January 18. General Carlos Mendieta became President of Cuba. (The revolutionary junta on Jan. 15 had requested the resigna­tion of President San Martin, and had named Carlos Hevia in his place. Provisional President Hevia, who assumed office on Jan. 16, resigned two days later in the face of public opposition. Survey 1933, p. 388.)


January 22. Japanese Foreign Minister Koki Hirota asserted Japan's responsibility for the maintenance of peace in East Asia. ("Japan, serving as the only corner‑stone for the edifice of the peace of Eastern Asia, bears the entire burden of responsibility." Ibid., 1934, p. 646. )


January 26. Ten‑year nonaggression pact between Poland and Ger­many signed. ("The Polish and German Governments find that the moment has arrived for inaugurating a new era in Polish­-German political relations by means of direct communication between the two countries. With this end in view they have decided to establish, by the present declaration, a basis for the future development of those relations.

"It is the view of both Governments that the maintenance and the strengthening of permanent peace between their countries is the essential condition for general peace in Europe. In view of this they have decided to base their mutual relations on the principles contained in the Paris Pact of August 27, 1928, and they desire to define more accurately the application of those principles to Polish‑German relations." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 54, p. 40.)


January 30. Chancellor Hitler again demanded equality of rights and repeated Germany would accept not only the letter but the spirit of the Locarno pact once the Saar question was settled. (". . . there are no other territorial questions outstanding be­tween France and Germany . . . no threat and no force will ever move the German people to abandon those rights which cannot be denied to a sovereign nation. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs. 1934, pp. 329 f.)


January 31. The United States devalued the dollar to 59.06 percent of its former value. (At the request of the President on Jan. 15: "Careful study leads me to believe that any revaluation at more than 60 percent of the present statutory value would not be in the public interest." State Release 1934, No. 225, p. 23.)


February 9. Greece, Rumania, Turkey, Yugoslavia signed the Balkan pact. ("Desirous of contributing to the strengthening of peace in the Balkans;



40                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


"Animated by a spirit of understanding and of conciliation which has presided at the negotiation of the Kellogg‑Briand Pact and at the decisions relative to it at the Assembly of the League of Nations;

"Firmly determined to assure respect for contractual engage­ments already existing and the maintenance of territorial order actually established, . . ." [Unofficial Translation]. Do . Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 408 f.)


February 12‑15. The Dollfuss government crushed the Austrian            Social‑Democrats in bloody revolution and outlawed their party         and their trade unions, societies, and clubs. (The Socialists had been allegedly preparing for a general strike and for active resist­ance, orders had been issued for a revolt on Feb. 13. Survey 1934, p. 462.)


February 15. French and British Governments asked the League Council to approve the Syro‑Palestine frontier agreement of March 7, 1923. (As delimiting the western section defined by the convention of Dec. 23, 1920. Ibid., p. 304.)


February 17. Britain, Italy, and France issued a declaration that Austrian independence and integrity had to be maintained.       ("The Austrian Government has inquired of the Governments of France, Great Britain, and Italy as to their attitude with regard to the dossier which it has prepared with a view to establishing German interference in the internal affairs of Austria and communicated to them:" Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 394 f.)

Esthonia and Latvia signed an agreement for mutual coopera­tion at foreign conferences. (For the organization of an alliance; for coordination of policies on international questions of common interest and of legislation and diplomatic and consular work abroad. Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 12.)


February 19. Theodore Habicht in broadcast to Austria forecast truce in subversive activities of Austrian Nazis. ("The Dollfuss gov­ernment has been successful in the struggle against Austrian bol­shevism. . . . As proof of the sincerity of its [Austrian Nazi party] pacific intentions . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 395. Cf. July 5, 1933, supra.)


February 21. Foreign Minister Hirota wrote Secretary of State Hull:

". . . the Japanese nation makes it its basic principle to collabo­rate in peace and harmony with all nations and has no intention whatever to provoke and make trouble with any other Power." ("It is the sincere desire of Japan that a most peaceful and friendly relation will be firmly established between her and her great neighbor across the Pacific, the United States. . ." Peace, p. 209.)


February 22. League Commission proposed a peace and arbitration treaty to the Chaco disputants. (As a final effort to provide a solution. Survey 1933, p. 428.)

Chancellor Dollfuss reiterated Austria's determination to retain her. independence. (". . . The freedom and independence of our


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              41


country is a problem not only for this small part of Europe but for central Europe, and indeed for Europe as a whole . . . if we thus assure to the people a permanent and peaceful co‑existence, thereby winning real independence for our country, I maintain that not only we ourselves and Europe but also the whole con­ception of peace, will stand to benefit." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 394.)


