From: Exhibits of the Joint Committee, PHA, Pt. 15, Pp. 1485-1550.

[Note: These documents, in the original, are numbered at the bottom of the pages, shown here in [square brackets]. PHA page numbers are at the top of the pages and are shown as on the line below this note.]

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EXHIBIT NO. 49
 
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United States-British

Staff Conversations

report

Washington, D.C.

March 27, 1941.

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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
 
Cover Page                    No. of pages         Change in effect
                                    i               ORIGINAL

List of Effective Pages            ii               ORIGINAL

Report                     title page unnumbered    ORIGINAL
                           pages 2 to 10 inc.       

Annex I                    page 1 to 4 inc.         ORIGINAL

Annex II                   title page unnumbered    ORIGINAL
                           pages 2 to 3 inc.

Annex III                  pages 1 to 32 inc.       ORIGINAL

Annex IV                   title page unnumbered    ORIGINAL
                           pages 2 to 5 inc.

Annex V                    title page only          ORIGINAL
                           (unnumbered)

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United States-British Staff Conversations

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General

1. Staff Conversations were held in Washington from January 29, 1941 to March 27, 1941, between the United States Staff Committee representing the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Staff of the Army, and a United Kingdom Delegation representing the Chiefs of Staff. Representatives of the Chiefs of Staff of the Dominions of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were associated with the United Kingdom Delegation throughout the course of the these conversation, but were not present at joint meetings.

2. The personnel of the United States Staff Committee and the United Kingdom Delegation comprise the following:

 
United States Representatives:     British Representatives:
Major-General S. D. Embick         Rear-Admiral R. M. Bellairs
Brigadier-General Sherman Miles    Rear-Admiral V. H. Danckwerts
Brigadier-General L. T. Gerow      Major-General E. L. Morris
Colonel J. T. McNarney             Air Vice-Marshal J. C. Slessor
Rear-Admiral R. L. Ghormley        Captain A. W. Clarke
Rear-Admiral R. K. Turner
Captain A. G. Kirk
Captain DeWitt C. Ramsey
Lt.-Colonel O. T. Pfeiffer

                              Secretariat:
                        Lt.-Colonel W. P. Scoboy
                        Commander L. R. McDowell
                        Lt.-Colonel A. T. Cornwall-Jones

PURPOSES OF THE STAFF CONFERENCE

3. The purposes of the Staff Conference, as set out in the instructions to the two representative bodies, were as follows:

(a) To determine the best methods by which the armed forces of the United States and British Commonwealth, with its present Allies, could defeat Germany and the Powers allied with her, should the United States be compelled to resort to war.

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(b) To coordinate, on broad lines, plans for the employment of the forces of the Associated Powers.

(c) To reach agreements concerning the methods and nature of Military Cooperation between the two nations, including the allocation of the principal areas of responsibility, the major lines of the Military Strategy to be pursued by both nations, the strength of the forces which each may be able to commit, and the determination of satisfactory command arrangements, both as to supreme Military control, and as to unity of field command in cases of strategic or tactical joint operations.

APPROVAL OF THE REPORT.

4. The Staff Conference, interpreting the foregoing instructions in the light of the respective national positions of the two Powers, has reached agreements, as set forth in this and annexed documents, concerning Military Cooperation between the United States and the British Commonwealth and its present Allies should the United States associate itself with them in war against Germany and her Allies. The agreements herewith are subject to confirmation by:

(a) The Chief of Naval Operations, United States Navy; the Chief of Staff, United States Army; the Chiefs of Staff Committee of the War Cabinet in the United Kingdom.

(b) The Government of the United States and His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom.

5. The Chiefs of Staff will request His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom to endeavor to obtain, where necessary, the concurrence of His Majesty's Governments in the Dominions, the Government of India, and the Governments of the Allied Powers to the relevant provisions of the agreements herein recorded. The Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Staff will similarly request the United States Government to endeavor to obtain, where necessary, the concurrence of the Governments of such other American Powers as may enter the war as associates of the United States.

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COLLABORATION IN PLANNING.

6. The High Command of the United States and United Kingdom will collaborate continuously in the formulation and execution of strategical policies and plans which shall govern the conduct of the war. They and their respective commanders in the field, as may be appropriate, will similarly collaborate in the planning and execution of such operations as may be undertaken jointly by United States and British forces. This arrangement will apply also to such plans and operations as may be undertaken separately, the extent of collaboration required in each particular plan or operation being agreed mutually when the general policy has been decided.

ASSUMPTIONS.

7. The term "Associated Powers" used herein is to be taken as meaning the United States and British Commonwealth, and, when appropriate, includes the Associates and Allies of either Power.

8. The Staff Conference assumes that when the United States becomes involved in war with Germany, it will at the same time engage in war with Italy. In those circumstances, the possibility of a state of war arising between Japan and an Association of the United States, the British Commonwealth and its Allies, including the Netherlands East Indies, must be taken into account.

9. The Conference assumes that the United States will continue to furnish material aid to the United Kingdom, but, for the use of itself and its other associates, will retain material in such quantities as to provide for security and best [?] to effectuate United States-British joint plans for defeating Germany and her Allies. It is recognised that the amount and nature of the material aid which the United States affords the British Commonwealth will influence the size and character of the Military forces which will be available to the United States for use in war.

THE BROAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE (OBJECT).

10. The broad strategic objective (object) of the Associated Powers will be the defeat of Germany and her Allies.

STRATEGIC DEFENSE POLICIES.

11. The principles of the United States and British national strategic defense policies of which the Military forces of the Associated Powers must take account are:

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(a) United States

The paramount territorial interests of the United States are in the Western Hemisphere. The United States must, in all eventualities, maintain such dispositions as will prevent the extension in the Western Hemisphere of European or Asiatic political or Military power.

(b) British Commonwealth

The security of the United Kingdom must be maintained in all circumstances. Similarly, the United Kingdom, the Dominions, and India must maintain dispositions which, in all eventualities, will provide for the ultimate security of the British Commonwealth of Nations. A cardinal feature of British strategic policy is the retention of a position in the Far East such as will ensure the cohesion and security of the British Commonwealth and the maintenance of its war effort.

(c) Sea Communications

The security off the sea communications of the Associated Powers is essential to the continuance of their war effort.

GENERAL STRATEGIC CONCEPT

12. The strategic concept includes the following as the principal offensive policies against the Axis Powers:

(a) Application of economic pressure by naval, land, and air forces and all other means, including the control of commodities at their source by diplomatic and financial measures.

(b) A sustained air offensive against German Military power, supplemented by air offensives against other regions under enemy control which contribute to that power.

(c) The early elimination of Italy as an active partner in the Axis.

(d) The employment of the air, land, and naval forces of the Associated Powers, at every opportunity, in raids and minor offensives against Axis Military strength.

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(e) The support of neutrals, and of Allies of the United Kingdom, Associates of the United States, and populations in Axis-occupied territory in resistance to the Axis Powers.

(f) The building up of the necessary forces for an eventual offensive against Germany.

(g) The capture of positions from which to launch the eventual offensive.

13. Plans for the Military operations of the Associated Powers will likewise be governed by the following:

(a) Since Germany is the predominant member of the Axis Powers, the Atlantic and European area is considered to be the decisive theatre. The principal United States Military effort will be exerted in that theatre, and operations of United States forces in other theatres will be conducted in such a manner as to facilitate that effort.

(b) Owing to the threat to the sea communications of the United Kingdom, the principal task of the United States naval forces in the Atlantic will be the protection of shipping of the Associated Powers, the center of gravity of the United States effort being concentrated in the Northwestern Approaches to the United Kingdom. Under this conception, the United States naval effort in the Mediterranean will initially be considered of secondary importance.

(c) It will be of great importance to maintain the present British and Allied Military position in and near the Mediterranean basins, and to prevent the spread of Axis control in North Africa.

(d) Even if Japan were not initially to enter the war on the side of the Axis powers, it would still be necessary for the Associated Powers to deploy their forces in a manner to guard against eventual Japanese intervention. If Japan does enter the war, the Military strategy in the Far East will be defensive. The United States does not intend to add to its present Military strength in the Far East but will employ the United States Pacific Fleet offensively in the manner

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best calculated to weaken Japanese economic power, and to support the defense of the Malay barrier by diverting Japanese strength away from Malaysia. The United States intends so to augment its forces in the Atlantic and Mediterranean areas that the British Commonwealth will be in a position to release the necessary forces for the Far East.

(e) The details of the deployment of the forces of the Associated Powers at any one time will be decided with regard to the Military situation in all theatres.

