Page i

PEARL HARBOR ATTACK

HEARINGS BEFORE THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES SEVENTY-NINTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION PURSUANT TO S. Con. Res. 27 A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION AUTHORIZING AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR ON DECEMBER 7, 1941, AND EVENTS AND CIRCUMSTANCES RELATING THERETO PART 26 Proceedings of Hart Inquiry Printed for the use of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1946
Page ii JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK ALBEN W. BARKLEY, Senator from Kentucky, Chairman JERE COOPER, Representative from Tennessee, Vice Chairman WALTER F. GEORGE, Senator from Georgia JOHN W. MURPHY, Representative SCOTT W. LUCAS, Senator from Illinois from Pennsylvania OWEN BREWSTER, Senator from Maine BERTRAND W. GEARHART, Representa- HOMER FERGUSON, Senator from Michi- tive from California gan FRANK B. KEEFE, Representative J. BAYARD CLARK, Representative from from Wisconsin North Carolina COUNSEL (Through January 14, 1946) WILLIAM D. MITCHELL, General Counsel GERHARD A. GESELL, chief Assistant Counsel JULE M. HANNAFORD, Assistant Counsel JOHN E. MASTEN, Assistant Counsel (After January 14, 1946) SETH W. RICHARDSON, General Counsel SAMUEL H. KAUFMAN, Associate General Counsel JOHN E. MASTEN, Assistant Counsel EDWARD P. MORGAN, Assistant Counsel LOGAN J. LANE, Assistant Counsel Page iii HEARINGS OF JOINT COMMITTEE Part Pages Transcript Hearings No. pages 1 1- 399 1- 1058 Nov. 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, and 21, 1945. 2 401- 982 1059- 2586 Nov. 23, 24, 26 to 30, Dec. 3 and 4, 1945. 3 983-1583 2587- 4194 Dec. 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13, 1945. 4 1585-2063 4195- 5460 Dec. 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21, 1945. 5 2065-2492 5461- 6646 Dec. 31, 1945, and Jan. 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1946. 6 2493-2920 6647- 7888 Jan. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 21, 1946. 7 2921-3378 7889- 9107 Jan. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, and 29, 1946. 8 3379-3927 9108-10517 Jan. 30, 31, Feb. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6, 1946. 9 3929-4599 10518-12277 Feb. 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, and 14, 1946. 10 4601-5151 12278-13708 Feb. 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20, 1946. 11 5153-5560 13709-14765 Apr. 9 and 11, and May 23 and 31, 1946. EXHIBITS OF JOINT COMMITTEE Part Exhibits Nos. 12 1 through 6. 13 7 and 8. 14 9 through 43. 15 44 through 87. 16 88 through 110. 17 111 through 128. 18 129 through 156. 19 157 through 172. 20 173 through 179. 21 180 through 183, and Exhibits-Illustrations. 22 through 25 Roberts Commission Proceedings. 26 Hart Inquiry Proceedings. 27 through 31 Army Pearl Harbor Board Proceedings. 32 through 33 Navy Court of Inquiry Proceedings. 34 Clarke Investigation Proceedings 35 Clausen Investigation Proceedings. 36 through 38 Hewitt Inquiry Proceedings. 39 Reports of Roberts Commission, Army Pearl Harbor Board. Navy Court of Inquiry and Hewitt Inquiry, with endorse- ments.
[Pages iv-xvi are lists of witnesses, which will be made available separately. A link to this spot will be made at that time.]

JOINT COMMITTEE EXHIBIT NO. 144

[TOP SECRET]

RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS OF AN EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES CONVENED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY

TO RECORD THE TESTIMONY PERTINENT TO THE JAPANESE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR, TERRITORY OF HAWAII, ON 7 DECEMBER 1941

February 12, 1944-June 15, 1944

[i]
INDEX
Page [1]
Organization of examination .................................       1
Introduction of counsel .....................................       1
Modification of counsel .....................................     391
Reporter sworn ........................ 2, 29, 32, 225, 288, 308, 363
Adjournments .............. 1, 31, 53, 73, 85, 96, 104, 114, 134, 146,
      169, 178, 194, 204, 205, 206, 214, 228, 249, 262, 272, 278, 292, 
      307, 323, 337, 347, 354, 362, 367, 378, 382, 390, 398, 403, 412,
      425, 430.
Notifications of meetings to Rear Admiral H. E. Kimmel 1, 2, 206, 338
Closing entry ...............................................     432

[ii]