March 1. Henry Pu‑yi crowned Emperor of Manchukuo as Kang Te. (Survey 1934, p. 703. Cf. Feb. 29, 1932.)


March 2. President Roosevelt asked for revision of Philippine independence legislation [Public, No. 311, 72d Cong., 2d sess. Cf. Jan. 17, 1933.] ("Our nation covets no territory; it desires to hold no people over whom it has gained sovereignty through war against their will.

"In keeping with the principles of justice and in keeping with our traditions and aims, our government for many years has been committed by law to ultimate independence for the people of the Philippine Islands whenever they should establish a suitable government capable of maintaining that independence among the nations of the world. We have believed that the time for such independence is at hand." State Release 1934, No. 231, p. 108.)


March 12. League commission abandoned conciliation efforts in the Chaco affair. (The attempt to find a basis on which direct nego­tiations could begin had broken down. Survey 1933, p. 430. )


March 17. Rome protocols signed by Italy, Austria, and Hungary. ("Animated by a desire to contribute to the maintenance of peace and to the economic recovery of Europe upon the basis of respect for the independence and for the rights of every state,

"Persuaded that the collaboration of the three governments toward that end may bring into existence the requisite conditions for greater cooperation with other states,

"Undertake, in order to achieve the aforesaid purposes;

"To come to an understanding on all problems particularly affecting them and on problems of a general character, for the purpose of pursuing in the spirit of the existing Italo‑Austrian, Italo‑Hungarian, and Austro‑Hungarian treaties of friendship which are based upon the recognition of the existence of many common interests, a concordant policy directed toward promoting effective collaboration among the European states and particu­larly among Italy, Austria, and Hungary." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 55, pp. 4, 23‑27.)


March 22. War between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. (Negotiations over Asir and Najran broke down. Survey 1934, pp. 316 f.)


March 24. Philippine Independence Act passed. [Public, No. 12'Z; 73d Cong., 2d sess.] ("To provide for the complete independence of the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Cf. Mar. 2, supra. 48 Stat., Pt. I, 456‑465.)

42                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


March 28. Germany refused to join Russia in a guarantee to the four Baltic countries. (Russia wanted an East‑European mutual security pact. Germany sought Lebensraum. Survey 1934, pp. 412 f.)


April 3. Germany made a token payment on the mixed claims and costs of the army of occupation to the United States.  (The principal installment was postponed in accordance with the pro­visions of the debt agreement. State Release 1934, No. 235, p. 179. )


April 4. Nonaggression treaties between Russia and Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania renewed until 1945. (Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 10; No. 58, p. 6.)


April 7. Finland‑Russian nonaggression treaty renewed until 1945 (Ibid., No. 55, p. 2).


April 10. Japanese Foreign Office announced it was absolutely op­posed to any foreign interference in China. (Prolong confusion. Survey 1934, p. 650.)


April 12. The United States Senate decided to investigate the manu­facture of arms and munitions. (To consider the desirability of making their manufacture a government monopoly. Ibid. 1933, p. 433 n.)


April 13. Johnson Act became law. An act to prohibit financial transactions with any foreign government in default on its obliga­tions to the United States. Public, No. 151; 73d Cong., 2d sess. (48 Stat., Pt. I, p: 574.)


April 17‑18. Japan repeated her opposition to supply of airplanes, construction of airdromes, lending of military experts, and grant­ing of loans for political purposes to China. ("Japan is called upon to exert the utmost effort in carrying out her mission and in fulfilling her special responsibilities in East Asia. . . ." Ibid., p. 472; Survey 1934, p. 650. Cf. April 10, supra. Cf. similar statements Apr. 20‑23. Ibid., pp. 651‑653. Cf. also Japan, Vol. I, pp. 224‑229 f.)


April 21. Douglas Miller, United States Commercial Attach, re­ported likelihood of German war in five to ten years. ("The Nazis are not satisfied with the existing map of Europe. They are at heart belligerent and aggressive. True, they desire nothing more than a period of peace for several years in which they can gradually rearm and discipline their people." Peace, p. 213.)


April 25. Foreign Minister Hirota said ". . . Japan had no intention whatever of seeking special privileges in China, of encroaching upon the territorial and administrative integrity of China, or of creating difficulties for the bona fide trade of other countries with China." ("Various foreign activities have tended to disturb peaceful conditions in China, and Japan is naturally very much interested in those peaceful conditions owing to her nearness to China. . . ." Ibid., p. 215.)


