January 1. Declaration of the United Nations. The Governments signatory thereto declare:

"(1) Each Government pledges itself to employ its full re­sources, military or economic, against those members of the Tripartite Pact and its adherents with which such government is at. war.

"(2) Each Government, pledges itself, to cooperate, with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies." (Bulletin, 1942, Vol. VI, No. 132, p. 3.)

The United States Treasury order freezing Philippine funds in the United States went into effect. ("In view of the situation created by the temporary enemy occupation of important parts of the Philippine Islands." Times, Jan. 6, 1942, p. 3.)


January 2. British forces captured Bardia, Libya, taking 7,000 prisoners. (London Times, Jan. 5, 1942, p. 4.)

Japanese forces occupied Manila and the nearby naval base of Cavite. (Times, Jan. 3, 1942, p. 1.)


January 3. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill announced the creation of a "unified command" in the Southwest Pacific area, with General Sir Archibald P. Wavell as supreme commander of all United States, British, Netherlands and Domin­ion forces in that area. ("As a result of proposals put forward by the United States and British Chiefs of Staff . . . with the concurrence of the Netherlands Government and the Dominion governments concerned." Times, Jan. 4, 1942, p. 1.)


January 4‑12. China defeated and routed about 70,000 Japanese troops at the provincial capital of Changsha. (Times, Jan. 5, 1942, p. 1; Jan, 16, 1942, p. 10.)


January 5. President Roosevelt declared lend‑lease aid to the Pro­visional Government of Czechoslovakia. (As vital to the defense of the United States. Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 133, p. 44.)

Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria and Finland. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 352.)


January 6. Australia declared war on Bulgaria. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 349.)

President Roosevelt, in his annual message to Congress on the state of the Union, said that plans had been laid for cooperation among all the United Nations, and that there would be a continuation of conferences and consultations among military staffs. ("We shall not fight isolated wars, each nation going its own way. . . . The militarists of Berlin and Tokyo started this war,



314                              EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


but the massed, angered forces of common humanity will finish it." Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, Pt. I, p. 33.)

M. Molotov handed a note on German atrocities to represent­atives of all countries in diplomatic relations with Russia. ("There was documentary proof that this was done in all the districts which fell into German hands and that the acts were not those of separate undisciplined units, but a previously worked out plan fostered by the German command." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 78.)

Egypt suspended diplomatic relations with Vichy. (Egypt notified France that relations with Vichy were contrary to the spirit of the Anglo‑Egyptian treaty. Times, Jan. 7, 1942, p. 5; Jan. 12, 1942, p. 4.)


January 8. The Inter‑American Commission for Territorial Adminis­tration was established under the provisions of the Convention on the Provisional Administration of European Colonies and Possessions in the Americas, which entered into force on this date. (To "provide for the provisional administration of any territory located in the Americas, should a non‑American state directly or indirectly attempt to replace another non‑American state in the sovereignty or control which it exercised over such territory." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, p. 70.)


January 11. Japanese forces invaded the Netherlands Celebes, and Borneo. (Times, Jan. 12, 1942, p. 1.)


January 12‑17. With the capture of Solum and Halfaya Pass, the British eliminated the last Axis strongholds on Egyptian soil. (London Times, Jan. 16, 1942, p. 3; Jan. 19, 1942, p. 4.)


January 13. Inter‑Allied Conference met in London. ("Whereas Germany . . . has instituted in the occupied countries a regime of terror. . . . And whereas these acts of violence are being similarly perpetrated by the allies and associates of the Reich. . . .  And whereas international solidarity is necessary in order to avoid the repression of these acts of violence simply by acts of vengeance on the part of the general public, and in order to satisfy the sense of justice of the civilized world. . . .

"The undersigned Representatives of the Government of Bel­gium, the Government of Czechoslovakia, the Free French National. Committee, the Government of Greece, the Government of Luxemburg, the Government of the Netherlands, the Government of Norway, the Government of Poland, the Govern­ment of Yugoslavia; . . .

"Place amongst their principal war aims the punishment, through the channel of organized justice, of those guilty and responsible for these crimes. . . ." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, pp. 50‑51.)


January 14. U. S. blacklisted 1,800 European firms. (Persona in the United States no longer may, engage in business or financial transactions with these firms. Officials explained that the firms may regain the good graces of the United States by demon­strating a complete severance of trade or financial relations with the enemy. Times, Jan. 15, 1942, pp. 1, 14.)

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January 15. Agreement signed in London between Greece and Yugoslavia for the constitution of a Balkan Union. ("Having observed past experience, and more particularly recent experiences, which have demonstrated that a lack of close understanding between the Balkan peoples has caused them to be exploited by the powers of aggression . . ., and considering that in order to assure the independence and peace of the Balkan states, the fundamental principle of their policy must be the principle of `The Balkans for the Balkan peoples. . . .' " New Europe, Vol. II. (Feb. 1942), p. 79.)

Third meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American republics; opening session Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 15, 1942.

"We are meeting together under the terms, and in the spirit, of inter‑American agreements to take counsel as to the course which our governments should take under the shadow of this dire threat to our continued existence as free people." [Statement of Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles, in an address at the opening session.] (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 134, p. 55.)


January 18. A military convention between Germany, Italy, and Japan was signed in Berlin. (Laying down "guiding lines for the common operations against the common enemies." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 69.)


January 19. The Russians freed Moscow from immediate peril by capturing Mozhaisk, the last German stronghold near Moscow. (London Times, Jan. 21, 1942, p. 4.)


January 20. General de Gaulle, broadcasting from London, said Fighting France and the new Russia were allies. ("For centuries past Franco‑Russian alliances have been thwarted by intrigue or lack of understanding; but the necessity for such an alliance ap­pears anew at every turning‑point in history." International News, Feb. 7, 1942, p. 114.)


January 21. Spain severed diplomatic relations with Poland. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 370.)


January 23‑28. Allied sea and air forces attacked a large Japanese convoy in the Macassar Strait, between Borneo and Celebes, and inflicted Japan's first great sea losses. (London Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 4; Jan. 29, 1942, p. 4.)

Japanese forces landed in New Guinea and in the Solomon Islands, about 950 miles northeast of Australia. The Govern­ment of Australia appealed to the United States and Britain for immediate material assistance. By January 26 the Japanese oc­cupied Rabaul on the island of New Britain. (Times, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 1; London Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 4.)

Agreement for a Polish‑Czechoslovak Confederation signed in London. ("The purpose of the confederation is to assure com­mon policy with regard to foreign affairs; defence, economic and financial matters, social questions, transport; posts, and telegraphs." International News, Feb. 7, 1942, p. 89.)

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January 24. Special Court of Inquiry, with Supreme Court Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts as its head, submitted As report on Pearl Harbor disaster. (The report placed the main responsibility on Admiral Kimmel and General Short for failing to take seriously the warnings of imminent attack, for failing to confer with each other on necessary precautions, and for taking only minimum and inadequate precautions. Times, Jan. 25, 1942, pp. 1, 30, 31.)

Peru severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)

The Navy Department reported successful night destroyer attack in the Macassar Straits. (Times, Jan. 26, 1942, p. 1.)

Peru and Uruguay broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers. (Pursuant to resolution signed at Rio Conference January 23, recommending rupture of diplomatic relations with the Axis. Times, Jan. 25, 1942, p. 1.)


January 25. The Union of South Africa declared war on Thailand. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 371.)

New Zealand declared war on Thailand. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 366.)

Uruguay severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 372.)

The Government of Thailand declared war on Great Britain and the United States. Thai troops began to advance into Burma. (Times, Jan. 26, 1942, p. 1.)


January 26. The Governments of Bolivia and Paraguay broke off relations with the Axis Powers. Cf. Jan. 24, supra. (Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 10.)

The first American Expeditionary Force of several thousand soldiers arrived in Northern Ireland. At the same time, head­quarters of the United States Armed Forces were being established in England. (Times, Jan. 27, p. 1.)

Establishment of Combined Raw Materials Board, Munitions Assignments Board, Combined Shipping Adjustment Board.

("To further coordination of the United Nations war effort, the President and Prime Minister Churchill have set up three boards to deal with munitions, assignments, shipping adjustment and raw materials. . . . Members of the boards will confer with representatives of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, and such others of the United Nations as are necessary to attain common purposes and provide for the most effective utilization of the joint resources of the United Nations." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 136, p. 87.)


January 27. Representatives of the Free French National Committee in London and of the United States had come to an agreement concerning the Allied military use of French possessions in the Pacific area.  (French possessions were strategically valuable. Times, Jan. 28, 1942, p. 1.)


January 28. Final Act, Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics.

"III. The American Republics, in accordance with the pro­cedures established by their own laws and in conformity with the

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position and circumstances obtaining in each country in the existing continental conflict, recommend the breaking of their diplomatic relations with Japan, Germany, and Italy, since the first‑mentioned State attacked and the other two declared war on an American country." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 137, pp. 118­-119.)

Brazil broke off diplomatic and commercial relations with the Axis. (Cf. Jan. 24, supra. Times, Jan. 29 1942, p 1.)

Brazil severed diplomatic relations with Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)

Paraguay severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)


January 29. Ecuador severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 352.)

Treaty of Alliance between the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union and Iran.

"Having in view the principles of the Atlantic Charter . . . endorsed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 24th September 1941, with which His Imperial Majesty the Shah‑in­-shah declares his complete agreement and from which he wishes to benefit on an equal basis with the other nations of the world. . . ." (Cmd. 6335 [London, 1942].)

An agreement settling the frontier, dispute between Ecuador and Peru was signed in Rio de Janeiro. ("The Governments of Ecuador and Peru, desiring to find a solution to the question of boundaries which for a long period of time has separated them, and taking into consideration the offer which was made to them by the Governments of the United States of America, of the Argentine Republic, of the United States of Brazil, and of Chile, of their friendly services to find a prompt and honorable solution to the problem, and moved by the American spirit which prevails in, the Third Consultative Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, have resolved to celebrate a Protocol of Peace, friendship and boundaries. . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 140, p. 195.)

Axis forces occupied Bengasi. (London Times, Jan. 30, 1942, p. 4.)

Ecuador severed diplomatic relations with the Axis. (Cf. Jan. 24, 28, supra. Times, Jan. 30, 1942, p. 4.)

Despite the serious British reverses in the Orient, the House of Commons gave Prime Minister Churchill his la best vote of con­fidence on the conduct of the war [464 to l]. (Commons, Vol. 377, Col. 1018.)


January 31. Great Britain and Ethiopia signed an agreement and Military Convention. (Restored the normal diplomatic rela­tions that had been interrupted by the Italian conquest and pro­vided financial aid to the Ethiopian Government. The Military Convention provided for a British military mission and for strategically placed British military forces in Ethiopia. Commons, Vol. 377, cols. 1052‑1053.)

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The United States Pacific fleet severely attacked Japanese positions in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands, destroying numer­ous Japanese ships, planes, and, shore establishments. (Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. l; Feb. 13, 1942, p. 1.)

Japanese drove British from Malaya mainland and laid siege to Singapore. (Times, Feb. 1, 1942, p. 1.)


February 1. Juan Antonio Rios elected President of Chile. (De­feated Gen. Carlos Ibańez del Campo, Rightist candidate. Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. 1.)