TESTIMONY
Name of Witness Examined by examining officer [1] Verified [1]
Claude C. Bloch, Admiral, USN (Ret.) 2, 86 147
Benjamin Katz, Commander, USN 29, 54 184
W. W. Smith, Rear Admiral, USN 32, 54, 55 184
L. D. McCormick, Rear Admiral, USN 66 184
Walter S. DeLany, Rear Admiral, USN 74 205
Arthur C. Davis, Rear Admiral, USN 96 141
M. E. Curts, Captain, USN 105 147
P. N. L. Bellinger, Vice Admiral, USN 115 194
Wilson Brown, Rear Admiral, USN 135 170
William S. Pye, Rear Admiral, USN 147 195
Robert O. Glover, Captain, USN 170 205
Paul C. Crosley, Commander, USN 179 205
Willard A. Kitts, Rear Admiral, USN 185 205
Vincent R. Murphy, Captain, USN 195 204
Joseph J. Rochefort, Commander, USN 207 338
Edwin T. Layton, Captain, USN 214 272
W. L. Calhoun, Vice Admiral, USN 225 262
Granville C. Briant, Commander, USNR 229 262
Charles H. McMorris, Rear Admiral, USN 233 335
Richmond K. Turner, Vice Admiral, USN 250, 262 338
John L. McCrea, Captain, USN 273 338
Theodore S. Wilkinson, Rear Admiral, USN 279 292
Aubrey W. Fitch, Vice Admiral, USN 288 292
George VanDeurs, Captain, USN 290 292
William F. Halsey, Jr., Admiral, USN 293 322
Irving H. Mayfield, Captain, USN 308 322
John Henry Newton, Vice Admiral, USN 314 322
William B. Stephenson, Lieutenant, USNR 323 335
Howard F. Kingman, Rear Admiral, USN 335 391
William E. G. Taylor, Commander, USNR 338, 348 354
L. F. Safford, Captain, USN 355 383
Herbert F. Leary, Vice Admiral, USN 363 391
J. B. Earle, Captain, USN 368 378
Wesley A. Wright, Commander, USN 379 404
Charles Wellborn, Jr., Captain, USN 383 404
Walter S. Anderson, Rear Admiral, USN 391 402
Roland Munroe Brainard, Vice Admiral, USN 399 404
R. E. Schuirmann, Rear Admiral, USN 404 431
Joel W. Bunkley, Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.) 413 431
Royal E. Ingersoll, USN 415 431

[1] Pages referred to are indicated by italic figures enclosed by brackets and represent pages of original exhibit.

Page 2

[iii]

EXHIBITS

ExhibitCharacter of-Admitted in evidence [1]
1 Letter from Adm. Hart to Adm. Kimmel of 2/17/44 1
2 Letter from Adm. Kimmel to Adm. Hart of 2/19/44 1
3 Letter from Adm. Hart to Adm. Kimmel of 3/4/44 2
4 Pacific Fleet Confidential Letter 2CL-41 (Revised) 4
5 Joint Coastal Frontier Defense Plan (JCD-42) 6
6 Dispatch: CNO to CINCPAC; 16 Oct. 41; Ref: 162203 30
7 Disp: CNO to CINCPAC: 24 Nov. 41; Ref: 242005 30
8 Disp: CNO to CINCPAC: 27 Nov. 41; Ref: 272337 30
9 Disp: CNO to com pnncf; 28 Nov, 41; Ref: 290110 30
10 Disp: OpNav to CINCAF; 30 Nov. 41; Ref: 300419 30
11 Disp: OpNav to CINCPAC; 3 Dec. 41; Ref: 031850 31
12 Disp: CNO to CINCPAC: 26 Nov. 41; Ref: 270038 54
13 Disp: CNO to CINCPAC: 26 Nov. 41; Ref: 270040 55
14 Disp: CNO to CINCPAC: 29 Nov. 41; Ref: 282054 55
15 Disp: CNO to OpNav: 28 Nov. 41; Ref: 280627 55
16 U. S. Pacific Fleet Operating Plan (Rainbow 5) 58
17 Ltr from CNO to CinCPAC; 15 Feb. 41; re: anti-torpedo baffles, Pearl Harbor 61
18 Ltr from CinCPAC to CNO; 12 March 41; RE; anti-torpedo baffles, Pearl Harbor 61
19 Ltr from CNO to Com 14; 13 June 41; re: anti-torpedo baffles 61
20 Letter from Adm. Hart to Adm. Kimmel of 3/10/44 74
21 14CL-41 (Revised); re: organization of PacFlt into task forces 75
22 Ltr fm Com 14 to CNO with enclosure of Joint Estimate of 3/31/41, dated 1 May 41 86
23 Ltr from Com 14 to CNO; 30 Dec. 40; re: security of Fleet and ability of local defenses to meet surprise attacks 87
24 Ltr from ComPatWingTwo to CNO; 16 Jan 41; re: readiness of ComPatWingTwo 128
25 Ltr from CominCPacFlt; 13 Aug. 41; re: employment schedules, 2nd Quarter 1942 179
26 Employment Schedules 3rd Quarter 1942 180
27 Employment Schedule-Task Force One 181
28 Employment Schedule-Task Force Two 181
29 Employment Schedule-Task Force Three 181
30 Verification letter-V.Ad. Bellinger 194
31 Letter from Adm. Hart to Adm. Kimmel; 3/22/44 206
32 Letter from Dist. Atty. to Atty. Gen; Hawaii; 6/4/41 325
33 Verification letter-Comdr. Rochefort 338
34 Verification letter-V.Ad. Turner 338
35 Verification letter-Captain McCrea 338
36 Letter from Adm. Hart to Adm. Kimmel; 4/24/44 338
37 Verification letter-R.Ad. Kingman 391
38 Verification letter-V.Ad. Leary 391
39 State Dept. publication: PEACE AND WAR, 1931-41 406
40 Ltr fm SecNav to SecWar, 24 Jan. 41; and reply fm SecWar to SecNav, 7 Feb. 41; re: security Pearl Harbor against attack 407
41 Verification letter-R.Ad. Bunkley 431
42 Verification letter-Admiral Ingersoll 431

