to the officers of the army and navy of the United States, in full compensation for their annual services, in lieu of present pay and all allowances, viz:

To major generals of the army in actual command, and to captains in the navy of over fifteen years' standing, when commanding squadrons, five thousand dollars; when on other duty, four thousand dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, three thousand dollars. To brigadier generals in command, and to captains in the navy over ten years, commanding squadrons, four thousand dollars; on other duty, three thousand dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, two thousand five hundred dollars. To colonels in command at military stations, the adjutant general, inspector general, commissary general, and the chiefs of the

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Ordnance and Engineer departments, in service, and to captains in the navy over five years, at sea, three thousand dollars; on other duty, two thousand five hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, two thousand dollars. To lieutenant colonels in command at military posts or stations, and to captains in the navy of not over five years' standing, at sea, two thousand five hundred dollars; on other duty, two thousand two hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand nine hundred dollars. To majors commanding at military posts or stations, and masters commandant in sea service, two thousand dollars; on other duty, one thousand six hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand two hundred dollars. To captains in the army of over ten years' standing, commanding companies, and to lieutenants in the navy over ten years, in sea service, one thousand four hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand two hundred dollars; on leave of absence, or waiting orders, one thousand dollars. To captains in the army under ten years, in command, and lieutenants in the navy not over ten years, in sea service, one thousand two hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand one hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, nine hundred dollars. To surgeons in the navy over fifteen years, at sea, one thousand eight hundred dollars. To surgeons in the army and navy over fifteen years, on other duty, one thousand six hundred dollars. To surgeons in the navy over ten years, at sea, one thousand six hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand four hundred dollars. To surgeons in the army over ten years, in actual service, one thousand four hundred dollars; and to surgeons in the navy under ten years, at sea, one thousand four hundred dollars. To surgeons in the navy under ten years, on other duty, and to surgeons in the army under ten years, in service, one thousand two hundred dollars. To all surgeons over five and under ten years, on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand dollars. To surgeons in the navy under five years, at sea, one thousand one hundred dollars; and to surgeons in the army and navy, in other service, one thousand dollars. To assistant navy surgeons, at sea, one thousand dollars; on other duty, and to assistant army surgeons on duty, each, nine hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, seven hundred dollars. To chaplains to be employed by the Secretary of the Navy, in all ships or vessels-of-war over sixteen guns, when at sea, and who shall also perform the duty of schoolmasters at sea, or on shore at the naval schools, at the discretion of the Department, one thousand dollars. To first lieutenants in the army, on duty, one thousand one hundred dollars. To second lieutenants in the army, on duty, nine hundred dollars. To brevet second lieutenants in the army, on duty, seven hundred dollars. To cadets in the army, on duty, three hundred dollars. To aid to major general, in addition to pay in line, one hundred and fifty dollars. To assistant quartermaster and commissaries, and aid to brigadier general, in addition to pay in line, one hundred and twenty dollars. To passed midshipmen, employed as sailing-masters, at sea, nine hundred dollars. To sailingmasters at navy yards, seven hundred dollars. To passed midshipmen, employed as second masters in ships of the line and frigates, at sea, seven hundred dollars. To passed midshipmen over five years, at sea, six hundred dollars; on other duty, and those under five years, at sea, five hundred dollars; on other duty, and under five years, four hundred and fifty dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, four hundred dollars. To secretaries to commanders of squadrons, to clerks in navy yards, and to commandants on shore stations, nine hundred dollars. To clerks to commanders, at sea, five hundred dollars. To midshipmen, at sea, four hundred dollars; shore stations, and other duty, three hundred and fifty dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, three hundred dollars. To boatswains, gunners, sailmakers, and carpenters, when at sea, seven hundred dollars; on other duty, five hundred dollars.

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That, from and after the passage of this act, it shall be the duty of every medical officer of the United States navy to provide himself with all such instruments as are necessary in his profession, and that the sum of ----- dollars be, and the same is hereby, annually appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be applied, on an estimate to be furnished by the board of naval surgeons, to the object specified in this act: Provided, That, in the event of the death or resignation of any such surgeon or assistant surgeon, the same shall be turned over to his successor in office.