Major Vidkun Quisling proclaimed Premier of Norway by Reich Commissar, Joseph Terboven. (Herr Terboven will con­tinue to rule the country from the background. . . "realizing that the struggle against Norwegian opposition will become more bitter, the Germans have decided to have Major Quisling ready as an eventual scapegoat." Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. 5.)


February 3. German troops entered Derna, in Libya. (Times, Feb. 5, 1942, p. 1.)


February 5. Iran severed diplomatic relations with Vichy (as a con­sequence of the Anglo‑Russian occupation of Iran, according to Vichy statement. Times, Feb. 6, 1942, p. 4.)


February 6. Establishment by the United States and Great Britain of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, announced by War Department. (". . to insure complete coordination of the war effort of Great  Britain and the United States, including the production and dis­tribution of their war supplies, and to provide for full British and American collaboration with the United Nations. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, pp. 66‑67.)


February 7. President Roosevelt approved the resolution of Congress authorizing him to render financial aid to China in an amount not to exceed $500,000,000.

("Whereas China has for more than four years valiantly resisted the forces of Japanese aggression; and

"Whereas financial and economic aid to China will increase her ability to oppose the forces of aggression; and

"Whereas the defense of China is of the greatest possible importance . . ." 56 Stat., Pt. I: 82‑83.)

The Navy announced that the combined naval forces of the Australian‑New, Zealand area had been placed under command of Vice Admiral Herbert F. Leary, of the United States Navy, with the title of "Commander Anzac Forces." (Times, Feb. 8, 1942; p. 16.)


February 9. Admiral William H. Standley appointed U. S. Ambassador to Russia (to succeed Laurence A. Steinhardt, new Ambassador to Turkey). (Times, Feb. 10, 1942, p. 6.)

A Pacific Council representing the British Commonwealth and the Netherlands established in London. First meeting February 10. (To coordinate views on the war in the Pacific for transmission to the Anglo‑American Chiefs of Staff in Washington. "The

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              319


creation of the council is in line with the plan agreed upon be­tween President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill for collaboration in the spheres of defense, foreign affairs and supply." Times, Feb. 10, 1942, p. 6.)


February 10. Generalissimo Chiang Kai‑shek visited India and con­ferred with British administrative and military officials, and with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of All‑India Congress Party. (He was endeavoring to convince the native leaders of India that. India should put aside her political quarrels with Britain, and concentrate on war against the Japanese. Times, Feb. 11, 1942, p. 3.)


February 11. Vice Admiral C. E. L. Helfrich of the Netherlands Navy succeeded Admiral Hart as Commander of United Nations naval forces in the Southwest Pacific. (Times, Feb. 12, 1942, p. 1.)


February 12. The German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the cruiser Prinz Eugen successfully ran. the English Channel from Brest to the North Sea. (Times, Feb. 13, p. 1.)

British Government invited India to send representatives to Imperial War Council and Pacific War Council ("His Majesty's government are anxious that India be afforded the same oppor­tunity as the dominions of being represented in the War Cabinet and the Pacific War Council for purposes of formulation and direction. of policy for. the prosecution of the war." Times, Feb. 13, 1942, p. 3.)

Japanese capture Bandjermasin, capital of Borneo, and Macassar, capital of Celebes. (Times, Feb. 13, 1942, p. 2.)

President Roosevelt proclaimed in force the convention be­tween the American Republics on the Provisional Administration of European Colonies and Possessions in the Americas, signed at Havana on July 30, 1940. (". . . the instruments of ratification of 14 of the American republics [the two‑thirds required by the terms of the convention to bring it into force] having been deposited with the Pan American Union." Cf. July 30, 1940, supra. Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 138, p. 158.)


February 14‑16. Japanese forces invaded Sumatra and captured the oil‑refining area of Palembang. (Times, Feb. 15, 1942, p. 11.)


February 15. Japanese captured Singapore and its garrison. (Times, Feb. 16, 1942, p. 1.)


February 18. President Morinigo signed a decree severing financial and commercial relations with the Axis Powers. (In accordance with the recommendation of the Rio de Janeiro Conference. Cf. Jan. 24, 28, supra.  Times, Feb. 19, 1942, p. 6.)


February 19. Riom trials opened. Accused were MM. Blum, Dala­dier, Guy la Chambre, Jacomet, Pierre Cot, General Gamelin. (A special Supreme Court was created to try the defendants on the charge that they betrayed their trust and that the responsi­bility for the defeat of France rested upon them. Times, Feb. 20, 1942, p. 1.)

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February 19‑22. Japan occupied the Portuguese island of Timor, alleging self‑defense, and promised withdrawal upon the accom­plishment of self‑defense objectives. (Times, Feb. 23, 1942, p. 5.)


February 21. Chiang Kai‑shek appealed to Britain to give India "real political power." ("The Indian people thus would realize that their participation in the war was not merely to aid anti­-aggression nations to secure victory but also the turning point in their struggle for their own freedom," Such a move would "redound to the credit of the British Empire." Times, Feb. 22, 1942, p. 1.)


February 23. American oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California, shelled by Japanese submarine. (Times, Feb. 24, 1942, p. 1.)

Mutual Aid Agreement signed between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain.

"Article I. The Government of the United States of America will continue to supply the Government of the United Kingdom with such defense articles, defense services, and defense informa­tion as the President shall authorize to be transferred or provided.

"Article II. The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to contribute to the defense of the United States of America and the strengthening thereof and will provide such articles, services, facilities or information as it may be in a posi­tion. to supply.


*    *    *          *          *

"Article VII. In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom in return for aid furnished under the Act of Congress of Mar. 11, 1941, the terms and conditions thereof shall be such as not to burden commerce between the two coun­tries, but to promote mutually advantageous economic relations between them and the betterment of world‑wide economic rela­tions. To that end, they shall include provision for agreed action by the United States of America and the United Kingdom, open to participation by all other countries of like mind, directed to the expansion, by appropriate, international and domestic measures, of production, employment, and the exchange and consumption of goods, which are the material foundations of the liberty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimination of all forms of discriminatory treatment in international commerce; and to the reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in general, to the attainment of all the economic objectives set forth in the Joint Declaration made on August 12,1941, by the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

"At an early convenient date, conversations shall be begun between the two Governments with a view to determining, in the light of governing economic conditions, the best means of attaining the above‑stated objectives by their own agreed action and of seeking the agreed action of other like‑minded Governments."(Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 140, pp. 191‑192; Cmd. 6341.)

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February 27. Japanese aircraft made their first assault on Indian territory with a raid on the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, south of Burma.  (Times, Feb. 28, 1942, p. 1.)

President Roosevelt authorized the establishment of the Joint Mexican‑United States Defense Commission. (". . . to study problems relating to the common defence of the United States and Mexico, to consider broad plans for the defence of Mexico and adjacent areas of the United States, and to propose to the respective governments the cooperative measures which, in its opinion, should be adopted." Vol. 7, Federal Register, p. 1607.)


February 27‑March 1. Battle of Java Sea. United Nations suffered the most severe naval losses since Pearl Harbor. (Times, Feb. 28, 1942, p. 1.)


February 28. Japanese troops landed in Java. (Times, Mar. 1, 1942, p. 1.)

President Roosevelt by Executive Order, effective March 9, reorganized the Army of the United States and provided under the Chief of Staff, a ground force, an air force, and a service of supply. (Vol. 7, Federal Register, p. 1609.)


March 2. General Wavell was transferred from command of the South­west Pacific to his former post as commander in chief of India and Burma, leaving the Netherlands in command of the final battle for the East Indies. (Japanese conquest of Malaya and Sumatra which separated Burma from the Netherlands Indies led to the decision to split the command and give the Netherlanders full charge of all the fighting forces in Java. Times, Mar. 3, 1942, p. 1.)

Australia declared war on Thailand. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 349.)

It was announced that the United States Government had recognized the authority of the Free French over the French islands in the Pacific and had declared that Americans would co-operate for the defense of the islands, and with no other French authority. ("The policy of the Government of the United States as regards France and French territory has been based upon the maintenance of the integrity of France and of the French Empire and of the eventual restoration of the complete independence of all French territories. Mindful of its traditional friendship for France, this Government deeply sympathizes not only with the desire of the French people to maintain their territories intact, but with the efforts of the French people to continue to resist the farces of aggression. In its relations with the local French au­thorities in French territories the United States has and will con­tinue to be governed by the manifest effectiveness with which those authorities endeavor to protect their territories from domi­nation and control by the common enemy." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No.  141, p. 208.)


March 5. Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Thailand (date uncertain). (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 353.)

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March 6. Lt. Gen. R. L. G. Alexander made commandant of British forces in Burma. (Times, Mar. 10, 1942, p. 5.)

Rumania severed, diplomatic relations with Brazil. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 369.) .

Spain severed diplomatic relations with Norway. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 370.)


March 7‑9. Japanese forces dealt China its greatest blow by capturing the seaport of Rangoon in Burma and thus cutting off supplies from the Burma Road. (Times, Mar. 10, 1942, p. 5.)


March 8. Japanese land troops at Lae and Salamaua in New Guinea. Japanese capture Rangoon and push ahead in Burma. (Times, Mar. 9, 1942, p. 1.)


March 9. Admiral. Ernest J. King; Commander‑in‑Chief of the United States Fleet succeeded Admiral Harold R. Stark as chief of naval operations. (Combined with current position of Commander in Chief of the U. S. Fleet. Times, Mar. 10, 1942, p. 1.)

The conquest of Java completed by the Japanese. (Times, Mar. 10, 1942, p. 1.)

Anglo‑American Caribbean Commission. "For the purpose of encouraging and strengthening social and economic cooperation between the United States of America and its possessions and bases in the area known geographically as the Caribbean, and the United Kingdom, and the British colonies in the same area, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of research in these fields, a commission . . . has been jointly created by the two Governments." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 142, p. 229.)


March 10. Lt. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell made Chief‑of‑Staff of United Nations armies in the Chinese theatre of operations. (Times, Mar. 11, 1942, p. 4.)


March 12. President Vargas issued a decree ordering the confiscation of up to 30% of the funds of Axis nationals in Brazil. There were anti‑Nazi demonstrations against German shops and establishments in Rio de Janeiro. (The confiscation was ordered to guarantee compensation for the ships that had been sunk. Times, Mar. 13, 1942, p. l.)


March 17. General Douglas MacArthur arrived in Australia after secretly leaving the Bataan Peninsula, to assume supreme com­mand of the United Nations forces in the Southwest Pacific area. (Times, Mar. 18, 1942, p. 1.)


March 17‑18. Military Highway to Alaska. Publication of texts of exchange of notes by Hon. Jay Pierrepont Moffat and Rt. Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King in regard to detailed arrangements for the construction of a military highway to Alaska.

"The detailed surveys which are being conducted by the United States Army Engineers' troops are actively under way." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 143, pp. 237‑239.)

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March 19. Lt. Gen. Stilwell assumed command of the Fifth and Sixth Chinese armies operating with the British in Burma. (Times, Mar. 21, 1942, p. 5.)