[1] RECOMMENDED SEQUENCE FOR READING THE TESTIMONY CONTAINED HEREIN

Insofar as there was a plan for the sequence of witnesses, it consisted of examining officers who were in Hawaii, 7 December 1941, and then following what they brought out by examining officers who were elsewhere, most of such being of the Navy Department. However, it was necessary to seize opportunities when and where officers were available and irrespective of logical sequence.

Therefor, in reviewing this testimony it will be advisable to depart from the order of the actual proceedings and the following sequence is recommended. However, some reviewers may find that for them the flow of thought will be better if Part III is read before Part II.

PART I-INFORMATION AND INTELLIGENCE

Name Duty in 1941 Page No. [1]
(1) Theodore S. Wilkinson, Rear Admiral, USN Director of Naval Intelligence 279
(2) Howard F. Kingman , Rear Admiral, USN Chief, Domestic Intelligence Branch, O.N.I. 335
(3) Irving H. Mayfield, Captain, USN D.I.O., 14th Naval District 308
(4) William B. Stephenson, Lieutenant, USNR Attached to D.I.O., 14 N.D. 323
(5) Benjamin Katz, Commander, USN O-in-C, Code Room, Naval Communications (1944) 29, 54
(6) L. F. Safford, Captain, USN O-In-C, Communications Intelligence, Naval Communications. 355
(7) Joseph J. Rochefort, Commander, USN O-in-C, Combat Intelligence Unit, 14 N.D. 207
(8) Wesley A. Wright, Commander, USN Attached to Combat Intelligence Unit, 14 N.D. 379
(9) Edwin T. Layton, Captain, USN Intelligence Officer, CinCPac 214

[1] Pages referred to are indicated by italic figures enclosed by brackets and represent pages of original exhibit.

Page 3

PART II-OFFICERS OF THE PACIFIC FLEET, INCLUDING 14TH NAVAL DISTRICT
Name Duty in 1941 Page No. [1]
(10) Claude C. Bloch, Admiral, USN (Ret.) Commandant, 14 N.D. 2, 86
(11) J. B. Earle, Captain, USN
368
(12) Granville C. Briant, Commander, USNR Aviation Aide, Com 14 229
(13) M. E. Curts, Captain, USN Communications Officer, CinCPac 105
[2] (14) William E. G. Taylor, Commander, USNR Attached to Army as radar advisor 338, 348
(15) W. W. Smith, Rear Admiral, USN Chief of Staff, CinCPac 32, 54, 55
(16) Charles H. McMorris, Rear Admiral, USN War Plans Officer, CinCPac 233
(17) L. D. McCormick, Rear Admiral, USN Assistant War Plans Officer, CinCPac 66
(18) Vincent R. Murphy, Captain, USN Assistant War Plans Officer, CinCPac 195
(19) Walter S. DeLany, Rear Admiral, USN Operations Officer, CinCPac 74
(20) Willard A. Kitts, III, Rear Admiral, USN Gunnery Officer, CinCPac 185
(21) Arthur C. Davis, Rear Admiral Aviation Officer, CinCPac 96
(22) P. N. L. Bellinger, Vice Admiral, USN Commander, Patrol Wing Two 115
(23) Aubrey W. Fitch, Vice Admiral, USN Commander, Patrol Wing Two (1940) 288
(24) George VanDeurs, Captain, USN Attached to PatWingTwo 290
(25) Wilson Brown, Rear Admiral, USN Commander, Scouting Force, PacFlt, and Commander, Task Force Three 135
(26) William F. Halsey, Jr., Admiral, USN Commander, Aircraft Battle Force, PacFlt, and Commander, Task Force 2. 293
(27) John Henry Newton, Vice Admiral, USN Commander, Cruisers Scouting Force, PacFlt 314
(28) Paul C. Crosley, Commander, USN Flag Secretary, CinCPac 179
(29) William S. Pye, Rear Admiral, USN Commander, Battle Force, PacFlt, and Commander, Task Force One. 147
(30) Herbert F. Leary, Vice Admiral, USN Commander, Cruisers Battle Force, PacFlt 363
(31) Walter S. Anderson, Rear Admiral, USN Commander, Battleships Battle Force, PacFlt 391
(32) Joel W. Bunkley, Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.) Commanding Officer, U.S.S. CALIFORNIA 413
(33)W. L. Calhoun, Vice Admiral, USN Commander, Base Force, PacFlt 225