Section 3. And be it further enacted, That the pay of all officers not enumerated in this act shall be graduated and equalized, by allowing to such officers the same stated salary as is provided for those named in this act, of the same or assimilated rank, and who have heretofore received like or equal compensation, except such officers as have now by law a fixed salary. Officers temporarily performing duties belonging to those of a higher grade, to receive the compensation allowed to such higher grade, while actually so employed. Officers on furlough, at their own request, shall receive only one-half their pay at shore stations; one ration per day, and no more, shall be allowed to all officers in vessels for sea service, The above compensation to be in full for pay and subsistence, and for all allowances whatever, except for travel under orders from the Department, for which officers shall be allowed sixteen cents per mile; and for employment on special service, and chamber money or house rent on shore stations, (where quarters have not been provided,) not exceeding, in any one case, two hundred dollars per annum, at the discretion of the Secretaries of the Department of War or of the Navy; and all acts or parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed.

A.

Resolution of November 15, 17176.

Friday, November 15, 1776.

Congress took into consideration the report of the committee relative to the navy; whereupon, Resolved, That a bounty of twenty dollars be paid to the commanders, officers, and men of such continental ships or vessels-of-war as shall make prize of any British ships or vessels-of-war, for every cannon mounted on board of each prize at the time of such capture; and eight dollars per head for every man then on board and belonging to such prize.

That the rank of naval officers be to the rank of officers in the land service, as follows: Admiral, as a general; vice admiral, as a lieutenant general; rear admiral, as a major general; commodore, as a brigadier general; captain of a ship of 40 guns and upwards, as a colonel; captain of a ship of 20 to 40 guns, as a lieutenant colonel; captain of a ship of 10 to 20 guns, as a major; lieutenant in the navy, as a "captain.

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Relative rank of army and navy officers, extracted from navy regulations of 1818.

3. The Secretaries of the War and of the Navy Departments have, with the approbation of the President of the United States, established the relative rank between the officers of the army and navy; the Navy Commissioners have taken their regulations on the subject as a guide, which are as follows: Commodores shall rank with brigadiers general; captains in the navy shall rank with colonels; masters commandant shall rank with majors; lieutenants in the navy shall rank with captains in the army.

4. The rank and precedence of sea and land officers, as above stated, will take place according to the seniority of their respective commissions.

5. This arrangement shall not give any pretence to land officers to command any part of the naval force of the United States; nor shall it give to sea officers any right to command any part of the army of the United States; nor shall either have a right to demand the compliments due to their respective ranks, unless on actual service.

B.

Pay and emoluments of the following grades of officers of the army, at the periods stated, as fixed by law.

Grade.

Pay per annum.

Subsistence.

Forage.

Servants' pay.

Servants' subsistence.

Servants' clothing.

Amount per annum.

Remarks.

Total pay, &c.

Major general—in 1794

$1,992

$1,095

$240

None

 

 

$3,327

Act 5th March, 1792

 

Major general—in 1799

1,992

1,095

240

 

 

 

3,327

Act 3d March, 1799

 

Major general—in 1830

2,400

1,095

672

240

292

120

4,819

 

$6,512 64

Brigadier general—in 1794

1,248

876

192

None

 

 

2,316

Act 5th March, 1792

 

Brigadier general—in 1799

1,248

876

192

 

 

 

2,316

Act 3d March, 1799

 

Brigadier general—in 1830

1,248

876

480

180

219

90

3,093

 

4,422 48

Colonel—in 1794

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

None in service

 

Colonel—in 1799

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

do

 

Colonel—in 1830

900

438

384

120

146

60

2,048

 

2,941 32

Lieutenant colonel—in 1794

900

438

144

None

 

 

1,482

Act 5th March, 1792

 

Lieutenant colonel—in 1790

900

438

144

 

 

 

1,482

Act 3d March, 1799

 

Lieutenant colonel—in 1830

900

438

288

120

146

60

1,699

 

2,372 52

Major—in 1794

600

292

120

None

 

 

1,012

Act 5th March, 1792

 

Major—in 1799

600

292

120

 

 

 

1,012

Act 3d March, 1799

 

Major—in 1830

600

292

288

120

146

60

1,506

 

2,106 32

Note.—Subsistence was calculated at the contract price previous to the year 1808; for want of information on that point, twenty cents, the present commutation, is assumed for each period.