(f) The principal defensive roles of the land forces of the Associated Powers will be to hold the British Isles against invasion; to defend the Western Hemisphere; and to protect outlying Military base areas and islands of strategic importance against land, air, or sea-borne attack.

(g) United States' land forces will support United States' naval and air forces maintaining the security of the Western Hemisphere or operating in the areas bordering on the Atlantic. Subject to the availability of trained and equipped organizations, United States' land forces will, as a general rule, provide ground and anti-aircraft defenses of naval and air basses used primarily by United States' forces.

(h) Subject to the requirements of the security of the United States, the British Isles and their sea communications, the air policy of the Associated Powers will be directed towards achieving, as quickly as possible, superiority of air strength over that of the enemy, particularly in long-range striking forces.

(i) United States Army Air Forces will support the United States land and naval forces maintaining the security of the Western Hemisphere or operating in the areas bordering on the Atlantic. Subject to the availability of trained and equipped organizations, they will undertake the air defense of those general areas in which naval bases used primarily by United States forces are located, and subsequently, of such other areas as my be agreed upon. United States

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Army air bombardment units will operate offensively in collaboration with the Royal Air Force, primarily against German Military power at its source.

(j) United States forces will, so far as practicable, draw their logistic support (supply and maintenance) from sources outside the British Isles. Subject to this principle, however, the military bases, repair facilities, and supplies of either nation will be at the disposal of the Military forces of the other as required for the successful prosecution of the war.

PRINCIPLES OF COMMAND

14. Subject to the provisions of Annexes II and III, and to other agreements made between appropriate authorities to meet special conditions, the following principles will govern the exercise of command of the Military forces of the Associated Powers;

(a) In accordance with plans based on joint strategic policy, each Power will be charged with the strategic direction of all forces of the Associated Powers normally operating in certain areas. The areas are defined initially in Annex II.

(b) As a general rule, the forces of each of the Associated Powers should operate under their own commanders in the areas of responsibility of their own Power.

(c) The assignment of an area to one Power shall not be construed as restricting the forces of the other Power from temporarily extending appropriate operations into that area, as may be required by particular circumstances.

(d) The forces of either Power which are employed normally under the strategic direction of an established commander of the other, will, with due regard to their type, be employed as task (organized) forces charged with the execution of specific strategic tasks. Those tasks (organized) forces will operate under their own commanders and will not be distributed into small bodies attached to the forces of the other Power. Only exceptional Military circumstances will justify the temporary suspension of the normal strategic tasks.

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(e) When units of both Powers cooperate tactically, command will be exercised by that officer of either Power who is the senior in rank, or if of equal rank, of time in grade.

(f) United States naval aviation forces employed in British Areas will operate under United States naval command, and will remain an integral part of United States naval task forces. Arrangements will be made for coordination of their operations with those of the appropriate Coastal Command groups.

MILITARY MISSIONS

15. To effect the collaboration outlined in paragraph 6, and to ensure the coordination of administrative action and command between the United States and British Military Services, the United States and United Kingdom will exchange Military Missions. Those Missions will comprise one senior officer of each of the Military Services, with their appropriate staffs. The functions of these missions, the organization of which is described in Annex I, will be as follows:

(a) To represent jointly, as a corporate body, their own Chiefs of Staff (the Chief of Naval Operations being considered as such), vis-a-vis the group of Chiefs of Staff of the Power to which they are accredited, for the purpose of collaboration in the formulation of Military policies and plans governing the conduct of the war in areas in which that Power assumes responsibility for strategic direction.

(b) In their individual capacity to represent their own individual Military Services vis-a-vis the appropriate Military Services of the Power to which they are accredited, in matters of mutual concern in the areas in which that Power assumes responsibility for strategic direction.

16. The personnel of either Mission shall not become members of any regularly constituted body of the government of the Power to which they are accredited. Their staffs will, however, work in direct cooperation with the appropriate branches and committees of the staff of the Power to which they are accredited.

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17. The United States, as may be necessary, will exchange liaison officers with Canada, Australia, and New Zealand for effectuating direct cooperation between United States and Dominion forces.

18. To promote adequate collaboration and prompt decision, a military transportation service will be established between England and the United States. Ships and airplanes will be assigned to this service by the United States and the United Kingdom as may be found necessary.

INTELLIGENCE

19. Existing Military intelligence organizations of the two Powers will operate as independent intelligence agencies, but will maintain close liaison with each other in order to ensure the full and prompt exchange of pertinent information concerning war operations. Intelligence liaison will be established not only through the Military Missions but also between all echelons of command in the field with respect to matters which affect their operations.

ANNEXES

20. Agreements as the details of the foregoing and as to technical methods of cooperation are annexed hereto as follows:

  I. ORGANIZATION OF MILITARY MISSIONS
 II. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF MILITARY FORCES.
III. UNITED STATES-BRITISH COMMONWEALTH JOINT BASIC WAR PLAN
 IV. COMMUNICATIONS.
  V. CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF SHIPPING.

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          S. D. Embick                         R. M. Bellairs
      Major-General, U. S. Army           Rear-Admiral, Royal Navy

          Sherman Miles                       V. H. Danckwerts
    Brigadier-General, U. S. Army         Rear-Admiral, Royal Navy

          L. T. Gerow                           E. L. Morris
    Brigadier-General, U. S. Army         Major-General, British Army

         J. T. McNarney                       J. C. Slessor
      Colonel, U. S. Army              Air Vice-Marshal, Royal Air Force

         R. L. Ghormley                        A. W. Clarke
    Rear-Admiral, U. S. Navy               Captain, Royal Navy

          R. K. Turner
    Rear-Admiral, U. S. Navy 

           A. G. Kirk
      Captain, U. S. Navy 

        DeWitt C. Ramsey
      Captain, U. S. Navy 

         O. T. Pfeiffer
    Lt.-Colonel, U. S. M. C.

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United States-British Staff Conversations

report

Annex I

ORGANIZATION OF MILITARY MISSIONS

DESIGNATION

1. In accordance with paragraph 15 of the Main Report, the two Powers will establish the following:

(a) The United States Military Mission in London.

(b) The British Military Mission in Washington.

TIME OF ESTABLISHMENT OF MISSIONS

2. These Military Missions will be established and announced as the duly accredited representatives of their respective Chiefs of Staff vis-a-vis the Chiefs of Staff of the other Power, immediately upon entry of the United States into the war as an Associate of the British Commonwealth.

ORGANIZATION OF MISSIONS

3. The organization of the missions will be such as to enable them to carry out their functions, as prescribed in paragraphs 15 and 16 of the Main Report.

ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES MILITARY MISSION IN LONDON

4. The United States Military Mission in London will consist of two members and a staff. The members will be a flag officer of the United States navy and a general officer of the United States Army. The staff will be approximately as follows:

(a) The Joint Planning Staff, which will collaborate with the Joint Planning Subcommittee of the War Cabinet, will consist of one naval officer and at least three assistants, one army officer and at least three assistants, and a small secretariat.

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(b) The Naval Staff, which will collaborate with the Admiralty and, as necessary, with the Air Ministry, will consist of the following:

     Sections                    Officer Personnel

Operations                              6
Planning                                4
Aviation                                4
Intelligence                            3
Shipping Control                        5
Submarine and Anti-Submarine            2
Communications (Signals)                3
Material                                4
Secretariat                             3   
                                      -----
                              TOTAL    34

(c) The Army Staff, which will collaborate with the War Office and with the Air Ministry, will consist of the following:

     Sections                    Officer Personnel

Personnel Staff
  Aides                                 1
General Staff
  Chief of Staff                        1
  G-1 (Personnel)                       2
  G-2 (Intelligence)                    3
  G-3 (Organization, Operations,        3
          and Training)
  G-4 (Supply and Evacuation)           3
Special Staff
  Aviation                              4
  Anti-aircraft                         2
  Armored Force                         1
  Artillery                             1
  Chemical Warfare                      1
  Engineer                              2
  Infantry                              1
  Ordnance                              2
  Signal (Communications)               2
  Medical                               2
  Adjutant General                      1
  Judge Advocate                        1
  Quartermaster                         2
                                      -----
                              TOTAL    35

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ORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH MISSION IN WASHINGTON

5. The British Military Mission in Washington will consist of three members, a staff, and a secretariat. The members will be a flag officer of the British Navy, a general officer of the British Army, and an Air Officer of the Royal Air Force. The staff will consist of the following:

(a) The Joint Planning Staff, which will collaborate with the United States Joint Planning Committee, will consist of one Naval, one Army, and one Air Force officer.

