January 3. New Yugoslav Government formed in London by former Prime Minister Yovanovitch. (King Peter had been handed resignation of former government on Dec. 29, 1942. International News, Jan. 9, 1943, p. 40.)
January 5. It was announced that the British Government, together with 16 other governments of the United Nations and the French National Committee had signed a formal declaration to combat and defeat Axis plundering of occupied Europe. The governments reserved all rights to declare invalid and transfers of, or dealings with, all hinds of property, rights, and interests in the Nazi‑occupied territories. [Text, Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 188, p. 21.) (International News, Jan. 23, 1943, p. 75.)
January 8. Prime Minister Mackenzie King of Canada announced appointment of first Canadian Minister to the Soviet Union. (International News, Jan. 23, 1943, p. 69.)
January 9. Tokyo radio announced that Nanking Government in China had declared war on the United States and Britain, and that a Sino‑Japanese declaration had been signed for cooperation between the Chinese Government and Japan, the abolition of extraterritoriality, and the retrocession of concessions and settlements. (International News, Jan. 23, 1943, p. 70.)
January 11. Treaty with China relinquishing extraterritorial rights:
"The treaty and accompanying exchange of notes, signed January 11, 1943, between the Governments of the United States and China provide for the relinquishment by the United States of the extraterritorial and other special privileges which under treaty provisions the United States has hitherto exercised, as have other countries, in China and for the adjustment of venous matters in connection with this relinquishment." (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, p. 59.)
The Foreign Minister, the British Ambassador, and the Secretary of the Indian Agency‑General in China signed a treaty at Chungking for relinquishment of extraterritoriality rights in China. (International News, Jan. 23, 1943, p. 70.)
January 14‑26. Casablanca Conference [President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, accompanied by the Combined Chiefs of Staff]. "The entire field of the war was surveyed theatre by theatre throughout the world, and all resources were marshaled for a more intense prosecution of the war by sea, land and air. . . . The President and the Prime Minister and their combined staffs, having completed their plans for the offensive campaigns of 1943, have now [January 26] separated to put them into active and concerted execution." (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 188, pp. 93‑94.)
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January 16. Announcement by Iraq of the existence of a state of war between Iraq and Germany, Italy, and Japan (because the three Axis Powers had long engaged in subversive activities, hostile broadcasts and had encouraged rebellion against the Constitution. Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 362.)
January 18. Russian Government announced that the 17‑month siege of Leningrad had been raised. (Times, Jan. 21, 1943, pp. 1, 7.)
January 20. Chile severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)
January 21. Agreement signed between British and Czechoslovak Governments providing for the organization and employment of the Czech forces in the war, and providing a lend‑lease basis for articles and services supplied by the British Government. (International News, Feb. 6, 1943, p. 125.)
January 23. Russians recaptured Armavir, key railway junction in the Maikop oil fields. (Times, Jan. 24, 1943, p. 1.)
General Montgomery made formal entry into Tripoli, after receiving surrender of the city and province. (International News, Feb. 6, 1943, p. 128.)
January 26. Peru severed diplomatic relations with France (France took similar action against Peru, same date. Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 354.)
January 27. First all‑American bombing raid made on Germany. (Times, Jan. 28, 1943, p. 1.)
January 28. Japan reaffirmed her neutrality pact with Russia. (Times, Jan. 28, 1943, p. 18.)
Japanese Premier Hideki Tojo, in a review of the war situation before the Diet, announced that Japan intended in 1943 to recognize the independence of the Burmese State, to grant independence to the Philippines if their people were prepared to cooperate, and to aid India in her fight for freedom. (International News, Feb. 6, 1943, p. 127‑128.)
January 30. British bombed Berlin in daylight for first time. (Times, Jan. 31, 1943, p. 1.)
January 31. Moscow reported the smashing of two German armies and the capture of a field marshal and 16 generals before Stalingrad. (Times, Feb. 1, 1943, p. 2.)
February 2. Russians completed destruction of 330,000 Germans at Stalingrad. (Times, Feb. 3, 1.943, p. 1.)
February 3. Broadcast from Hitler's headquarters announced that the battle for Stalingrad had ended, and said that "the sacrifice of the Army, bulwark of a historical European mission, was not in vain." (German army at Stalingrad had surrendered on Feb. 2. International News, Feb. 20, 1943, p. 168.)
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February 5. It was announced that Premier Mussolini had taken over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (assuming "the entire burden for the conduct of political and military operations in this delicate phase of the conflict." Times, Feb. 6, 1943, p. 1.)
Lt. Gen. Frank Andrews named as Commander of American Forces in Europe. (The army in England was to be built up to the strength that existed before the African invasion, and concentrate on the bombing of Germany. Times, Feb. 6, 1943, pp. 1, 3.)
February 6. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed Commander in Chief of all Allied forces in North Africa. (Times, Feb. 7, 1943, p. 1.)
Brazil declared formal adherence to the Declaration of the United Nations. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)
February 7. Russians announced that they had freed the south bank of the Don River of the Germans. (Times, Feb. 8, 1943, p. 1.)
February 8. Russians recaptured Kursk, held by the Germans since November 11, 1941. (Times, Feb. 17, 1943, p. 1.)
February 9. Organized Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal came to an end. (Times, Feb. 10, 1943, p. 1.)
February 11. It was announced that Sir John Dill, representing Mr. Churchill, and Gen. Henry H. Arnold, representing Mr. Roosevelt, had concluded a series of conferences with Gen. Chiang Kai‑shek in Chungking and with Sir Archibald Wavell in India. Subsequent conferences were held between Generals Wavell and MacArthur. ("A complete accord was reached in coordination of offensive plans and signifying the united determination of the powers concerned to insure full cooperation and mutual assistance against the Japanese." Times, Feb. 12, 1943, p. 1.)
