January 3. Japanese occupied Chinchow and drove the ruler Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang's forces from Manchuria. (Japanese alleged danger of bandits. Fleming, p. 412.)


January 7. Secretary of State Stimson enunciated the doctrine of nonrecognition of. the legality of any situation resulting from action violative of the Kellogg Pact in identic notes to the Chinese and Japanese Governments. (". . . in view of the present situation and of its own rights and obligations therein, the American Government deems it to be its duty to notify both . . . that it can not admit the legality of any situation de facto nor does it intend to recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those governments, or agents thereof, which may impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China, including those which relate to the sovereignty, the independence, or the territorial and administrative integrity of the Republic of China, or to the international policy relative to China, commonly known as the open-door policy; and that it does not intend to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928 . . ." State Release 1932, No. 119, p. 41. Cf. Peace, p. 160.)


January 9. Chancellor Heinrich Bruening declared Germany could no longer pay reparations. {The. report. of the Basle experts "pointed out Germany's actual incapacity to pay and the close connection between German reparation payments and the whole present situation. . . . It was clear that any attempt to uphold the system of political debt payments would bring disaster not only on Germany but on the whole world." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 6.)

The British Government refused to endorse the principle of nonrecognition of unlawful conquest enunciated by Secretary Stimson or to address a similar note to Japan.

The British Foreign Office issued a statement saying:

"His Majesty's Government stand by the policy of the open door for international trade in Manchuria, which was guaranteed by the Nine-Power Treaty at Washington.

"Since the recent events in Manchuria, the Japanese representatives at the Council of the League of Nations at Geneva stated on the 13th October that Japan was the champion in Manchuria of the principle of equal opportunity and the open door for the economic activities of all nations. Further, on the 28th December, the Japanese Prime Minister stated that Japan would adhere to the Open Door policy, and would welcome participation and cooperation in Manchurian enterprise.




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"In view of these statements, his Majesty's Government have not considered it necessary to address any formal note to the Japanese Government on the lines of the American Government's note, but the Japanese Ambassador in London has been requested to obtain confirmation of these assurances from his Government." Survey 1932, p. 541.


January 14. League commission of inquiry appointed to investigate the Manchurian affair. (See Dec. 10, 1931, supra. Fleming, p. 435.)


January 20. Japanese consul general at Shanghai gave Chinese. mayor five demands. (Because of attack on five Japanese, Jan. 18, due to the anti-Japanese movement fostered by anti-Japanese organizations among the Chinese. The demands were for apology, arrest, and indemnity, control of boycott, and dissolution of such organizations. Survey 1932, p. 472. Cf. Japan, Vol. 1, pp. 186 f.)


January 21. Nonaggression pact signed by Russia and Finland. (To provide for a conciliation commission. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 28, p. 8)

Japanese Admiral, Kiochi Shiozawa, threatened to "take the, necessary steps" unless the Chinese fulfilled the demands without delay. Cf. Jan. 20, supra. Survey 1932, p. 473.


January 27. Japanese consul general told mayor he must have a satisfactory reply by 6 p.m. the next day, (To stop anti-Japanese boycott associations, Cf. Jan. 20, supra. Ibid., p. 474.)

Secretary of State Stimson telegraphed Ambassador Forbes at Tokyo to make representations to the Japanese Government regarding the situation at Shanghai. After reciting the events of the preceding week the instruction said: (paraphrase} "While this account may not be altogether complete or precise in all details, it is a sufficient indication that the action of Japanese subjects, both officials and private citizens, is contributing to the aggravation of what is already a serious situation at Shanghai, and that the consular and naval officers of the Japanese Government on the spot are seriously considering the use of force near to or in the International Settlement as an instrument of Japanese policy." Japan, Vol. I, p. 161;


January 28-29. Chinese accepted demands in full, (Cf. Jan. 20; supra.) British and American troops moved into allotted positions in defense sectors at 4 p.m. Japanese did not act, but notified mayor of Shanghai at l1:15 p.m. to evacuate Chinese troops from Chapei in a half hour. They bombed Chapei at 12:15 a.m. (British and Americans acted on decision of Shanghai municipal council. Japanese wished to make a night maneuver. Ibid., pp. 476-482; Fleming, pp. 414f. Cf. Japan, Vol. l, pp. 164, 167, 187.)


