January 2. Colombia presented memo to the League Council on the Peruvian occupation of Leticia. (Danger of clash between armed forces had become acute. Ibid., pp. 440, 444.)


January 5. Japanese Ambassador Katsuji Debuchi told the United States Japan had no territorial ambition south of the great wall, but Manchukuo was a closed question. (". . . no Japanese Cabinet which advocated a compromise of the 'Manchukuo' question could survive in Japan . . ." Peace, pp. 175 f.)


January 6. Secretary of State Stimson asked President Hoover to request legislation from Congress permitting the President to limit or forbid shipment of arms and munitions of war to any foreign state when such shipment would promote or encourage use of force in a conflict or dispute between nations. ("There are times when the hands of the executive in negotiations for the orderly settlement of international differences would be greatly strengthened if he were in a position, in cooperation with other producing nations, to control the shipment of arms. The United States should never, in justice to its own convictions and its own dignity, be placed in such a position that it could not join in preventing the, supply of arms or munitions for the furtherance of an international conflict while exercising its influence and prestige to prevent or bring to an end such a conflict. . . . The day is gone when the spread of a conflagration is easily confined to any continent or hemisphere. The taking by the United States of this additional step in its domestic policy will tend to give encouragement and momentum to the struggle for world peace and against the use of force from which arise some of the most critical problems of this unsettled period in international relationships." State Release 1933, No. 172, p. 22.)


January 10. President Hoover asked ratification of the international convention for the suppression of international trade in arms and ammunition and implements of war or legislation permitting the President to limit or forbid such shipment. (Cf. Jan. 6, supra., Ibid., p. 19.)


January 10-11; France and the Little Entente protested the Italian arms shipment to Austria. (As breach of the St. Germain treaty. Survey 1933, p. 575.)


January 17. The United States Senate passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Philippine independence bill over the President's veto (Public, No. 311, 72d Cong., 2d sess.), 47 Stat. Pt. I, 761-770.



24                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


January 24. League Council referred Leticia dispute to the committee of three appointed for the Chaco dispute. (To follow the dispute and take steps necessary to avert an armed collision. Ibid., p. 447.)


January 25. Secretary of State Stimson sent a note to Peru calling its attention to its obligations under the Pact of Paris. (At the request of Colombia. Ibid., pp. 444 f.; State Release, 1933, No. 174, pp. 66-70.)


January 27. Secretary of State Stimson sent text of note to Peru to the League of Nations. (To indicate the United States would welcome League assistance in ending the Leticia dispute, to remove a principal difficulty of the League in handling Latin American affairs, to obviate the danger of setting one mediating agency against another. Survey 19331 pp. 445 f.)


January 28. General von Schleicher resigned the German Chancellorship. (Because of Nazi-National coalition; Ibid., p. 143.)


January 30. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor. (Appointed by President von Hindenburg. Ibid., p. 143.)


February 2. Provisional agreement accepted in the Anglo-Persian oil dispute. (Benes mediated. Ibid., p. 597. Cf. Dec. 14, 1932, supra.)

Argentina and Chile prepared conciliation formula for the Chaco dispute. (To avoid working at cross purposes. Ibid., pp. 115 f.)


February 14. Colombian forces invested Tarapacá, and Colombia broke off diplomatic relations. (Because they thought the mediation offer had expired, Ibid., pp. 447 f.)


February 15. Danzig police replaced harbor-board police at Westerplatte. (Danzig Senate would no longer carry out the provisions of the harbor police agreement. Ibid., p. 583.)


February 16. Little Entente [Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Yugoslavia] established a permanent council of foreign ministers as executive organ. ("Desirous of maintaining and of organizing the peace, having the firm intention of intensifying the economic relations with all states without distinction and with the states of central Europe in particular, eager to see the peace safeguarded in every circumstance, of assuring the evolution towards a definitive stabilization of conditions in central Europe and to have the common interests of their three countries respected . . ." [Unofficial Translation] Doc. Int.  Affairs 1933, p. 415.)


February 17. Colombia appealed to the League. (Under Art. 15, Survey 1933, p. 448.)


February 21. Austria promised to return the Italian arms. (Italy promised to take them back. Ibid., p. 575; cf. Jan, 10-11; supra.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              25


February 24. League Assembly unanimously declared Japan aggressor in Manchuria and recommended nonrecognition of Manchukuo. (By adopting report of Committee of Nineteen, Fleming, pp. 450 f.; Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p.390; State Release 1933, No. 179,  pp. 149 f.  Cf. Peace pp. 176 f.)