Prime Minister Churchill announced in Commons that when the British, Eighth Army passed into the American sphere it would be subject to General Eisenhower, that General Alexander would be Deputy Commander in Chief. Air Chief Marshall Tedder was to command Mediterranean air operations (as well as the air forces in the Middle East), responsible to General Eisenhower. Admiral Cunningham's command was extended to comprise all cognate operations in the Mediterranean and the Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean would become Commander in Chief of the Levant and the Red Sea. General Alexander would be succeeded in the Middle East by Gen. Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. (Commons, Vol. 386, Feb. 11, 1943, Cols. 1486‑1487.)
February 14. Russians recaptured Rostov. (Times, Feb. 15, 1943, p. 1.)
February 16. Russians recaptured Kharkov. (Times, Feb. 17, 1943, p. 1.)
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February 18. Mme. Chiang Kai‑shek addressed both Houses of the United States Congress.
"We of this generation who are privileged to help make a better world for ourselves and for posterity should remember that, while we must not be visionary, we must have vision so that peace should not be punitive in spirit and should not be provincial or nationalistic or even continental in concept, but universal in scope and humanitarian in action. . . ." (Congressional Record, Feb. 18, 1943.)
February 19. Establishment of North African Economic Board. ("To supervise the supply of civilian goods from Britain and America and to restore the general economy in North Africa." International News, Mar. 6, 1943, p. 230.)
February 25. Americans occupied Kasserine Pass. (Times, Feb. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
Polish Government declared its expectation that Russia would restore Poland's pre‑war eastern frontier. (As a protest against Soviet decisions affecting Polish sovereignty over eastern territories and the rights of Polish citizens there. Times, Feb. 26, 1943, p. 4.)
February 26. United States Ambassador to Spain, Carlton J. H. Hayes, reported that America had been exporting oil, cotton, food, and other supplies to Spain. (Times, Feb. 27, 1943, p. 1.)
March 1. Soviet News Agency issued reply to Polish declaration of February 25. Polish Government accused of refusing to recognize the historic rights of Ukranians and Byelo‑Russian peoples to be united within their national states; Polish policy condemned as imperialist and as having been pro‑Fascist before the war. (International News, Mar. 6, 1943, pp. 235‑236.)
March 2. R. A. F. attacked Berlin in the most devastating raid of the war to date. (Times, Mar. 3, 1943, p. 1.)
March 3. Russians recaptured Rzhev; strongly fortified German area nearest Moscow. (Times, Mar. 4, 1943, p. l.)
March 4. Polish Government statement on Declaration of Feb. 25. Telegraph Agency publishing the statement pointed out that the Declaration was not intended to produce controversy, but only to state the indisputable Polish rights to these territories in which the Polish nation would continue to live in harmony with its Ukrainian and White Russian countrymen. The Polish Government "categorically" rejected Russian insinuations of imperialist claims in the East, and expressed continued readiness for a friendly understanding with the Soviet Government. (International News, Mar. 20, 1943, p. 279.)
Battle of the Bismarck Sea. Japanese convoy of 12 transports and 10 warships bound for New Guinea destroyed by Allied planes. (Times, Mar. 4, 1943, pp. 1, 2.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 357
March 8. Admiral Standley, United States Ambassador to Russia, made statement in Moscow that news of important American aid was being kept from Russian people. ("It is not fair to mislead Americans into giving millions from their pockets, thinking that they are aiding the Russian people, without the Russian people knowing about it." Times, Mar. 9, 1943, p. 1.)
March 14. Germans recaptured Kharkov. (Times, Mar. 15, 1943, p.1.)
March 15. Trade agreement between Finland and Germany. (The agreement to guarantee both countries' production supplementing each other and to provide for the future conduct of the war. International News, Mar. 20, 1943, p: 267.) ,
March 16. Introduction of Ball‑Burton‑Hatch‑Hill Resolution [S. Res. 114] calling for current parley on post‑war problems. ("We who offer it are merely spokesmen for a considerably larger group of Senators who are interested in having the Senate act on this all‑important subject. In a larger sense, we speak for all the millions of Americans who are longing for constrictive and immediate action toward winning peace, as well as victory in the war." [Statement of Senator Ball.] Congressional Record, Mar. 16, 1943, p. 2077.)
March 18. General Giraud's mission in Washington announced that French Guiana had declared its allegiance to General Giraud, disassociating itself from Vichy France. (International News, Apr. 3, 1943, p. 312.)
March 26. Soviet Government renewed fisheries agreement with Japan. (In line with their neutrality agreement. Times, Mar. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
March 29. British Eighth Army completed occupation of main positions of Mareth Line. (Times, Mar. 30, 1943, p. 1.)
April 6. Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau announced post‑war currency stabilization plan. ("Our tentative purpose is to establish an international stabilization fund in which all the United Nations and those nations which are associated with them in this war would participate. This fund would constitute an international agency with powers and resources adequate to promote the maintenance of currency stability." Times, Apr. 6, 1943, p. 1.)
April 7. A state of war was declared by Bolivia to exist between Bolivia and Germany and Italy. (By action of the Executive. This was subsequently ratified by the Legislature on November 26, 1943, as required by law. Department of State, notified of this ratification by the Bolivian Legation in Washington on December 6, 1943. Legation communication cited executive decree of December 4, 1943, which noted legislative action. Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)
358 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
April 10. Iraq signed United Nations Declaration. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 362.)