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              43


April 27. Thirteen American nations, including the United States, signed a nonaggression treaty at Buenos Aires. ("In the desire to contribute to the consolidation of peace, and to express their adherence to the efforts made by all civilized nations to promote the spirit of universal harmony;

"To the end of condemning wars of aggression and territorial acquisitions that may be obtained by armed conquest, making them impossible and establishing their invalidity through the positive prohibitions of this treaty, and in order to replace them with pacific solutions based on lofty concepts of justice and equity;

"Convinced that one of the most effective means of assuring the moral and material benefits which peace offers to the world, is the organization of a permanent system of conciliation for international disputes, to be applied immediately on the violation of the principles mentioned; . . ." State Release 1934, No. 239, pp. 234 f.)


April 29. The United States reaffirmed its position on its rights and interests involved in China. ("In the opinion of the American people and the American Government, no nation can, without the assent of the other nations concerned, rightfully endeavor to make conclusive its will in situations where there are involved the rights, the obligations and the legitimate interests of other sovereign states." Peace, p. 217. Cf. June 26 and Nov. 23, 1933, and Apr. 25, supra.)


April 30. Austrian Parliament approved the Dollfuss regime, a fascist constitution, and voted itself out of existence. (To set up a corporate state. Survey 1934, p. 465 n.)


May 1. Prince Starhemberg, leader of Austrian Heimwehr, joined the Austrian Cabinet. (Cabinet reconstruction of the Fatherland Front. Ibid., p. 464.)


May 5. The United States Attorney General, Homer Cummings, announced that the War debt installments must be paid in full to avoid Johnson Act penalties. (To clarify questions as to what nations were in default. State Release 1934, No. 240, pp. 259‑267. Cf. Apr. 13, supra.)

Secretary of State Hull spoke on dangers of the international situation. (Cf. Reports from Berlin supra, June 26, Nov. 23, 1933, and April 21, 1934. "It would be both a blunder and a crime for civilized peoples to fail much longer to take notice of present dangerous tendencies which negative every idea of friend­liness and of the spirit of the good neighbor." Peace, p. 219.)

Russian‑Polish nonaggression treaty renewed until 1945. ("Moved by the desire to found the development of relations between their countries on as firm a basis as possible, and . . .

"Animated by the desire of contributing to the consolidation of general peace and of assuring, also, the peaceful evolution of relations between the states of Eastern Europe,

44                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


"Affirming that the conclusion of the pact of July 26, 1932, between the Republic of Poland and the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics has exercised a favorable influence on the development of their mutual relations and on the realization of the above‑mentioned objectives . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 392 f.) .


May 13. Saudi Arabia and Yemen concluded an armistice. (Yemen had sued for peace April 12; Saudi Arabia followed with swift military victories. Yemen accepted conditions in full. Survey 1934, pp. 317 f. Cf. Mar. 27, supra.)


May 16. Secretary of State Hull tried to convince Ambassador Hirashi Saito the. Japanese interests lay in peaceful policies. (". . . the more highly civilized nations had correspondingly greater responsibilities and duties, both from the standpoint of their own progress and well‑being and that of the world, that could not be dodged or evaded . . ." Peace, p. 221. )


May 17. League Council asked committee of three to study arms embargo for the Chaco dispute. (There was a strong body of opinion in favor of putting an end to the conflict by cutting off the supply of arms. Survey 1933, p. 432.)


May 18. President Roosevelt urged the Senate to advise ratification of Geneva convention for supervision of international trade in arms and munitions. ("The private and uncontrolled manufac­ture of arms and munitions and the tragic therein has become a serious source of international discord and strife. It is not pos­sible, however, effectively to control such an evil by the isolated action of any one country. The enlightened opinion of the world has long realized that this is a field in which international action is necessary. . . . The ratification of that convention by this Government, which has been too long delayed, would be a con­crete indication of the willingness of the American people to make their contribution toward the suppression of abuses which may have disastrous results for the entire world if they, are permitted­ to continue unchecked." State Release 1934, No. 242, p. 293. Cf. Jan. 10, 1933, supra.)


May 19. Army officers, established a dictatorship in Bulgaria.  (By coup d'état. Survey 1934, p. 531.)


May 20. Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed treaty of friendship. ("Desirous of bringing to an end the state of war unfortunately existing between them, between their two Governments, and between their two peoples, and desirous of affording peace to the Islamic nation, of enhancing its dignity and of safeguarding its honor and its independence;

"Considering the necessity for establishing relations between their two Governments and their two countries upon a firm treaty basis and to their common advantage and reciprocal interests;

"Desirous of fixing the boundaries between their two countries, of establishing neighborly relations and bonds of Islamic friend­ship between them and of reenforcing the structure of peace and tranquility between their two countries and their two peoples;


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              45


"Desirous of forming a common front in face of unforeseen events and a strong bulwark for the security of the Arab Peninsula, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 458.)