(b) The Naval Staff, which will collaborate with the United States Navy Department, will consist of the following:

     Sections                    Officer Personnel

Operations)                             
Convoy and Trade)
  Protection)                           4
Intelligence                            2
Signals (Communications)                1
Anti-Submarine Warfare                  1
Fleet Air Arm                           1
                                      -----
                              TOTAL     9

(c) The Army Staff, which will collaborate with the United States War Department, will consist of the following:

     Sections                    Officer Personnel

Intelligence                            2
Signals (Communications)                1
Antiaircraft                            1
Organization                            1
Administration                          1
                                      -----
                              TOTAL     6

(d) The Air Staff, which will collaborate with the United States War Department and with the United States Navy Department, will consist of the following:

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     Sections                    Officer Personnel

Intelligence                            2
Signals (Communications)                1
Antiaircraft                            1
Organization and                        1
    Administration
Training                                1
Coastal Command                         1
                                      -----
                              TOTAL     7

(e) The Secretariat will consist of approximately three officers and a suitable number of clerical and typing personnel.

(f) The Dominions of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand will be represented on the above staff of the Mission in Washington by their service attaches.

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Annex II

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF MILITARY fORCES

united states areas

1. Upon entering the war the United States will assume responsibility for the strategic direction of its own and British Military forces in the following areas:

(a) The Atlantic Ocean Area, together with islands and contiguous continental land areas, north of Latitude 25 South and west of Longitude 30 West, except:

(1) The area between Latitude 20 North and Latitude 43 North which lies east of Longitude 40 West.

(2) The waters and territories in which Canada assumes responsibility for the strategic direction of Military forces, as may be defined in United States-Canada joint agreements.

(b) The Pacific Ocean Area, together with islands and contiguous continental land areas, as follows:

(1) North of Latitude 30 North and west of Longitude 140 East;

(2) North of the equator and east of Longitude 140 East;

(3) South of the equator and east of Longitude 180 to the South American coast and Longitude 74 West;

except for the waters and territories in which Canada assumes responsibility for the strategic direction of Military forces, as may be defined in United States-Canada joint agreements. The United States will afford

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1. (b) (Cont'd)

support to British naval forces in the regions south of the equator, as far west as Longitude 155 East.

2. As soon after entering the was as the augmentation of its naval forces in the Atlantic will permit, the United States will assume responsibility for the strategic direction of its own and British Military forces in that part of the South Atlantic Ocean south of Latitude 25 south and west of Longitude 30 West.

THE FAR EAST AREA.

3. Coordination in the planning and execution of operations by the Military forces of the United States, British Commonwealth, and Netherlands East Indies in the Far East Area will, subject to the approval of the Dutch authorities, be effected as follows:

(a) The commanders of the Military forces of the Associated Powers will collaborate in the formulation of strategic plans for operations in that area.

(b) The defense of the territories of the Associated Powers will be the responsibility of the respective commanders of the Military forces concerned. These commanders will make such arrangements for mutual support as may be practicable and appropriate.

(c) The responsibility for the strategic direction of the naval forces of the Associated Powers, except of naval forces engaged in supporting defense of the Philippines, will be assumed by the British naval Commander in Chief, China. The Commander in Chief, United States Asiatic Fleet, will be responsible for the direction of naval forces engaged in supporting the defense of the Philippines.

(d) For the above purposes, the Far East Area is defined as the area from the coast of China in Latitude 30 North, east to Longitude 140 East, thence south to the equator, thence east to Longitude 141 East, thence south to the boundary of Dutch New Guinea on the south coast, thence westward to Latitude 11 South, Longitude 120 East, thence south to Latitude 13 South, thence

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3. (d) (Cont'd)

west to Longitude 92 East, thence north to Latitude 20 North, thence to the boundary between India and Burma.

JOINT LAND OFFENSIVES

4. Responsibility for the strategic direction of the Military forces engaged in joint offensives action on land will be in accordance with joint agreements to be entered upon at the proper time. In these circumstances unity of command in the theater of operations should be established

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AREAS

5. The British Commonwealth will assume responsibility for the strategic direction of Associated Military forces in all other areas not described in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this Annex II.

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Annex III

United States-British commonwealth joint basic war plan

1. This Annex III is the Joint Basic War Plan Number One of the United States and the British Commonwealth for war against the Axis Powers. The assumptions and strategic considerations on which this plan is based will be found in paragraphs 7 to 13 of the Main Report.

2. This Plan is arranged in the following sections:-

I. UNITED STATES AREAS

(a) Western Atlantic (Paragraphs 7 to 16)

(b) Pacific (Paragraphs 17 to 27)

II. THE FAR EAST AREA AND THE AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND AREA

(Paragraphs 28 to 38)

III. BRITISH AREAS

(a) United Kingdom and Home Waters (Paragraphs 39 to 52)

(b) North Atlantic (Paragraphs 53 to 61)

(c) South Atlantic (Paragraphs 62 to 69)

(d) Mediterranean and Middle East (Paragraphs 70 to 76)

(e) India and the East Indies (Paragraphs 77 to 80)

3. Uncertainties exist as to the stability of the strategic situations in various theaters, and as to the time of entry into the war of the United States, Japan,

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and the Netherlands East Indies. The strategic deployments, strengths, and tasks of the armed forces of the Associated Powers, as hereinafter listed, must therefore be regarded as subject to final decision in the light of the strategical situation at the time when any of these three Powers enter the war.

4. Certain joint agreements are being drawn up between the United States and Canada regarding the defense of the Western Hemisphere. The Staff Conference assumes that these agreements will conform generally to the agreements set out in this Report.

5. The term "United States naval forces" as used herein will be construed as including United States naval aviation. The term "air forces" will be construed as including only the United States Army Air Corps and the Royal Air Force.

6. United States naval and British naval, army, and air strengths are assigned on the basis of estimated probable strengths on April 1, 1941, unless otherwise indicated. Naval auxiliary, coastal, and harbor types, and vessels under extensive repair or refit are omitted. United States army strengths are those which it is estimated will be available on the dates stated herein. See also Appendix B, "General Note on the Disposition of British Naval Forces".

I. UNITED STATES AREAS

THE WESTERN ATLANTIC

Definition of Area.

7. The Atlantic Ocean Area, together with islands and contiguous continental land areas north of Latitude 25 South, and west of Longitude 30 West, except the area between Latitudes 20 North and 43 North which lies east of Longitude 40 West.

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Naval Forces

8. Tasks

(a) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

(c) Protect the territory of the Associated Powers and prevent the extension of enemy Military power into the Western Hemisphere, by destroying hostile expeditionary forces and by supporting land and air forces in denying the enemy the use of land positions in that hemisphere.

(d) Prepare to occupy the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands.

So far as practicable the naval forces in the Western Atlantic will be covered and supported, against attack by superior enemy surface forces, by the naval forces of the Associated Powers which are operating from bases in the United Kingdom and the Eastern Atlantic.

9. Initial Naval Forces

      United States                          British Commonwealth

                        (a) Ocean Escort
                            (based on Halifax)
3 Battleships                                10 Armed Merchant *  
2 8" Cruisers                                   Cruisers
2 Destroyers (1850 tons)                      8 Submarines     *
7 Destroyers                                  2 Destroyers     *
4 Minesweepers (destroyer type)
9 Destroyers (old)
  (temporarily, pending
   re-gunning)   

                         * From existing American and West Indies and
                           Halifax Commands.  Submarines also in part
                           from Western Approaches Force.

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                        (b) Striking Force
                            (based on Newport, Bermuda
                             or Trinidad, as required)

2 Aircraft Carriers                          NIL.
2 8" Cruisers
4 Destroyers
6 Patrol type Seaplanes (Bermuda)

                        (c) Southern Patrol Force
                            (based on Trinidad)

4 6" Cruisers (old)                          1 Sloop (Dutch)

                        (d) Submarine Force

6 Submarines (old)                           NIL.

                        (e) Fleet Marine Force
                            (based on United States)

1 Infantry Division (7,500
     troops)
1 Defense Battalion (900 troops)             NIL.
1 Aircraft Group (63 airplanes)

                        (f) Coastal Frontiers:

                            North Atlantic

12 Patrol type Seaplanes                     NIL.

                              Caribbean

12 Patrol type Seaplanes                     NIL.
 5 Destroyers (old)

                                Panama

12 Patrol type Seaplanes                     NIL.
 4 Destroyers (old)

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10. It is estimated that by July 1, 1941, the following reenforcements will be available for this area. The date on which units of the Pacific Fleet can be moved to the Atlantic, however, will depend upon the situation in the Pacific.

      United States                          British Commonwealth

                        (a) Ocean Escort

3 8" Cruisers (2 from
  Striking Force in paragraph 9b)            NIL.