Brazil signed United Nations Declaration. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)
April 15. Mme. Chiang Kai‑shek proposed that Big Four take lead in formation of post‑war world council to protect and guide backward nations until they can be completely liberated. (Times, Apr. 15, 1943, p. 8.)
April 16. Polish Minister of National Defense announced that his Government was approaching the International Red Cross with a request to investigate a report that the bodies of thousands of Polish officers had been found near Smolensk and that they had been murdered by the Russians. ("On no occasion has the Polish Government or the Polish Embassy in Kuibyshev ever received an answer as to the whereabouts of the officers and other prisoners deported from the 3 above‑mentioned camps. We have become accustomed to the lies of German propaganda and understand the purpose of its recent revelations." International News, May 1, 1943, pp. 412‑413.)
April 17. General Giraud, in agreement with General de Gaulle, asked the League of Nations to consider France's withdrawal in 1941 as invalid. (It had occurred at a time when France had been deprived of her sovereign rights. International News, May 4, 1943, p. 401.)
April 18. Soviet radio stated, concerning the ,report of the discovery of the Polish officers near Smolensk, "The hand of the Gestapo can easily be traced in this hideous frame‑up." The much too fresh bodies of their victims, their carefully preserved diaries, their false witnesses and shady investigators are all too transparent. (International News, May 1, 143, p. 422.)
Trade agreement between Germany and Turkey signed. (Germany to supply Turkey with industrial equipment and spare parts for machinery and with locomotives, trucks, and chemicals in return for Turkish cotton, tobacco, and dried fruits. International News, May 1, 1943 p. 416.)
Prime Minister John Curtin of Australia pointed out that the "holding war" in the Pacific dictated by the global strategy of the Casablanca Conference came perilously near to exhausting Australia's resources. (". . . the Australian Government accepts the global strategy . . . but it does not accept a flow of war material, notably aircraft, that does not measure up to the requirements of a holding war." International News, May 1, 1943, p. 397.)
April 19. Opening of Bermuda Conference on Refugees. [Remarks of the Chairman of the American Delegation, Dr. Harold Willie Dodds.]
"From the inception of the present refugee policy the British and American Governments have, in close consultation, endeavored to alleviate in every possible and practicable manner the unhappy plight of these unfortunate peoples."
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 359
[Other members of the American Delegation: Senator Scott W. Lucas, of Illinois and Representative Sol Bloom, of New York. R. Borden Reams, American Foreign Service officer.] (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 200, p. 351.)
April 20. President Roosevelt conferred with President Avila Camacho of Mexico at Monterrey. (On cooperation between the two countries during the war and afterwards. Times, Apr. 21, 1943, p. 1.)
April 21. Announcement of the execution by the Japanese of American prisoners of war. [Statement of President Roosevelt.]
"This Government has vigorously condemned this act of barbarity in a formal communication sent to the Japanese Government. In that communication this Government has informed the Japanese Government that the American Government will hold personally and officially responsible for these diabolical crimes all of those officers of the Japanese Government who have participated therein and will in due course bring those officers to justice." (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 200, p. 337.)
April 23. Union of South Africa severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 354.)
April 25. Soviet Union severed diplomatic relations with Poland. (Poland accused of collaborating with Germany in an anti‑Soviet campaign. Report of Apr. 16, concerning Polish dead found near Smolensk, particularly cited. Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230 p. 368.)
April 28. Chairman of Union of Polish Patriots stated in Izvestia that Polish Government in exile (London) had never received a popular mandate, that its policy aimed at causing a rift between Britain, the United States, and Russia. (International News, May 15, 1943, p. 470.)
April 30. Termination of informal relations with the French Antilles. [Note delivered to Admiral Georges Robert, French High Commissioner:]
"It is a matter of common knowledge that the territory of Metropolitan France, contrary to the wish of the French people, is being used in an ever‑increasing degree for active military operations against the United States and that the Vichy regime is now an integral part of the Nazi system. The Government of the United States does not recognize Vichy nor will it recognize or negotiate with any French representative in the Antilles who remains subservient to or maintains contact with the Vichy regime." (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 201, p. 359.)
May 5. Bolivia signed United Nations Declaration. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)
Premier Stalin, in a personal letter to the British press, stated the desire of his Government to see established a strong, independent post‑war Poland, whose relations with Russia should be based upon good neighborliness or even as an alliance against the common enemy–Germany. (International News, May 15, 1943, p. 472.)
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May 6. American, British, and French armies launched heavy attack on German and Italian forces in Tunisia. (Times, May 7, 1943, p. 1.)
May 7. Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers appointed commander of the European theatre of operations. (Tames, May 7, 1943, p. 7.)
Tunis and Bizerte occupied by. Allied armies. Main Axis forces under General von Arnim retreated into the Cape Bon Peninsula, but surrendered within a few days. (Times, May 8, 1943, p. 1.)
It was announced that Joseph E. Davies was going to Moscow to convey a special message from President Roosevelt to Premier Stalin. "His [the President's] move is being made at a time when there is an increasing, belief . . . that unless something is done soon about Russian problems the position of the Soviet Union in relation to the war and post‑war adjustments will have become so crystallized that it will be too late to attempt adjustments that might seem desirable." (Times, May 8, 1943, pp. 1, 6.)
May 9. All organized resistance in northeast Tunisia ceasing. (Times, May 10, 1943, p. 1.)
May 11. United States forces landed on Attu in the western Aleutians. By June 3 all organized Japanese resistance on Attu had, ended, (Times, June 4, 1943, p. 4.)
