78th Congress, 2d Session
House Report No. 1161
INVESTIGATION OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
H. Res. 282
TO INVESTIGATE (1) THE EXTENT, CHARACTER, AND OBJECTS OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, (2) THE DIFFUSION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES OF SUBVERSIVE AND UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA THAT IS INSTIGATED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OR OF A DOMESTIC ORIGIN AND ATTACKS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT AS GUARANTEED BY OUR CONSTITUTION, AND (3) ALL OTHER QUESTIONS IN RELATION THERETO THAT WOULD AID CONGRESS IN ANY NECESSARY REMEDIAL LEGISLATION
Report on the Peace Now Movement
February 17, 1944.—Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union and ordered to be printed
Government Printing Office
Washington : 1944
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
MARTIN DIES, Texas, Chairman
JOE STARNES, Alabama
J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey
WIRT COURTNEY, Tennessee
KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota
JOHN M. COSTELLO, California
FRED E. BUSBEY, Illinois
HERMAN P. EBERHARTER, Pennsylvania
Robert E. Stripling, Secretary and Chief Investigator
J. B. Matthews, Director of Research
78th Congress 2d Session
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Report No. 1161
THE PEACE NOW MOVEMENT
February 17, 1944.—Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union and ordered to be printed
Mr. Dies, from the Special Committee on Un-American Activities
submitted the following
[Pursuant to H. Res. 282]
The Committee's Investigation
For some 5 months, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities has had the Peace Now Movement under investigation. After careful checking of the organization's public activities during this period of time, the committee decided that the so-called movement properly came within the scope of its work. On February 7, 1944, agents of the committee served a subpoena on the organization, which called for the turning over of its bank accounts, records, correspondence, and membership lists to the committee.
Our findings are based almost entirely on the files which the organization turned over to the committee under the terms of the subpoena.
The organizing committee of the Peace Now Movement, at the present time, consists of the following individuals: George W. Hartman, chairman; Dorothy Hutchinson, associate editor; Marjorie Ewbank, treasurer; and Bessie Simon, secretary. The organization's national headquarters are located at 15 East Fortieth Street, New York City.
Origins and Background
There are numerous, pacifist groups in the United States, outstanding among which are the Society of Friends (Quakers) and the Fellowship of Reconciliation. The pacifism of most of these groups has a religious basis, and in time of war the large majority of their members are content to limit the expression of their religious philosophy to private conscientious objection to direct participation in actual
military combat. The Selective Service Act makes provision for these individuals when they are liable to military service. Only in exceptional cases do the members of these pacifist groups feel called upon to carry on any propaganda or agitation which is calculated to enlist converts to pacifism.
The Peace Now Movement grew out of the pacifism of these exceptional individuals in such groups as the Society of Friends and the Fellowship of Reconciliation.
In the early part of 1943, Mrs. Dorothy Hutchinson prepared an address entitled "A Call to Peace Now," which she delivered before the Society of Friends at Fallsington, Pa. This address was subsequently published in a 36-page pamphlet with the endorsement and recommendation of the following individuals:
Anna Pettit Broomell
Frederick J. Libby
Albert J. Livezey
A. J. Muste
Edith I lilies Dewees
Paul Comly French
Hannah Clothier Hull
C. Clayton Terrell
Emily Cooper Johnson
Mrs. Hutchinson's "A Call to Peace Now" and her later pamphlet, "Must the Killing Go On?" have been widely distributed by the Peace Now Movement. The former appears to have become something of a bible for the so-called movement.
The theme of the Peace Now Movement is well expressed in the words of Mrs. Hutchinson's "A Call to Peace Now," in which she writes as follows:
We cannot trust our own Nation and her allies to dictate a just peace, if they come to the peace table as victors.
Mrs. Hutchinson says further:
Even a nominal victory would be not only unnecessary but positively detrimental.
For these reasons, the Peace Now Movement is carrying on its propaganda and agitation for an immediate armistice without "even a nominal victory" over the Axis Powers.
LAUNCHING OF THE MOVEMENT
The Peace Now Movement was formally launched at a meeting of a few individuals in Philadelphia on July 10-11, 1943. "These persons, in every instance," according to an official history, "were either Quakers or members of one or all of the leading peace organizations." (For the organization's own statement, see appendix 1.)