[3]
PART III-OFFICERS OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT
(34) R. E. Schuirmann, Rear Admiral, USN Director, Central Division, OpNav 404
(35) Royal E. Ingersoll, Admiral, USN Assistant Assistant CNO 415
(36) Richmond K. Turner, Vice Admiral, USN Director of War Plans, OpNav 250, 262
(37) Robert O. Glover, Captain, USN Attached Plans Division OpNav 170
(38) John L. McCrea, Captain, USN Aide to CNO 273
(39) Charles Wellborn, Jr., Captain, USN Administrative Aide to CNO 383
(40) Roland M. Brainard, Vice Admiral, USN (Ret.) Director of Ship Movements Division, OpNav 399

[1] Pages referred to are indicated by italic figures enclosed by brackets and represent pages of original exhibit.

In reply address
Secretary of the Navy
and refer to No.

[A(1)] [Copy]

NAVY DEPARTMENT,
Washington, 12 February 1944.

JAG:D-1:LLP

PRECEPT FOR AN EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES AND THE TAKING OF TESTIMONY PERTINENT TO THE JAPANESE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR, TERRITORY OF HAWAII

From: The Secretary of the Navy.
To: Admiral Thomas C. Hart, U. S. Navy, Retired, Navy Department,
Washington, D. C.
Subj: Examination of witnesses for purpose of recording and preserving testimony pertinent to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, T. H., on 7 December 1941.

Whereas, on 7 December 1941, Japanese armed forces made an attack against Army and Navy installations and ships of the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Territory of Hawaii, which attack was a complete surprise to the commanders of the said installations and ships, and

Page 4

Whereas, regrettable loss of life and extensive damage resulted from the said attack, and

Whereas, certain members of the naval forces, who have knowledge pertinent to the foregoing matters, are now or soon may be on dangerous assignments at great distances from the United States, and

Whereas, it is now deemed necessary, in order to prevent evidence being lost by death or unavoidable absence of those certain members of the naval forces, that their testimony, pertinent to the aforesaid Japanese attack be recorded and preserved,

I hereby detail you to examine such members of the naval forces thought to have knowledge of facts pertinent to the said surprise attack and fully record the testimony given thereby. Under the authority of Title 5, Section 93, of the U. S. Code, you are authorized and directed to administer an oath to any witness called by you to testify or depose in the course of this examination into the subject-named matter.

In view of the fact that Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel; U. S. Navy, Retired, was, on 7 December 1941, serving on active duty as the commander-in-chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet, with the rank of Admiral, U. S. Navy, and [A(2)] therefore, has an interest in the matter into which this examination is being made, you will notify him of the times and places of the meetings to be had and that he has the right to be present, to have counsel, to introduce, examine, and cross-examine witnesses, to introduce matter pertinent to the examination and to testify or declare in his own behalf at his own request.

Upon completion of the examination you will submit a complete record of all the testimony taken, including any documents introduced therein, to the Secretary of the Navy.

The provisions of Sections 733 and 734, Naval Courts and Boards, will govern the proceedings of this examination, in so far as such provisions are applicable thereto.

The necessary clerical assistance to aid you in recording the testimony will be furnished you upon your request by the appropriate command in the area in which meetings are held.

(SGD) FRANK KNOX.

[B] Office of the Secretary.
JAG:D-1:ps.