"The White House announced on the evening of May 11, 1943, the arrival in Washington of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, of Great Britain, to meet with President Roosevelt. . . . The Prime Minister was accompanied by British military and naval experts. . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 203, p. 427.)
May 12. Uruguay severed diplomatic relations with France. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 354.)
May 12. British Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. Atlee, formally announced end of the North African Campaign. (Commons, Vol. 389, May 13, 1943, cols. 795‑796.)
May 16. Royal Air Force bombed and breached the Eder and Moehne Dams in the Ruhr–two of Germany's largest dams providing, among other things, dower for munitions works. (Times, May 18, 1943, p. 1.)
May 18. Chile severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, France, Hungary, and Rumania. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)
Opening session of United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture at Hot Springs, Va. (Adjourned June 3.)
[Letter from President Roosevelt:]
"This is the first United Nations Conference. . . . The problems with which this conference will concern itself are the most fundamental of all human problems–for without food and clothing life itself is impossible. In this and other United Nations conferences we shall be extending our collaboration from war problems into important new fields. Only by working together can we learn to work together, and work together we must and will." [Text, of Final Act, Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 208, pp. 546‑572.] (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 204, pp. 455‑456.)
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May 22. Communist International dissolved in Moscow:
(". . . long before the war it became more and more clear that, with increasing complications in internal and international relations of various countries, any sort of international center would encounter insuperable obstacles in solving the problems facing the movement in each separate country." Times, May 23, 1943, p. 30.)
May 29 Chinese stop Japanese drive on Chunking in the Ichang area. (Times, June 1, 1943, p. 2.)
May 30. Vichy broadcast announcement that French naval squadron at Alexandria had gone over to the Allies. (Alleged incessant pressure from the British, including withholding of pay. International News, June 12, 1943, p. 538.)
May 31. Admiral Godfroy in command of the immobilized French warships at Alexandria announced that he would join the United Nations with his forces. (Times, June 1, 1943, p. 1.)
Egyptian Cabinet voted to resume diplomatic relations with Russia. (Times, June 1, 1943, p 3.)
Creation in Algiers of the French National Committee of Liberation (to govern the empire and represent the people of metropolitan France until the motherland has been freed. Times, June 1, 1943, p. 1.)
June 4. Military revolution in Argentina ousted President Castillo. (Times, June 5, 1943, p. 1.)
June 6. Provisional Government established in Argentine with General Rawson as President. General Rawson resigned the following day,. being unable to form a Cabinet, and the Presidency was assumed by, General Ramirez. The new President announced that Argentina affirmed "her political tradition of friendship and loyal cooperation with the nations of America in accordance with existing pacts." (International News, June 12, 1943, p. 534.)
June 10. Draft Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration placed by the Department of State before the governments of all the United Nations and others associated with them in the war. "The draft agreement would provide for the immediate establishment of a central United Nations agency to assume responsibility for the relief and rehabilitation of the victims of war." Revised September 20, 1943. (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 207, p. 523.)
Executive Committee of the Third International was formally dissolved after messages of agreement with the proposed dissolution had been received from thirty‑one sections. (International News, June 26, 1943, p. 603.)
Prime Minister Curtin of Australia stated that he did not believe the enemy could now invade Australia. (Like Britain, they had had a close call, but the battle of the Coral Sea had turned the tide, and the return of the A. I. F. had enabled them to arrest the Japanese advance in New Guinea just in time. International News, June 26, 1943, p. 579.)
362 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
June 11. Recognition of the new Government of Argentina, headed by Gen. Pedro P. Ramirez, was extended by the Government of the United States on June 11, 1943, in a note delivered to the Argentine Government by the American Ambassador. (Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 207, p. 520.)
Surrender to the Allies of the island of Pantelleria (followed on June 12 and 13 by the islands of Lampedusa and Linosa) in the Sicilian Channel. (Times, June 13, 14, 1943.)
June 15. Turkey confirmed her friendly relations with Russia; declared that German‑Turkish treaty of friendship and nonaggression signed in 1941 "was born in the sincere desire of the two parties and corresponds exactly to their essential needs and is still in effect." (Times, June 17, 1943, p. 4.)
June 17. Marshal Stalin sent message of good will to recently formed Union of Polish Patriots in the U. S. S. R. which, he said, had begun the work of reinforcing the friendship between the peoples of Poland and the Soviet Union. (International News, June 26, 1943, p. 603.)
June 18. Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell appointed Viceroy of India (to succeed Lord Linlithgow in October). Field Marshal Wavell to be succeeded as Commander in Chief in India by Gen. Sir Claude Auchinleck. (International News, June 26, 1943, p. 588.)
June 29. United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes.
"The President has designated the Honorable Herbert Claiborne Pell, former American Minister to Portugal and Hungary, as the representative of the United States on the United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 210, p. 3.)
July 5. Beginning of German summer offensive toward Kursk. (Russian counteroffensive began July 12. Times, July 6, 1943, p. 1.)
July 7. General Giraud in Washington as guest of United States Government. ("While the General's visit is officially described as mainly military . . ., he is also one of the two presiding officers of the French committee. Though not yet recognized as such by the Allies, the committee hopes to be regarded as the trustee for French territorial and other interests during the war and as the voice of France in Allied councils." Times, July 8, 1943, pp. 1, 7.)
July 9. Russian newspaper Izvestia published tribute to General Sikorski. In connection therewith it pointed out that the Soviet Union subscribed to the necessity for a strong and independent postwar Poland. (International News, July 24, 1943, p. 684.)
July 10. Allies began invasion of Sicily.(Times, July 10, 1943, p. 1.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 363
July 12. Allied armies seized the port of Syracuse and ten other Sicilian towns. (Times, July 13, 1943, p. 1.)