Officers are required to keep their servants and horses, to entitle them to the allowance.

Double rations are allowed to officers when commanding separate posts, and are to be added to the above in such cases. Fuel and quarters are allowed by regulations, and are paid through the Quartermaster's department, and are not included in the above.

C.

Statement showing the pay and rations allowed at various periods to captains, masters commandant, and lieu-

 

1794.

1799.

1831.

 

 

 

Dollars per month.

Rations per day.

Sum total.

Dollars per month.

Rations per day.

Sum total.

Dollars per month.

Rations per day.

Sum total.

Captains of 32 guns and upwards

$75 00

6

$1,338 00

$100 00

8

$1,784 00

$100 00

8

$1,930 00

Captains of 20 and under 32 guns

 

 

 

75 00

6

1,338 00

75 00

6

1,447 50

Masters commandant

 

 

 

60 00

5

1,085 00

60 00

5

1,176 25

Lieutenants commanding

 

 

 

50 00

4

892 00

60 00

5

1,176 25

Lieutenants

40 00

3

699 00

40 00

3

699 00

50 00

4

965 00

Commanders of squadrons

 

 

 

100 00

16

2,368 00

100 00

16

2,660 00

Note.—In 1814 the President was authorized, at his discretion, to increase the navy pay twenty-five per cent. This increase was extended only to those serving on the lakes. The law was repealed in 1817.

The present value of the navy ration is twenty-five cents; from 1799 to 1812 it was only twenty cents; hence the difference in the aggregate pay of 1799 and that of 1831.

Captains in command of squadrons are by law allowed double rations.

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D.

Salaries of various civil officers of the government at different periods and at present.

 

1789.

1791.

1792.

1794.

1796.

1798.

1799.

1806.

1817.

1818.

1819.

1827.

Secretary of State

$3,500

 

 

 

 

 

$5,000

 

 

 

$6,000

 

Secretary of Treasury

3,500

 

 

 

 

 

5,000

 

 

 

6,000

 

Secretary of War

3,000

 

 

 

 

 

4,500

 

 

 

6,000

 

Secretary of Navy

 

 

 

 

 

$3,000

4,500

 

 

 

6,000

 

Attorney General

1,500

 

 

 

 

 

3,000

 

 

 

3,500

 

Postmaster General

 

 

 

$2,400

 

 

3,000

 

 

 

4,000

$6,000

Assistant to Secretary of Treasury

1,500

$1,900

 

 

 

 

*3,000

 

 

 

 

 

Comptroller of Treasury, First

2,000

2,400

 

 

 

 

3,500

 

 

 

 

 

Auditor, First

1,500

1,900

 

 

 

 

3,000

 

 

 

 

 

Treasurer

2,000

 

 

 

 

 

3,000

 

 

 

 

 

Register

1,250

1,500

 

 

 

 

2,400

 

 

 

 

 

Accountant, War

 

 

$1,200

 

$1,600

 

2,000

 Made Auditors.

$3,000

 

 

 

Accountant, Navy

 

 

 

 

 

1,600

2,000

3,000

 

 

 

Assistant Postmaster General

 

 

 

1,200

 

 

1,700

 

 

 

2,500

 

Chief Justice

4,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,000

 

Justices Supreme Court

3,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,500

 

Chief clerks, viz:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State Department

800

 

 

 

 

raised

 

Regulated
by the
heads of
departments,
and raised.