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Washington 25, D. C., 16 Feb 1944.

To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. Navy.
Via: The Judge Advocate General.
Subj: Orders as counsel to assist examining officer.

1. You are hereby directed to report to Admiral Thomas C. Hart. U. S. Navy, Retired, as counsel to assist him in the examination of such members of the U. S. naval forces thought to have knowledge of facts pertinent to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, T. H., on 7 December 1941, which examination was directed by my precept of 12 February 1944.

/s/ FRANK KNOX,
Secretary of the Navy.

Page 5

1-End.
17 FEBRUARY 1944.

To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. Navy.
1. Delivered.

/s/ T. L. Gatch,
T. L. GATCH,
The Judge Advocate General.

Confidential

2-End.
17 FEBRUARY 1944.

To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. Navy.
1. Reported this date.

/s/ Thos. H. Hart,
THOMAS H. HART,
Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired.

[C] Office of the Secretary.
JAG:D-1:ps

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY,
Washington 25, D. C., 16 Feb. 1944.

To: Lieutenant William M. Whittington, Jr., U. S. N. R.
Via: The Judge Advocate General.
Subj: Orders as assistant counsel to assist examining officer.

1. You are hereby directed to report to Admiral Thomas C. Hart, U. S. Navy, Retired, as assistant counsel to assist him in the examination of such members of the U. S. naval forces thought to have knowledge of facts pertinent to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, T. H., on 7 December 1941, which examination was directed by my precept of 12 February 1944.

/s/ FRANK KNOX,
Secretary of the Navy.

1-End.
17 FEBRUARY 1944.

To: Lieutenant William M. Whittington Jr., U. S. N. R.
1. Delivered.

/s/ T. L. Gatch,
T. L. GATCH,
The Judge Advocate General.

Confidential

Page 6

17 FEB 1944.

To: Lieutenant William M. Whittington Jr., U. S. N. R.
1. Reported this date.

/s/ Thos. C. Hart,
THOMAS C. HART,
Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired.

[D] Office of the Secretary
JAG:I:ps
(SC)/P16-4/00

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Washington 25, D. C., 27 April 1944.

To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. Navy.
Via: The Judge Advocate General.
Subj: Orders as counsel to assist examining officer
Ref: (a) SecNav. ltr., JAG:D-1:ps (SC) P16-4/00, dated 16 February 1944, with endorsement thereon.

1. When directed by Admiral Thomas C. Hart, U. S. Navy, Retired, you will consider yourself relieved of the duties assigned by reference (a) and will then report to the Judge Advocate General and resume your regular duties.

/s/ JAMES FORRESTAL,
Acting Secretary of the Navy.

JAG:AJ:RLD

End-1
OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL,
Navy Department, Washington, D. C.
28 April 1944.

From: The Judge Advocate General.
To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. N.
1. Delivered.

/s/ F. L. Lowe,
F. L. LOWE,
Assistant Judge Advocate General.

Confidential
2nd Endorsement
NAVY DEPARTMENT,
Washington, D. C. 9 May 1944.

From: Admiral Thomas C. Hart, U. S. Navy (Ret.)
To: Captain Jesse R. Wallace, U. S. Navy.

1. Relieved as counsel to assist the examining officer. You will carry out the basic orders.

/s/ Thos. C. Hart.
THOS. C. HART.

A true copy. Attest:
THOMAS C. HART,
Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired,
Examining Officer.

Page 7

[E] Office of the Secretary
JAG:I:ps
(SC) P16-4/QR3

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY,
Washington 25, D. C., 28 April 1944

To: Lieutenant William M. Whittington, Jr., U. S. N. R.
Via. The Judge Advocate General.
Subj: Orders as assistant counsel to assist examining officer.
Ref: (a) SecNav ltr., JAG:D-1:ps (SC)P16-4/QR3, dated 16 February 1944, with endorsement thereon.

1. Reference (a) is hereby modified to the extent that when directed by Admiral Thomas C. Hart, U. S. Navy, Retired, you will assume the duties of counsel to assist him in the examination of such members of the U. S. naval forces thought to have knowledge of facts pertinent to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, T. H., on 7 December 1941, which examination was directed by my precept of 12 February 1944.

/s/ JAMES FORRESTAL,
Acting Secretary of the Navy.

OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL,
JAG:AJ:RLD Navy Department, Washington, D. C.
28 April 1944.
End-1

From: The Judge Advocate General.
To: Lieutenant William M. Whittington, Jr., USNR.
1. Delivered.

/s/ F. L. Lowe,
F. L. LOWE,
Assistant Judge Advocate General.

Confidential