July 13. Admiral Georges Robert relinquished authority over Martinique and Guadeloupe and the United States Government accepted the appointment of M. Hoppenot as administrator. ("The long‑standing difficulties with Martinique have been adjusted . . . " Times, July 14, 1943, pp. 1, 4.) .
July 14. Foreign Secretary Eden stated in the House of Commons that, in practice, the Government was treating with the French National Committee of Liberation on all matters of common concern relating to French territories acknowledging its authority and affecting French forces maintained in British territory. (No decision had yet been taken as to the precise degree of formal recognition to be accorded. Commons, Vol. 391, July 14, 1943, col. 170.)
July 15. The French Mission, headed by M. Hoppenot arrived in Martinique. The new Governor immediately abrogated the Vichy legislation of Admiral Robert, and the land forces placed themselves at the disposal of the French Committee of National Liberation. (Times, July 17, 1943, p. 5.)
President Roosevelt relieved Secretary of Commerce Jesse Jones and Vice President Henry A. Wallace of their several responsibilities in the field of foreign economic welfare. (As a result of the public airing of the dispute over policy between the two men. Times, July 16, 1943, p. 1.)
July 16. Joint message of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill to the people of Italy: "The sole hope for Italy's survival lies in honorable capitulation to the overwhelming, power of the military forces of the United Nations. If you continue to tolerate the Fascist regime, which serves the evil power of the Nazis, you .must suffer the consequences of your own choice . . . we are determined to destroy the false leaders and their doctrines which have brought Italy to her present position." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 212, p. 27.)
July 17. General Alexander was appointed Military Governor of, Sicily, and the Allied Military Government of Occupied Territory was established under Major General Lord Rennell. (A "benevolent" government was to be set up to govern the people of the occupied provinces and cities of Sicily through their own officials who are not active members. of the Fascist party. Times, July 18, 1943, p. 1.) .
July 19. Allied air forces bombed military objectives in Rome and its vicinity. (Times, July 20, 1943, p. 1.)
July 23. American tank and infantry drive took Palermo, chief city of Sicily. (Times, July 24, 1943, p. 1.)
July 25. King Vittorio Emmanuele announced the resignation of Premier Mussolini and his cabinet. Field Marshal Pietro Badoglio appointed Premier. (Times, July 26, 1943, p. 1.)
364 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
July 26. New Italian Cabinet proclaimed martial law throughout Italy and decreed the dissolution of the Fascist Party. (Times, July 27, 1943, p. 1.)
July 28. Ethiopia announced adherence to United Nations Declaration. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 353.)
July 30. Refuge in neutral countries for Axis leaders.
"I find it difficult to believe that any neutral country would give asylum to or extend protection to any of them. I can only say that the Government of the United States would regard the action by a neutral government in affording asylum to Axis leaders or their tools as inconsistent with the principles for which the United Nations are fighting and that the United States Government hopes that no neutral government will permit its territory to be used as a place of refuge or otherwise assist such persons in any effort to escape their just deserts." [Statement by President Roosevelt.] (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 214, p. 62.)
August 1. China severed diplomatic relations with the Government of France at Vichy. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 351.)
American daylight bombing raid of the Ploesti oil fields in Rumania. (Times, Aug. 2, 1943, p. 1.)
Japan announced grant of independence to Burma and a declaration of war by Burma against Great Britain and the United States. (Times, Aug. 2, 1943, p. 7.)
August 5. Capture of Orel and Belgorod by the Red Army. (Times, Aug. 6, 1943, p. 1.).
Swedish Government announced cancellation of the agreement with Germany allowing the passage of unarmed German soldiers across Sweden to and from Norway. Transport of war material to cease August 15, and of troops August 20. (Due to the burden of the arrangement on Swedish and Norwegian relations. Times, Aug. 6, 1943, p. 1.)
August 6. General MacArthur announced the capture of Munda (Japanese air base on New Georgia island) by American forces. (All organized resistance on New Georgia ceased August 28. Times, Aug. 7, 1943, p. 1.)
August 11‑24. Quebec Conference.
"The whole field of world operations has been surveyed in the light of the many gratifying events which have taken place since the meeting of the President and the Prime Minister in Washington at the end of May, and the necessary decisions have been taken to provide for the forward action of the fleets, armies, and air forces of the two nations." [Joint statement by President Roosevelt and Prune Minister Churchill.](Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 218, p. 121.)
August 15. United States and Canadian forces landed on Kiska in the Aleutians, occupied by the Japanese since June 12, 1942. No resistance. (Times, Aug. 22, 1943, p. 1.)
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August 16. State of siege proclaimed throughout Norway. (Times, Aug. 17, 1943, p. 5.)
August 17. American troops captured Messina to complete the Allies' conquest of Sicily. (Times, Aug. 18, 1943, p. 1.)
August 22. Russian Government replaced its Ambassador to the United States, Maxim Litvinoff, with Andrei A. Gromyko, former charge d'affaires. (Times, Aug. 22, 1943, p. 1.)
August 23. Russians occupied Kharkov. (Times, Aug. 24, 19.43, p. 1.)
August 24. Announcement that Heinrich Himmler had been appointed Reichsminister of the Interior by Chancellor Hitler (to tighten national discipline. Times, Aug. 25, 1943, p. 1)
August 25. Lord Louis Mountbatten appointed supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia. (Times, Aug. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
August 26. Recognition of the French Committee of National Liberation. "This statement does not constitute recognition of a government of France or of the French Empire by the Government of the United States.