Japan withdrew from .the Assembly. ("Unfortunately, the Assembly, through the refusal of its members to face facts, and their uncritical acceptance of the report of the commission of inquiry, has only indulged in academic and inadequate principles. The Assembly stands, if it may so be said, for mere formulae . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 394.)

Mendoza formula of Argentina and Chile for settlement of Chaco dispute was submitted to Bolivia and Paraguay. (Joint mediation undertaken at suggestion of American neutral commission. Cf. Dec. 31, 1932, Feb. 2, supra.  Survey 1933, p. 416.)


February 25. Committee of three proposed a League commission for Leticia dispute. (To take charge of Leticia corridor and maintain order. Ibid., pp. 448 f. Cf. Sept. 1, 1932.)


February 27. Secretary of State Stimson urged League proposal on Leticia disputants. ("I find the proposal suggested by the League of Nations a most straight-forward, helpful one, which, if accepted by both parties, should make possible a peaceful solution of the present controversy honorable to both governments;" State Release 1933 No. 179, p. 159.)

Reichstag building in Berlin burned; (Cause unknown; Nazis attributed it to Communists. Survey 1933, p. 145.)


February 28. President von Hindenburg signed emergency decree. (To suspend articles in Weimar constitution guaranteeing personal liberty, freedom of expression of opinion, freedom of the press, freedom from domiciliary visits, right to hold meetings and form associations, and the privacy, of postal, telegraph, and telephone service. Ibid., p. 145.)

All Communist deputies in the Reichstag and Landtag and all Communist civil servants in the Prussian state were arrested. (Under emergency decree. Ibid., p. 146.) .


March 4. President Roosevelt in his inaugural address said: "In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor–the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others–the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors." ("We now realize, as we have never realized before our interdependence on each other. That we cannot merely take, but we must give as well." Ibid., p. 331.)


March 5-9. Bank holiday in the United States by order of the President. (To check American banking crisis. Ibid., pp. 16-22.)


March 5-16. The coordination of the smaller political subdivisions of the Reich was completed by the appointment of a Nazi Gauleiter for each. (Under the emergency decree of Feb. 28. Ibid., p. 146.)

26                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


March 5. National Socialists and Nationalists won majority in German elections. (Held to get approval for an enabling bill. Gain due to loss of a million votes by Communists. Ibid:, p. 144.)


March 6. Poles sent 112 extra soldiers to Westerplatte munitions depot. (As reaction to change of regime in the Reich. Ibid., p. 187.)

Committee of three asked the League Council to consider the Chaco dispute. (Under Art. 11, to get a legal basis to apply an arms embargo to both. Ibid., p.419.)


March 7. Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss assumed semidictatorship in Austria. (President Wilhelm Miklas consented to government by emergency decrees following a parliamentary crisis which resulted in suspension of parliamentary government. Ibid., 1934, p. 435.)


March. 8. League Council noted attempt at solution of Leticia dispute had failed and ordered committee of three to prepare a report. (Under para. 4 of Art. 15 of the Covenant, Ibid., p. 449. Cf. Mar. 6, supra.)


March 9. Nazis temporarily occupied barracks in demilitarized zone at Kehl. (To force coordination. Ibid., pp. 588, 146. See Mar. 5-16, supra.)


March 11. The United States accepted League invitation to cooperate in work of the advisory committee on the Sino-Japanese dispute. (". . . believing that participation by a representative of this government in the deliberations of the committee would be helpful .  . ." State Release 1933, No, 181, p. 177.)


March 14. Poland agreed to withdraw extra men from Westerplatte. (Danzig Senate promised adequate measures to safeguard Polish rights. Survey 1933, p. 187.)


March 17. League report recommended the complete evacuation by Peruvian forces of Leticia area and withdrawal of all support from Peruvians who had occupied it. (Her nationals supported by military authorities at Loreto had occupied Colombian territory as agreed by mutual treaty. Ibid.  pp. 450 f.; cf. Aug. 31, 1932, supra.)


March 18. League Council appointed an advisory committee on Leticia. (". . . to watch the situation, assist the Council in the performance of its duties under Art. 4, para. 4, and help the members of the League, for the same purpose, to concert their action and their attitude among themselves and with non-member states." Ibid., p.451.)

The United States accepted the invitation to cooperate with the advisory committee. (President Roosevelt was said to be glad to have the assistance of the League in matters of concern in the American hemisphere. Ibid., p. 451; cf. State Release 1933, No. 182, p. 194.)