Prime Minister Churchill announced, the appointment of Richard G. Casey, Australian Minister to the United States, as a Minister of State in the British War Cabinet to represent the Cabinet in the Middle East, with headquarters in Cairo (to direct coordination of all Middle East war efforts excepting military operations. Times, Mar. 20, 1942, p. 1.)

President Ismet Inönü of Turkey, speaking at Smyrna, warned the country that the war would probably last a long time, and reaffirmed his policy of keeping Turkey neutral. ("We main­tain our contractual relations with the belligerents and we mean to carry on those relations, based on the agreements we have signed, with a straight heart and with loyalty. . . . The policy of neutrality is not easy, but we are doing our best in this respect." International News, Apr. 4, 1942, p. 312.)


March 20. Russian Government announced one year extension of Soviet‑Japanese fisheries agreement. (According to British statement, "entirely a routine matter. . . ." Times, Mar. 21, 1942, p. 1.)


March 21. Financial agreement with China. "The United States and China have today entered into an Agreement giving effect to the Act of Congress unanimously passed by the Senate and House of Representatives authorizing $500,000,000 of financial aid to China. . . . " (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 144, p. 263.)


March 22. Sir Stafford Cripps, special British envoy, arrived in. India. (To win India's full cooperation in the war against the Axis by offering some sort of formula for Indian freedom. Times, Mar. 23, 1942, p. 3.)


March 23. Japanese forces occupied the Andaman Islands. (Times, Mar. 26, 1942, p. 1.)


March 26. Boris of Bulgaria, after interview with Hitler, ordered the adjournment of his parliament until fall. (Times, Mar. 27, 1942, p. 9.)

President Roosevelt ordered removal of all barriers to shipment of supplies to Russia. (Shipments were not up to the schedule laid down by the Moscow protocol. Times, Mar. 27, 1942, p. 1.)

Diplomatic relations were renewed between Mexico and the Czechoslovak Government in London. (As a consequence of the resolution adopted at the Rio Conference expressing sympathy for the conquered nations. Times, Mar. 27, 1942, p. 3.)


March 27. Announcement of the arrival of President. Quezon of the Philippines and members of his war cabinet in Australia. ("Since the beginning of the war President Quezon has exercised the functions of his government in close conjunction with General MacArthur and has been located at the General's headquarters. This arrangement is now being continued." Times, Mar. 28, 1942, p. 2.)

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March 28. The Vatican established diplomatic relations with Japan. (Times, Mar. 31, 1942, p. 9.)


March 29. The text of the "Draft Declaration of Discussion, with Indian Leaders," taken to India by Sir Stafford Cripps was published simultaneously in India and Great Britain. (The British Government had decided to lay down in clear terms the steps to be taken for the earliest possible realization of self-­government in India. "The object is the creation of a new Indian union which shall constitute a Dominion, associated with the United Kingdom and the other Dominions by a common allegiance to the Crown but equal to them in every respect, in no way subordinate in any aspect of its domestic or external affairs. . . ." International News, Apr. 4, 1942, p. 283.)


March 30. Inter‑American Defense Board. "The Board is an out­growth of a recommendation by the Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics that a commission composed of military and naval technicians be appointed by each government of the American republics to study and recom­mend measures for the defense of the continent." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 144, p. 260.)

President Roosevelt announced the creation of a Pacific War Council to sit in Washington. First meeting April 1. ("It is imperative that all of the United Nations now actually engaged in the Pacific conflict consider together matters of policy relating to our joint war effort. An effective war can only be prosecuted with the complete cooperation and understanding of all the nations concerned. The new council will be in intimate contact with a similar body in London." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, p. 77.)


April 1. The United States Army began the mass evacuation of all people of Japanese ancestry from the Pacific Coast. (Times, Apr. 2, 1942, p. 4.)


April 2. Don Juan Antonio Rios assumed the Presidency of Chile with a new cabinet. He stated in his inaugural address that relations with the Axis Powers would be maintained but that Chile would "carry out faithfully the duties of continental solidarity." (International News, Apr. 18, 1942, p. 346.)

Carlton J. H. Hayes named Ambassador to Spain (to succeed. Alexander W. Weddell, who retired on account of ill health. Times, Apr. 4, 1942, p. 28.)


April 4. Free French control of the Cameroons and French Equatorial Africa was recognized by the United States. (". . . this Gov­ernment has treated with the French authorities in effective con­trol of French territories in Africa and will continue to treat with them on the basis of their actual administration of the territories involved. The French territories of Equatorial Africa and the French Cameroons are under the effective control of the French National Committee established in London. . . .") A United States consulate was to be established at Brazzaville. ("In view of the importance of French Equatorial Africa in the united war effort. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 145, p. 273.)

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April 7. Russians, succeeded in opening a rail line to beleaguered Leningrad. (Times, Apr. 8, 1942, p. 8.)

Bolivia announced an agreement with the United States whereby the latter contracted to buy Bolivia's entire copper production. (Times, Apr. 8, 1942, p. 3.)


April 8. Harry Hopkins and General George C. Marshall, U. S. Army Chief of Staff, arrived in London for conferences with British service and supply chiefs. (". . . their conversations will embrace the problems of integrating British and American man­power and war production for action in Europe." Times, Apr. 9, 1942, p. 1.)


April 9. Japanese captured Bataan after a siege of over three months. (Times, Apr. 10, 1942, p. 1.)


April 11. Sir Stafford Cripps announced India's rejection of British offer of post‑war autonomy. (Negotiations were wrecked on the issue of formation of an interim government pending settlement of India's constitutional problems after the war. Involved were the defense powers that such a government would wield. Con­gress party leaders insisted on a national government functioning with full powers as a Cabinet, and said that the British plan bore too much resemblance to the present Executive Council of the Viceroy. Times, Apr. 12, 1942, pp. 1, 39.)


April 12. Iran severed diplomatic relations with Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 362.)


April 13. Lord Louis Mountbatten appointed as chief of the com­mando raiders of British army, navy, and air forces. (Times, Apr. 14, 1942, p. 7.)

Russia warned Japan to observe strictly the year‑old neutrality pact. ("It is necessary that the Japanese military and Fascist cliques whose heads have been turned by military successes realize that their prattle about an annexationist war in the north may cause damage . . . to Japan herself.

"If the Japanese side strictly observes the undertakings it has assumed, the Soviet ‑Japanese neutrality pact will preserve its importance for the peoples of both countries, even in the present complicated and responsible international situation." Times, Apr. 14, 1942, p. 9.)


April 14. Iran severed diplomatic relations with Japan. (The Japa­nese Legation was said to have acted as a center of Axis propaganda and subversion directed against the Iran regime as well as the United Nations. Times, Apr. 15, 1942, p. 8.)


April 15. First meeting of the Inter‑American Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense (to study and recommend re­garding "appropriate measures for the control of sabotage and all other types of subversive activities directed by extra-con­tinental forces against the ideals and security of the Western Hemisphere." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, p. 69.)

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April 19. The representatives of the United States and Mexico arrived at an agreement as to the compensation to be paid to the citizens of the United States for certain oil properties ex­propriated by Mexico after March 17, 1938. ("From the mo­ment that our two Governments agreed upon a procedure for settling the so‑called `petroleum question' I have had every confidence that a settlement would be reached. . . ." [Statement of President Roosevelt].

"I have the certainty that so significant an act must be con­sidered, because of the spirit of conciliation which it shows, as a confirmation of the attitude of my Government in its desire to grant ample guarantees to the participation of private capital, national or foreign, in the exploitation and development of the material resources of this' Republic. . " [Statement of President Avila Camacho]. Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 147, pp. 351‑353.)

Admiral William D. Leahy, United States Ambassador to Vichy, was ordered to return to Washington for consultation. [Vichy had, among other things, protested the establishment of American consulate at Brazzaville in French Equatorial Africa.] (Under Secretary Welles said Admiral Leahy had been requested to return for consultation in view of the events of the last few days in France, and in view of information received that the new government of France is composed of elements dominated by Laval and all that implies. (Times, Apr. 18, 1942, p. 1.)


April 18. Pierre Laval completed his Cabinet in which he assumed in addition to the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, and Information, the title of "Chief of Government." Retiring Prime Minister Darlan retained the designation of successor to Marshal Pétain, and was named commander of the land, sea, and air forces. (Times, Apr. 13, 1942, pp. 1, 37.)

American air forces under Maj. James H. Doolittle bombed Kobe, Nagoya, Tokyo, and Yokohama. (Times, Apr. 19, 1942, p. 1.)


April 21. Spain pledged 1,000,000 men if necessary for the defeat of Russia. (Berlin radio quoted Señor Suñer as saying that Spain hoped the Axis powers would win the war because "a victory of the Allies would be tantamount to a victory of bolshevism." Times, April 22, 1942, p. 10.)

President Roosevelt ordered the Alien Property Custodian to seize all patents controlled or owned by nations at war with the United States. (The patent‑pooling situation had been frequently attacked as a serious hindrance to the American war effort. Germany had been able seriously to restrict American war production by means of cartel and patent arrangements with American manufacturers. Times, Apr. 22, 1942, p. 1.)


April 22. Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley was ordered to set up a joint United States‑New Zealand Naval command (to operate separately but in close liaison with General MacArthur and Vice

Admiral Leary. Times, Apr. 23, 1942, p. 8).

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April 23. The Union of South Africa severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 371.)

The United States and Peru arrived at a series of agreements on economic collaboration. (". . . to enable Peru to develop her resources of strategic materials essential for the security of the Hemisphere with particular reference to rubber and certain native fibers. The United States agreed to a loan for facili­tating these developments, the money to be spent in the United States for materials and equipment, The Unite States agreed to purchase Peru's surplus cotton and Peru agreed to sell to the United States all rubber not required at home." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 148, pp. 365‑368.)


April 25. United States troops landed on Free French‑controlled New Caledonia.  (Times, Apr. 26, 1942, p. 1.)


April 27. Vichy recognized Slovak Republic. (Times, Apr. 28, 1942, p. 3.)


April 28. Sir Stafford Cripps made a statement in the House of Commons on his .mission to India. (". . . this House was good enough to express its hopes that the mission might have a suc­cessful conclusion. . . . Unfortunately events have brought disappointment to these hopes, but I do not think that anyone in this country need feel regretful that the proposals were put forward or need blame His Majesty's Government of the British people for the unfortunate fact of failure to reach an agreement. . . ." Commons, Vol. 379, cols. 826 ff.)


April 29. Cuba granted de facto recognition to Free French control over French territories in the Pacific, Equatorial Africa, and the Cameroons. (Cuba continued to maintain official relations with the Vichy French Government but the Government had taken into consideration the "de facto situation in which certain French territories are under absolute jurisdiction of the National French Committee established in London, the representative of the Free French." Times, Apr. 30, 1942, p. 5.)


April 29‑30. Hitler and Mussolini conferred at Salzburg. ("They showed complete agreement of views on the situation as created by the overwhelming victories of the Tripartite powers and on further conduct of the war of the two, nations in the political and military field." Times, May 2, 1942, p. 1, 3.)


April 30. The Japanese captured Lashio in Burma and within a few days drove the Chinese back along the Burma Road into China, and the British and American forces toward India. (Times, May 1, 1942, p. 1.)