"It does constitute recognition of the French Committee of National Liberation as functioning within specific limitations during the war. Later on the people of France, in a free and untrammeled manner, will proceed in due course to select their own government and their own officials to administer it." [Statement by President Roosevelt.]
(Also recognized at same time by Great Britain and Russia. Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 218, p.126.)
August 28. Death of King Boris III of Bulgaria under peculiar circumstances, after a visit with Herr Hitler. (Times, Aug. 29, 1943, p. 1.)
German ultimatum to Denmark (included 8:30 p. m. curfew, closing of all places of entertainment, prohibition of strikes and all meetings of more than five persons, surrender of all arms by September 1, press censorship, death penalty for sabotage. International News, Sept. 4, 1943, p. 793.)
Danish Government rejected eight point German ultimatum (in view of threat of King Christian X to abdicate. Times, Aug. 29, 1943, p. 1.)
August 29. The United States warned Germany that it would punish the instigators and perpetrators of crimes against civilians in occupied countries. ("Trustworthy information has reached the United States Government regarding the crimes committed by the German invaders against the population of Poland. . . . The United States Government reaffirms its resolve to punish the instigators and perpetrators of these crimes. It further declares that so long as such atrocities continue to be committed by the representatives and in the name of Germany, they must be taken into account against the time of the final settlement with Germany." Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 219, p. 150.)
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August 30. Russians smashed southern end of German lines, capturing Taganrog. Beginning of westward drive to cut off the Crimea. (Times, Aug. 31, 1943, p. 1.)
Danes scuttle part of fleet at Copenhagen (rather than submit to Nazis). Germans declare martial law for all Denmark, depose Danish Government. (Times, Aug. 30, 1943, p. 1.)
Letter of Secretary of State Hull in reply to Argentine request for aims and munitions under lend‑lease; refusal of Argentine request. Letter delivered September 7. (". . . the failure of the Argentine Government to comply with its inter‑American commitments has not only resulted in the non‑participation of Argentina in the defence of the continent in a most critical period, it is also depriving Argentina of participation in the studies, discussions, meetings and arrangements designed to solve the postwar problems. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 220, pp. 159‑166.)
September 1. Prime Minister Churchill arrived at the White House (for a conclusion of his Quebec talks with President Roosevelt Times, Sept. 2, 1943, p. 1.)
September 3. Allied forces invaded Italy across Straits of Messina. (Times, Sept. 3, 1943, p. 1.)
Italian surrender and armistice joint message (Sept. 10) of President Roosevelt arid Prime Minister Churchill to Marshal Badoglio and the Italian people.
"Now is the time for every Italian to strike his blow. The liberating armies of the western world are coming to your rescue. . . . The German terror in Italy will not last long. They will be extirpated from your land and you, by helping in this great surge of liberation, will place yourselves once more among the true and long‑proved friends of your country from whom you have been so wrongfully, estranged." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 220, p. 159.)
September 6. Prime Minister Churchill, speaking at Harvard University, urged Anglo‑American alliance after the war. ("But I am here to tell you that whatever form your system of world security may take, however the nations are grouped and ranged, whatever derogations are made from national sovereignty for the sake of the larger synthesis, nothing will work soundly or for long without the united effort of the British and American people." Times, Sept. 7, 1943, pp. 1, 14.)
September 8. General Eisenhower announced Italy's acceptance of terms of unconditional surrender. Terms were signed September 3. ("The Italian Government, recognizing the impossibility of continuing the unequal struggle against the overwhelming power of the enemy, with the object of avoiding further and more grievous harm to the nation, has requested an armistice. . . ." [Statement of Premier Badoglio.] Times, Sept. 9, 1943, p. 1.)
September 9. Iran declared existence of a state of war with Germany, and formally adhered to the Declaration of the United Nations. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 220, p. 166.)
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Fifth United States Army, under Gen. Mark Clark, landed at Salerno, Italy. Salerno taken September 11. (Times, Sept. 10, 1943, p. 1; Sept. 12, 1943, p. 1.)
Metropolitan Sergius unanimously elected Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, with the approval of the Soviet Government. (International News, Sept. 18, 1943, p. 852.)
September 10. Nazi troops occupied Rome. (Times, Sept. 11, 1943, p. 1.)
September 11. Large part of Italian fleet surrendered in Allied ports. (In accord with armistice agreement. Times, Sept. 12, 1943, p. 1.)
September 12. Reports issued from Chancellor Hitler's headquarters stated that Mussolini had been liberated by German parachute troops, men of the Security Service and armed S. S. and taken to a safe place. (International News, Sept. 18, 1943, p. 844.)
French Committee of National Liberation said to have completed arrangements for the formation of a consultative assembly at Algiers: (To represent as widely as possible French national opinion for the guidance of the Committee. International News, Sept. 18, 1943, p. 838.)
September 13. Generalissimo Chiang Kai‑shek named President of China for a three year term (succeeding President Lin Sen, who died Aug. 7. Times, Sept. 14, 1943, p. 1.)
September 14. Iran signed United Nations Declaration. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 382.)
September 15. Germans admitted the loss of Bryansk. (Times, Sept. 15, 1943, p. 1.)
September 16. Russians captured Novorossiisk. (Times, Sept. 17, 1943, p. 1.)
September 19. Germans expelled from Sardinia by Italian troops. (Times, Sept. 21, 1943, p. 2.)
September 20. Announcement published in Pravda of the formation of a "Union of German Officers", composed of prisoners of war in Russia. (Appeal issued to German commanders to overthrow Hitler, it being no longer possible for Germany to win. International News, Oct. 2, 1943, p. 900.)