May 21. Salvador announced her recognition of Manchukuo. (". . . purely a matter of business, the outgrowth of El Salvador's acute need of new markets for her coffee." Survey 1934, p. 676.)


May 22. President Roosevelt asked legislation to increase amount of silver in monetary stocks.  (". . . we should move forward as rapidly as conditions permit in broadening the metallic base of our monetary system and in stabilizing the purchasing and debt‑paying power of our money on a more equitable level . . . we should not neglect the value of an increased use of silver in improving our monetary system." State Release 1934, No. 243, p. 303.)

Secretary Hull expressed the approval of himself and President Roosevelt of a bill for embargo of arms to Bolivia and Paraguay. ("The efforts which this Government has put forth in coopera­tion with the Governments of other American republics and the similar efforts of the League of Nations to bring about an honorable peace between Bolivia and Paraguay have thus far failed to achieve the desired result. The Governments of Bolivia and Paraguay have refused to accept the carefully considered proposals for the restoration of peace which have been presented for their consideration. Their attitude has forced us to the con­clusion that, in the existing circumstances, further efforts at conciliation unaccompanied by more direct measures, would be fruitless. The United States should be willing to join other nations in assuming moral leadership to the end that their citizens may no longer, for the sake of profits, supply the belligerent nations with arms and munitions to carry on their useless and sanguinary conflict." Ibid., p. 302. Cf. May 19, supra.)


May 24. Colombia and Peru signed the Leticia agreement. ("Con­sidering, That both Republics, in harmony with the moral con­science of humanity, assert as a fundamental duty of states the proscription of war, the settlement of their difficulties politically or juridically, and the prevention of the possibility of conflicts between them;

"That this duty is the more agreeable for the states which compose the American community, among, which exist historical, social, and sentimental ties, which cannot be weakened by divergencies or events which must always be considered in a spirit of reciprocal understanding and good will;

"That this duty of peace and cordiality may be better accom­plished by applying the methods established by contemporary international law, for the juridical settlement of differences be­tween states, and for the guarantee and development of human rights.

"That the attitude which they now adopt should serve as a fraternal encouragement for the settlement of other international American conflicts . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 57, pp. 8, 23.)

46                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


May 28. President Roosevelt embargoed arms to the Chaco dispu­tants. ("I have found that the prohibition of the sale of arms and munitions of war in the United States to those countries now engaged in armed conflict in the Chaco may contribute to the reestablishment of peace between those countries, and . . . I have consulted with the government of other American Republics and have been assured of the cooperation of such Governments as I have deemed necessary as contemplated by the said joint resolutions." State Release 1934, No. 244, p. 328. Pur­suant to H. J: Res. 347, 48 Stat. Pt. I, 811.)


May 29. United States treaty with Cuba replaced the Platt amend­ment. ("Being animated by the desire to fortify the relations of friendship between the two countries and to modify, with this purpose, the relations established between them by the treaty of relations signed at Habana, May 22, 1903, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 30.)


May 31. Bolivia asked League Council to act under art. 15. (Be­cause the proposed arms embargo would be harder on her than on Paraguay for geographical reasons. Survey 1933, p. 434.)


June 1. Bolivia protested United States embargo on arms. (". . . the decision adopted by the American Government is in viola­tion, in particular of the Treaty of Friendship, Navigation, and Commerce signed at La Paz on May 13, 1858, in effect between the two countries, which plainly provides that '. . . nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the importation or exportation of any articles, the produce or manufactures of the Republic of Bolivia or of the United States, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.' " State Release 1934, No. 246, p. 407. Cf. May 28, supra.)


June 9. Bolivia asked the Council to refer the Chaco dispute to the League Assembly. Survey 1933, p. 434.


June 11. Secretary of State Hull again spoke of fear of war ". . . armaments are being momentarily increased, and in practice the theory seems to be abandoned that nations, like individuals, should live not as potential enemies, but as neighbors and friends. . . ." Peace, p. 232. Cf. May 5, supra.)