General Hsuing Shih-hui, head of the Chinese mission to the United States, told the press that China, had a definite part to play in the grand strategy of the United Nations, and that it was up to the latter to see‑that she got enough to do the job. (He maintained that Russia and Britain were holding Germany in check, and that therefore the United States should devote con­siderable attention to Japan, so that she could not consolidate her

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gains and use the raw materials she had gained in Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. International News, May 16, 1942, pp. 466‑467.)


May 1. United Sates promised aid to Free French forces. (According to Secretary of State Hull, the United States Government "considers the Free French Committee in London as the representative of French military resistance to the Axis wherever it exists." Cooperation with the Committee will continue "in the light of the common purpose of winning the war." Times, May 2, 1942, p. l.)

It was learned that within the previous two months delegations had been sent from Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary to Ankara to negotiate trade agreements on a compensation basis. ("Turkey had insisted that Turkish products could be shipped only after the arrival in Turkey of their equivalent from these countries, and they all accepted this condition." International News, May 16, 1942, p. 465.)


May 2. The working committee of the All‑India Congress party an­nounced the adoption of a resolution of complete nonviolent non-cooperation to any invading forces. ("In case invasion takes place it must be resisted. Such resistance can only take the form of nonviolent cooperation.   The All-India Con­gress Committee is convinced that India will be able to attain her freedom through her own strength and to retain it likewise." Times, May 3, 1942, pp. 1, 5.)

Hungary severed diplomatic relations with Brazil. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 361.)

President Roosevelt announced that Iran and Iraq would be eligible to receive assistance under the Lend‑Lease Act, ("The defense of these countries is vital to the defense of the United States.") The War Production Board announced that Free France, Czechoslovakia, Turkey, and Iceland had been added to the list of countries whose orders were admitted as "defence orders" with priority rating such as had been granted to the United Kingdom, the Dominions, China, etc. (International News, May 16, 1942, p. 467.)


May 4. The British attacked the French Island of Madagascar. (Local date May 5.)

United States informed Vichy Government of its approval of British occupation of Madagascar. "The President of the United States has been informed that Madagascar has been occupied by British forces. This occupation has the full approval and support of the Government. of the United States." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 150, p. 391.)

Secretary of State Hull told the press that American forces would be ready to back up the British occupation of Madagascar if necessary, and that United States troops and ships would use the island if necessary or desirable in the war against the Axis. (Relations with Vichy were on a day‑to‑day basis. International News, May 16, 1942, p. 467.)

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May 4‑8. In the battle of the Coral Sea the United States Navy inflicted great losses upon the Japanese Navy. (Times, May 9, 1942, p. 1.) .


May 5. Marshal Pétain sent a message to the Governor‑General of Madagascar calling on him to resist the British attack. ("I am at the side of the military commander in this tragic trial in which he is defending the honour of France." International News, May 16, 1942, p 443.)

The Vichy Government handed a note to the American chargé d'affaires protesting against British landing at Mada­gascar. (The note stated that the French Government took note of the assurance that Madagascar would one day be returned to France, but rejected "as inadmissible the attempt by the U. S. Government to forbid France to defend herself when her, territory is attacked." The Government of France could only leave it to President Roosevelt "to judge what part of the responsibility he has in the consequences which may result from this aggression." In handing over the note M. Laval stated that the final gesture between the two countries would not come from France. International News, May 16, 1942, pp. 442‑443.)


May 6. Corregidor Island surrendered. All United States organized resistance to the Japanese in the Philippine Archipelago ended (Times, May 6, 1942, p. 1.)

President Prado of Peru arrived in Washington (on a state visit). A new trade treaty between the United States and Peru was signed in Washington. (Providing for tariff reductions on some items, binding of other tariff rates and free duties for some commodities. Times, May 8, 1942, p. 10.)

Great Britain and the United States raised the status of their diplomatic missions to The Netherlands to that of embassies, and the corresponding Dutch ministers were raised in rank. ("I feel . . . that it is fitting to give adequate expression to the ties of especially close friendship which have come into being between our countries. . . . this purpose can be served by resolv­ing that the diplomatic envoys we exchange should henceforth have the status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten­tiary. . . . " [Statement of Queen Wilhelmina] Times, May 8, 1942, p. 4.)


May 7. Churchill's statement on British occupation of Madagascar. ("Mr. Churchill announced in Parliament that Diego Suarez had surrendered and that the British fleet was entering the harbour. He said that, in order to avoid bloodshed, very strong forces of all arms had been employed in the British attack, preparation for which had begun 3 months previously. Contact was made with the French forces in aid before Diego Suarez in the evening of May 5, but the first British assault on Antsirana at dawn on the 6th was repulsed with losses of probably over 1,000 men. Antsirana promontory fell during the night of the 6th, and Diego Suarez also surrendered. During the morning of the 7th attacks were made on Oronjia promontory, which also was occupied, and a protocol was being drawn up between the commanders on both

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sides. The operations had been carried out with great dash and vigour, the French also fighting with great gallantry, and he expressed his grief that bloodshed should have occurred between `the troops of our two countries whose peoples at heart are united. We trust that the French nation in time will come to regard this episode as a recognizable step in the liberation of their country, including Alsace‑Lorraine, from the German yoke. . . .' " International News, May 16, p. 452.)


May 8. The British Foreign Office issued a statement announcing that the British commanders of the troops who took Madagascar immediately informed the French authorities that Madagascar would remain French and would be restored to French sovereignty after the war. ("In return for their cooperation and in order to avoid bloodshed . . ." Times, May 9, 1942, p. 3.)

Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber sent Holy See eleven‑point indictment of the Nazi treatment of the Church‑(A, "veritable war against Christianity" is being waged in Germany; the Church is treated with mistrust by the regime; moral "blackmail" is being applied to faithful Catholics; propaganda against the Church is spread among lower‑paid workers; the Church is accused of being a "supernational organization"; violence is often em­ployed in the catechism of a "doubtful" German; measures have been taken in primary and secondary schools to prevent religious instruction; publication. of religious textbooks and church publications has been forbidden; young persons have been forbidden to attend church festivals in the evenings; church organizations have been prevented from acquiring land on which to build; church property has been sequestered without warning or indemnification. Times, May 9, 1942, pp. 4, 5.)


May 11. President Prado of Peru addressed the United States Con­gress. (". . . I bring you a message from my country . . . the cooperation of Peru is destined to represent a factor of real importance in the solution of the common problems of the defense of our continent. . . . The expectations of the world are now centered upon this continent, the favorite home of liberty." Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, pt. 3, pp. 4034-­35; pp. 4074‑4075.


May 12. Uruguay severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 372.)

The diplomatic representatives of the United States and the Norwegian Government in exile were raised to rank of Ambassa­dor. ("Accordingly, as an indication of the importance which this Government [the United States] attributes to the participa­tion of the Norwegian Government and of Norwegians throughout the world in the war effort of the United Nations . . ." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 151, p. 438.)


May 14. President Manuel Quezon established Philippine government in Washington. (President Quezon and his war cabinet left the open city of Manila in December for the island fortress of Cor­regidor, and went from there to Australia before coming to the United States. Times, May 15, 1942, p. 5.)

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French High Commissioner consented to the immobilization of French warships at Martinique and Guadaloupe (as a result of con­versations between Admiral Georges Robert, French High Com­missioner, and Rear Admiral John. H. Hoover, commander of the Caribbean Sea front, and Samuel Reber, assistant chief of the European division of the State Department. The Laval Government had insisted that under the terms of the armistice it could not turn over to the United States its tankers and other merchant ships in the French possessions. Times, May 15, 1942, p. 1.)


May 15. Costa Rica severed diplomatic relations with Hungary and Rumania. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)


May 18. United States signed agreement at Panama concerning the use of Panama defense areas by United States forces. ("The Governments of the Republic of Panama and of the United States of America, conscious of their joint obligation . . . to take all measures required for the effective protection of the Panama Canal in which they are jointly and vitally interested . . ." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 152, p. 448.)


May 22. Mexico declared war on Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 365.)


May 26. (ratifications exchanged, July 4.). Agreement for Mutual Assistance, Great Britain‑Soviet Union.

"Desiring to contribute after the war to the maintenance of peace and to the prevention of further aggression by Germany or the states associated with her. . . .

"Desiring . . . to give expression to their intention to collaborate closely with one another as well as with the other United Nations at the peace settlement and during the ensuing period of reconstruction on the basis of the principles enunciated in the declaration made August 14, 1941 [Atlantic Charter] . . . to which the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic has adhered;

"Desiring . . . to provide for mutual assistance in the even of attack upon either high contracting party by Germany or any of the states associated with her in acts of aggression in Europe.' (Cond. 6376, London, 1942; Times, June 12, 1942, p. 3.)


May 27. Reinhard Heydrich, German gestapo official, shot by Czeel patriots in revolt against Nazi police authority. He died June 4. Nazis started reprisals immediately. (Times, May 28, 1942 pp. 1, 3.)


May 29. Tank battle in vicinity of Tobruk. (Times, May 30, 1942


May 29‑June 4. Conversations between President Roosevelt and Mr. V. M. Molotov, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the U. S. S. R.

"In the course of the conversations full understanding was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a second front in Europe in 1942. In addition, measures for increasing and

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speeding up supplies . . . from the United States to the Soviet Union were discussed. Also discussed were the fundamental problems of cooperation of the Soviet Union and the United States in safeguarding peace and security to the freedom‑loving peoples after the war. Both sides stated with satisfaction the unity of their views on all these questions." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 155, p. 531.)


May 30-31. In a night bombing attack, British‑manned aircraft devastated Cologne. (Times, June 1, 1942, p. 1.)


June 1. President Manuel Avila Camacho of Mexico declared that a state of war had existed between Mexico and Germany, Italy, and Japan as of May 22, 1942. ("Now that attacks upon our sovereignty oblige us to resort to a measure which we sincerely desired to see outlawed from international life, we resort to it under the compulsion of circumstances but retaining our firm conviction that the victory of the democracies will permit the reorganization among all nations of a permanent regime of law based on mutual respect and reciprocal understanding." [Statement of Foreign Minister Padilla.] Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 154, p. 505.)


June 2. Mutual Aid Agreement with China. "The provisions of the agreement with China are the same in all substantial respects as those of the agreement between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain. . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 154, p. 507.)


June 3‑4. Japanese bombed Dutch Harbor and Fort Mears, Alaska. (Times, June 4, 1942, p. 1.)


June 3‑6. United States victory over Japanese in the Battle of Mid­way. (Times, June 8, 1942, p. 1.)


June 5. United States declared war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. [Public, 563, 564, 565; 56 Stat., pt. I, 307.] ("The Governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania have declared war against the United States. I realize that the three Govern­ments took this action not upon their own initiative or in response to the wishes of their own peoples but as the instruments of Hitler. These three Governments are now engaged in military activities directed against the United Nations and are planning an extension of these activities." [Message of President Roose­velt to Congress, June 2, 1942.] Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, pt. 4, p. 4787.)


June 9. Establishment of Combined Production and Resources Board and the Combined Food Board. "The President announced on June 9 on behalf of himself and the Prime Minister of Great Britain the creation of a Combined Production and Resources Board and a Combined Food Board.

"The general purpose of the two boards was announced with release of memoranda addressed by the President to Mr. Donald Nelson, who will act as the American representative on the Combined Production and Resources Board, and to . . . Mr.