September 21. United States House of Representatives passed Fulbright resolution.
"Resolved . . . That the Congress hereby expresses itself as favoring the creation of appropriate international machinery with power adequate to establish aid to maintain a just and lasting peace, among the nations of the world, and as favoring participation by the United States therein." (H. Con. Res. 25, 78th Cong., 1st sess.)
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September 25. Four hundred free Germans met in London to form an anti‑Hitler movement similar to the Moscow Free German Committee. (Times, Sept. 25, p. 2.)
President Roosevelt announced the resignation of Under Secretary of State Summer Welles and the appointment of Edward R. Stettinius as his successor. (Times, Sept. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
President Roosevelt announced the formation of the Office of Foreign Economic Administration under Mr. Leo Crowley, to include Lend‑Lease Administration, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation, and the Office of Economic Warfare. (". . . in order to unify and consolidate governmental activities relating to foreign economic affairs. . . ." Vol. 8, Federal Register, pp. 13081, 13083.)
Russians captured Smolensk (Times, Sept. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
September 28. It was announced that a United States Marine force had occupied Nanumea Island in the Ellice group. (Landing took place September 4. Times, Sept. 29, 1943, p. 1.)
September 29. Russians captured Kremenchug, last German strong point on the eastern bank of the Dnieper. (Times, Sept. 30, 1943.)
October 1. President Roosevelt announced the resignation of Admiral William H. Standley as Ambassador to Russia and named W. Averell Harriman as his successor. (Times, Oct. 2, 1943, p. 1.)
October 5. Prime Minister Churchill announced that the Italian fleet had surrendered at Malta. (Times, Oct. 5, 1943, p. 5.)
Germans expelled from Corsica by French troops. (Times, Oct. 6, 1943, p. 3.)
October 11. President Roosevelt, in a message to Congress, requested the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. ("But China's resistance does not depend alone on guns and planes and on attacks on land, on the sea, and from the air. It is based as much in the spirit of her people and her faith in her allies. We owe it to the Chinese to strengthen that faith. One step in this direction is to wipe from the statute books those anachronisms in our law which forbid the immigration of Chinese people into this country and which bar Chinese residents from American citizenship.
"By the repeal of the Chinese exclusion laws we can correct a historic mistake and silence the distorted Japanese propaganda. . . .
"It would be additional proof that we regard China not only as a partner in waging war but that we shall regard her as a partner in days of peace. While it would give the Chinese a preferred status over certain other oriental people, their great contribution to the cause of decency and freedom entitles them to such preference." (Congressional Record, Oct. 11, 1943, p. 8293.)
October 12. Portugal agreed to permit the United Nations to use the Azores for convoy protection. (At request of British Government. Times, Oct. 13, 1943, p. 1.)
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October 13. Declaration of war by Italy against Germany. "I take great pleasure in informing you that His Majesty the King of Italy has declared war on Germany. . . . By this act all ties with the dreadful past are broken and my Government will be proud to be able to march with you on to the inevitable victory, . . .") [Message of Marshal Badoglio to General Eisenhower,] (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 225, p. 253.)
October 15. United States flying fortresses bombed the ball‑bearing works at Schweinfurt. (Times, Oct. 16, 1943, p. 1.)
October 19‑30. Tripartite conference in Moscow [Foreign Secretaries Cordell Hull, United States; Anthony Eden, Great Britain; and V. M. Molotov, the Soviet Union].
". . . there were frank and exhaustive discussions of measures to be taken to shorten the war against Germany aid her satellites in Europe.
". . . [there] was . . . unanimous recognition by the three Governments that it was essential in their own national interests and in the interests of all peace‑loving nations to continue the present close collaboration and cooperation in the conduct of the war into the period following the end of hostilities, and that, only in this way could peace be maintained and the political, economic, and social welfare of their peoples fully promoted." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 228, p. 307.)
October 26. Russians recaptured Dniepropetrovsk. (Times, Oct. 26, 1943, p. 1.)
October 30. Moscow Declarations:
Declaration of Four Nations on General Security (China also a signatory).
Declaration Regarding Italy.
Declaration on Austria.
Declaration on German Atrocities (signed by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin).
(Texts, Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 228, pp. 308‑311, released to the press, November 1, 1943.)
November 5. Senate passed Connally resolution.
"Resolved . . . that the United States, acting through its constitutional processes, join with free and sovereign nations in the establishment and maintenance of international authority with power to prevent aggression and to preserve the peace of the world." (S. Res. 192, 78th Cong., 1st sess.)
November 7. Russians recaptured Kiev. (Times, Nov. 8, 1943, p. 18.)
November 9. Signature of Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.
"The agreement which we have all just signed is, based on a preamble in which the United Nations declare that they are `determined that immediately upon the liberation of any area . . . the population thereof shall receive aid and relief from their sufferings, food, clothing, and shelter, aid in the prevention of pestilence arid in the recovery of the health of the people, and that
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preparation and arrangements , shall be made for the return of prisoners and exiles to their homes and for assistance in the resumption of urgently needed agricultural and industrial production and the restoration of essential services.' " [Statement of President Roosevelt.] (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 229, p. 317.)
November 10. General Eisenhower announced the formation of the "Allied Control Commission for Italy." (To align Italian economy in complete support of the fight against Germany. International News, Nov. 27, 1943, p. 1059.)
November 11. French Delegate General in Lebanon ordered arrest of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, and seven other ministers, dissolving Parliament by decree. (Chamber of Deputies had voted a bill providing for constitutional changes in defiance of a request to the contrary by M. Hellen. International News, Nov. 27, 1943, p.1039.)