June 12. United States Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act [Public, No. 316; 73d Cong., 2d sess.] passed. (". . . for the purpose of promoting international commerce . . . the restoration of the normal volume of international trade would constitute a major and a very necessary factor in stable, permanent prosperity­–a prosperity based upon the increased employment of labor and capital." State Release 1934, No. 246, p. 391 [48 Stat., Pt. I; 943‑945. )]


June 14. Germany announced a complete transfer moratorium on medium‑ and long‑term debts, including the Dawes and Young Loans. ("When Germany was forced a year ago, with the passage of the above‑mentioned law [June 9, 1933, regarding payment of obligations to foreign countries], to introduce restrictions on the


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              47


transfer of foreign debts service, there was still a hope that the World Economic conference in London would take in hand the solution of the transfer problem, which is by no means limited to Germany. Nothing, however, was done; further, the conversa­tions which were resumed last month with the representatives of Germany's private foreign creditors showed no fundamental or practical way of solving the transfer problem." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 244.)


June 16. Finland paid her war debt installment. Others defaulted. State Release 1934, No. 245, p. 353; No. 246; pp. 395‑404.)


June 19. United States passed the Silver Purchase Act. [Public, No. 438, 73d Cong., 2d sess.; 48 Stat., Pt. I, 1178‑1181.] (Survey 1934, p. 18. Cf. May 22, supra.)

Semi‑Fascist constitution promulgated in Austria. (As a transitional measure. Ibid., p. 466.)


June 23. Polish‑Danzig harbor police agreement signed. (To settle the relation of the police to the state authorities and to the harbor board. Ibid., 1935, p. 218 n.)

The United States became a member of the International Labor Organization. (By S. J. Res. 131, 73d Cong, 2d sess.)

(". . . Whereas the United States early recognized the desira­bility of international cooperation in matters pertaining to labor and took part in 1900 in establishing, and for many years there­after supported, the International Association for Labor Legisla­tion; and

"Whereas the International Labor Organization has advanced the welfare of labor throughout the world through studies, recommendations, conferences, and conventions, concerning conditions of labor; and

"Whereas other nations have joined the International Labor Organization without being members of the League of Nations; and

"Whereas special provision has been made in the constitution of the International Labor Organization by which membership of the United States would not impose or be deemed to impose any obligation or agreement upon the United States to accept the proposals of that body as involving anything more than recom­mendations for its consideration; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 109 f.)


June 28. American embargo on the export of silver. (Survey 1934, p. 707. Cf. May 22, supra.)


June 29. The State Department asked President Roosevelt for restric­tion on dispatch of arms and munitions to Cuba. (". . . with a view to enabling the Cuban Government to maintain peace and tranquility in that country. . . . There would not appear to be any legal means by which this Government can effectively carry out its treaty obligations with respect to the traffic in arms and munitions between the United States and Cuba, unless a proclamation is issued pursuant to the Joint Resolution of Con­gress of January 31, 1922." State Release 1934, No. 248, p. 455.) Embargo proclaimed. (Ibid., p. 456.)


48                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


June 30. United States decided to stop release of German credit balances seized during the war. (Because Germany failed to meet her obligations more fully. Survey 1934, p. 701.)

Chancellor Hitler staged a blood purge in Germany. (To, sweep away his political opponents and rivals. Ibid., pp. 324 f.)


July 20. British‑Italian Libyan‑Sudanese border agreement. (De­limiting the frontier. Ibid., p. 698.)


July 21. Hungarian‑Yugoslav agreement. (To settle frontier inci­dents. Ibid., p. 550.)


July 24. Agreement between Haiti and the United States. (Modify­ing the agreement of Aug. 7, 1933, supra. Treaty Inf. 1934;. No. 59, p. 3.)


July 25: Nazi putsch in Vienna, Styria, and Carinthia; Chancellor Dollfuss killed. (Austrian decree of July 12 inflicted the death penalty for bomb outrage's, notified Nazis that past leniency was at an end, and forced their hand. Survey 1934, pp. 470 ff.)


July 30. Minister of Education Kurt von Schuschnigg took office as, the Chancellor of Austria. (President Miklas asked him to form. a Government. Ibid., p. 480. )

Stanley Baldwin, Lord President of the Council, declared that. Britain's frontier was on the Rhine. (". .  . since the day of the air the old frontiers are gone." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 352.):


August 2. Hitler appointed President of the Reich. (von Hindenburg died. State Release 1934, No. 253, p. 86.)


August 6. Series of Polish‑Danzig agreements signed. (Relating to customs, import quotas, trade in foodstuffs and agricultural produce, and veterinary regulations. Survey 1935, Vol. 1, p. 223.)


August 15. United States Marines withdrawn from Haiti. (Under­ agreement of Aug. 7, 1933. Ibid., No. 255, p. 103.)


August 19. Hitler's appointment as Chancellor and Fuehrer confirmed by plebiscite. (Ibid. 1934, p. 699. Cf. Aug. 2.)