 

$2,000

 

 

War Department

600

 

800

 

 

do

 

 

2,000

 

 

Comptroller of Treasury

800

 

 

 

 

do

 

 

1,700

 

 

Auditor and Treasurer, each

600

 

 

 

 

do

 

 

1,700

 

 

Navy

 

 

 

 

 

1,200

 

 

2,000

 

 

Messenger to the Secretary of the Navy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

700

 

Difference of compensation between officers of the army and navy, calculated on the maximum in each grade in the army and navy.

Major general, first rank, receives annual compensation more than captain over 15 years' standing, first rank in navy, of.

$3,542 00

Brigadier general, second rank, receives annual compensation more than captain over 10 years' standing, second rank in navy, of

2,231 00

Colonel, third rank, receives annual compensation more than captain over 5 years' standing, third rank in navy, of

799 00

Lieutenant colonel, fourth rank, receives annual compensation more than captain under 5 years' standing, fourth rank in navy, of

305 00

Major, fifth rank, receives annual compensation more than master commandant, fifth rank in navy, of

850 75

Captain, sixth rank, receives annual compensation more than lieutenants, sixth rank in navy, of

636 25

Brevet second lieutenants in the army, under existing regulations, immediately after leaving West Point academy, educated at public expense

$1,383 00

The pay of a master commandant, who has been in service 25 years, and in most cases is charged with the maintenance of a wife and children, commanding a ship of 30 guns and upwards, on a foreign station, receives an annual compensation of only

$1,176 25

 

 

Deduct hospital dues

2 40

 

 

 

1,173 85

 

Balance in favor of brevet second lieutenants

$209 15

If from this balance be deducted the only allowance of cabin furniture made to a master commandant

180 00

There still remains a balance against the naval, of

$29 15

Lieutenants in the navy of eighteen years' service receive

$965 00

Brevet second lieutenant in army, as above

1,383 00

Leaves a balance against the navy lieutenant, of

$418 00

* Made commissioner of the revenue.

--503--

A BILL to equalize and regulate the pay of the officers of the army and navy of the United States on a peace establishment.

Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the following sums be paid to the officers of the army and navy of the United States, in full compensation for their annual services, in lieu of present pay and all allowances, viz:

To major generals of the army in actual command, and to captains in the navy over fifteen years' standing, when commanding squadrons, five thousand dollars; when on other duty, four thousand dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, three thousand dollars.

To brigadier generals in command, and to captains in the navy over ten years, commanding squadrons, four thousand dollars; on other duty, three thousand dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, two thousand five hundred dollars.

To colonels in command at military stations, the adjutant general, inspector general, commissary general, and the chiefs of the Ordnance and Engineer department, in service, and to captains in the navy over five years, at sea, three thousand dollars; on other duty, two thousand five hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, two thousand dollars.

To lieutenant colonels in command at military posts or stations, and to captains in the navy, not over five years' standing, at sea, two thousand five hundred dollars; on other duty, two thousand two hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand nine hundred dollars.

To majors commanding at military posts or stations, and masters commandant in sea service, two thousand dollars; on other duty, one thousand sis hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand two hundred dollars.

To captains in the army over ten years' standing, commanding companies, and to lieutenants in the navy over ten years, in sea service, one thousand four hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand two hundred dollars; on leave of absence, or waiting orders, one thousand dollars.

To captains in the army under ten years, in command, and lieutenants in the navy not over ten years, in sea service, one thousand two hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand one hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, nine hundred dollars.

To surgeons in the navy over fifteen years, at sea, one thousand eight hundred dollars.

To surgeons in the army or navy over fifteen years, on other duty, one thousand six hundred dollars.

To surgeons in the navy over ten years, at sea, one thousand six hundred dollars; on other duty, one thousand four hundred dollars.

To surgeons in the army over ten years, in actual service, one thousand four hundred dollars; and to surgeons in the navy under ten years, at sea, one thousand four hundred dollars.