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Claude Wickard, who will act as the American representative on the Combined Food Board." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 155, p. 535.)

China announced appointment of its first minister to the ­Vatican, Sien Shuh-kang. (Times, June 10, 1942, p. 6.)


June 10. The Czech Government in London in conjunction with the Polish Government, announced the Polish‑Czechoslovak Com­mittee of Coordination to convoke four mixed commissions to undertake preparatory work for a confederation of Poland and Czechoslovakia. ("They considered the confederation of Poland and Czechoslovakia to be a primary and fundamental aim of their foreign policy during and after the war." International News, June 27, 1942, p. 578.)


June 10. Town of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, destroyed by Nazis (in reprisal for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich. Times, June 12, 1942, p. 6.)


June 11. Mutual Aid Agreement between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. "The provisions of the agreement are the same in all substantial respects as those of the agreement between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain . . . and the agreement between the United States and China. . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 155, p. 531.)


June 12. Canada and Russia signed agreement in London to resume diplomatic relations. (There had been no diplomatic relations between Canada and Russia for 6 years. Times, June 13, 1942, p. 6.)


June 12‑21. Japanese forces occupied the islands of Attu and Kiska in the extreme tip of the Aleutians. (Times, June 13, 1942, p. 1; June 22, 1942, p. h.)


June 13. President Roosevelt created an Office of War Information. ("In recognition of the right of the American people and of all other peoples opposing the Axis aggressors to be truthfully informed about the common war effort. . . ." Vol. 7, Federal Register, 4468‑4469.)


June 14. Mexico and the Philippines signed the Declaration of the United Nations. (Cf. Jan. 1, 1942, supra).

("In taking, this decision my government [Mexico] does but continue the firm line of its national policy. In fact, the princi­ples contained in the Atlantic Charter coincide with the aspirations for social justice which have invariably ruled the actions of my country in the international field; . . they constitute an ideal for the realization of which Mexico has worked from the beginning of its independent life. . ." [Statement of Ezequiel Padilla, Mexican Minister for Foreign Affairs.]

"The people of the Philippines are wholeheartedly devoted to liberty and fully subscribe to the principles set forth in that great document known as the Atlantic Charter.

"The desire to associate, ourselves with those nations which are fighting for the preservation of life and liberty against the forces

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of barbarism that seek world domination. . . . " [Statement of Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippine Commonwealth.] Times, June 15, 1942, p. 4.)


June 16. The Soviet military attaché in Washington arrived in Mexico City at the head of a technical mission. (To confer with the President and military leaders. International News, June 27, 1942, p. 585.)


June 17. The Czechoslovak Government in London announced that they were making all necessary arrangements for setting up courts immediately after victory to try Hitler, Himmler, Göring, Henlein, and all the others responsible for the massacre of Czechs. (Dr. Benes had broadcast from London, on June .13, a message to the Czech people stating that the Government held Hitler and his Government personally responsible for the "bestial destruction and barren horror" that they had committed against the Czech nation. International News, June 27, 1942, p. 579.)


June 18. Trade agreement signed between Germany and Rumania. (Rumania undertook to deliver "within the limit of possibilities" supplementary quantities of petrol to those provided by previous agreements, large quantities of vegetables, and cattle and draught animals, in return for sugar from Germany. International News, June 27, 1942, p. 581.)

A United States‑Cuba agreement was announced whereby the Cuban Government granted facilities to the United States War Department for training of aviation personnel and for operations against submarines. ("In offering these facilities the Cuban Government . . . has taken a most important step in collaborat­ing in the joint war effort." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 156, p. 553.)


June 19. Beginning of conferences in Washington between Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt. (". . . the object in view is the earliest maximum concentration of Allied war power upon the enemy, and reviewing or where necessary, further, concerting, all the measures which have for some time past been on foot to develop and sustain the effort of the United Nations." . . . Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 157, p. 561.)


June 20-21. After defeating the British in pitched desert tank battles; General Rommel's forces stormed and captured Tobruk, and pursued the British deep into Egypt. (Times, June 22, 1942, p. 1.)


June 25. The United States War Department announced the formal establishment of a European theatre of operations for United States forces under Maj. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, with headquarters in London. (Times, June 26, 1942, p. 1.)

General Auchinleck assumed command of the Eighth Army in Egypt, in succession to General Ritchie. (Times, July 1, 1942, p. 4.)

King Peter of Yugoslavia addressed both Houses of Congress in the United States. ("For that unfailing friendship which you have ever shown toward my people, both in times of peace and war, I wish to express my gratitude. . . .

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"We have welcomed and willingly accept the principles of the Atlantic Charter, with all its vast implications. . . .

"The four freedoms which your great President pledged to his own people will be the aim for which we will strive. . . ." Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, pt. 4, pp. 5534, 5572.)

Prime Minister Salazar, in a broadcast, said that the foreign policy of Portugal was based on strict neutrality, without inter­fering with the old Anglo‑Portuguese alliance. ("Portuguese neutrality is constantly under revision and should never be con­sidered as final. . . . Sincerely neutral though we are, I think it would be prudent for our people not to sleep with the idea that they will never have to fight." International News, July 11, 1942, p. 637.)


June 27. A joint session of both Houses of Congress in Argentina voted Dr. Ramon Castillo President of the Republic. (President Ortiz had resigned June 24 on account of ill health. International News, July 11, 1942, p. 622.)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation announced the arrest of eight men who had been landed in two groups by submarines on the Long Island and Florida coasts. (They had landed with the intention of blowing up war factories, railways, canals, and water‑supply and electric works in the eastern United States, and of creating panic in big cities. The men were former mem­bers of the German‑American Bund, and had been trained for sabotage in Berlin. They carried large sums of American money. International News, July 11, 1942, pp. 640‑641.)

Prime Minister Churchill returned to England from the United States. A joint statement on the conferences with President Roosevelt was issued in London and Washington. ("The week of conferences between the President and the Prime Minister covered very fully all of the major problems of the war which is conducted by the United Nations on every continent and in every sea. . . .

"The United Nations have never been in such hearty and detailed agreement on plans for winning the war as they are today." Times, June 28, 1942, p. 2.)

Anglo‑Soviet agreement for the financing of supplies to Russia signed in Moscow. (British Government placed a further credit of £25,000,000 at the disposal of the Russian Government for the purchase of arms from Britain. International News, July 11, 1942, p. 642.)


June 29. General Rommel's forces captured Matruh, Egypt. (Times, June 30, 1942, p. 1.)


June 30. A conference of representatives of all the American Republics met to discuss coordinating measures already taken for severing commercial and financial intercourse with Axis and Axis‑domi­nated territories. ("There are colonies of subversive agents on the soil of each of our countries. These human termites . . . have been gnawing a long time not only at the foundations of our inter‑American system but also at the foundations of the economic

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structure which maintains us as a whole." [Statement by Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles.] International News, July 11, 1942, p. 641.)


July 1. The British retreated to El Alamein in Egypt, 70 miles west of Alexandria, and checked the German advance there. (Times, July 2, 1942, p. 1.)

Agreement regarding international trade in wheat [Argentina, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States]. "The dis­cussions at Washington, which have extended over a period of many months, have made it clear that a satisfactory solution of the problem requires an international wheat agreement and that such an agreement requires a conference of the nations willing to participate which have a substantial interest in international trade in wheat." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 158, p. 583.)


July 2. The British House of Commons reaffirmed its confidence in Prime Minister Churchill and his Cabinet by a vote of 475 to 25 subsequent to a strong attack on the central administration of the war. (Commons, Vol. 381, col. 610.)


July 3. The British Government announced a reorganization of the Government of India. The Indians were given a large majority on the Viceroy's Council. Two Indians were appointed to the British War Cabinet on the same standing as the representatives of the Dominions. (In line with Sir Stafford Cripps' proposals of March 23. Times, July 3, 1942, p. 5.)


July 4. The Soviet High Command announced the fall of Sevastopol after a siege of eight months. (Times, July 4, 1942, p. 1.)


July 7. Dr. Alfonso Lopez, President‑elect of Colombia, arrived in Washington (on an official visit to President Roosevelt. International News, July 25, 1942, p. 679.)


July 8. Mutual‑aid agreements signed, Netherlands,

      10. Greece,

      11. Czechoslovakia and Norway,

24. Yugoslavia. (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 159, p. 624; Vol. VII, No. 161, p. 647.)


July 10. Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and Russia renewed. (It was considered that the two nations, both of which are fighting against the Axis as members of the United Nations, should be in full diplomatic accord with each other. Times, July 11, 1942, p. 4.)


July 12‑13. Creation in Moscow of the National Committee of Free Germany, composed of German émigré writers, leaders, Reichstag deputies, and officers and soldiers from Russian prison camps. (Times, July 22, 1943, p. 6.)


July 14. The name of the Free French movement changed to Fighting France [La France Combattante]. ("A symbol of the resistance to the Axis of all French nationals who do not accept the capitula­tion and who by all the means at their disposal contribute, wher‑

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ever they are, to the liberation of France by the common victory of the United Nations." International News, July 25, 1942, p. 668.


July 15. The Japanese Foreign Minister stated that Japan's relations with Russia were still regulated by the Neutrality Treaty between the two countries. (The Soviet Government had assured Japan that the recent Anglo‑Soviet Treaty and the Soviet‑American agreement contained no clause relating to Japan. Great Britain and the United States, the Foreign Minister said, had been spreading propaganda in an effort to alienate Japan and the Soviet Union. International News, July 25, 1942, p. 676.)


July 16. Cancellation of consular representation between Finland and the United States.

"The [American] Legation . . . informed the Finnish Foreign Ministry that by the latter's action in regard to the withholding of recognition of the consular officer . . . and in denying Ameri­can consular officers presently in Finland their treaty rights in connection with the representation of American interests in Fin­land, the Finnish Government had undermined the basis upon which American consular representation was maintained in Fin­land." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 160, p. 632.)

Edward R. Stettinius, United States Lend‑Lease Administra­tor, arrived in London. (To see at first hand how the lend‑lease policy was working, and whether its operation could be improved. International News, July 25, 1942, p. 673.)


July 21. President Roosevelt announced that he had called Admiral William D. Leahy, former Chief of Naval Operations, to active duty as Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the United States Army and Navy. Admiral Leahy's resignation as Ambassador to France was accepted. (The President emphasized that he had to have someone in whose judgment he had great confidence in this position of absorbing information from the armed services for him, and, presumably, of advising him. Times, July 22, 1942, p. 1.)

The Norwegian Government in London issued a statement of peace aims. (Abandonment of the pre‑war project of a Nordic defensive bloc [consisting of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland]; attachment to Norway s Atlantic Allies; Britain and the United States; establishment of a revived and greater League of Nations, with Norway acting as a "bridge between the At­lantic Powers and the Soviet Union." International News, Aug. 8, 1942, p. 721.)

The Government of Cuba prohibited the shipment of foodstuffs of all kinds to Spain. (Such shipments served "only to reduce the hardships" of Cuba's enemies. International News, Aug. 8, 1942, p. 711.)