Bavarian Minister of Justice; Dr, Hans Frank; in broadcast from Munich, warned Austria that German Nazis might feel

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              27


obliged to assume responsibility for security and freedom of Austrian Nazis. (Austria under war emergency decrees had checked hostile demonstrations of Austrian Socialists and Nazis by prohibiting demonstrations and political assemblies and restricting the freedom of the press. Survey 1934, pp. 435-436.)


March 22. League advisory committee on Leticia sought arms embargo against Peru. Ibid. 1933, pp. 451 f.


March 23. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and American neutral commission proposed 60-day truce for Chaco. (To provide time for arbitration without continual aggravation. Ibid., p. 417.)

Hitler forecast "pacific" policy in first speech to new Reichstag. ("It is the sincere wish of the National Government to be able to refrain from an increase in the German Army and in our weapons in so far as the rest of the world is at length inclined to realize its duty of radical disarmament. For Germany wants nothing else but an equal right to life and equal freedom. . . . The misery of the world will only be alleviated when peoples once more have trust in one another. . . . With reference to Austria, the Reich government is fully conscious of the unity of the destiny of all the German peoples. . . . The fate of Germans outside the frontiers of the Reich, who have the special task of struggling for the protection of their language, culture, manners, and religion, will always move us to intercede with every means at our command for the rights guaranteed to German minorities. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 404 f.)


March 24. Reichstag passed enabling act conferring dictatorial authority on government for four-year period. (Cf. March 5, supra. Survey 1933, p. 147.)


March 26. Fighting renewed in Leticia. (Ibid., p. 452.)


March 27. Japan gave formal notice for withdrawal from League membership. ("The conclusion must be that, in seeking a solution of the [Manchurian] question, the majority of the League have attached greater importance to upholding inapplicable formulae than to the real task of assuring peace, and higher value to the vindication of academic theses than to the eradication of the sources of future conflict. For these reasons, and because of the profound differences of opinion existing between Japan and the majority of the League in their interpretation of the Covenant and of other treaties, the Japanese Government have been led to realize the existence of an irreconcilable divergence of views, dividing Japan and the League on policies of peace, and especially as regards the fundamental principles to be followed in the establishment of a durable peace in the Far East. The Japanese Government, believing that in these circumstances, there remains no room for further cooperation, hereby give notice. . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 397 f.)


March 31, Austria disbanded Socialist military organization. (Alleged plan to resist the government. Survey 1934) p. 456.)

28                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


April 1. Chancellor Hitler ordered nation-wide one-day boycott of Jews: (Persecution of the Jews was one of the original points of his personal program for the regeneration of the German race and the Reich. Ibid. 19331 pp, 156 f.)


April 5. Secretary of State Hull wrote Congressional Committees asking arms embargo law. (". . . this Government should no longer be left in the position of being unable to join the other governments of the world in preventing the supply of arms and munitions for use in an international conflict when it is exercising its diplomacy and the whole weight of our national influence and prestige to prevent or put an end to that conflict. . . ." Peace, p. 178. Cf. Jan. 6, supra.)


April 7. Aryan law passed in Germany. (To disqualify for public employment German citizens who had a single Jewish grandparent. Survey 1933, p. 157.)


April 8. Unification bill replaced Reich kommissars with Statthalters in Germany. (To clinch and regularize the coordination of the political subdivisions. Ibid., p. 147.)


April 12. President Roosevelt outlined further his good neighbor policy. (Pan American Day address: "Never have the need and benefit of neighborly cooperation every form of human activity been so evident as they are today." State Release 1933, No. 185, p. 244.)

Danish Rigsdag passed bill prohibiting members of political organizations from wearing uniforms. (Because of local Nazi agitation in Northern Schleswig. Survey 1933, p, 173.)


April 9. British embargoed Russian goods. (Because of sentence of British Metropolitan-Vickers employees for sabotage. Ibid., 1934, p. 370.)

The United States abandoned the gold standard. (Politically inevitable, to be off before beginning of conversations about World Economic conference with Ramsay MacDonald. Ibid. 1933, p. 28.)


April 22. Russia embargoed British imports. (Retorsion. See April 19, supra.)


May 2. Nazis took over free trade unions. (Pillars of the Social-Democratic party. Ibid., p. 148.)

Russia offered to sell Japan the Chinese Eastern Railroad. (To solve Russo-Japanese friction in Manchuria. Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 437 f.)