To surgeons in the navy under ten years, on other duty, and to surgeons in the army under ten years, in service, one thousand two hundred dollars.

To all surgeons over five and under ten years, on leave, or waiting orders, one thousand dollars.

To surgeons in the navy under five years, at sea, one thousand one hundred dollars; and to surgeons in the army and navy, in other service, one thousand dollars.

To assistant navy surgeons, at sea, one thousand dollars; on other duty, and to assistant army surgeons on duty, each, nine hundred dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, seven hundred dollars.

To chaplains, to be employed by the Secretary of the Navy in all ships or vessels-of-war over sixteen guns, when at sea, and who shall also perform the duty of schoolmasters, at sea, or on shore at the naval schools, at the discretion of the Department, one thousand dollars.

To first lieutenants in the army, on duty, one thousand one hundred dollars.

To second lieutenants in the army, on duty, nine hundred dollars.

To brevet second lieutenants in the army, on duty, seven hundred dollars.

To cadets in the army, on duty, three hundred dollars.

To aid to major general, in addition to pay in line, one hundred and fifty dollars.

To assistant quartermaster and commissaries, and aid to brigadier general, in addition to pay in line, one hundred and twenty dollars.

To passed midshipmen, employed as sailingmasters, at sea, nine hundred dollars.

To sailingmasters at navy yards, seven hundred dollars.

To passed midshipmen, employed as second masters in ships of the line and frigates, at sea, seven hundred dollars.

To passed midshipmen over five years, at sea, six hundred dollars; on other duty, and those under five years, at sea, five hundred dollars; on other duty, and under five years, four hundred and fifty dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, four hundred dollars.

To secretaries to commanders of squadrons, to clerks in navy yards, and to commandants on shore stations, nine hundred dollars.

To clerks to commanders, at sea, five hundred dollars.

To midshipmen, at sea, four hundred dollars; shore stations, and other duty, three hundred and fifty dollars; on leave, or waiting orders, three hundred dollars.

To boatswains, gunners, sailmakers, and carpenters, when at sea, seven hundred dollars; on other duty, five hundred dollars.

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That, from and after the passage of this act, it shall be the duty of every medical officer of the United States navy to provide himself with all such instruments as are necessary in his profession, and that the sum of ----- dollars be, and the same is hereby,

annually appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be applied, on an estimate to be furnished by the board of naval surgeons, to the object specified in this act: Provided, that, in the event of the death or resignation of any such surgeon or assistant surgeon, the same shall be turned over to his successor in office.

Section 3. And be it further enacted, That the pay of all officers not enumerated in this act shall be graduated and equalized, by allowing to such officers the same stated salary as is provided for those named in this act, of the same or assimilated rank, and who have heretofore received like or equal compensation, except such officers as have now by law a fixed salary. Officers temporarily performing duties belonging to those of a higher grade, to receive the compensation allowed to such higher grade, while actually so employed. Officers on furlough, at their own request, shall receive only one-half their pay at shore stations; one ration per day, and no more, shall he allowed to all officers in vessels for sea service. The above compensation to be in full for pay and subsistence, and for all allowances whatever, except for

--504--

travel under orders from the Department, for which officers shall he allowed sixteen cents per mile; and for employment on special service, and chamber money or house rent on shore stations, (where quarters have not been provided,) not exceeding, in any one case, two hundred dollars per annum, at the discretion of the Secretaries of the Department of War or of the Navy; and all acts or parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed.

Navy Department, January 15, 1834.

Sir:

Your letter of the 10th instant has been received; but the document, mentioned as enclosed, has not come to hand.

In reply to your inquiries, I have the honor to submit a copy of a communication from the Navy Commissioners, marked A, 1 and 2, which contains their views fully on the subject of pay.

On account of their references, I enclose a copy of a report by the President to the Senate, this session, marked B, though it probably is already in your possession.

The differences between that document and the project submitted to the Senate by the President, as coming from this Department, are slight, if any, in principle, and are not numerous in detail. Most of the variations could probably be adopted to advantage.