July 22. A three‑year commercial agreement signed between Uruguay and the United States (establishing most‑favored‑nation treatment in customs duties: International News; Aug. 8, 1942, p.  723)

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German wireless reported that an agreement had been signed between Italy and Vichy France (for promoting industrial and agricultural production in North Africa, and pledging mutual assistance in the development of their respective colonies. International News, Aug. 8, 1942, p. 720.)


July 28. The Soviet High Command admitted the fall of Rostov. (Times, July 28, 1942, p. 1.)


July 31. The 1937 trade agreement between the United States and Russia renewed in Washington. (The agreement of 1937 was to remain in force until Aug. 6, 1943, subject to termination thereafter unless renewed. "Although it is expected that in the coming year the character and amount of United States trade with the Soviet Union will be governed largely by the military requirements of the United States and of the Soviet Union and other countries struggling against the forces of armed aggression, rather than by the usual commercial considerations, the exchange of notes will insure the continuance during the emergency period of our established commercial relations with the Soviet Union on the basis of the 1937 commercial agreement." Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 162, p. 662.)


August 1. Six trade agreements between Brazil and the United States signed in Rio de Janeiro. (The agreements provided for the purchase by the United States of all surplus quantities of the products covered by the agreements, and for the warehousing of them in Brazil if shipping were not available for their trans­portation. International News, Aug. 8, 1942, p. 710.)


August 5. Great Britain repudiated Munich pact.

"Announcing that an agreement had been reached between Great Britain and the Czechoslovak Government headed by Dr. Eduard Benes. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden said that the final settlement of Czechoslovak frontiers would not be influenced by any changes effected `in and since' 1938." (Times, Aug. 6, 1942, p. 5.)


August 6. Queen Wilhelmina of The Netherlands addressed the American Congress.

("I stand here as the spokesman of my country, not only of those nine million of my compatriots in Europe, but also of some seventy millions in Asia and in the Western Hemisphere, whom I know to be at one with me in the spirit. . . .

"We have adhered to the Atlantic Charter, and our lend‑lease agreement with the United States points the way to wise international economic planning. . . .

"We want to resume our place as an independent nation on the fringe of the Atlantic, on the dividing line of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, and to remain your good neighbor in the Caribbean Sea, and we accept the responsibilities resulting from that situation. . . ." Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, pt. 5, pp. 6750‑6751.)

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August 7‑10. United States naval forces for the first time successfully invaded the Japanese‑held Solomon Islands and captured im­portant objectives on Guadalcanal, Florida, Gavutu, and other islands. (Times, Aug. 29, 1942, p. 1.)


August 8. The All‑India Congress party adopted a resolution demand­ing the immediate withdrawal of the British Government from India and sanctioned nonviolent civil disobedience in case of noncompliance. ("If India is free, effective resistance could be offered against the aggressor. India's freedom is long overdue." [Statement of Gandhi.] Times, Aug. 9, 1942, pp. 1, 12.)


August 11. An agreement was signed between the United States and Bolivia (providing for the dispatch of an American military mission to Bolivia. International News, Aug. 22, 1942, p. 769.)

 It was announced that the United States and Brazil had agreed to establish a joint defense board, similar to those established with Canada and Mexico (to discuss hemispheric defense meas­ures. International News, Aug. 22, 1942, p. 769. Cf. Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186; p. 74.)


August 13. A consular convention between the United States and Mexico was signed in Mexico City (defining and establishing the duties, rights, privileges, and immunities of the consular officers of each country in the territory of the other. International News, Aug. 22; 1942, p. 763.)


August 14. Economic assistance to French North Africa. "The exchange of goods with French North Africa . . . has been resumed. Two French ships sailed on August 9 from the United States for Casablanca, carrying supplies of a non‑military nature for the use of the local population." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 165, p. 713.) .


August 17. An official announcement was issued simultaneously in London and Moscow stating that Prime Minister Churchill had returned from a visit to Moscow, where negotiations took place with Premier Stalin. Mr. Harriman took part in the discussions as President Roosevelt's representative. ("A number of deci­sions were reached covering the field of the war against Hitlerite Germany and her associates in Europe. . . . The discussions . . . provided an opportunity of reaffirming the existence of close friendship and understanding between the Soviet, the United Kingdom, and the United States. . . ." International News, Aug. 22, 1942, p. 761.)


August 18. Gen. Sir Harold Alexander succeeded General Auchinleck as commander of British imperial forces in the Middle East. (Times, Aug. 19, 1942, p. 1.)


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August 19. About 6,000 Allied troops, mostly Canadians, made a nine‑hour landing at Dieppe, France. The raid cost the Allies about one‑half of their troops. (Times, Aug. 20, 1942, pp. 1, 3.)


August 20. Brazil relinquished extraterritorial rights in China. (Times, Aug. 21, 1942, p. 5.)


August 21. Crimes Against Civilian Populations in Occupied Coun­tries.

"When victory has been achieved, it is the purpose of the Government of the United States . . . to make appropriate use of the information and evidence in to these barbaric crimes of the invaders, in Europe and in Asia. It seems only fair that they should have this warning that the time will come when they shall have to stand in courts of law in the very coun­tries which they are now oppressing and answer for their acts." [Statement by President Roosevelt.] (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 165, p. 710.)


August 22. Brazil declared war against Germany and Italy. ("In the face of acts of war against our sovereignty." International News, Sept. 5, 1942, p. 799; Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)


August 24. Rights of non-belligerency were granted to the Govern­ment of Brazil by Uruguay, Chile, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. (Times, Aug. 25; 1942, p. 5.)


August 25. Germans reached the Grosny oil fields. (Times, Aug. 25, 1942, p. 1.)


August 26. Russians made seven counterattacks‑northwest of Stalin­grad. (Times, Aug. 26, 1942, p. l.)

Rights of non-belligerency granted to Mexico by Colombia. (Times, Aug. 27, 1942, p. 5.)

Venezuela and Colombia granted rights of non-belligerency to Brazil. (Times, Aug. 27, 1942, p. 5.) .


August 27. President Batista of Cuba signed a decree formalizing Cuba's alliance with Brazil in the war against the Axis. (In accordance with the agreement of pan‑American countries at the Havana conference. Brazil was provoked into a state of bel­ligerence by acts of war, the decree said. Times, Aug. 28, 1942, p. 4.)


September 1. Premier Tojo installed as Foreign Minister by Emperor of Japan (resignation of Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo.)

It was announced that the Cabinet had approved the setting up of a "Ministry of Greater East Asia" ("to take charge of ad­ministrative affairs in foreign countries and regions" in that area, and to control political, economic, and cultural affairs in Greater East Asia outside Japan, Korea, Formosa, and Sakhalin. International News, Sept. 19, 1942, p. 861.)


September 2. It was announced that President Roosevelt, at the re­quest of the Brazilian Government, had appointed an American technical mission of industrial engineers to visit Brazil (to assist in the expansion of the Brazilian industrial war machine. International News, Sept. 19, 1942, p. 866.)

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September 3. Agreements for Reciprocal Lend‑Lease Aid to the United States and its Armed Forces [United Kingdom, Australia, New. Zealand, Fighting France].

"Each of these agreements specifies that the general principle governing the provision of mutual aid is that the war production and war resources of each contracting party should be used in ways which most effectively utilize the available materials, man­power, production facilities, and shipping space." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 167, p. 734.)


September 5. President Castillo reaffirmed Argentina's intention to abide by its neutrality policy. (We are believers in justice and right, and can solve all our controversies by arbitration without any thought of having recourse to war." Times, Septa 6, 1942, p. 23.)

Argentina and Spain signed a barter trade agreement. (To insure the stability and growth of economic relations between the two countries by mutual concession of facilities for imports and exports and by the lowering of tariffs for the typical products of each country. The agreement was a "result of the conditions that war imposed even upon the most peaceful nations." Times, Sept. 6, 1942, p. 22.)


September 6. The Germans announced the capture of Novorossiisk, the key port of the Soviet Black Sea fleet since the fall of Sevastopol. (Times, Sept. 7, 1942, p. 2.)


September 7. Military and naval agreement signed between Cuba and the United States (coordinating the special measures which had been taken since the war began. International News, Sept. 19, 1942, p. 868.)


September 8. Canadian-Russian wheat agreement signed in London. (Canada extended a credit of $10,000,000 to the Russian Govern­ment for the purchase of Canadian wheat and flour. Times, Sept. 9, 1942, p. 33.)

The Minister of Luxemburg at Washington, in a note to Secretary of State Hull, stated, that the Luxemburg Government considered itself in a state of war with the Axis Powers. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 365.)

The State Department announced that the United States chargé d'affaires in Vichy had been instructed to inform the Vichy Government that bombs had only been dropped in France on military plants in the employ of Germany, and that the Ameri­cans had no desire to see the French suffer any more than could be avoided. The Government was to be informed, further, that military plants in France, useful to the Germans, would be "bombed at every opportunity." (The Vichy Government had protested against American bombing of French towns. International News, Sept. 19, 1942, pp. 868‑869.)


September 9. Iran declared war on Germany. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 362.)

The Norwegian, Yugoslav, and Czech legations to Russia were raised to the rank of embassies. (Times, Sept. 10, 1942, p. 6.)

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September 11. Rubber agreement signed in Mexico City between Mexico and the United States. (Rubber restrictions were to be imposed in Mexico, while Mexico was to sell the entire production of guayule to the United States until the end of 1946, together with any surplus of crude rubber. International News, Sept. 19, 1942, p. 862.)

President Roosevelt presented the Norwegian Navy with a new submarine chaser. ("It is today the privilege of the people of the United State's, through the mechanism of the Lend‑Lease Law, to assist this gallant navy in carrying out its present heavy duties." Times, Sept. 17, 1942, p. 12.)


September 17. The Governor General of Madagascar announced that he was sending plenipotentiaries to the British commander asking for an armistice and the opening of negotiations. ("French blood has continued to be shed in the defense of this land en­trusted to our care. This morning the adversary reached our defensive posts in strength much greater than ours. I take on myself in this most dire hour the responsibility of my action before you, France, and history." International News; Oct. 3, 1942, p. 911.)

Governor General of Madagascar rejected British armistice terms. (Demands of the British occupying forces were "inad­missible" as armistice terms, and therefore "our only response can be `resistance'." International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 911.)


September 18. Fresh Russian army troops from Siberia assisted in checking German attack on Stalingrad. (Times, Sept. 19, 1942, p. l.)

Trade agreement signed in Ankara between Turkey and Ru­mania. (Rumania would deliver to Turkey 3,000 tons of lubri­cating. oil against Turkish cotton. International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 916.)


September 19. Myron C. Taylor, President Roosevelt's personal envoy, conferred with the Pope. (According to speculation in Rome, the object of the discussions was concern over the developments of the Jewish question in France. Times, Sept. 20, 1942, p. 1.)

 The Finnish Legation in Washington issued a statement assert­ing that Finland "wants to cease fighting as soon as the threat to her existence has been averted and guarantees have been ob­tained for her lasting security." (It was stated, however, that no Peace proposals had been made to Finland, nor any promise of the restitution of the territories belonging to her, nor any guarantee of lasting security. International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 917.)


September 23. The Norwegian Government in London established a Ministry of Supply and Reconstruction (to plan post‑war re­construction. International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 913.)