6 Destroyers (1850 tons)

                        (b) Striking Force

4 6" Cruisers                                NIL.

                        (d) Submarine Force

3 Submarines (old)                           NIL.

                        (g) Patrol Planes

12 Patrol type Seaplanes
      (Assignment indeterminate)             NIL.

Land Forces

11. Tasks

(a) In conjunction with naval and air forces, protect the territory of the Associated Powers and prevent the expansion of enemy military or political domination by the Axis Powers by defeating or expelling enemy forces or forces supporting the enemy in the Western Hemisphere.

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(c) Relieve, as soon as practicable, British forces in Curacao and Aruba (subject to the agreement of the Netherlands Government in London).

(d) Provide defensive garrisons for bases leased in British territory.

(e) Build up forces in the United States for eventual offensive action against Germany.

12. United States Land Forces

                    (a) Continental United States

                    The Army of the United States now in process of
               organization consisting of:

                     2 Cavalry Divisions
                     4 Armored Divisions
                    27 Infantry Divisions

                   Appropriate Army, Corps, and GHQ reserve units.

The above includes a reinforced Corps of three Infantry Divisions which will normally be maintained as a reserve for the support of overseas garrisons and the Latin American Republics. A maximum of four Infantry Divisions and two Armored Divisions will be trained and equipped by September 1, 1941.

                    (b) Overseas Garrisons on April 1, 1941

                     Panama Canal - 23,000 troops
                     Puerto Rico  - 12,000 troops
                     Newfoundland -  1,000 troops

13. British Commonwealth Land Forces

                    (a) Field Army

                     Now in process of organization in Canada)

                     1 Armored Division
                     1 Army Tank Brigade
                     2 Divisions

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                    (b) Garrisons

                     Jamaica   -- One Canadian Battalion
                     Bermuda   -- One Company
                     Curacao   -- One Battalion
                     Aruba     -- One Battalion, less one Company
                     Newfoundland -- One Canadian Battalion

Air Forces

14. Tasks

(a) Support the land and naval forces in the defense of the Western Hemisphere and in the support of Latin-American Republics by providing for the air defense of vital installations, by destroying enemy expeditionary forces, and by denying use by the enemy or forces supporting the enemy of existing or potential air, land, and naval bases.

(b) Support the naval forces in the protection of the sea communications of the Associated Powers and in the destruction of Axis sea communications by offensive action against enemy forces or commerce located within tactical operating radius of occupied air bases.

15. United States Air Forces

(a) Continental United States

The GHQ Air Force now in process of organization in Continental United States, consisting of:

                     9 Bombardment Groups, Heavy
                     7 Bombardment Groups, Medium
                     7 Bombardment Groups, Light
                    14 Pursuit Groups, Interceptor
                     3 Pursuit Groups, Fighter
                     1 Composite Group

This force includes all units which may become available for dispatch to overseas theaters of war.

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                    (b) Overseas Garrisons (now in process of
                        organization)

                        Panama Canal

                        2 Bombardment Groups, Heavy
                        1 Bombardment Squadron, Light
                        2 Pursuit Groups, Interceptor
                        1 Pursuit Group, Fighter

                        Puerto Rico

                        1 Bombardment Group, Heavy
                        1 Pursuit Group, Interceptor

16. British Commonwealth Air Forces

None except minor forces on the east coast of Canada.

THE PACIFIC

Definition of Area

17. The Pacific Ocean Area, together with islands and contiguous continental land areas, is as follows:

(a) North of Latitude 30 North and west of Longitude 140 East.

(b) North of the equator and east of Longitude 140 East.

(c) South of the equator and east of Longitude 180 to the South American coast and Longitude 74 West.

Naval Forces

18. Tasks

(a) Support the forces of the Associated Powers in the Far East Area by diverting enemy strength away from the Malay Barrier through the denial and capture of positions in the Marshalls, and through raids on enemy sea communications and positions.

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(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

(c) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers within the Pacific Area.

(d) Support British naval forces in the area south of the equator, as far west as Longitude 155 East.

(e) Protect the territory of the Associated Powers within the Pacific Area, and prevent the extension of enemy Military power into the Western Hemisphere, by destroying hostile expeditions and by supporting land and air forces in denying the enemy the use of land positions in that Hemisphere.

(f) Prepare to capture and establish control over the Caroline and Marshall Island area.

19. Initial United States Naval Forces

(a) Pacific Fleet (based in Hawaii)

       8 Battleships
       2 Aircraft Carriers
       8 8" Cruisers
       5 6" Cruisers
       3 6" Cruisers (old)
       5 Destroyers (1850)
      40 Destroyers
       5 Minesweepers (Destroyer type)
      19 Submarines (3 enroute from Atlantic)
       4 Submarines (old)
       8 Minelayers (Destroyer type)
       1 Minelayer
      84 Patrol type Seaplanes

(b) Atlantic Reenforcement

      (Available for Pacific operations
       until transferred, vide paragraph 57)

       3 Battleships
       1 Aircraft Carrier

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       4 8" Cruisers
       4 6" Cruisers
       6 Destroyers (1850 tons)
       8 Destroyers

(c) Southeast Pacific Force (based in Canal Zone)

       2 6" Cruisers (old)
       4 Destroyers

(d) Fleet Marine Force (based on San Diego)

       1 Infantry Division (7500 troops)
       1 Defense Battalion  (900 troops)
       1 Aircraft Group      (63 planes)

(e) Coastal Frontiers

Pacific

       9 Destroyers (old)
       2 Submarines
      24 Patrol type Seaplanes

Hawaii

       4 Destroyers (old)

20. There will be no British naval forces in this area other than local naval defense craft on the Canadian seaboard.

21. Estimated United States Naval Reenforcements by July 1, 1941.

(a) Pacific Fleet

       1 Battleship
       1 Aircraft Carrier
      10 Submarines
       1 Submarine Minelayer

Land Forces

22. Tasks

In conjunction with the naval and air forces in the area:

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(a) Hold Oahu as a main outlying naval base.

(b) Defend the Panama Canal, the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada, and Alaska, including Kodiak and Unalaska.

(c) Support Latin American Republics on the West Coast of South America against invasion or political domination by the Axis Powers by defeating or expelling enemy forces or forces supporting the enemy established in this area.

23. United States Land Forces

(a) Continental United States

Included in paragraph 12(a). One Reinforced Division listed therein is reserved on the Pacific Coast for the support of the Latin-American Republics.

(b) Overseas Garrisons on April 1, 1941

        Hawaii, 23,000 troops
        Alaska,  3,600 troops

24. British Commonwealth Land Forces

Included in paragraph 13 (a).

Air Forces

25. Tasks

(a) Support the land and naval forces in the defense of Oahu, the Panama Canal, the Pacific Coast of the United States, Canada, and Alaska, and in the support of Latin-American Republics on the west coast of South America by providing for the air defense of vital installations, by destroying enemy expeditionary forces, and by denying use by the enemy or forces supporting the enemy of existing or potential air, land, and naval bases.

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(b) Support the naval forces in the protection of the sea communications of the Associated Powers and in the destruction of Axis sea communications by offensive action against enemy forces or commerce located within tactical operating radius of occupied air bases.

26. United States Air Forces

(a) Continental United States

Included in paragraph 15(a).

(b) Overseas Garrisons (now in process of organization)

       Hawaii

       2 Bombardment Groups, Heavy
       1 Bombardment Squadron, Light
       1 Pursuit Group, Interceptor
       1 Pursuit Group, Fighter

       Alaska

       1 Composite Group, consisting of:
           1 Bombardment Squadron, Heavy
           1 Bombardment Squadron, Medium
           1 Pursuit Group, Interceptor

27. British Commonwealth Air Forces

None, except minor forces on the West Coast of Canada.

II. THE FAR EAST AREA AND THE AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND AREA

Definition of Far East Area

28. The Far East Area is defined as the area bounded by lines from the coast of China in Latitude 30 North, east to Longitude 140 East, thence south to the Equator, thence east to Longitude 141 East, thence south to the boundary of Dutch New Guinea on the South coast, thence westward to Latitude 11 South, Longitude 120 East, thence south to Latitude 13 South, thence west to Longitude 92 East, thence north to Latitude 20 North, thence to the boundary between India and Burma.

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Definition of Australia and New Zealand Area

29. The Australia and New Zealand Area comprises the Australian and New Zealand British Naval Stations west of Longitude 180 and south of the equator. The limits of those Stations are defined in Appendix "A".

Special Command Relationships

30. The defense of the territories of the Associated Powers in the Far East Area will be the responsibility of the respective Commanders of the Military forces concerned. Those Commanders will make such arrangements for mutual support as may be practicable and appropriate.