Ex‑Gov. Herbert Lehman elected Director General of U. N. R. R. A. (Tames, Nov. 12, 1943, p. 1.)
November 12. Treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union signed at Moscow. (Pledged mutual aid in prosecuting the war, no separate peace, mutual respect for each other's sovereignty Times, Nov. 30, 1943, p. 4.)
November 13. President Roosevelt signed bill extending term of President Manuel Quezon of the Philippines.
". . . until the expulsion of the Japanese from the Philippines." (Times, Nov. 14, 1943, p. 19.)
November 15. It became known that the United States and the British were training and equipping on a modern scale Chinese army in India. Times, Nov. 15, 1943, p. 4.)
November 18. Secretary of State Hull reported to joint session of Congress on the Moscow Conference. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, pp. 341 ff.)
November 21‑22. The R. A. F. sent 775 bombers to raid Berlin in the heaviest raid on any city during the war. (Times, Nov. 23, 1943, p. 1.)
November 22-26. Conference in North Africa between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai‑shek.
"The several military missions have agreed upon future military operations against Japan. . .
"The three great allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain for themselves and have no thought of territorial expansion. It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of the First World War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria. Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China.
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Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid three great powers; mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 232, p. 393.)
November 23. United States captured west end of Betio Island in the Gilberts. (Times, Nov. 25, 1943, p. 1.)
November 25. Gen. Jan Christiaan Smuts, in a speech to the United Kingdom Branch of the Empire Parliamentary Association stated that the continued collaboration of Britain, Russia, and the United States was imperative. He suggested further that Britain consider working closely in the future with the smaller democracies of Western Europe, and warned that the future of the Empire might depend on greater fusion of the centralization in London and decentralization in the Commonwealth. (International News; Dec. 11, 1943, pp. 1082‑1083.)
November 28‑December 1. Conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin at Tehran.
"No power on earth can prevent our destroying the German armies by land, their U‑boats by sea, and their war plants from the air.
"Our attack will be relentless and increasing.
"Emerging from these cordial conferences we look with confidence to the day when all peoples of the. world may lead free lives, untouched by tyranny, and according to their varying desires and their own consciences." [Soviet statement.] (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 233, p. 409.)
December 4, 5, 6. Conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and President Inönü of Turkey at Cairo.
"Presidents Roosevelt and Inönü and Prime Minister Churchill reviewed the general political situation and examined at length the policy to be followed, taking into account the joint and several interests of the three countries. . . . The identity of interests and of views of the great American and British democracies with those of the Soviet Union, as also the traditional relations of friendship existing between these three powers and Turkey, have been reaffirmed throughout the proceedings of the Cairo conference." (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 233, p. 413.)
December 12. Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance, Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia.
"It is understood that they [the terms of the treaty] generally parallel those of the Anglo‑Soviet twenty‑year alliance, including reciprocal pledges of assistance, in case of attack and non‑interference in the internal affairs of the respective nations." (Times, Dec. 13, 1943, pp. 1 and 3.)
December 17. President Roosevelt signed bill repealing Chinese exclusion laws.
"The Chinese people, I am sure, will take pleasure in knowing that this represents a manifestation on the part of the American people of their affection and regard.
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"An unfortunate barrier between allies has been removed. The war effort in the Far East can now be carried on with a greater vigor and a larger understanding of our common purpose." [Statement of the President.] (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 234, p. 431.)
December 19. The three Germans and one Russian, convicted in the Kharkov atrocities trial, were hanged in Kharkov. (The military tribunal of the Fourth Ukranian Front had sentenced the accused for participation in German atrocities in Kharkov during the German occupation of that region. Times, Dec. 20, 1943, p. 12.)
December 20. The Government of General Peñaranda in Bolivia was overthrown in a coup d'état; Col. Gudalberto Villarroel assumed executive power. (Times, Dec. 21, 1943, p. 1.)
December 24. Resolution regarding recognition of new governments instituted by force (Emergency Consultative Committee for Political Defense): "To recommend to the American Governments which have declared war on the Axis powers or have broken relations with them, that for the duration of the present world conflict they do not proceed to the recognition of a new government instituted by force, before consulting among themselves for the purpose of determining whether this government complies with the Inter‑American undertakings for the defense of the Continent, nor before carrying out an exchange of information as to the circumstances which have determined the establishment of said government." (Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 236, Jan, 1, 1944, pp. 20‑21.)
The following appointments were announced: Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander of the British and United States Expeditionary Forces; Gen. Sir Henry Maitland Wilson, Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater; Gen. Sir Harold Alexander, Commander in Chief of the Allied Armies in Italy; Gen. Bernard Montgomery, Commander in Chief of the British Group of Armies under General Eisenhower; Gen. Carl Spaatz, Commander of United States Strategic Bombing Forces operating against Germany. (International News, Jan. 8, 1944, p. 29.)
December 26. The German battleship Scharnhorst was sunk off North Cape, Norway. (Times, Jan. 27, 1944, p. 1.)
December 27, 29. The following appointments were announced: Gen. Sir Bernard Paget, Commander in Chief, Middle East; Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder, Deputy Supreme Commander under General Eisenhower; Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, Allied Naval Commander in Chief; Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Allied Air Commander in Chief under General Eisenhower.(International News, Jan. 8, 1944, p. 29.)
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December 31. Lend‑lease agreements signed, as of December 31, 1942, with United States: Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Committee of National Liberation, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Liberia, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. (Report to Congress on Lend‑Lease operations, letter from the Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration, H. Doc. No. 497, 78th Cong., 2d sess. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1944.)