May 5. Germany and Russia exchanged ratifications prolonging German-Russian neutrality treaty. (Common will to peace; reaction to moral alienation following advent of Nazi regime. Survey 1933, p. 180.)


May 10. Property of German trade unions, the Social-Democratic private army, and the Social-Democratic party was confiscated by the Reich. (Part of coordination plan. Ibid., p. 148.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              29


Paraguay declared state of war existed with Bolivia over the Chaco. (Senate and Deputies had authorized war in March, but action had been postponed at request of mediating group; when mediation ended, Paraguay hoped states bordering Bolivia would halt. transit of munitions to the latter. Ibid., p. 417.)


May 12; Vice Chancellor von Papen made speech glorifying war. ("The maintenance of eternal life demanded the sacrifice of the individual." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 406.)

Danzig Nazis seized local trade union headquarters. (As step toward Nazi capture of Danzig. Survey 1933,  p. 187.)


May 14. Rival Nazi and Heimwehr demonstrations in Vienna. (250th anniversary of successful defense of Vienna against the Turks.) Bavarian Nazi Minister of Justice Dr. Hans Frank and Dr. Hans Kerrl, German Minister of Justice, were warned to avoid political topics; but Dr. Frank threatened reprisals for such affront. (Ibid. 1934, p. 439.)


May 16. President Roosevelt cabled the heads of states to support the British disarmament proposals. ("A profound hope of the people of my country impels me . . . to address you. . . . This hope is that peace may be assured through practical measures of disarmament and that all of us may carry to victory our common struggle against economic chaos. . . ." State Release 1933, No. 190, p. 351. Cf. Peace, pp. 180-181.)


May 17. Chancellor Hitler demanded revision of the Treaty of Versailles and equality of rights. ("For all the problems which are causing such unrest today lie in the deficiencies of the treaty of peace which did not succeed in solving in a clear and reasonable way the questions of the most decisive importance for the future. Neither national nor economic problems and demands of nations were settled by this treaty in such a way as to stand the criticism of reason in the future. . . . As it was, through ignorance, passion, and hatred, decisions were taken which, in their injustice and lack of logic, bore the seeds of fresh conflicts. . . . The treaty of Versailles is to blame for having inaugurated a period in which financial calculations appear to destroy economic reason. . . . The demand for equality of rights expressed, in actual facts is a demand of morality, right, and reason; it is a demand which is recognized in the peace treaty itself, and the fulfillment of which is indissolubly bound up with the demand for German disarmament as the prelude to world disarmament. . . . Germany, in demanding at present actual equality of rights as regards disarmament of other nations, has a moral right to do so since she has herself carried out the provisions of the treaties. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 196-202.)


May 20. League committee of three recommended armistice and arbitration to be arranged by a League committee in the Chaco dispute. Paraguay accepted, but Bolivia withheld approval. (Survey 1933, p. 421.)


30                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


May 22. The United States at disarmament conference promised con­sultation in threat to peace and no interference with collective, action if it concurred in decision. ("The disarmament confer­ence has reached the moment for definite decisions. . . . The immediate result of a failure here would be a setback to economic recovery, which depends upon such mutual confidence between nations as will permit a real collaboration in the task of restoring international trade and the freer movement of goods." State Release 1933, No. 191, pp. 387 ff. Cf. Peace, pp. 186 ff.)


May 24. League of Nations prepared draft treaty defining aggression as follows: "The aggressor in an international conflict shall, subject to the agreements in force between the parties to the dispute, be considered to be that State which is the first to commit any of the following actions:

"(1) declaration of war upon another state;

"(2) invasion by its armed forces, with or without a declaration of war, of the territory of another state;

"(3) attack by its land, naval, or air forces, with or without a declaration of war, on the. territory, vessels, or aircraft of another state;

"(4) naval blockade of the coasts or ports of another state;

"(5) provision of support to armed bands formed in its terri­tory which have invaded the territory of another state, or refusal, notwithstanding the request of the invaded state; to take in its own territory all the measures in its power to deprive those bands of all assistance or protection." (Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp: 221 f. As part of disarmament conference. Survey 1933, p. 182.)

Further statement of the possible future cooperation of the United States with the members of the League of Nations under the proposed disarmament convention. ("Recognizing that any breach or threat of breach of the pact of Paris [the Briand‑Kellogg Pact] is a matter of concern to all the signatories thereto. . . with a view to the maintenance of peace. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 217.)


May 25. Colombia and Peru accepted the League advisory committee. recommendations. (". . . looking toward a solution of the difficulties arising out of the Leticia incident." State Release 1933, No. 191, p. 405.)