31. In the Far East Area the responsibility for the strategic direction of the naval forces of the Associated Powers, except of naval forces engaged in supporting the defense of the Philippines, will be assumed by the British naval Commander in Chief, China. The Commander in Chief, United States Asiatic Fleet, will be responsible for the direction of naval forces engaged in supporting the defense of the Philippines.

32. The British naval Commander in Chief, China, is also charged with responsibility for the strategic direction of the naval forces of the Associated Powers operating in the Australia and New Zealand Area as defined in paragraph 29.

Naval Forces

33. Tasks in the Far East Area

(a) Raid Japanese sea communications and destroy Axis forces.

(b) Support the land and air forces in the defense of the territories of the Associated Powers. (The responsibility of the Commander in Chief, United States Asiatic Fleet, for supporting the defense of the Philippines remains so long as that defense continues).

(c) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

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(d) Protect sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

34. Tasks in the Australia and New Zealand Area

The tasks of the naval forces in the Australia and New Zealand Area are the same as those for the Far East Area.

35. Naval Forces

                Far East Area

                   United States Asiatic Fleet

                       1 8" Cruiser
                       1 6" Cruiser (old)
                      13 Destroyers (old)
                      11 Submarines
                       6 Submarines (old)
                      24 Patrol type Seaplanes

                   Netherlands Forces

                       2 6" Cruisers
                       6 Destroyers
                      11 Submarines
                       4 Submarines (old)
                      27 Patrol type Seaplanes (plus 12*)
                       2 Sloops

                         *Crews not as yet trained.

Far East Area and Australia and New Zealand Area

British forces available for operations in those areas and the British reenforcements which may be sent:

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------------------------------------------------------------------------
Types of                   British and     Immediate          Ultimate
Ships                    Dominion Forces   British            British
                                           Reenforce-         Reenforce-
                                            ments              ments
  I.                          II.            III.               IV.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Battleships                   -              -                   5(a)
Battlecruisers                -              1(b)                -
Aircraft Carriers             -              1(b)                -
8" Cruisers                   1              1(c)                2(d)
6" Cruisers                   3              3(c)                5(d)
6" Cruisers (old)             4              -                   4
Armed Merchant Cruisers       3              -                   -
Destroyers                    -              5(e)               27(e)
Destroyers (old)              5              -                   -
Flying-Boats                  9              -                   -
Sloops                        1              -                   -

(a) 3 from Halifax Force, one from Force H.
    one from vessels unallocated.
(b) From Force H, vide paragraph 55.
(c) From Force H and other areas.
(d) Probably from Home Fleet and new construction.
(e) From North Atlantic Command and other unallocated vessels, vide 
    paragraph 55 and Appendix B.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Land and Air Forces

36. Tasks

Far East Area

(a) Defend Hong Kong, the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies and such other territories and islands as it may be decided from time to time to occupy as bases.

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(b) Hold Malaya, Singapore, and Java against Japanese attack.

(c) Support the naval forces.

Australia and New Zealand Area

(d) In conjunction with naval and air forces, protect British territory and prevent the extension of enemy Military power in this area.

(e) Support the naval forces in the protection of the sea communications of the Associated Powers.

37. Strength of Land Forces on April 1, 1941:

Philippines

20,000 troops (includes Organized Philippine Army)

Netherlands East Indies

2 Divisions

Hong Kong

4 Battalions

Malaya

Equivalent of 7 Brigade Groups

Note: One additional Brigade Group will arrive late in April, and a second in May, 1941.

Australia and New Zealand

Field Army

One Division is forming in Australia

Garrison

One New Zealand Brigade at Suva, Fiji Islands

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38. Strength of Air Forces on April 1, 1941:

       Philippines
        1 Composite Group consisting of:
          1 Bombardment Squadron
          3 Pursuit Squadrons

       Netherlands East Indies
         9 Bomber Squadrons
         2 Fighter Squadrons
         1 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron
        27 (plus 12) Patrol type Seaplanes
           (Also shown in paragraph 35)

       Malaya
         5 Medium Bomber Squadrons
         1 Fighter Bomber Squadron
         1 Fighter Squadron
         2 Torpedo Bomber Squadron
         1 General Reconnaissance Squadron
         1 General Reconnaissance Flying-Boat Squadron

      Note: A program of reenforcement of British air strength for
      Malaya, which will bring the total number of aircraft in Malaya
      to 336 (i.e., 22 squadrons), is being carried out gradually as
      the situation elsewhere permits.

      Australia
         6 General Reconnaissance Squadrons
         4 General Purpose Squadrons
         2 Army Cooperation Squadrons
         1 Flying-Boat Squadron

      New Zealand
         3 General Reconnaissance Squadrons.

III. BRITISH AREAS

UNITED KINGDOM AND BRITISH HOME WATERS

Definition of Area

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39. (a) Waters to the eastward of Longitude 30 West and to the northward of Latitude 43 North.

(b) Land areas bordering on, and islands in, the above ocean area.

Naval Forces

40. Tasks

(a) In conjunction with land and air forces protect the British Isles against invasion.

(b) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(c) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

41. British Commonwealth and Allied Naval Forces:

(a) Home Fleet

           3 Battleships
           2 Battle Cruisers
           2 Aircraft Carriers
           3 8" Cruisers*
          14 6" Cruisers (including some ships armed with 5.25" guns*
           2 Anti-Aircraft Cruisers
           2 Other Anti-Aircraft ships
          22 Destroyers
          25 Submarines

*NOTE 1: Would be reduced if reenforcements are sent to the Far East, 
vide paragraph 35.

(b) Mine Laying Squadron

           5 Large Minelayers
           4 Destroyers

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(c) Northern and Western Patrols

           8 Ocean Boarding Vessels

(d) Western Approaches Command

           1 Anti-Aircraft Cruiser
          93 Destroyers
          49 Corvettes
           9 Sloops
          14 Submarines [Note 2]

NOTE 2. 6 of these are included in the submarines shown as Ocean
Escorts in paragraph 9(a).

(e) Other Home Commands and Channel and North Sea Trade Protection

           1 6" Cruiser, old (gunnery training)
          61 Destroyers
           7 Corvettes
          10 Sloops
           5 Submarines
           5 Minelayers

42. Initial Strength of United States Forces

(a) Northwest Escort Force

Task.

Escort convoys in the Northwest Approaches, acting under the strategic direction of the British Commander in Chief of the Western Approaches.

           9 Destroyers
          18 Destroyers (old)
          48 Patrol type Seaplanes

(b) Submarines

Task

Raid enemy shipping in an area to be designated later, acting under the strategic direction of the British Vice Admiral, Submarines.

           9 Submarines (old)

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43. Estimated United States Naval Reenforcements by July 1, 1941:

(a) Northwest Escort Force

           5 Destroyers
           9 Destroyers (old) (from Ocean Escort after completion of
              regunning).

(b) Submarines

           3 Submarines (old) (Assignment indeterminate)

Land Forces

44. Tasks

(a) In conjunction with naval and air forces, hold the United Kingdom against invasion and defend it against air attack.

(b) Defend Iceland and the Faroes.

(c) Undertake offensive land operations as opportunity offers, in accordance with joint United States-British plans to be agreed upon at a later date.

(d) Hold forces in readiness to occupy the Azores and Cape Verde Islands until such time as this responsibility is assumed by the United States.

45. British Commonwealth and Allied Land Forces:

(a) Field Army

          28 Divisions (includes 1 in Iceland and 4 Independent
              Brigade Groups)
           1 Armored Division (plus 4 forming)
           1 Army Tank Brigade (plus 2 forming)

(b) Air Defense

Approximately 10 anti-aircraft Divisions.

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46. United States Land Forces.

When the United States enters the war, it will provide:

(a) 1 Reinforced Division to relieve British forces now charged with the defense of Iceland.

(b) Troops for ground and anti-aircraft defense for such naval and air bases used primarily by United States forces as may be agreed upon at the time.

(c) Approximately one reinforced regiment (Brigade Group) in the United Kingdom.

Note: None of the above will be available before September 1, 1941.

Air Forces

47. Tasks

(a) In conjunction with land and naval forces, defend the British Isles against air attack and invasion.

(b) In conjunction with naval forces, protect shipping against surface, submarine and air attack.

Note: The execution of Tasks (a) and (b) will involve the devotion of a substantial proportion of the air effort to attack on enemy bases.

(c) Conduct a sustained air offensive against German Military power in all areas within range of the United Kingdom.

48. British Commonwealth and Allied Air Forces

These are on the order of 165 squadrons of all classes.