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                  13


January 29. China invoked Articles 10 and 15 of the Covenant. ("A dispute between . . . China and Japan–arising from the aggression of the latter against "the territorial and administrative integrity and political independence of the former in violation of the provisions of the Covenant of the League of Nations, exists. This dispute has not been submitted to arbitration or to judicial settlement in accordance with any of the articles of the Covenant. The said dispute has now reached a state when it is likely to lead to an immediate rupture between China and Japan. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 265 f.; Survey 1932, pp. 561 f.)


January 29-31. British and American consuls at Shanghai arranged truce between Japanese and Chinese. (To end hostilities and facilitate settlement of dispute. Ibid., pp. 483, 503 f.)


February 1. Japanese warships shelled Nanking. Ibid., p. 485. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, pp; 132 f.


February 2. British representative, J. H. Thomas, asked the League Council to suspend action while Britain, the United States, France, and Italy acted directly. Fleming, p. 417. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 266 f.; Survey 1932, p. 563. Cf. Peace, p. 161.)

League of Nations Limitation of Arms Conference opened. (Under Art. 8 of the Covenant. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 155 ff.)


February 5. Latvian-Russian nonaggression treaty signed. (Cf. Jan. 21, supra.; Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 30, p. 3.)


February 12, China referred her dispute with Japan to the League Assembly. (According to Art. 15, para. 9 of the Covenant: "at the request of either party, provided that such request be made within fourteen days after. the submission of the dispute to the Council." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 269.)

Secretary of State Stimson wanted Britain to invoke Nine-Power Treaty and Kellogg Pact and refuse to recognize as valid, any situation resulting from their violation. ("They do not concede that such a situation as has arisen in Shanghai is inevitable, provided the covenants of the Nine-Power Treaty and the Pact of Paris are faithfully observed by those who have covenanted to observe them, They are unwilling to consent that the enlightened policy which has heretofore marked the efforts of the nations of the earth towards China and towards each other should be repudiated or abandoned without their most earnest reprobation. They do not intend to forego their legitimate prerogative, in view of their treaty rights and obligations, to participate together with the other powers concerned in any negotiations whereby those rights and obligations and the policies which they represent may be affected. They take this occasion to express these views in order that there may be no misunderstanding. They avail themselves of the opportunity afforded by the terms of article seven of the Nine-Power Treaty to express frankly and without reserve their views upon these occurrences at Shanghai-and their




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belief that if the covenants and policies of the Nine-Power Treaty and the Pact of Paris be allowed to be repudiated or repealed, the loss to all the nations of the world will be immeasurable." Peace, p. 167 f.)


February 16. Members of the Council appealed to Japan as individuals. (To get Japan "to recognize the very special responsibility for forbearance and restraint which devolves upon it in the present conflict, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 270. They called attention to the terms of Art. 10 "particularly as it appears to them to follow that no infringement of the territorial integrity and no change in the political independence of any member of the League, brought about in disregard of this article, ought to be recognized as valid and effectual by the members of the League of  Nations. . . ." Ibid., p. 270.)


February 17. North Eastern Administrative Committee set up. (By Japanese. They erected a fictitious Manchukuo through pressure on prominent local Chinese notables amenable to Japanese dictation and control. Survey 1932, pp. 456 f.)


February 18. North Eastern Administrative Committee issued a "declaration of independence." ("In order to formulate a program under new policies. ., to reform the administrative system . . . to establish peace within and harmonious relations with the foreign countries promoting industry, agriculture, and commerce, thus bringing prosperity to the people. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 273 f.)


February 19. League Council referred the Sino-Japanese dispute to the Assembly. (Cf. Feb. 12, supra; Doc. Int. Affairs 1992, p. 283.)


February 23. Japan rejected individual and joint appeals to stop fighting: Secretary of State Stimson repeated doctrine on non-recognition in letter to Senator W. E. Borah. (In answer to query whether the Nine-Power Treaty had become "inapplicable, or ineffective or rightly in need of modification"; indirect appeal for support of other nations: "If a similar decision should be reached and a similar position taken by the other governments of the world, a caveat will be placed upon such action which, we believe, will effectively bar the legality hereafter of any title or right sought to be obtained by pressure or treaty violation, . . ." State Release 1932, No. 126, pp. 201-205; the British had refused to take part in a joint invocation of the Nine-Power Treaty on Feb. 11, 12, 13, and 15. Fleming, pp. 419 f. Cf. Peace, pp. 172 f.)