May 28. Nazis gained majority in Danzig Volkstag elections. (Com­pleting capture of Danzig. Survey 1933, p. 187; cf. May 12, supra.) .


May 31. Tangku truce between Sino‑Japanese troops. (Chinese re­sistance collapsed in face of fresh Japanese threats. Ibid., p. 481. )


June 1. Germany imposed a special visa fee on all Germans who wished to visit Austria. (Retorsion for threat to expel Bavarian Minis­ter Dr. Frank. Ibid., 1934, p. 439; cf. May 14, supra.)


June 4. United States R. F. C. loan to China. (For purchase of American cotton and wheat. Ibid. 1933, pp. 469, 580.)


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR, II                                                                     31


June 5. Gold clause in public and private obligations repealed in the United States. ("Whereas the holding of or dealing in gold affects the public interest, and is therefore subject to proper regulation and restriction, and whereas the existing emergency has disclosed that provisions of obligations, which. purport to give the obligee a right to require payment ins gold or a particular kind of coin or currency of the United States, or in an amount in money of the United States measure, thereby obstruct the power of Congress to regulate the value of the money of the United States and are inconsistent with the declared policy of the Congress to maintain at all times the equal power of every dollar, coined or issued by the United States, in the markets and in the payment of debts. . . ." 48 Stat., Pt. I, 112‑113.)


June 7. Four Power Pact initialed in Rome by Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. ("Conscious of the special responsibilities, incumbent on them as possessing permanent representation on the Council of the League of Nations, where the League itself and its members are concerned, and of the responsibilities resulting from their common signature of the Locarno agreements; .

"Convinced that the state of disquiet which obtains throughout the world can only be dissipated by reinforcing their solidarity in such a way as to strengthen confidence in peace in Europe;

"Faithful to the obligations which they have assumed in virtue of the Covenant of the League of Nations; the Locarno treaties, and the Briand‑Kellogg Pact, and taking into account the Declara­tion of the renunciation of force, the principle of which was pro­claimed in the declaration signed at Geneva on the 11th of December, 1932, by their delegates at the disarmament conference and adopted on the 2nd of March, 1933, by the political commis­sion of that conference;

"Anxious to give full effect to all the provisions of the Covenant of the League of Nations, while conforming to the methods and procedure laid down therein, from which they have no intention of departing;

"Mindful of the rights of every state, which cannot be affected without the consent of the interested party; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 45, p. 42; No. 46, p. 3.)


June 11. As result of campaign of terrorism of Austrian Nazis, Austrian police arrested Austrian and German Nazis, some of whom were deported to Germany. (Survey 1933, p. 440.)


June 12. World Economic Conference opened in London. ("The nations of the world have met here to take common counsel relative to the common objective of peace and prosperity. In this modern age the economic interests of all countries are reciprocal." State Release 1933, No. 194, p. 444.)


June 15. Czechoslovakia, Britain, Italy, Latvia, and Rumania made token payments on war debts; Finland paid in full; others defaulted. (Ibid., Nos. 194, 195; pp. 452‑463, 478‑485.)


32                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


June 19. Austria outlawed the German National‑Socialist party in Austria. ("In accordance with the law of July 24, 1917, in order to guard against the economic dangers associated with a disturbance of public peace, order, and security . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 386. Cf. June 11, supra.)


June 22. The United States rejected temporary monetary stabiliza­tion. (". . . measures of temporary stabilization now would be untimely . . . because the American Government feels that its efforts to rise prices are the most important contribution it can make and that anything that would interfere with those efforts and possibly cause a violent price recession would harm the conference more than the lack of an immediate agreement for temporary, stabilization." State Release 1933, No. 195, p. 470.)


June 26. German Government outlawed the Social‑Democratic party. (Part of coordination plan to wipe out legalized opposition. Survey 1933, p. 148.)

League commission reached Leticia to arrange armistice. (Cf. May 25, supra; Ibid., p. 454.)


June 26. Bolivia accepted League commission for Chaco. (Cf. May 20, supra; Ibid, p. 422.)

Consul General George S. Messersmith reported from Berlin menace inherent in Nazi regime. (". . . it has no spokesman who can really be depended upon, and those who hold the highest positions are capable of actions which really outlaw them from ordinary intercourse.