President Roosevelt ordered the nationalization of all silver stocks. (Under provisions of act of June 19, supra. Ibid., p. 18.) .


August 20. China protested the United States Silver Purchase Act. (". . . it would now appear that the interests of China and the ­stability of the price of silver are menaced as much as they were by the previous situation of potential sellers." Doc. Int. Affairs ­1934, pp. 229 f.; State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 259. Cf. June 19,. supra.)


August‑November. China staged an anti‑Communist campaign. (To­ dislodge the "Red" Armies from the region south of the Yangtse ­which for more than six years had been the Communist preserve.­ Survey 1934, pp. 635, 695.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              49


September 10. Germany rejected an Eastern Locarno pact. ("It is, however, likewise logical that they cannot participate in any kind of new international systems of security so long as other powers feel justified in contesting German equality of rights with regard to armaments. A self‑respecting nation cannot be expected to enter into a special political association with other powers, if the latter simultaneously treat it as a second‑class nation with minor rights in a question which is inseparably connected with the object of the said association. Moreover, any system of security which is not firmly based upon equality of military rights must neces­sarily in practice work to the disadvantage of the state against which the differentiation is exercised. . . . It means that Germany is being called upon to do something in anticipation which is in no wise justified and which would have to be refused even if the form of the pact did justice to the German point of view. . . . Germany's  future relationship to the League of Nations cannot be discussed so long as her equality of rights is in any way disputed from other quarters. . . . Far from desiring to cast doubt upon the loyalty of the Governments concerned, the German Government cannot feel convinced that the obliga­tions created by the new pact system would in every case prove sufficiently strong and would not come into conflict with given realities. . . . Finally it should not be left out of consideration whether the formation of such groups, so far as it actually in­creases the security of the contracting States, might for this very reason, under certain circumstances, cause reactions on states standing outside the association; which would not serve the general interest in the preservation of world peace. . . . How could Germany undertake the obligation to intervene in conflicts of other states which cannot be foreseen and which do not concern her, or in which she is not interested? . . . Furthermore, Ger­many could hardly expect any real advantages from the pact which would balance the dangers referred to. . . . The German Government cannot imagine it a practical reality that Germany, one day, should be defended in her own territory by Soviet Russian troops against an attack in the west or by French troops against an attack in the east. . . . They are inclined to believe, that, in general, the best results will be achieved by the method of bilateral agreements, because such agreements can always be adapted to the concrete circumstances, and therefore do not involve the risk of either remaining pure theories or of leading to complications. . . . " Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. I, pp. 254‑259.)


September 10‑27. Afghanistan and Ecuador were admitted to the League of Nations. (By invitation. Survey 1934, p. 220.)


September 12. Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a treaty of good understanding and cooperation. ("Having determined to further collaboration between the three countries and to facilitate a closer understanding between the Baltic states,

"Being firmly resolved to assist in the maintenance and the guarantee of peace, and to coordinate their foreign policy in


50                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


accordance with the spirit of the principles of the Pact of the League of Nations, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 60, pp. 4, 15. Cf. Latvia, p. 82.)


September 13. Poland rejected further supervision of her minorities by international organizations until a general system of protec­tion for all became effective. ("Pending the introduction of a general and uniform system for the protection of minorities, my government is compelled to refuse, as from today, all coopera­tion with the international organisation in the matter of super­vision of the application by Poland of the system of minority protection. . . . I need hardly say that the decision of the Polish government is in no sense directed against the interests of the minorities. Those interests are and will remain protected by the fundamental laws of Poland, which secure to minorities of language, race, and religion, free development and equality of treatment." Statement of Colonel Beck in the League Assembly. L. N. 0. J., Special Supplement, No. 125, p. 43.


September 18. Russia entered the League of Nations. (By invita­tion. "The undersigned delegates to the Fifteenth Assembly of the League of Nations from the States hereinafter enumerated . . . Bearing in mind that the mission of maintaining and organizing peace, which is the fundamental task of the League of Nations, demands the cooperation of all the countries of the world. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 99, 101. )


September 19. Germany again claimed equality of rights in the matter of armaments. (". . . as a guarantee of peace and in order that we ourselves may be a real factor for peace in Europe." Ibid., p. 333.)


September 24. China again protested American silver policy. ("Since 1931 the rising of silver value in terms of foreign currency has involved severe deflation and economic losses to China and has dislocated China's balance of payments in part at least by hamper­ing exports. Recently the stimulation of silver prices abroad to which exchange has not fully responded, has caused serious drain of silver creating great alarm. Silver exports of this year to date are over three times greater than any previous full year. Further material silver price increase would cause very serious injury to China, possibly severe panics. . . ." State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 261. Cf. June 19, supra.)