February 29. The United States consented to cooperate with an international conference at Shanghai. {For the restoration of peace. State Release 1932, No. 127 , p. 244.)

Henry Pu-yi, Manchurian emperor of China, deposed in 1911, made provisional president of Manchukuo. (By resolution of an All-Manchuria convention at Mukden. Survey 1932, p. 457.)


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March 3. League Assembly met to consider the Sino-Japanese dispute. (Cf. Feb. 19, Supra.)


March 4, League Assembly passed resolution calling for cessation of hostilities and arrangements to regulate the withdrawal of the Japanese forces. (Through the initiative of Belgium, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia. Fleming, pp. 426 f. Britain and France were silent for fear of military sanctions at their expense and of economic sanctions without American support. Ibid. pp. 429-432. American official opinion opposed economic sanctions as ineffective without joint Anglo-American naval action. Ibid., p. 430; the powers preferred conciliation. Ibid., p. 432. Cf. Survey 1932, pp. 575-578. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 284-286).


March 9. State of Manchukuo inaugurated at Changchun under regency of Pu-yi. (Cf. Feb. 18, supra.)


March 11. League Assembly passed resolution supporting the Stimson doctrine of non-recognition and appointing a committee of nineteen to report on the Sino-Japanese dispute. ("Considering that the principles governing international relations and the peaceful settlement of disputes between members of the League above referred to are in full harmony with the Pact of Paris, which is one of the corner-stones of the peace organization of the world, and under Art. 2 of which the High Contracting Parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts, of whatever nature and whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means; . . . proclaims the binding nature of the principles and provisions referred to above and declares that it is incumbent upon the members of the League of Nations not to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement, which may be brought about by means contrary to the Covenant of the League of Nations or to the Pact of Paris. . . . Considering that the whole of the dispute which forms the subject of the Chinese Government's request is referred to it [the Assembly] and that it is under an obligation to apply the procedure of conciliation provided for in para. 3 of Art. 15 of the Covenant and, if necessary, the procedure in regard, to recommendations provided for in para. 4 of the same article; decides to set up a committee of nineteen members . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 284-286.)

Secretary of State Stimson approved the League Assembly resolution. ("This action will go far toward developing into terms of international law the principles of order and justice which underlie those treaties, and the government of the United States has been glad to cooperate earnestly in this effort," State Release 1932, No. 128, p. 258.)


March 12. United States sent note to League on its resolution. ("to express . . . gratification at the action by the Assembly . . . that the nations of the, world are united on a policy not to recognize the validity of results attained in violation of the treaties in question . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 287. Japan, Vol. I, p. 213.)



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April 22. Russian-Finnish conciliation treaty signed.  (Provided for in nonaggression pact of Jan. 21, supra. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 32, p. 7.)


April 30. League Assembly adopted resolution on draft armistice and Japanese undertaking to withdraw troops. ("Considering . . . its resolution of March 4 and 11. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 287-289.)


May 4. Esthonian-Russian nonaggression treaty signed. (Cf. Jan. 21, supra. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 32, p. 7.)


May 5. Sino-Japanese armistice concluded. ("The Japanese and Chinese authorities having already ordered the cease fire, it is agreed that the cessation of hostilities is rendered definite. as from May 5. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 289 f.)


May 9. Little Entente renewed its treaty of defensive alliance. (Survey 1932, p. 606.)


May 15. Premier Tsuyoshi Inukai of Japan assassinated. (By members of the Young Officers of the Army and the Navy and the Farmers' Death-Band "who are opposed to weakness and corruption in government and to capitalism." Ibid., pp. 423-427; State Release 1932, No. 138; p. 499.)


May 26. Cabinet of Admiral Makoto Saito went into office in Japan. (By imperial command. State Release 1932, No. 139, p. 519.)


May 30. Bruening Government in Germany resigned. (Because of emergency decrees and land settlement policy. Survey 1932,  p. 598.)


May 31. Japanese troop withdrawal from Shanghai completed. (Under armistice of May 5. Ibid., p. 513.)


June 2. Fritz von Papen became Chancellor of Germany. (By appointment of President Paul von Hindenburg to succeed Bruening. Ibid., 1933, p. l41.  Cf. May 30, supra.)


June 6.  Esthonian-Russian conciliation pact signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 33, p. 1.)