I submit a schedule of pay and some of the allowances in the French naval service, (C,) and a statement of the pay, and some of the allowances in the British naval service, (D.)

These, for convenience, are reduced to our own currency, the pound sterling, in the latter, being computed at $4.44, and the months in a year at thirteen, being deemed lunar by their usage. But the pound, valued at more, would of course make the pay higher, and the pounds and pence are therefore retained, in order that any person may compute them on a different basis.

In answer to another of your inquiries, I understand the board of revision have prepared new bills on subjects connected with the navy, and which will, in a short time, be laid before Congress. But none of them are now in my possession.

In relation to the general features of the pay contemplated in the tables from this Department, it may be remarked, in explanation, that the navy pay, as proposed, when its amount is to be compared with the present pay, or with the pay of the army, must be computed really higher than its nominal amount, by the addition of a ration when on duty, by one project, and by rent in certain cases, and a ration when at sea, by the other project. In all cases, except those of lieutenants, surgeons, and assistant surgeons which have within a few years been provided for, there is also a large increase of pay while on duty; and, taking the pay on an average, as our records show officers to be on and off duty, there is believed to be a considerable increase in most classes, and in none any diminution. The increase would, in some cases, have been larger, had the pay in the army to those of corresponding rank been larger. These results were deemed proper to be sought, in proportioning anew the pay among all the different ranks in the navy, and in assimilating it, as the resolution of the Senate was supposed to require, more nearly than at present, to the pay allowed to similar ranks in the army. In the case of pursers, although the nominal increase is very great, yet, as the system of pay is changed from pay and allowances to a salary in full, it is supposed that the actual compensation received will in some cases be larger and in some less, but, on an average, not much, if any, larger than it now is. In those classes of officers under warrants, and not midshipmen, the difference in pay, when on and off duty, is larger than in most other classes, because such officers, like seamen, are seldom off duty beyond a short time, and cannot conveniently be long spared from duty. But their average compensation, as they are generally employed, will, by the proposed amounts, be greatly augmented, because it is believed that such augmentation will command a higher order of talent in that grade of the service.

The different characters of the two services on land and water, in various particulars, and especially in respect to the right of prize money, have caused heretofore a greater inequality against the navy than is believed to be proper; and the proposed changes will, if adopted, correct in a great measure, though not entirely, the disproportion now existing. Whether a more perfect equality ought to be established in all cases, and, if so, whether it should be effected by reducing the pay of the army or increasing that of the navy in certain cases, Congress must decide. The discrimination between pay in the navy, when off and on duty, has been introduced in all cases in the proposed table, and is deemed very material to the efficiency of the service. It has existed, by law, to the extent of one-half of the whole pay, ever since 1806, though not much in practice since 1819, except when on furlough. It prevails largely in the navies of both France and England. In the latter, a large proportion of the officers are usually kept on reduced or half-pay when not on duty (see D;) and, in the former, it is specially provided for in the manner detailed in the notes to the table C.

I have nothing further, which appears material, to add on this subject, except that the allowance of travel, in both the navy and army services, as heretofore practiced, is believed to be always confined to travel on duty, and such is the view at the close of the table B, in reference to travel hereafter.

If it be the wish of the committee and of Congress to extend this allowance to travel performed under leaves of absence, and to attend school, and not for duty, (as I infer to be your own views, by a clause in the bill reported as to schools), it will be necessary to make a special provision to that effect, and to increase the appropriation out of which such travel is to be paid. The present appropriations are founded on different estimates, and are barely sufficient to pay the other charges on them, and the travel performed under orders for duty.

I have forborne any comments on pay in our army, or on foreign pay in the land service, from motives of delicacy, supposing that such comments would be more acceptable from persons connected with that branch of the public service.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

LEVI WOODBURY.

The Hon. G. Watmough, Chairman of Select Committee for equalizing Army and navy pay, House of Representatives.

--505--

A, No. 1.