"I think we must recognize that while the Germany of to‑day wants peace, it is by no means a peaceful country or one looking forward to a long period of peace. The present German Govern­ment and its adherents desire peace ardently for the present because they need peace to carry through the changes in Germany which they want to bring about. What they want to do, however, definitely is to make Germane the most capable instrument of war that there has ever existed. The Minister of Education, speaking yesterday, said that a Spartan spirit must be developed among the German youth. Wherever one goes in Germany one sees people drilling, from children of five and six on, up to those well into middle age. A psychology is being developed that the whole world is against Germany and that it lies defenseless before the world." Peace, pp. 191 f.)


June 27. American committee of neutrals dropped Chaco mediation. ("In view of the present negotiations in other places between Bolivia and Paraguay for a settlement of the Chaco question there was nothing further for the neutral commission to do in the matter and that it could best contribute to the establishment of peace . . . by withdrawing from the situation. Experience has shown that if there is more than one center of negotiation, confusion and lack of agreement are the inevitable results. . ." State Release 1933, No. 196, pp: 1 f. Cf. July 21, 1932.)

German Nationalist Party voluntarily dissolved. (Fear of subjugation by Nazis. Survey 1933, p. 148.)


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              33


July 1. British and Russian embargoes lifted. (Amicable settlement, British released. Ibid., 1934, p. 370. Cf. Apr. 19 and Apr. 22, supra.)


July 3. Pact defining aggression as in League draft [May 24, supra.] signed by Afghanistan, Esthonia, Latvia, Persia, Poland, Ru­mania, Turkey, and Russia. ("Being desirous of strengthening the peace existing between their countries;

"In view of the fact that the Briand‑Kellogg pact to which they are signatories forbids all aggression;

"Believing that it is necessary, in the interest of the general security to define aggression as precisely as possible in order to prevent any pretext for its justification;

"Being aware that all states have an equal right to independ­ence, to security, to the defense of their territories, and to the free development of their institutions;

"Animated by the desire, in the interest of general peace, to assure to all peoples the inviolability of the territory of their countries;

"Deeming it expedient, in the interests of general peace to put into effect as between their countries, precise rules defining aggression, pending the time when such rules shall become universal; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 47, pp. 4 f, 39.)


July 23. Finland adhered to pact defining aggression. (Cf. July 5, supra; to complete chain of agreements. Survey 1933, p. 183.)


July 26. Bolivia and Paraguay asked for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru on League commission of inquiry. (Bolivia preferred to have the dispute handled by American states. Ibid., pp. 421 f, 578.)


July 27. Adjournment of world economic conference and declaration of empire monetary and economic policy by Australia, Canada, Britain, India, New Zealand, and South Africa. (To reiterate faith in Ottawa Agreements [July 21, 1932 supra.]; to persist in the policy of furthering rise in wholesale prices until equilibrium had been reestablished, then to seek stabilization there; to restore a satisfactory international gold standard. Ibid., pp. 75 f.)


August 3. League Council decided to ask Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru to join commission of inquiry. (Because Bolivia and Paraguay had acted together. Ibid., p. 422. Cf. July 26, supra. )


August 5. Polish‑Danzig agreement regulated position of Polish nationals and use of port. ("Being desirous of settling by mutual consent certain questions in, dispute between the two governments . . ." L. N. 0. J., Oct. 1933, No. 10, Pt. I, p. 1156.)


August 7. Agreement concluded between the United States and Haiti. (Concerning the Haitianization of the Garde, withdrawal of military forces from Haiti, and financial arrangement. Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 47, pp. 7f.; State Release 1933, No. 203, pp. 103‑108.)

34                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


August 9. State of war declared in Cuba. (Unrest following general strike. Survey 1933, p. 379.)


August 11. Cuban army revolt overthrew President Machado. Ibid., p. 380.


August 25. International wheat agreement signed. (". . . having accepted the invitation . . . to consider the measures which might be taken in concert to adjust the supply of wheat to effective world demand and eliminate the abnormal surpluses which have been depressing the wheat market and to bring about a rise and stabilization of prices at a level remunerative to the farmers and fair to the consumers of breadstuffs . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 48, p. 18.)

Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru presented new conciliation formula to Bolivia and Paraguay. (To find a solution to the hitherto insuperable difficulties. Survey 1933, pp. 422 f. Cf. Aug. 3, supra.)


September 2. Pact of friendship, nonaggression, and neutrality be­tween Italy and Russia signed. (". . animated by a desire to contribute by all means possible to the maintenance of general peace, noting the continuance of the friendly relations which unite their two countries, desiring to continue the policy of absolute non‑intervention in the internal affairs of their respec­tive countries, . . " Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 233.)