June 15. Fighting renewed in the Chaco by Bolivia and Paraguay. (Border dispute. Survey 1933, p. 400.)


June 18. Latvian-Russian conciliation pact signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 34, p. 8. Cf. Feb. 5, supra.)


July 18, Turkey entered the League of Nations. Survey 1934, p. 216 f.


July 21. American Commission of neutrals [United States, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay] appealed to Bolivia and Paraguay to refrain from aggravating acts. (". . . which might aggravate exceedingly the actual situation and render nugatory the efforts being made for peace." State Release 1932; No. 147, pp. 62 ff.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              17


July 21 to August 20. British imperial economic conference at Ottawa. (To negotiate bilateral trade treaties granting imperial preference. Survey 1932, p. 589; Ibid., pp. 27 ff.)


July 22. Germany stated her claim to equality of status at the disarmament conference as basis of future collaboration. ("Equality of rights is the fundamental principle upon which the League of Nations and community of states in general is founded . . . discriminatory treatment would not be compatible with sentiments of national honor and international justice. It would also be contrary to Germany's contractual rights, which she could not renounce. . . . This essential condition is not yet understood, or not yet admitted, by all governments. . . . It must therefore urge that these doubts be eliminated by a recognition, without further delay, of the equality of all states in the matter of national security and the application of all the provisions of the convention. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 183.)


July 25. Polish-Russian non-aggression treaty signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 35, p. 5. Cf. Jan. 21, supra.)


July 26. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher demanded equality of rights for Germany in broadcast. ("We can attain this security if we so organize our armed forces–by reorganization, not extension–that they would give at least a certain degree of security, and I wish, in connection with the German declaration at Geneva, to leave no doubt that we shall take this course if  full security and equality of rights are further withheld from us. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p.185.)


July 30. Paraguay referred Chaco dispute to the League Council, (Survey 1932, p. 588; Ibid. 1933, p. 404.)


August 3. Nineteen American states announced nonrecognition policy to be applied to the Chaco dispute. ("Respect for law is a tradition among the American nations, who are opposed to force and renounce it both for the solution of their controversies and as an instrument of national policy in their reciprocal relations. They have long been the proponents of the doctrine that the arrangement of all disputes and conflicts of whatever nature or origin that may arise between them can only be sought by peaceful means. . . ." Ibid., p. 407.)


August 5. American committee of neutrals sought armistice in Chaco dispute. (Because of "their constant desire to save Paraguay and Bolivia from the misfortune of a war. . . ." State Release 1932, No. 149, pp. 104 f.)


August 6. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru declared their neutrality in the Chaco dispute. (They wanted to deny the belligerents right to transport munitions across their territory Survey 1933, pp. 408 f.)


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August 8. Secretary of State Stimson defined the attitude of the United States on neutrality and consultation. (Because he appreciated the fact that it was difficult for European nations to agree on better organization for their security when  they were uncertain as to the attitude of the United States in any future breach of peace. Ibid., 1932, p. 271.)


 August 13.  Adolf Hitler, head of National Socialist party, refused to collaborate with or join the German government. (Because Hindenburg would not make him Chancellor. Ibid., p. 260; Ibid., 1933, pp. 141 f.)

United States Ambassador Joseph C. Grew warned the United States Japan was creating public animosity against foreign nations. (To strengthen "the hand of the military in its Manchuria venture in the face of foreign opposition. . . . the Japanese military machine had been 'built for war', felt prepared for war, and would 'welcome war'; that it had never yet been beaten and possessed unlimited self-confidence." Peace, p. 6.)


August 25. Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, Count Yasuya Uchida, told Diet Japan intended to recognize Manchukuo. ("The Japanese Government are convinced that the recognition of this new State is only means of stabilizing conditions in Manchuria and of establishing a condition of permanent peace in the Far East. . . . the government consider the recognition of Manchukuo to be the only means of solving the Manchurian problem. . . . to extend to Manchukuo formal recognition and  assist its Government to carry on their sound policy above referred to will be a notable step towards making Manchuria a happy and peaceful land for natives and foreigners alike on the basis of the realities of the situation. And it is plain, too, that such is the only way to secure a permanent solution of the Manchurian problem." .Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 303-308.)