Washington, December 27, 1833.

The board for the revision of the regulations of the navy, &c., have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 19th instant, covering a copy of the message from the President of the United States to the Senate, respecting the pay of the officers of the army and navy.

They have attentively considered the table B, which relates to the proposed pay for the officers of the navy, and beg leave respectfully to refer to the enclosed table (A, 2) for the modifications which they believe may be made with advantage to the interests of the service.

It was deemed advisable to mention the "captain of the fleet," because duties are assigned to a captain acting in that capacity by the revised regulations, and to prevent any doubt as to his proper compensation whenever he might be employed.

The board would respectfully observe that the command of vessels for sea service, and of navy yards, appears to be more important than any other of the ordinary duties of captain, and they have, therefore, suggested a slight increase to the proposed compensation to captains under five years, when thus employed, and a reduction in both classes when on other duty.

The board respectfully recommend the adoption of the slight increase proposed for masters commandant on sea service, under a belief that the average compensation to that class of officers, as they will be employed, will still be below the pay of their corresponding rank in the army.

The great responsibility of first lieutenants of large vessels induces the board to recommend the adoption of the proposed modification of the compensation to first lieutenants. They are also of opinion that their pay in ships of the line should be the same as when commanding small vessels, and that the pay of "flag lieutenants" should be equal to that of first lieutenants of frigates, as it will still be less than the proposed pay for aids-de-camp to brigadiers general in the army.

It is also proposed that the pay of the purser of a receiving vessel shall be the same as though in a navy yard.

The board would also recommend the variation of pay, according to the rate of vessel in which sailingmasters are employed, for the same reasons assigned for the change respecting the pay of first lieutenants of vessels; and the same reasons will apply to the boatswain, gunner, carpenter, and sailmaker.

They have also proposed to limit the allowance of the ration to persons employed in vessels for sea service, as in all other situations the officers can procure subsistence for themselves.

It has been thought better to define the employment of officers by their employment "in vessels for sea service," to using the term "at sea," as the latter seemed more liable to misconstruction.

For the same reason they have proposed a different phraseology in the clause respecting the allowances to. be discontinued.

They have also proposed to specify some period within which the officers will not be put on furlough pay, and have named a year, because that seemed not to be a longer period than would be necessary to enable an officer to make use of his time to any immediate advantage to himself.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your most obedient servant,

JN. RODGERS.

To the Hon. L. Woodbury, Secretary of the Navy.

A, No. 2.

Table showing the modification proposed to be made in the pay of the officers of the navy, as sent by the President of the United States to the Senate, December 5, 1833.

Officers, &c.

Pay as sent to the Senate.

Modifications proposed.

Senior captain in the navy:

 

 

When commanding a squadron

$5,500

$5,500

When on other duty

4,500

4,500

When on leave, or waiting orders

3,000

3,000

All other captains:

 

 

When commanding squadrons, or acting as Navy Commissioners

4,200

4,200

When of five years' standing, and commanding vessels for sea service, or navy

 

 

yards, or acting as captain of a fleet

3,500

3,500

When on other duty

3,500

3,200

When on leave, or waiting orders

2,300

2,300

When under five years, and commanding vessels for sea service, or navy yards,

 

 

or acting as captain of the fleet

2,800

3,000

When on other duty

2,800

2,700

When on leave, or waiting orders

2,000

2,000

Masters commandant or commanders:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

2,000

2,100

When attached to a navy yard, or on other duty

1,600

1,600

When on leave, or waiting orders

1,400

1,400

Lieutenants:

 

 

When commanding a vessel in commission, or when first lieutenants of a ship of the line for sea service

1,500

1,500

1,200

When first lieutenants of navy yards, or of frigates for sea service, or flag lieutenants

1,200

1,200

1,000

When first lieutenants of a sloop-of-war, or smaller vessel, for sea service

1,200

1,100

--506--

Officers &c.

Pay sent to the Senate.

Modifications proposed.