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49. United States Air Forces

United States Air Forces of the order of 32 squadrons (Bombardment and Pursuit) with appropriate command echelons, will be available for despatch to the United Kingdom during 1941. Additional units will be provided as resources become available, the number and disposition being determined by the Military situation from time to time. In addition the United States will provide one Pursuit and one Bombardment squadron for the defense of Iceland.

50. Pursuit (fighter) units operating in the British Isles will undertake the air defense of those general areas in which bases used primarily by United States Naval forces are located, and subsequently of such other areas as may be agreed upon.

51. United States Air Bombardment units will conduct offensive operations primarily against objectives in Germany. Operations to defeat attempted invasion or Blockade will be conducted as demanded by the situation.

52. United States Army Command Relationships

Administrative command of all United States land and air forces stationed in the British Isles and Iceland will be exercised by the Commander, United States Army Forces in Great Britain. This officer will have authority to arrange details concerning the organization and location of task forces (organization of units in appropriate formation) and operational control with the War Office and the Air Ministry.

NORTH ATLANTIC AREA

Definition of Area

53. The North Atlantic Area is defined as follows:

      (a) Northern boundary, Latitude 43 North,
      (b) Southern boundary, Latitude 20 North,
      (c) Western boundary, Longitude 40 West,
      (d) Eastern boundary, the coasts of Spain, Portugal, and Africa, 
          Longitude 5 West,

together with the island and land areas contiguous thereto.

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Naval Forces

54. Tasks

(a) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

(c) Raid Axis sea communications, territories and forces in the Western Mediterranean.

55. British Commonwealth Naval Forces

Force H (Gibraltar)

      1 Battleship
      1 Battle Cruiser
      1 Aircraft Carrier
      1 6" Cruiser
      8 Destroyers

Gibraltar and Straits Force

      7 Destroyers

56. Initial United States Naval Forces

(a) Submarines

Task. Raid enemy shipping in the Mediterranean under the strategic direction of the Commander in Chief, Mediterranean, acting through the Flag Officer Commanding North Atlantic.

       10 Submarines (old)(Gibraltar)

NOTE: It is estimated that an additional 7 United States submarines (old) can be assigned to Gibraltar by July 1, 1941.

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57. As soon as the situation in the Pacific permits their transfer to the Atlantic, the following United States naval forces will be assigned the tasks in paragraph 54, unless the strategic situation in the Atlantic at that time dictates a different decision. It is possible, depending upon the situation in the Far East, that Force H will have left Gibraltar for the Indian Ocean or Far East Area before its relief by United States naval forces.

United States Gibraltar Force

        3 Battleships
        1 Aircraft Carrier
        4 8" Cruisers
       13 Destroyers
       12 Patrol type Seaplanes

NOTE: Upon arrival of this force, the United States submarines shown in paragraph 56(a) will be assigned to it.

Special Command Relationships

58. Strategic direction of the United States Gibraltar Force will be exercised by the United Kingdom Chief of Naval Staff except when he specifically delegates it for a stated period as follows:

(a) To the British Naval Commander in Chief, Mediterranean, for operations in the Western Mediterranean.

(b) To the Commander in Chief, United States Atlantic Fleet, for operations in the Central Atlantic.

59. Subject to the preceding paragraph, the Commander of United States Gibraltar Force will exercise strategic direction of the naval forces of the Associated Powers which operate in that area. He will be responsible for administrative matters to the Commander in Chief, United States Atlantic Fleet.

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Land Forces

60. Task

Hold Gibraltar

NOTE: This will be a British responsibility. The present garrison at Gibraltar is four battalions.

Air Forces

61. Task

Support the land and naval forces.

NOTE: There is at present a British Flying-Boat Squadron at Gibraltar which will be released for employment elsewhere when the United States Gibraltar Force assumes the naval tasks in this area.

South Atlantic

Definition of Area

62. (a) The area between Latitude 20 North and 25 South, bounded on the west by Longitude 30 West and on the east by the African coast,

(b) The South Atlantic Ocean, south of Latitude 25 South, between Longitudes 74 West and 33 East,

together with the islands and land areas contiguous thereto.

Naval Forces

63. Tasks

(a) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

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(c) In conjunction with land and air forces, protect the territories of the Associated Powers.

64. British Commonwealth Forces

        1 Aircraft Carrier
        1 Seaplane Carrier
        5 8" Cruisers
        7 6" Cruisers (2 old)
       14 Armed Merchant Cruisers
        6 Corvettes
        6 Sloops

Land Forces

65. Task

In conjunction with naval and air forces, defend British and Allied territory.

66. British Commonwealth Forces

British West African Colonies

       Approximately 2 Divisions

South Africa

       Field Army
       One Division forming.

67. United States Forces

If the United States Navy regularly uses a base in this area, the United States Army will provide the necessary anti-aircraft units.

Air Forces

68. Tasks

(a) In conjunction with naval forces, protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers.

(b) In conjunction with land forces, protect British and Allied territories.

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69. On April 1, 1941, it will not have been possible to provide any British air forces to fulfill these tasks. If the United States Navy regularly uses a naval base in this area, the United States Army will provide one pursuit squadron and two light bombardment squadrons there.

THE MEDITERRANEAN AND MIDDLE EAST

70. The Mediterranean and Middle East Areas comprise the Mediterranean Sea east of Longitude 5 West, the Suez Canal, and the islands and countries adjoining them, including the present theaters of operations in North and East Africa. The Black Sea, Iraq, and Aden are also included in this area.

Naval Forces

71. Tasks

(a) Protect the sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

(c) Conduct offensive operations against Axis sea communications to North Africa and Albania, and against Axis territory and islands.

72. British Commonwealth Naval Forces

       3 Battleships
       2 Aircraft Carriers
       1 8" Cruiser
   *   7 6" Cruisers (includes some ships armed with 5.25" guns)
       2 Anti-aircraft Cruisers
      23 Destroyers
       4 Corvettes
      14 Submarines

   * One returns to Far East if Japan enters the war.

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73. As described in paragraph 58, when operating in the Mediterranean area the Commander of the United States Gibraltar Force will operate under the strategic direction of the British Commander in Chief, Mediterranean.

Land and Air Forces

74. Tasks

(a) Hold the naval bases necessary for executing the naval tasks given in paragraph 71.

(b) Defend the British position in North Africa, Kenya and Palestine, and conduct offensive operations against Italian overseas possessions.

(c) Support Turkey and Greece.

(d) Conduct offensive operations against the Axis Powers on the Continent of Europe.

75. In view of the operations at present in progress in this theater of war it is not considered desirable to set out the present dispositions and strengths of British land and air forces in this area.

76. It is not proposed to employ United States land or air forces in the Mediterranean and Middle East areas in the initial stages.

INDIA AND EAST INDIES

Definition of Area

77. (a) India.

(b) Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, bounded on the West by the coasts of Africa and Longitude 33 East and on the East by the western boundaries of the Far East Area and the Australia Station.

(c) The islands in the above ocean area.

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Naval Forces

78. Tasks

(a) Protect sea communications of the Associated Powers by escorting, covering, and patrolling, and by destroying enemy raiding forces.

(b) Destroy Axis sea communications by capturing or destroying vessels trading directly or indirectly with the enemy.

(c) Conduct offensive operations against Axis territory in the Red Sea.

79. British Commonwealth Naval Forces

       1 8" Cruiser
   *   5 6" Cruisers (4 old)
       1 A.A. Cruiser
       5 Armed Merchant Cruisers
       3 Destroyers
      12 Sloops
       1 Submarine (ex-Italian)

   * One returns to Far East if Japan enters the war.

Land and Air Forces

80. The task of the land and air forces is the defense of India and of the islands in the area. The whole of the Army of India is available for this purpose. Six squadrons of obsolete aircraft are maintained for tribal control.

GENERAL

81. In view of the facts that a considerable number of British Commonwealth naval forces are undergoing repair, and new vessels are continually coming forward from construction, it is not practicable to present there the complete distribution of all naval forces of the British Commonwealth. A Note by the British Delegation on this subject is attached as Appendix B.

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APPENDIX A

LIMITS OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND STATIONS

The Australia Station is bounded on the west by Longitude 80 East south of Latitude 30 South, thence through lines joining the following positions:

           Latitude                      Longitude
       (a) 30 00' South                  95 15' East
       (b) 13 00' South                  95 15' East
       (c) 13 00' South                 120 00' East
       (d) 11 00' South                 120 00' East
       (e) Southern point of boundary between Papua and Dutch New
           Guinea (Latitude 9 00' South, Longitude 141 00' East).
       (f)  0 00'                       141 00' East
       (g)  0 00'                       169 00' East
       (h)  1 00' South                 169 00' East
       (i)  1 00' South                 170 00' East
       (j) 32 00' South                 170 00' East
       (k) 32 00' South                 160 00' East

The New Zealand Station is bounded on the west by Eastern boundary of Australia Station (to position (g)), thence through lines joining:

           Latitude                      Longitude
       (g)  0 00'                        95 15' East
       (l)  4 00' North                  95 15' East
       (m)  4 00' North                 120 00' East
       (n) 30 00' North                 120 00' East
       (o) 30 00' North                 169 00' East
       (p)  0 00'                       169 00' East
       (q)  0 00'                       170 00' East

       remainder of Eastern boundary being Longitude 120 West, south of 
       the equator.