August 29: Germany sent France a memo on her claim for equality of rights. (". . . to clarify, through diplomatic channels, the question which the German delegation has raised. . . . It is of opinion that a confidential discussion between the German and French Governments, in which the standpoints and wishes on either side are presented with complete frankness, is the best means for achieving an understanding. . . . In fact, matters today are such that the question of German equality of rights must no longer be held in abeyance. The need for its solution may be concluded from the course and present state of the Geneva disarmament negotiations and, further, from reasons connected with the general international situation. It will materially contribute to the elimination of the existing tension and to the appeasement of the political conditions, if the military discrimination against Germany, which the German people feel as a humiliation, and which at the same time prevents the establishment of a peaceful equilibrium in Europe, shall at last disappear." Ibid. 1932, pp. 185-188.)

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August 31-September 1. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher reiterated the necessity for reorganization of German forces. (If the victors refused to fulfill their promise to disarm. Survey 1932, p. 261)

Peruvians took possession of Leticia. (Irredentism. Ibid., 1933, p. 440.)


September 3. Treaty of friendship between Haiti and, the United States signed. (". . . desirous of strengthening the bonds of amity which happily prevail between them and of giving a satisfactory solution to certain questions which have arisen in connection with the treaty of September 16, 1915 . . ." State Release 1932, No. 154, pp. 150-157.)


September 12. Germany boycotted the arms conference. (". . . the German Government could not take part in the further labors of the conference before the question of German's equality of rights had been satisfactorily cleared up. . . . Germany cannot be expected to take part in the negotiations with regard to the measures of disarmament to be laid down in the convention, until it is established that the solutions which may be found are also to apply to Germany. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 198.)


September 15. Japan formally recognized Manchukuo. ("Whereas . . . the fact that Manchukuo, in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants, has organized and established itself as an independent state; and . . . has declared its intention of abiding by all international engagements entered into by China in so far as they are applicable to Manchukuo; . . . for the purpose of establishing a perpetual relationship of good neighborhood between Japan and Manchukuo, each respecting the territorial rights of the other ,and also in order to secure the peace of the Far East. . . . Manchukuo shall confirm and respect) in so far as no agreement to the contrary shall be made between Japan and Manchukuo in the future, all rights and interests possessed by Japan or her subjects within the territory of Manchukuo by virtue of Sino-Japanese treaties, agreements, or other arrangements, or of Sino-Japanese contracts, private as well as public; . . . Japan and Manchukuo . . . agree to cooperate in the maintenance of their national security; it being understood that such Japanese forces as may be necessary for this purpose shall be stationed in Manchukuo." Ibid., pp. 312 f.)


September 23. League Council appointed a committee of three [Irish Free State, Spain, Guatemala] to watch the developments of the Chaco dispute and keep in touch with the American neutral commission to find a peaceful solution. (Fighting in the Chaco had assumed serious proportions; certain Council members thought that although the dispute was in South America, the Council was not absolved from doing all in its power to end it; others thought it would be best to leave the settlement in American hands: the committee of three was a compromise. Survey 1933, p. 412.)

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September 27. Chancellor Franz von Papen spoke again on Germany's demand for equality. ("There is no question of German rearmament, but of German equality of status and the treatment of Germany at the disarmament conference on a footing of equality. . . . Our practical demands, which are wrongly suspected of amounting to rearmament, mean nothing more than that we–naturally within the framework of the convention–demand the same liberty to adjust our armaments to our social and national needs as is possessed by every other country. . . . We are striving for the equalization of armaments by means of a reduction of the general level. . . . Germany has never demanded rearmament up to the level of her neighbors, but disarmament throughout Europe and the whole world, and equality of treatment in the methods of disarmament and the assessment of the factors of armament. Equality of status and equality of treatment alone can bring about a relief in the tension between the nations; they are the only foundation of peace and of that moral disarmament of which so much is heard. What is at stake here is the fundamental rights of the nations, which no country may deny to another. . . . The pacification of Europe can never be attained if the attempt is made to degrade individual, states to countries of inferior status. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp, 205-209.)


October 1. Secretary of State Stimson restated the policy of the open door in China. ("The present crisis in Manchuria is not only a blow to the commercial interests of the United States but a threat to the authority of the great peace treaties which were conceived after the war by the nations of the world in a supreme effort to prevent the recurrence of such a disaster." Survey 1932, p. 557.)


October 2. Lytton report on Sino-Japanese dispute published by League of Nations. (State Release 1932, No. 158, p. 199. Cf. Jan. 14, supra.)