September 3. Chancellor Hitler renounced war except against Bol­shevism. (". . . because the German people know that no war could take place which would gain for their country more honor than was won in the last war . . . Germany is not in need of rehabilitation on the battle‑field, for there she has never lost her prestige. . . . By waging war on Bolshevism, Germany . . . is fulfilling a European mission. . . ." Ibid., pp. 406 f.)


September 5. Disturbances broke out in Habana, Santiago and other centers of Cuba, and, as "a wise precaution," the President of the United States ordered warships to Cuban ports. (Release, Sept. 9, p. 144.).


September 10. Ramon Grau San Martin, University of Havana professor, became President of Cuba. (Executive commission of provisional government decided to return to the presidential form of government. Ibid., p. 384.)

Theodore Habicht demanded restoration of Austrian National­-Socialist party, whose aim was the union of Austria with the Reich. ("These demands correspond to the actual situation in Austria and the wishes of the people no less than to the principles of democracy. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 392. Cf. July. 5, supra.)


September 18. Another Danzig‑Polish agreement on treatment of nationals and port use. (Cf. Aug 5, supra; Survey 1933, p. 584.)


September 21. Chancellor Dollfuss reconstructed Austrian cabinet. (Because of enmity of Heimwehr and Landbund, his nominal supporters. Ibid., p. 577; Ibid. 1934, pp. 458 f.)



EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              35


September 25. Russia protested alleged plot for Manchukuoan seizure of Chinese Eastern Railway. (Carefully worked out plan adopted in Harbin at a series of meetings of the Japanese military mission and the responsible Japanese administrators of Manchuria. Ibid., 1933, p. 526. Cf. May 2, supra.)


September 29. The Dutch delegation at the Fourteenth Assembly of the League of Nations moved that the problem of German refugees should be dealt with by international collaboration. (The personae non gratae of the Hitler regime began to appear in other countries. Ibid., p. 156.)


October 1. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru notified League Council that negotiations with Bolivia and Paraguay had broken down. (Bolivia refused to accept formula of Aug. 25, supra; Ibid., p. 424.)


October 4. Czechoslovakian Government decided to dissolve the German National‑Socialist party and the Nationalist party in Czech territory and to prohibit all their activities and all their subsidiary organizations. (German‑Austrian anschluss would make life impossible for her and jeopardize her existence as an independent state. Ibid., p. 197.)


October 6. Germany submitted an aide memoire on disarmament again insisting on equality of rights. ("This need [of assuring her security] requires that Germany be either absolutely free as the other countries, or subject to the same qualitative restrictions." [Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 281.)


October 10. Antiwar pact signed at Rio de Janeiro by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, and Uruguay. (". . . To the end of condemning wars of aggression and territorial acquisitions secured by means of armed conquest and of making them impos­sible, of sanctioning their invalidity through the positive pro­visions of this treaty, and in order to replace them with pacific solutions based upon lofty concepts of justice and, equity;

"Being convinced that one of the most effective means of insuring the moral and material benefits the world derives from peace is through the organization of a permanent system of conciliation of international disputes, to be applied upon a viola­tion of the hereinafter mentioned principles; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 49, p. 17.)

President Roosevelt invited Russia to negotiate toward the establishment of normal diplomatic relations between the two countries. ("It is most regrettable that these great peoples, between whom a happy tradition of friendship existed for more than a century to their mutual advantage, should now be without a practical method of communicating directly with each other . . ." White House Press Releases, Oct. 10.)


October 11. League Assembly passed resolution on international assistance for German refugees (Cf. Sept. 29, supra. Survey 1933, p. 156).

36                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


October 14. Germany withdrew from the disarmament conference. ("In the light of the course which recent discussions of the powers concerned have taken in the matter of disarmament, it is now clear that the disarmament conference will not fulfill what is its sole object, namely, general disarmament. . . . This renders impossible the satisfaction of Germany's recognized claim to equality of rights, and the condition on which the German government agreed at the beginning of this year again to take part in the work of the conference thus no longer exists." Doc. Int. Affairs 1944, p. 285.

Germany resolved to withdraw from the League of Nations. "Since it has been made clear to us from the declarations of the official representatives of certain. great powers that they were not prepared to consider real equality of rights for Germany at present, we have decided that it is impossible, in view of the indignity of her position, for Germany to continue to force her company upon other nations. . . ." Ibid., pp. 292 f.)

Chancellor Hitler said there was no ground for territorial con­flict with France once the Saar was settled. (". . . only a madman would consider the possibility of war between the two states, for which, from our point of view, there is no rational or moral ground." Ibid., p. 291.)