Berlin wireless announced that a decree had been issued in Bucharest declaring that Marshal Antonescu had been created the only lawmaking authority in Rumania. ("The Rumania of today has no Constitution, and accordingly the powers of the Court of Appeal as supreme guardian of the Constitution have

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become meaningless. The 1936 Constitution is but a reflection of the regime that was overthrown. The present Government, therefore, has empowered Marshal Antonescu to create general constitutional laws, at the same time the law creator is above the law." International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 913‑914.)


September 25. The British Foreign Office announced that Madagascar had been placed temporarily under military jurisdiction ("in order to ensure law and order and to provide for the administration [in Madagascar] pending the establishment of a friendly regime." International News, Oct. 3, 1942, p. 904.)


September 28. Fighting France repudiated Munich pact.

("I have the honour to inform the Czechoslovak Government­ that the French National Committee, certain of expressing the feelings of the French nation, , faithful to the traditional policy of France . . . rejecting the Agreements signed in Munich on September 29, 1938, solemnly declare that they consider these Agreements as null and void, as also all acts accomplished in application or in consequence of these same Agreements." [letter of Gen. Charles de Gaulle.] Central European Observer, Oct. 16, 1942, p. 331.)


September 30. It was announced that Turkey had signed a treaty with Germany for the exchange of chrome for armaments. (A development of the Turkish‑German trade pact signed Oct. 9, 1941. Times, Oct. 1, 1942, p. 3.)


October 3. The Navy announced that Army and Navy forces had occupied the Andreanof Islands, only 125 miles east of Kiska. (Times, Oct. 4, 1942, p. 1.)

Premier Stalin stated, in a personal letter to the representative of the Associated Press in Russia, that Allied aid had so far been of little effect compared with the aid the Soviet Union as giving by drawing upon itself the main enemy forces. (Times, Oct. 5, 1942, pp. 1, 7.)


October 6. Delivery of military equipment to Soviet Union by the United States and Great Britain.

"There was signed on October 6 by the Honorable Sumner Welles, the Acting Secretary of State; His Excellency Maxim Litvinoff, the Ambassador of the Soviet Union in Washington, and Sir Ronald Campbell, British Minister in Washington, a protocol regarding the delivery by the United States and Great Britain to the Soviet Union of military equipment, munitions, and raw materials.

"This protocol gives formal expression to agreements, already in effect for some months, which provide for the continuance without 'interruption of the supply program inaugurated at the Moscow Conference a year ago." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 172, p. 805.)


October 7. President Roosevelt announced that at the end of the war all war criminals would be surrendered to the United Nations, and a commission would be set up to investigate war crimes.

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(Just and sure punishment would be meted out to "ringleaders responsible for the organized murder of thousands of innocent persons, and the commission of atrocities which have violated every, tenet of Christian faith." There would be no mass reprisals, however. International News, Oct. 17, 1942, p. 961.)


October 8. Nazi High Command abandoned attempt to storm Stalin­grad and announced a plan to reduce the city by heavy artillery. (The change in program was adopted to avoid "unnecessary sacrifice" of German blood. Times, Oct. 9, 1942, p. 1.)


October 9. Renunciation of Extraterritoriality in China. On October 9, the Acting Secretary of State informed the Chinese Ambassador in Washington that the Government of the United States is prepared promptly to negotiate with the Chinese Government a treaty providing for the immediate relinquishment of this country's extraterritorial rights in China and for the settlement of related questions and that the Government of the United States expects in the near future to present to the Chinese Government for its consideration a draft treaty which would accomplish the purpose mentioned.

"The Government of the United States has during the past several weeks exchanged views with the British Government in regard to this general question, and the Government of the United States is gratified to know that the British Government shares this Government's view and is taking similar action." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 172, pp: 805‑806.)


October 10. The Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet issued a decree establishing a single command and abolishing political commis­sars in the army. (The commissars had gained military experience and their former status had become superfluous. The decree was issued to free responsible military commanders from any hindrances in carrying out their duties and to add to their ranks. Times, Oct. 11, 1942, p. 3.)


October 11‑12. United States won a victory over the Japanese in the battle of Cape Esperance. (Times, Oct. 13, 1942, p. 11.)


October 12. United States Attorney General Francis Biddle an­nounced that 600,000 Italians living in the United States would no longer be regarded as enemy aliens. (Due to the result of the "splendid showing the Italians of America have made in meeting this test [loyalty to U. S.]." Times, Oct. 13, 1942, p. 12.)

Russia's first Minister to Canada, Fyodor Guseff, arrived in Ottawa. (Times, Oct. 13, 1942, p. 9.)

 Russia and Australia established diplomatic relations. (Times, Oct. 13, 1942, p. 4.)


October 14. Russian declaration urged immediate trial and punish­ment of all German leaders already imprisoned by the United Nations, especially Rudolf Hess. (". . . The Soviet Govern­ment considers itself; as well as the governments of all the states defending their independence from the Hitlerite hordes, obliged to regard severe punishment of these already unmasked ring‑

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leaders of the criminal Hitlerite gang as its urgent duty to in­numerable widows and orphans, relatives, and kin of those inno­cent people who have been brutally tortured to death and murdered on instructions of the criminals." Times, Oct. 16, 1942, p. 8.)


October 16. Cuba and Russia established diplomatic relations. (Times, Oct. 17,1942, p. 6.)


October 22. Vichy wireless, quoting a Stockholm telegram, stated that Germany and her allies were planning to denounce the Geneva Convention of 1864, re the Red Cross and prisoners of war. (The Axis declared that "England, by her methods of war, has been the first to cast off the obligations arising from this Convention." International News, Oct.  31, 1942, p. 991.)

President Rios of Chile issued a manifesto stating that: "I propose in international relations to align Chile at the side of all nations of the continent who are ready to defend the great prin­ciples of territorial integrity and American solidarity." (The Cabinet had resigned Oct. 20, following widespread agitation for the resignation of the Foreign Minister and a break with the Axis. It was announced that the resignation had given President Rios freedom of action to resolve the "present political crisis in a manner most convenient for the country." International News, Oct. 31, 1942, p. 988.)


October 23. The Berlin radio stated that Britain would be excluded from the post‑war "European Charter" (because "she has es­tranged herself from Europe more and more under Churchill's regime." International News, Oct. 31, 1942, pp. 994‑995.)

Mrs. Roosevelt arrived in London as guest of the King and Queen. (A statement issued by Buckingham Palace and the United States Embassy said she had come "to gain first‑hand knowledge of British women's war activities and to visit United States forces here." International News, Oct. 31, 1942, p. 999.)


October 24. Vice Admiral W. F. Halsey relieved Vice Admiral R. L Ghormley as Commander of Naval Forces in the South Pacific. Vice Admiral A. S. Carpender relieved Vice Admiral H. F. Leary as Commander of Naval Forces in the Southwest Pacific. Ad­miral Leary took over the task force command of Admiral William S. Pye. (Times, Oct. 25, 1942, pg. 1, 41.)

The Navy announced that the United States Navy had at­tacked the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. (Times, Oct. 25, 1942, p. 40.)


October 29. The War Department announced that the Canadian­-Alaskan "Alcan" military highway, which had been under construction since March, had been opened to military use. (Times, Nov. 5, 1942, p. 5.)


October 30. Japanese fleet reported to have withdrawn from the Solomons.(Times, Oct. 31, 1942, p. 1.)

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November 5. General Montgomery announced that the British had won a complete and absolute victory in Egypt and General Rom­mel's armies were in full retreat. General Ritter Von Thoma, second in command to Rommel, was captured. (Times, Nov. 6, 1942, p. 1.)


November 6. The British War Office announced that hostilities had ceased in Madagascar at 2:00 p. m., and that an armistice had been signed. ([The Governor General requested an armistice.] "The campaign has been brought to a successful conclusion." Times, Nov. 7, 1942, p. 4.)


November 7. The Swedish Foreign Minister declared' in the Riksdag that Sweden was determined to maintain her neutrality, meeting force with force if necessary, and that a free Finland and a free Norway were indispensable for the survival of Sweden as a free State. (Times, Nov. 8, 1942, p. 38.)

American armies landed in North Africa, assisted by British Navy and air forces.

("This combined Allied force, under American command, in conjunction with the British campaign in Egypt is designed to prevent an occupation by the Axis armies of any part of northern or western Africa and to deny to the aggressor nations a starting point from which to launch an attack against the Atlantic coast of the Americas.

"In addition, it provides an effective second‑front assistance to our heroic allies in Russia." Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 176, p. 891.)

Letter to France relative to Allied landings in French North Africa:

President Roosevelt to Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, Chief of the French State: "I need not tell you that the ultimate and greater aim is the liberation of France and its Empire from the Axis yoke. . . . I need not again affirm to you that the United States of America seeks no territories and remembers always the historic friendship and mutual aid which we have so greatly given to each other." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 177, p. 905.)

Letters to Spain and Portugal relative to Allied landings in French North Africa:

President Roosevelt to Gen. Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona, President of Portugal: "I desire to reassure you fully that the presence of American military forces in French North Africa presages in no manner whatsoever, a move against the people or Government of Portugal or against any of Portugal's continental or island possessions:"

President Roosevelt to Gen. Francisco Franco y Baleamonde, head of the Spanish State: "I hope you will accept my full assur­ance that these moves are in no shape, manner, or form directed against the Government or people of Spain or Spanish territory, metropolitan or overseas." (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 177, pp. 905‑906.)


November 8. The Bey of Tunis received a .message from President Roosevelt explaining the arrival of American troops there, and asking passage of these troops through Tunisia. (The troops were arriving with, no aim but the "early destruction of our

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common enemies." The Axis Powers were seeking to occupy and dominate Tunisia, and to impose on its people a "condition of misery to which I am sure they will never submit." International News, Nov. 14, 1942, p. 1055.)

. A joint American‑British Declaration was broadcast to the people of Metropolitan France stating that the landing of Ameri­can troops in French North Africa, was the first step toward the liberation of France, and had as its object the destruction of Axis forces there. "The hour of national uprising has not sounded. We have already promised you that we will warn you when this hour shall have come. Today that moment is closer." International News, Nov. 14, 1942, p. 1046.)

General de Gaulle broadcast a message calling on all Frenchmen in North Africa to rise without reserve and join the Allies. ("Our Algeria, our Morocco, our Tunisia are to be made the jumping‑off ground for the liberation of France." International News, Nov. 14, 1942, p. 1046.)

The British Foreign Office issued a statement announcing that the Ambassadors in Madrid and Lisbon had been instructed to inform the Spanish and Portuguese Governments that the British Government was at one with the United States Government regarding the American landings in French North Africa. (The conversations took the form of solid bids for confidence from which it was hoped would come trade, agreements long sought by the United Nations. Times, Nov. 9, 1942, p. 10.)

France severed diplomatic relations with the United States. [Statement by President Roosevelt.]

"The representative of this Government at Vichy has reported that last evening M. Laval, Chief of the Government at Vichy, notified him that diplomatic relations between Vichy and this Government had been severed." [Statement by President Roose­velt.] (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 177, p. 903.)

The Government of Canada severed relations with Vichy France. (There no longer existed in France any government with "effective independent existence." Times, Nov. 10, 1942, p. 1; Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)

Cuba severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p 351.)

Mexico severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 365.)