October 3. Iraq entered League of Nations. (Unanimous vote. Survey 1934, pp. 109 f.)


October 21-26. Third Balkan conference at Bucharest, (Discussed minorities question, Ibid. 1932, p. 592.)


November 4. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler refused to attempt to form a government on the President's terms. (The President refused to grant presidential powers to a party leader, Ibid., p. 286.)


November 8. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected President of the United States. (Quadrennial election. Ibid., p. 610; State Release 1933, No. 172, p. 18.)


November 10. Britain admitted German claim to equality of status. (". . . we recognize that the limitations which were imposed upon Germany were intended to be, and expressed to be, the precursor  of the general limitation of armaments. . . . I [Sir John Simon] speak with authority of the Government when I say that the United Kingdom Government have throughout been ready and anxious to join the other Governments represented at Geneva,


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              21


including Germany, in. framing a disarmament convention which would fairly meet that claim. . . . It would not appear to be practical politics, and indeed I believe it would produce an exactly opposite result from what some people imagine, if any one at this time of day tried to prescribe a perpetual proscription for one great people, while for themselves and their neighbors they claimed merely a limited period. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 209-217.)


November 17. von Papen cabinet resigned in Germany. (Because of his failure to obtain parliamentary support for a Government of national concentration under his leadership. Survey 1932, p. 286.)


November 23. President von Hindenburg again rejected Hitler's demand for the German Chancellorship. (On the explicit ground that the powers Hitler insisted on would transform the Chancellorship into a dictatorship. Ibid. 1933, p. 142.)

Polish-Russian conciliation treaty signed. (Cf. July 25; supra. Ibid. 1932, p. 608.)

President Herbert Hoover repeated that there was no connection between debts owed the United States and reparations claims. ("After the war we refused to accept general reparations or any compensation in territory, economic privileges, or government indemnity. . . . Since we owe no obligation of any kind to others, no concession made in respect to a payment owed to us could either in whole or in part be set off or balanced against claims owed by us to any other creditor of our own country. On the contrary, every such concession would result in the inevitable transfer of a tax burden from the taxpayers of some other country to the taxpayers in our own, without the possibility of any compensating set-off." State Release 1932, No. 165, p. 336.)


November 29. Franco-Russian nonaggression and conciliation pacts signed. (Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 41, p. 4.)


December 2. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher was entrusted with the task of forming a Government in Germany. (Because of the fall of the von Papen Government. Cf. Nov. 17, supra. Survey 1932, p. 286; Ibid. 1933, pp. 142 f.)


December 6. League Assembly began consideration of Lytton report. (Because Council seemed unable to reconcile the views of China and Japan. Fleming, pp. 442 f.)


December 7. Majority of the delegates in the Assembly who participated in the discussion of the Lytton Report held to the view that a resolution of censure against Japan was in order; the British, Australian, Canadian, and Italian delegates insisted that the path to direct negotiation was still open; subsequently on December 9 a Committee of Nineteen was appointed "to study the Report of the Commission." (L. N. O. J., Special Supplement No. 111, pp. 40-55 and 74-75.)

22                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


December 11. German claim to equality recognized by Britain, France, Italy. ("On the basis of this declaration Germany has signified its willingness to resume its place at the disarmament conference." Survey 1932, p. 288; Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 233.)


December 14. Britain referred Persian oil dispute to the League Council. (Under Art. 15. Survey 1932, p. 607.)


December 15. Czechoslovakia, Finland, Britain, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania made war debt payments to the United States; Belgium, Esthonia, France, Hungary, Poland defaulted. Ibid., p. 602; Nov. 23 supra.;  State Release 1932, No. 166, p. 368; No. 167 , pp. 390-394, No. 168, pp. 400-428.)

American neutral commission proposed comprehensive plan for settlement of Chaco dispute. (To compromise conflicting demands. Survey 1933, p. 413.)

Paraguay rejected the plan immediately. ("Unsatisfactory and unjust" and calculated to threaten the security and integrity of their country. Ibid., p. 414.) Bolivia accepted it in principle.  (Ibid., p. 414.)


December 30-31. Rifles and machine guns sent from Italy to Austria and Hungary. (For repairs. Ibid., p. 575.)


December 31. American neutral commission invited Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru to join mediation of Chaco dispute. (Ibid., 1932, p. 589; Ibid., 1933, p. 415; they felt they had come to the end of their own resources.)