September 27. Poland rejected an Eastern Locarno pact. (They pre­ferred bilateral pacts and disliked general agreements which might have serious consequences for Poland without adding to her security. Survey 1935, Vol. I, p. 71.)

France and Britain repeated their declaration of Feb. 17, as to Austrian independence. (The time was not yet ripe for a more concrete guarantee of Austrian independence. Ibid. 1934, pp. 484 f.)


September 28. Assembly appointed conciliation subcommittee for Chaco dispute. (Ibid., p. 694.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              51


September 29. Italy and Ethiopia issued a joint communiqué refuting any intention of aggression against each other. (". . . not hav­ing any motive to disturb the good and friendly relations existing between the two governments . . . with whom we are bound by the treaty of friendship of 1928." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 27 f.)


October 2. China asked definite help from the United States because of the Silver Purchase Act. ("American cooperation . . . is particularly vital to China. In this connection it may be pointed out that the rise of silver discourages the export of commodities and thereby impairs China's purchasing power for imports." State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 262. Cf. June 19, supra.)


October 5. General strike in Spain and revolution in Madrid, Catalonia, and Asturias. (Called by Socialists, Communists, and Syndicalists. Survey 1934, p. 707.)


October 9. King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Foreign Minister Louis Barthou of France were assassinated at Marseilles. (By a Croatian revolutionary. State Release 1934, No. 263, p. 245.)


October 19. Joint meeting of the foreign ministers of the Little Entente [Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Yugoslavia], and the Balkan Entente [Rumania, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey]. (To discuss the situa­tion arising out of the murder of King Alexander of Yugoslavia. Survey 1934, pp. 529, 563. Cf. Oct. 9, supra.)


October 20. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg, The Netherlands and Switzerland signed a gold bloc agreement. ("Convinced, as they affirmed at London July 3, 1933, that monetary stability is one of the essential conditions for the return to a normal economic association;

"Considering that in assuring the stability of their monies they contribute to the restoration of world economy;

"Confirming their desire to maintain the actual gold parity of their respective monies;

"Recognizing that their common monetary policy implies a development of international exchange, a development which ought to encourage among them the similarity of monetary condi­tions existing in their respective countries . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 235.)


November 22. Export of silver licensed by China. ("The National Government feels obliged actively to seek means of avoiding further hardships of silver fluctuations. It considers that China should not alone maintain the silver standard." [Unofficial Translation.] Survey 1934, pp. 630 f., and State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 261.)

Yugoslavia appealed to the League Council on Hungarian responsibility for the death of Alexander I. ("The results of the inquiry undertaken as a result of the assassination of His Majesty King Alexander of Yugoslavia and of the French Foreign Minis­ter, M. Louis Barthou, at Marseilles, have shown that this criminal act was organized and executed with the participation of those terrorist elements which had taken refuge in Hungary

52                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


and which have continued to enjoy the same connivance in that country as previously, and it was only thanks to this connivance that the odious Marseilles outrage could have been perpetrated. . . .

"In view of the gravity of these facts, the Yugoslav Govern­ment, being anxious to maintain peace and relying on the au­thority of the League of Nations, finds itself obliged to bring before the Council, under Art. 11, para. 2, of the Covenant, this situation, which seriously compromises relations between Yugo­slavia and Hungary and which threatens to disturb peace and good understanding between nations." Survey 1934, pp. 566 f.)


November 24. The League invited the United States to participate in the Bolivia‑Paraguay dispute, advisory committee, and the neutral supervisory commission. ("The Assembly attaches great importance to the cooperation of the United States." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 63, p. 12; State Release 1934, No. 271, p. 333.)


November 29. Iraq referred a border dispute with Persia to the League Council. (Under Art. 11. One point of dispute had to do with the position of the frontier along the waterway of the Shattu'l'Arab which was Iraq's sole means of direct access to the open sea. Survey 1934, p. 183.)


December 5. Franco‑Russian consultative pact signed. (". . . have been thus led to state the common resolution of the two governments to pursue to the conclusion the international acts envisaged [an Eastern Locarno pact]." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 184.)

Yugoslavia began deporting Hungarians. ("In view of the. large amount of unemployment among Yugoslav citizens, the Hungarian attitude at Geneva, and the fact that Hungarians have withdrawn the permits of several hundred Yugoslavs living in Hungary, we decided not to renew these permits as they fell due." ["27,000 Hungarian citizens have been working and living in Yugoslavia on renewable short‑term permits for a long time."] Survey 1934, p. 574.)