President Avila Camacho, of Mexico, broadcast the announcement that the Government of Mexico had broken off diplomatic relations with Vichy. ("Mexico cannot continue relations with a nation failing to cooperate with the democracies. We are sure that all Frenchmen will understand our move. . . ." Times, Nov. 10, 1942, p. 1.)


November 10. The Cuban Minister of State announced that diplo­matic relations with the Vichy Government had been broken off. (The order of the Laval Government to attack the United States was evidence of "punishable complicity" with the Axis powers and proved that the Vichy Government did not represent the French people. The rupture of relations with Vichy does not signify in any manner a rupture with heroic France or with the French people." Times, Nov. 11, 1942, p. 5.)

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Nicaragua severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)

Haiti severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 356.)

Premier Laval conferred with Hitler and Mussolini. (Reported that an alliance of Germany, France, and Italy against the United Nations and preparations to offset the effects of the Anglo-American initiative in Africa were under way. Times, Nov. 11, 1942, pp. 1, 10.)


November 11. German troops entered unoccupied France. (Marshal Pétain received a letter from Hitler informing him that all the German efforts to preserve the armistice and to improve relations with France had proved futile. "When information had been received that the next objectives of Anglo‑American invasion were to be Corsica and the south of France, Germany and Italy were forced to take all measures to "arrest the continuation of the Anglo‑American aggression." (International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1097.))

Marshal Pétain protested against the German invasion of occupied France (as a "decision incompatible with the armistice agreement." International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1098.)


November 12. Guatemala severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 356.)


November 13. Panama suspended diplomatic relations with Vichy (as a result of the German occupation of the part of France over which that government exercised authority. Honduras severed diplomatic relations with Vichy. Times, Nov., 14, 1942, p. 3.)


November 13‑14. Battle for Tunisia began. British Eighth Army occupied Tobruk and continued advance into Cyrenaica. (Times, Nor. 14, 1942, p. 1.)


November 13‑15. In the battle of Guadalcanal, the United States Navy and Air Forces smashed Japan's greatest naval effort to re­capture the Guadalcanal‑Tulagi area. (Times, Nov. 17, p. 1.)


November 13. El Salvador severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 353.)

Brazil severed diplomatic relations with Vichy (following the Brazilian Government's protest against the German raid on the Embassy in Vichy. International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1094.)

Panama severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)


November 15. The Regent of Iceland, at the opening session of the newly elected Althing, spoke of Iceland's excellent relations with Britain and America. (The British troops had, now left Iceland, and had been replaced by Americans. The British had come against the will of the Icelanders but quickly gained their respect and sympathy; the Americans came at their request and according to their free agreement, and Iceland's respect and sympathy for the United States had increased on closer acquaintance. International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1107.)

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Admiral Darlan proclaimed protectorate over all French North Africa, and named General Giraud as commander in chief of the armed forces. (Marshal Pétain was "in the clutches of the Germans." Times, Nov. 16, 1942, p. 1.)

Admiral Darlan assumed position of protector of French inter­ests in North Africa, appointing General Giraud as commander in chief of French armed forces in North Africa. ("I assume all responsibility for this decision, which has only one aim, namely, to safeguard the interests of the empire and national unity." Times, Nov. 16, 1942, p. 6.)


November 17. United States political arrangements in North and West Africa.

"The present temporary arrangement in North and West Africa is only a temporary expedient, justified solely by the stress of battle. . . . Temporary arrangements made with Ad­miral Darlan apply, without exception, to the current local situation only." [Statement by the President.] (Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 178, p. 935.)


November 18. Premier Laval given power to make laws and issue decrees on his signature alone. (Marshal Pétain, "taking into account the exceptional circumstances" had given Laval power to enable him as head of the Government "to deal speedily at any hour and in all places with the difficulties through which France is passing." International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1099.)


November 19. Mexico reestablished diplomatic relations with Russia. (Times, Nov. 20, p. 1.)


November 20. British Army captured Bengasi and continued pursuit of Rommel's forces. (Times, Nov. 22, 1942, p. 1.)

R. A. F. bombed Turin, the worst raid suffered so far by the Italians. (Times, Nov. 22, 1942, p. 1.)

Premier Laval broadcast a message to the. nation stating that he intended to collaborate even more closely with Germany than in the past. (The United States and England were now "tearing France limb from limb. . . . It is in the interests of France and in the interests of the peace to come that we are attempting reconciliation with Germany. . . . The entente with Germany is the sole guarantee of peace in Europe." International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1100.)


November 21. The White House announced the appointment of Gov. Herbert H. Lehman, of New York, as Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation operations, to undertake the work of organizing American participation in activities of the United Nations in furnishing relief to victims of war in areas reoccupied by the United Nations. ("This is a step in the President's program of mobilizing the available resources of this country. . . . so that it may make an immediate and effective contribution to joint efforts of the United Nations in the field of relief and rehabilitation." Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 178, p. 948.)


350                              EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


November 22. Russians opened offensive in Stalingrad area. (Times, Nov. 23, 1942, p. 1.)


November 23. Secretary of State Hull announced that a satisfactory agreement had been reached between the American negotiators and local authorities in Martinique. (He stated that it would be unnecessary for American troops to occupy Martinique or other French possessions in the West Indies, and that the new agreement covered all French Caribbean possessions and French Guiana. International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1116.)

President Del Rio of Ecuador arrived in Washington (on a State visit. International News, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 1116.)


November 26. Colombia severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)


November 27. General de Gaulle broadcast from London a message to the French people stating that the Toulon fleet had scuttled itself (to be spared "the supreme shame of seeing French ships become the ships of the enemy." "Patriotic instincts" had swayed the spirits of the crews and their commanders. Interna­tional News, Dec. 12, 1942, p. 1147‑1148.)


November 28. Russians opened new offensive in Velikie Luki region (Times, Nov' 29, 1942, p. 1.)

The Vichy admiralty issued statement on the scuttling of the fleet at Toulon. (Action was taken "in accordance with the standing instruction dating from the time of the Franco‑German armistice, which had ordered the fleet to scuttle rather than be taken over by a foreign power. When the Vichy Ministers for the Navy, Army, and Air Force were informed of the German Government's decision to occupy Toulon, Admiral Abrial tried immediately to get in touch with the local authorities at Toulon, but could not do so." International News, Dec. 12, 1942, p. 1148.)


November 30. Announcement that in the battle of Tassafaronga. Japanese naval forces were intercepted trying to reinforce and supply their forces on Guadalcanal. (Times, Dec. 1, 1942, p. 1.)

Agreement signed between the United States and Canada regarding postwar economic settlements. ". . . to provide ap­propriate national and international measures to expand production, employment, and the exchange and consumption of goods . . . ; to eliminate all forms of discriminatory treatment in inter­national commerce; to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers; and generally, to attain the economic objectives of the Atlantic Charter." Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 180, p. 977.)


December 1‑2. Russians broke through German lines west of Rzhev. (Times, Dec. 3, 1942, p. 1.)


December 1. Ethiopia declared war on Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 353.)

The Beveridge report on a system of social insurance and allied services was published in Great Britain.

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II                                              351


December 8. Messages exchanged between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, pledging their two nations to complete defeat of Japan. (Anniversary of Pearl Harbor attack. Times, Dec. 9, 1942, p. 8.)

President Batista of Cuba arrived in Washington. (For dis­cussions with President Roosevelt on all phases of the war effort, with particular reference to Cuban needs for implementing her con­tribution to the United Nations in the fight against the Axis. Times, Dec. 9, 1942, p. 14.)


December 9. It was announced in London that the Netherlands and Russian Governments had agreed to exchange ambassadors. (Times, Dec. 10, 1942, p. 7.)


December 10. President Roosevelt announced the extension of lend­-lease aid to Abyssinia. (In view of her recent adherence to the Declaration of the United Nations, and that the "defense of Ethiopia is vital to the defense of the United States." Times, Dec. 11, 1942, p. 3.)


December 11. President Roosevelt announced that William Phillips, formerly Ambassador in Rome, and at present in London, had been appointed to go to Delhi ("as his personal representative to serve near the Government of India." International News, Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1213.)


December 13. It was announced that Anton Mussert, head of the Dutch Nazis, had been appointed Führer for Holland following a visit to Hitler's headquarters in Russia. Dr. Arthur von Seyss‑Inquart remained the supreme authority. (In the nature of a probationary leader to see if, he can bring the Netherland people nearer to Nazi‑ism. Reluctance to make Mussert a full­-fledged Premier was thought to be an indication that the Nazis had learned their lesson in Norway. Times, Dec. 14, p. 3.)


December 14. The Government of Abyssinia proclaimed that a state of war existed between Abyssinia and Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Times, Dec. 15, 1942, p. 8.)

Agreement concluded in London between the British Government and the French National Committee. (The provisional military administration set up by the British authorities after the occupation of Madagascar was to come to an end upon the arrival there of General Legentilhomme, the newly appointed High Com­missioner, when the necessary provisions had been made for the reestablishment of the exercise of French sovereignty over the island. International News, Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1198.)

The Combined Production and Resources Board and the Combined Raw Materials Board issued a statement simultaneously in Washington and London, that the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada had united in creating a Combined Steel Committee ("to squeeze every possible ton of steel out of existing plant facilities, in order to fulfill the combined war production programme for 1943." International News, Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1197.)

352                              EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


December 17. Admiral Darlan announced French fleet units at Dakar, Alexandria, and North African ports would join the United Nations. ("French Africa, with the Allies, must make the maximum military effort for the defeat of Germany and Italy. . . ." [Statement of Dec. 16.] Times, Dec. 18, 1942, p. 8.)

Foreign Secretary Eden, in a written reply in the House of Commons, stated that the British Government wished to see Albania freed from the Italian yoke and restored to her inde­pendence. (". . . a people among the earliest victims of Fascist aggression." Commons, Vol. 385, col. 2114.)


December 18. "Settlement of Mexican Claims Act of 1942" approved. (Established a three‑man American‑Mexican Claims Commission to render final decisions in expropriation claims by American nationals against the Government of Mexico. 56 Stat., Pt. I, 1058‑1064.)


December 19. Chancellor Hitler received Premier Laval at his head­quarters in the presence of Count Ciano, Goring, and von Ribben­trop (to discuss "the existing problems of France." International News, Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1196.)


December 20. Major offensive opened by the Russians in the Cau­casus. (Times, Dec. 20, 1942, p. 1:)

Spain and Portugal announced the creation of a neutral Iberian bloc. ("Our peninsula policy is based on sentiment and the, conviction that we are serving the permanent interests of all nations." International News, Dec. 26, 1942, p. 1208.)


December 23. United States and Mexico signed a three‑year reciprocal trade agreement. ("The agreement is designed to facilitate trade between the United States and Mexico during the existing emergency and to provide an unproved basis for expansion of that trade after the war. The reciprocal benefits for which it provides include tariff reductions and bindings of existing cus­toms treatment on specified products imported from the other country, while the general provisions of the agreement include mutual assurances of nondiscriminatory trade treatment." Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 183A (Supplement), p. 1033.)


December 24. Admiral Darlan assassinated in Algiers. General Giraud became acting French ruler of the African colonies. (Times, Dec. 25, 1942, p. 1.)