All other lieutenants attached to vessels for sea service

$1,000

$1,000

All lieutenants when otherwise employed

1,000

950

When on leave, or waiting orders

800

800

Surgeon of a fleet

2,000

2,000

Surgeons over ten years, attached to vessels for sea service

1,600

1,600

When at a hospital, navy yard, or on other duty

1,400

1,400

"When on leave, or waiting orders

1,000

1,000

Surgeons under ten years:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

1,300

1,300

When at a hospital, navy yard, or on other duty

1,100

1,100

When on leave, or waiting orders

800

800

Purser:

 

 

In a ship of three decks for sea service

3,500

3,500

In a ship of two decks for sea service

3,000

3,000

In a frigate for sea service

2,500

2,500

In a sloop-of-war for sea service

2,000

2,000

In a smaller vessel for sea service

1,500

1,500

In a navy yard or receiving vessel

1,200

1,200

On leave, or waiting orders

750

750

Chaplains:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

1,000

1,000

When employed in navy yards

800

800

When on leave, or waiting orders

500

500

Secretaries:

 

 

To commanders of squadrons commanding in chief

Omitted.

1,200

To commanders of squadrons not commanding in chief

Omitted.

1,000

Sailingmasters:

 

 

Attached to ships of the line for sea service

900

950

Attached to frigates for sea service

900

800

Attached to smaller vessels for sea service

900

700

First master of a navy yard

750

800

When otherwise employed

750

700

When on leave, or waiting orders

500

500

Assistant surgeons of ten years, or when passed for surgeons:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

1,000

1,000

When at hospitals, navy yards, or on other duty

800

800

When on leave, or waiting orders

500

500

Assistant surgeons under ten years:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

900

900

When at hospitals, navy yards, or on other duty

800

800

When on leave, or waiting orders

500

500

Second masters:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

600

600

When at navy yards, or on other duty

500

500

When on leave, or waiting orders

300

300

Passed midshipmen:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

500

500

When at navy yards, or otherwise employed

400

400

When on leave, or waiting orders

300

300

Warranted masters' mates:

 

 

When attached to a vessel for sea service

480

480

When at navy yards, or otherwise employed.

480

400

When on leave, or waiting orders

300

300

Schoolmasters:

 

 

When attached to vessels in commission, or to navy yards. (But they are only to be paid when thus employed)

600

600

Midshipmen:

 

 

When attached to vessels for sea service

350

350

When at navy yards, or employed on other duty

275

275

When on leave, or waiting orders

200

200

Clerks:

 

 

To commanders of squadrons, captains of the fleet, and to commanders of vessels

480

480

(But the pay of secretaries and clerks, and the increased pay to captains of fleets, and flag lieutenants, shall be paid only during the time the officer to whom they are allowed shall be actually employed.)

--507--

Officers, &c.

Pay sent to as the Senate.

Modifications proposed.

Boatswain, gunner, and carpenter, each:

 

 

When attached to a ship of the line for sea service

$480

$500

When attached to a frigate for sea service, or to a navy yard

480

400

When on any other duty

480

320

When on leave, or waiting orders

100

200

Sailmaker:

 

 

When attached to a ship of the line for sea service

420

450

When attached to a frigate for sea service, or to a navy yard

420

360

When on any other duty

420

300

When on leave, or waiting orders

100

160

When commission or warrant officers shall be furloughed for one year, or a longer period, they shall, while so furloughed, receive only one-half the pay to which they would be entitled if employed at a navy yard.

The above, with one ration a day when attached to the vessels for sea service, is to be in full for pay and subsistence, and for all allowances in lieu of cabin furniture to commanders of vessels, and for all allowances to officers attached to navy yards, or employed on any other shore duty; except for travel, detention, and employment on special service, and for house rent, when no public accommodations are provided.

B.

Message from the President of the United States, relating to a plan for equalizing the pay of the officers of the army and navy, and made in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, dated Washington, December 5, 1833.*

* For this message and the documents therewith, see antecedent No. 520.