Fighting between Italian and Ethiopian troops at Walwal. (General firing began in a border clash. Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 136.) ,


December 6. Ethiopia protested Walwal attack to the League of           Nations. (". . . the occupation, by armed troops under the command of Italian officers, of various portions of Ethiopian territory, and, in particular, the places known as Walwal and       Wardair in the Ogaden province, as well as the obstacles which the said Italian forces have placed in the way of the survey of the    Ogaden pasture‑lands, in Ethiopian territory, by the Anglo­-Ethiopian Mixed Commission." Ibid, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)


December 7. The United States refused officially to appoint a member to the League advisory committee but accepted membership on the neutrality supervisory Commission for the Chaco.  ("In view of the powers, duties, responsibilities of the advisory com­mittee as above briefly reviewed, my Government, in as much as it is not a member of the League of Nations, does not find it

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR 11                                                                                 53


possible to collaborate in the work of this committee." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 63, p. 13, and State Release 1934, No. 271, p. 334.

"Taking into consideration that the Neutral Supervisory Com­mission will be composed of representatives of American states meeting on American soil for the specific purpose of supervising and facilitating the execution of measures relating to the cessation of hostilities, which measures would have been previously agreed to by both parties to the dispute, will be happy to cooperate . . ." Ibid., p. 334.)


December 8. The League Council asked Britain, Italy, The Nether­lands, and Sweden to police the Saar plebiscite. ("In view of the discussion which took place at its meeting of December 5 with reference to international action for the maintenance of order in the Saar territory during the plebiscite . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 60.)

Yugoslavia ended deportations of Hungarians. Survey 1934, p. 575. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.

Italy protested to Ethiopia, demanding apologies and compen­sation. (Concerning Walwal clash. Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)


December 9. Ethiopia invoked Art. 5 of the Italo‑Ethiopian treaty of friendship of Aug. 2, 1928. (According to which the two Govern­ments had agreed to "submit to a procedure of conciliation and arbitration any question which [might] arise between them and which it [had] not been possible to settle by the usual diplomatic means, without having recourse to force of arms." Ibid., p. 137. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)


December 10. League Council appointed a committee to study the question of terrorism. ("Considering that the rules of inter­national law concerning the repression of terrorist activity are not at present sufficiently precise to guarantee efficiently inter­national cooperation in this matter . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 113.)


December 11. Italy made detailed demands for moral, financial, and strategic compensation for the Walwal incident. (Survey 1935, Vol. II, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)


December 14. Italy rejected arbitration in the Walwal incident. (The incident had occurred in such definite and clear circum­stances there could be no doubt of its nature, hence they could not see how settlement of such an incident could be submitted to arbitration. Ibid., p. 137. Cf. Dec. 9, supra.)

Ethiopia reported Walwal incident to the League of Nations. (Because of the gravity of the situation. Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 11. Cf. Dec. 5 and 9, supra.)


December 15. Finland paid her war debts; all others defaulted. (State Release 1934, No. 272, pp. 354‑372; No. 273, pp. 409‑412.)


December 22. International troops arrived in the Saar. (Survey 1934, p. 614. Cf. Dec. 8,  supra.)

54                                EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


December 27. Ambassador Grew warned the Japanese intended "to obtain trade control and eventually predominant political in­fluence in China, the Philippines, the Straits Settlements, Siam and the Dutch East Indies, the Maritime Provinces and Vladivostok." ("With such dreams of empire cherished by many, and with an army and navy capable of taking the bit in their own teeth and running away with it regardless of the restraining influence of the saner heads of the Government in Tokyo (a risk which unquestionably exists and of which we have already had ample evidence in the Manchurian affair), we would be. repre­hensibly somnolent if we were to trust to the security of treaty restraints or international comity to safeguard our own interests or, indeed, our own property . . . Such a war may be unthinkable, and so it is, but the spectre of it is always present and will be present for some time to come. It would be criminally short‑sighted to discard it from our calculations, and the best possible way to avoid it is to be adequately prepared, for preparedness is a cold fact which even the chauvinists, the military, the patriots and the ultra‑nationalists in Japan, for all their bluster concerning `provocative measures' in the United States, can grasp and understand." Peace, pp. 239, 244.)


December 29. Japanese Government gave notice of withdrawal from the provisions of the Washington naval treaty. ("In accordance with Art. XXIII of the treaty concerning the limitation of naval armament, signed at Washington on Feb. 6, 1922, the Government of Japan . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 501. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 274.)