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APPENDIX B

GENERAL NOTE ON THE DISPOSITION OF BRITISH NAVAL FORCES

1. The foregoing tentative distribution of British Naval units is based on the latest detailed information available to the United Kingdom Delegation and anticipated adjustments to meet the contingency of Japan entering the war.

2. The distribution does not include certain units which were still under long repair in January, or new construction. These are listed below. Their distribution will depend on requirements at the time each comes into service and cannot be predicted with any certainty at present.

3. It is probably that new construction cruisers, and those coming out of repair, would replace cruisers required in the Far East, or augment the latter strength; and some of the destroyers shown as allocated in the further reenforcements to the Far East would have to come from the new construction program.

Units under long repair
      1 Battleship       (under repair: completion date uncertain)
      1 Aircraft Carrier (  "     "        "         "      "    )
      4 8" Cruisers      (one ready in February; 1 in March;
                          1 in September; 1 date uncertain).
      3 6" Cruisers      (one ready in June; others later).
      1 Armed Merchant Cruiser (date uncertain)
     15 Destroyers       (not repaired until April or later).
      4 Sloops           ( "     "       "     "    "   "  ).

New Construction
     1 Battleship        (working up. Probably to Home fleet).
     1 Battleship, reconstructed, (working up, Probably to 
                          Mediterranean Fleet).

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1 6" Cruiser )

15 Destroyers )

32 Corvettes ) Completing before

3 Sloops ) April 1, 1941.

6 Submarines )

3 Fast Minelayers )

1 Aircraft Carrier )

4 6" Cruisers )

15 Destroyers ) Completing between

30 Corvettes ) April 1, 1941 and

1 Sloop ) July 1, 1941.

8 Submarines )

1 Fast Minelayer )

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United States-British Staff Conversations

report

Annex IV

COMMUNICATIONS

GeNERAL

NOTE: The United Kingdom Delegation tentatively accepts this Annex IV, subject to technical examination by the British Chiefs of Staff.

1. The United States and the United Kingdom will establish as soon as possible in London the "Associated Communication Committee" which is to be constituted as follows:

(a) A representative of the United States Army and a representative of the United States Navy, who will become members of the staff of the United States Military Mission when that Mission is established in London.

(b) Representatives of the British Combined Signals Board in the United Kingdom.

2. The Associated Communications Committee will be the supreme controlling body with relation to inter-communications by radio (W/T), wire, visual, and sound affecting the armed services and the merchant marines of the two nations.

3. The British Authorities will appoint staff members of their Military Mission in Washington as representatives to confer with:

(a) The Communications Divisions of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, U.S. Navy.

(b) United States Army Signal Corps and United States Army Air Corps.

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NAVAL COMMUNICATIONS

4. The United States and British Navies will exchange the following, as essential for intercommunication between the United States Navy and the British Navy:

(a) Necessary fundamental instructions on methods and procedure for radio (W/T) for ships and aircraft.

(b) Shore radio (W/T) organization, frequency plan, and instructions for ship (airplane) to shore communications.

(c) Call sign lists for certain shore and operating units.

(d) Recognition system keys and instructions.

(e) Information as to total wave bands covered by certain Navy transmitters and receivers, installed in operating units.

(f) Signal flags and any special visual signalling equipment, when required.

(g) Communication liaison officers to certain important ships and stations, which are to be designated later.

(h) Codes and Ciphers for use when inter-communicating.

(i) Data as to locations and organization of strategic D/F stations.

(j) Merchantship-Navy communication instructions, codes, ciphers, etc.

(k) Weather broadcasts, meteorological information, time signal data, and other special broadcasts.

Note: Some details of the foregoing exchanges have already been completed and others are now in progress.

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5. The following principles will be observed relative to intercommunication of United States and British ships:

(a) Ships which customarily operate within the area of strategic responsibility of their own Power will normally use their own communication systems for direct communication with their own ships and shore stations. When beyond visual or sound signalling distance, such ships will normally inter-communicate with ships or shore stations of the other Power via their own principal bases or shore radio (W/T) stations; but when it becomes necessary for such ships to communicate directly with a ship or shore station of the other Power, they will do so via joint frequencies and joint codes assigned for this purpose. When within visual or sound signalling distance, visual and sound inter-communication will be by International Code, or in English text using International Procedure.

(b) Ships which customarily operate within an area of strategic responsibility of the other Power will normally inter-communicate as in 5(a), unless they usually engage in tactical cooperation with forces of such Power. In such case they will adopt the complete communication systems of the Power having strategic responsibility, and this Power will supply them with details of communications, liaison personnel and special apparatus. Decision as to which system to adopt will be made on the merits of each case.

Note: The United States Navy has prepared one hundred sets of British signal flags for use of United States Naval ships which may require them.

(c) In areas of joint strategic responsibility, inter-communications will be via joint frequencies, codes, and procedures if such have been previously agreed upon. In the absence of previous agreement, inter-communication will be through liaison officers or via International Code, as may be most convenient.

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5. (Cont'd)

(d) Communications between ships of a convoy, and between the Commander of a convoy and the escort, regardless of nationality, will be via the system now in use for this purpose by the United Kingdom which is based on the employment of International Code and International Procedure.

6. The Associated Communications Committee will prepare the following, which will be made effective by direction of the competent authorities when conditions require:

(a) Joint radio (W/T) frequency plan for inter-communication.

(b) United States Navy-British Navy recognition signals in all systems to be used for aircraft, surface ships (including merchant ships), and submarines, in order to permit safe joint operations, and to effect entrance to defended harbors.

(c) Joint United States Navy-British Navy call signs.

(d) Plan for joint operation of United States Navy and British Navy strategic D/F stations, including joint codes or ciphers, as may be necessary, and with inter-communications preferably by landline or cable, rather than by radio (W/T).

(e) Joint United States Navy-British Navy plan for radio (W/T) transmissions from certain British shore stations in Africa, Australia, etc., to United States ships operating in the South Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean; and for transmissions from United States' stations to British ships operating in the Eastern Atlantic, if necessary.

(f) Plan for cable and, secondarily, radio (W/T) point-to-point communication between certain United States and certain British cable terminals and radio (W/T) shore stations.

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6. (Cont'd)

(g) Joint United States Navy-British Navy cryptographic systems.

MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS

7. In view of the fact that no United States Army forces, either ground or air, are expected to operate in areas where inter-communications with British forces is necessary prior to September 1, 1941, it has not been considered necessary to define at this stage the detailed arrangements which will be necessary.

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Annex V

CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF SHIPPING

1. British authorities will issue directions for the control and protection of shipping of the Associated Powers within the areas in which British authorities assume responsibility for the strategic direction of Military forces (vide Annex II). United States authorities will issure directions for the control and protection of shipping of the Associated Powers within the areas in which the United States authorities assume responsibility for the strategic direction of Military forces (vide Annex II).

2. United States and British shipping scheduled to pass from an area assigned to one Power into an area assigned to the other Power, will be controlled and protected by agreement between the respective naval authorities. The British Admiralty is the supreme authority in the control of shipping in the North Atlantic bound to and from the United Kingdom.

3. The British Naval Control Service Organization will continue in the exercise of its present functions and methods in all regions pending establishment of effective United States agencies in United States Areas. The Chief of Naval Operations, immediately on entry of the United States into the war, will arrange for the control and protection of shipping of United States registry or charter within United States Areas. Requests from the British Naval Control Service Organization for protection by United States forces within United States Areas will be made to the Chief of Naval Operations.

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AIr cOLLABORATION

lIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
                              No. of pages              Change in effect
List of Effective Pages             1                    ORIGINAL

Letter to the Chief of         title page                ORIGINAL
Staff, U.S. Army; the          unnumbered
Chief of Naval Operations,     page 2
U.S. Navy; the Chiefs of
Staff of the United Kingdom;
of March 29, 1941.

Air Policy                     title page                ORIGINAL
                               unnumbered 
                               pages 2 to 6 inc.