October 17. A treaty of nonaggression, conciliation, and arbitration signed between Rumania and Turkey. ("Equally devoted to the maintenance of general peace;

            "Convinced that it is the duty of Turkey and Rumania to cooperate to this end in a spirit of mutual confidence by preparing for the pacific settlement of disputes liable to arise between them;

"Keeping in mind that both governments are signatories of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928, relative to the renunciation of war, and of the Conventions of July 3 and 4, 1933, determining aggression;

"Desirous of strengthening in the common interest of the two countries the existing bonds of friendship, which constitute for them a guaranty for the future; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 50, p. 18.)


October 25. Colombia and Peru began negotiations on Leticia under auspices of the Brazilian foreign minister (Cf. June 23, supra. Survey 1933, p. 582).


November 2. Secretary of State Hull told German Ambassador Hans Luther that a general war was probable in the next two to ten years. (". . . the outlook in Europe at this distance for disarmament or for peace did not appear very encouraging. . . ." Peace, p. 193.)


November 3. League Commission of inquiry began work on Chaco dispute.(Cf. June 26, July 26, supra. Survey 1933, p. 578).


November 12. National plebiscite approved Chancellor Hitler's foreign policy as to withdrawal from disarmament conference and League of Nations by more than 90 percent vote (Ibid., pp. 148 f. Cf. Oct. 14 supra).

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              37


November 16. The United States recognized the Government of Soviet Russia. (". . .that our nations henceforth may cooperate for their mutual benefit and for the preservation of the peace of the world." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 462.)


November 28. Consul‑General Messersmith reported Germany wanted peace "for the moment." (". . . The military spirit is constantly growing . . .to have a chance to get ready to use force if it is found finally essential. . . ." Peace, p. 194.)


December 1. The German National Socialist party was constituted a statutory corporation. (Because of the overwhelming mandate of Nov. 12. Survey 1933, p. 149.)


December 3‑26. Seventh Pan‑American Conference at Montevideo (Ibid., p. 318).


December 15. Token payments on war debts made by Czechoslovakia, Britain, Italy, Latvia, and Rumania; Finland paid in full (State Release 1933, No. 220, pp. 347‑357).

Committee on the organization of peace of the Pan‑American Conference adopted a declaration offering the services of all governments represented at the Conference for the settlement of the Chaco dispute. (It put on record that the Conference was ready to cooperate with the League of Nations in the appli­cation of the Covenant. Survey 1933, p. 425 n.)


December 18. German Government in memo to French reiterated stand on disarmament. ("The heavily armed states either have no intention of disarming or do not feel in a position to do so. Germany is entitled to obtain, in one way or another, equality of treatment as regards her own security." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 329.)

Germany insisted on the innocuous character of the S. A. and S. S. as political organizations. ("Their sole mission is to organize the political masses of our people so as to make the return of the Communist peril impossible for evermore . . . whose aim is to immunize the country, intellectually and physically, against the risk of Communist disintegration. . . ." Ibid., p. 331.)


December 19. Chaco armistice until Jan. 6, 1934. (Proposed by Paraguay because of the impossibility of giving proper care to the large number of Bolivian prisoners as long as the fighting continued, and to consolidate advance before lengthening lines of communication. Survey 1933, p. 425 n.)

The United States renounced the right of intervention in Latin America. ("Under the. Roosevelt administration the United States Government is as much opposed as any other government to interference with the freedom, the sovereignty, or other internal affairs or processes of the governments of other nations." State Release 1933; No. 221, p. 326. Cf. Peace, p. 202.)


December 22. Swiss Federal Council passed a supplementary vote of 82,000,000 Swiss francs for national defense. (Because of rumors of projected Nazi coup across Switzerland toward France. Survey 1933, p. 173.)

38                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


December 28. President Roosevelt extended the policy of renunciation of the right of armed intervention to all nations (". . . the time has come to supplement and to implement the declaration of President Wilson ['That the United States will never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest.'] . . ." State Release 1933, No. 222, p. 381.) and offered a definition of aggres­sion. ("Back of the threat to world peace lies the fear and perhaps even the possibility that the other 10 percent of the people of the world may go along with a leadership which seeks territorial expansion at the expense of neighbors and which under various pleas in avoidance are unwilling to reduce armament or stop rearmament even if everybody else agrees to non‑aggression and to arms reduction." Ibid., p. 382. Cf. Peace, pp. 205 ff.)