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AIr cOLLABORATION
March 29, 1941

To:   The Chief of Staff, U.S. Army.
      The Chief of Naval Operations, U.S. Navy
      The Chief of Staff of the United Kingdom.

Sirs:

1. The joint letter of transmittal forwarding the report of the staff conversations held in Washington between the United States Staff Committee and the United Kingdom Delegation, contains a recommendation as follows:

"5. The Staff Conference recommends that immediate steps be taken to provide for the following:

(c) Allocation of Military Material

The establishment at the earliest possible moment of a method of procedure which will ensure the allocation of Military Material, both prior to and after the entry of the United States into the war in the manner best suited to meet the demands of the Military situation."

2. The general subject of Air Collaboration, in which the policy pertaining to the supply and distribution of aircraft is an essential factor, is considered of such immediate and vital importance as to deserve special treatment.

3. Accordingly, a subcommittee of the United States Staff Committee and the United Kingdom Delegation was appointed to study this subject and to submit a report. The constitution of this subcommittee was as follows:

       J. C. Slessor,
       Air Vice Marshal, Royal Air Force
       DeWitt C. Ramsey,
       Captain, U.S. Navy.
       J. T. McNarney,
       Colonel, U.S. Army.

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4. The report of this subcommittee is forwarded herewith for consideration.

                                       S. D. Embick      )
                                 Major-General, U.S. Army)
                                                         ) On behalf of
                                                         ) the United 
                                                         ) States Staff
                                                         ) Committee
                                                         )
                                       R. L. Ghormely    )
                                 Rear-Admiral, U.S. Navy.)

                                R. M. Bellairs,
                            Rear-Admiral, Royal Navy, on behalf of the
                                          United Kingdom Delegation.

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AIr POLIcy

1. The general subject of Air Policy, in which the supply and distribution of aircraft is an essential factor, is considered of such immediate and vital importance as to deserve special treatment.

The Air Subcommittee, accordingly, submits the following report and recommendations.

REQUIREMENTS OF UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION

2. United States Naval Aviation is employed in naval tasks. It consists of four categories of combat airplanes; 1st, those considered as integral parts of the combatant ships to which attached, viz., aircraft carriers, battleships, and cruisers; 2nd, long-range patrol bomber airplanes attached to shore bases or mobile tenders; 3rd, shore-based observation airplanes for the patrol of coastal zones; and 4th, bombers, scouts, and fighters for the use of the Marine Corps. The priority of organization and equipment of these four categories is approximately equal to that accorded to vessels of the United States Fleets.

The current United States Naval Aviation 15,000 airplane expansion program, both for airplanes and shore stations, has been integrated with the expansion of the United States Navy as a whole. Any change in this program will influence the size and character of the naval forces which will be available to the United States for use in war, and for future national security (See ABC-1 Paragraph 9).

The proposed allocation of United States Naval Aviation Units is set out in Table "A" (limited circulation).

REQUIREMENTS OF UNITED STATES ARMY

3. In conditions under which the British Isles no longer were available as a base for air operations against the Axis Powers, an air force of 54 combat groups, plus the necessary personnel and facilities to undertake an expansion to 100 combat groups, is the minimum strength required by the United States Army for its proportionate effort in achieving the air security of United States interests.

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It will, however, in present circumstances, be the policy of the United States to operate a substantial proportion of these forces from advanced bases in the British Isles in the event of United States intervention in the war as an Associate of the British Commonwealth.

The development and proposed allocation of units of the 54 Group program are set out in Table "B" (limited circulation).

REQUIREMENTS OF BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AIR FORCES

4. Details of the British Commonwealth air strengths and expansion program, which include requirements for the security of the British Commonwealth and its sea communications are set out in Table "C" (limited circulation).

ALLOCATION OF MATERIAL

5. The Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff, United States Army, in consultation with the British Military Mission in Washington, will jointly advise the President on the allocation of air equipment among the United States Navy, the United States Army, and the air forces of the British Commonwealth in accordance with the requirements of the Military situation.

The Chief of Staff, the Chief of Naval Operations, and the Chiefs of Staff Committee will be kept informed as to the progress of the aviation expansion programs of the British Commonwealth and United States. The United States Military Mission in London and the British Military Mission in Washington will be furnished with all pertinent information by the appropriate Military authorities.

6. The rate of expansion of the air combat forces of the United States and the British Commonwealth largely depends upon the ability of the two nations to provide adequate air material. All programs of aircraft construction will be accelerated as rapidly as circumstances permit. Deliveries of material to the United States navy, to the United States Army, and to the air forces of the British Commonwealth will be conditioned by the ability of those organizations to absorb material usefully, either for the equipment of operating units, or for reserves of such magnitude as may be agreed upon, according to Military circumstances. The broad policy with respect to the provisions of equipment should be set out in the following paragraphs.

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7. (a) United States Naval Aviation and Army air Corps.

In principle, the United States programs for the equipment and maintenance of existing and new units and training establishments, should be based on total United States Production less:

(i) Allocations to the British Commonwealth as outlined in subsequent paragraphs, and

(ii) Allocations to other nations that may be authorized.

(b) British Air Forces.

In principle, the British Commonwealth programs for the equipment and maintenance of existing and new units and training establishments should be based on:

(i) The output from production in the British Commonwealth,

(ii) The output of the approved British 14,375 and 12,000 airplane programs from United States industry.

(iii) The allocation of a continuing output from the United States capacity now existing or approved, in such numbers as the Military situation may require and circumstances may permit.

8. In addition, allocation of output from new capacity for the production of Military aircraft beyond that envisaged in paragraph 7, should, in principle and subject to periodical review, be based on the following:

(a) Until such time as the United States may enter the war, the entire output from such new capacity should be made available for release to the British.

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(b) If the United States enters the war, thereafter the output from such new capacity should be divided among the Associated Powers as the Military situation may require and circumstances permit. For planning purposes the United Kingdom should assume that such capacity will be divided on approximately a 50/50 basis between the United States and the British Commonwealth.

UNITED STATES NAVAL AVIATION

9. The United States should expand its Naval Aviation, in the four categories listed in paragraph 2, on the plan of the 15,000 plane program. This program is expected to reach maturity concurrently with the completion of the authorized shipbuilding program in the fiscal year 1946. A pilot training program has been initiated which contemplates an ultimate yearly output of 6720 naval aviators. This program is coordinated with the expansion of the Navy as a whole.

The 15,000 plane program envisages an operating strength of combatant airplanes as follows:

      Observation-Scouting          854
      Fighting                    1,272
      Scout-Bombing               1,662
      Torpedo Bombing               588
      Bombing                        52
      Patrol Bombing              1,540
                                  5,968

Excess primary training capacity will exist at various United States Naval Reserve Aviation Bases during fiscal year 1942 which, if British instructing personnel are available, could be applied to British needs.

UNITED STATES ARMY AVIATION

10. Subject to the principles set out in the foregoing paragraphs, and so long as the United States does not enter the war, the United States should agree to defer completing the aircraft equipment of the 54 Combat Group program of the United States Army except as set out in detail in Table "B", provided any additional aircraft, thus made available, contribute directly to the effectuation of the policy stated in paragraphs 11 and 13 (h) of the Main Report.

[4]

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11. The United States Army should proceed with the initiation of its planned Second Aviation Objective (the 100 Group program referred to in paragraph 4) to include total training facilities for 30,000 pilots and 100,000 technicians per year, on the basis of a planned first line strength of:

           Class                        Airplanes

      Heavy Bombardment                   1,520
      Medium Bombardment                  1,059
      Light Bombardment                     770
      Pursuit (Interceptor)               2,500
      Pursuit (Fighter)                     525
      Observation, Liaison and Photo        806
      Transport                             469
      Amphibian                             150

                                  Total   7,799

The time schedule for the completion of this program will periodically be adjusted to conform with deliveries of combat aircraft to the United States made in accordance with paragraph 10 or necessitated by wastage in combat units. Excess training capacity resulting therefrom will be made available for the training of British personnel.

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AIR FORCES

12. The United Kingdom is now developing the program outlined in Table "C". The rate of development will depend in the main on the rate at which aircraft and trained pilots become available. The allocation of resources as between the different strategic Commands in the United Kingdom and as between the United Kingdom and overseas theaters of war will be determined in accordance with the requirements of the strategic situation from time to time, and, if the United States enters the war, in accordance with the joint war plans of the Associated Powers.

[5]

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It is the British intention to build up their offensive power as rapidly as possible.

                                             J. C. Slessor,
                                      Air Vice Marshal, Royal Air Force.

                                            DeWitt C. Ramsey,
                                           Captain, U.S. Navy.


                                            J. T. McNarney,
                                          Colonel, U.S. Army.


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