The account books of the organization show that it was launched with meager finances. Frederick J. Libby contributed $300 and Mrs. Hutchinson $200. Receipts and expenditures have been small ever since. Only 11 other persons appear to have contributed as much as $50. From all sources, according to the organization's books, only the sum of $2,565.70 was received between August 13 and December 31, 1943, of which a little more than $100 was unexpended at the end of the year.
The following persons, other than Frederick J. Libby and Mrs. Dorothy Hutchinson, have contributed sums of $50 or more to the Peace Now Movement:
Mrs. J. Sargent Gram
George L. Paine
W. Appleton Lawrence
A. S. Olmstead
Mrs. G. Austin
JOHN ALBERT COLLETT
During the first 2 months of the organization's activities, one John Albert Collett was field secretary of the Peace Now Movement.
Collett was born in Oslo, Norway, on August 3, 1911. His parents were Emil, and Gudren von der Lippe Collett. He grew up in the Norwegian capital, but there is a gap of some 10 years prior to his arrival in the United States for which the committee has been unable to account. Three weeks after Hitler's occupation of the city of Oslo, John Albert Collett was issued a passport by the Nazi-controlled police department of the city. Some months thereafter, be arrived in the United States, coming from Norway via Russia (which was then in league with Germany under the terms of the Stalin-Hitler Pact). Collett's passport bears the date April 30, 1940.
That an alien should be permitted to move freely about the United States organizing American citizens, into a group whose activities (as will be shown presently) are clearly seditious, borders on the incredible.
While Collett was listed on the letterhead of the Peace Now Movement as its field secretary, actually he appears to have been far more important in the so-called movement than that title would indicate. In the organization's files he is referred to as "the one who is creating a movement." The other officers of Peace Now consistently paid him a deference which is far from understandable in the light of his age and his very recent arrival in this country.
One of his enthusiastic backers in the Peace Now Movement wrote Collett, as follows:
A Norwegian friend of mine in the Norwegian consulate here in New York told me your name was well known in Norway—his ideas, however, would not coincide with the movement, as you so well understand I'm sure.
While he was on a national tour for Peace Now, Collett got into serious trouble. In Cincinnati he was arrested and convicted for voyeurism. His offense was too disgusting to be recounted in its details in this report. It is something of a commentary on our carelessness that a man should be so actively associated with a seditious movement without ever being apprehended and then find himself instantly in the toils of the law for the minor crime of voyeurism. Collett admitted the truth of the charge against him but pleaded illness. He was discharged after paying a fine of $100. He had wired the treasurer of Peaco Now for the money with which to pay the fine. Later, the other officers of Peace Now, according to letters of
the organization in the committee's possession, conspired to alter certain entries in the organization's account books so that no connection between Peace Now's finances and Collett's fine would appear in the records. After his arrest and conviction, Collett promptly resigned his position as field secretary. National headquarters of Peace Now sent out a letter in which it was stated that Collett, as well as its treasurer, Dorothy Hutchinson, had resigned on account of ill health. Both Mrs. Hutchinson and Collett are still active in Peace Now, however, although the latter works anonymously.
OTHER LEADERS IN PEACE NOW
Mrs. Dorothy Hutchinson, formerly treasurer and now associate editor of Peace Now, has already been referred to as the author of the most important printed propaganda of the movement. George W. Hartman, chairman of Peace Now, was formerly a professor at Columbia University. He is now on the faculty of Harvard University. He has run for mayor of New York City and lieutenant governor of New York State on the Socialist Party ticket. Although not an official of the organization, Mark Shaw, of Boston, has been of considerable assistance in the preparation of Peace Now's propaganda.
On October 23, 1943, the national headquarters of the Peace Now Movement sent out 37 identically worded letters to some of the most prominent religious leaders in the United States. Again on October 25, 1943, 20 copies of the same letter were mailed to yet other prominent religious leaders, and on December 11, 1943, 2 more such communications were mailed. The text of the letter is as follows:
As this war proceeds, many of us feel that it is taking us further and further away from the goal we hope to reach.
The Peace Now Movement was started about 3 months ago by a group of individuals who are convinced that this war is both unnecessary and futile. Information about the movement is spreading rapidly and we hope soon to be functioning on a Nation-wide scale. Our aims have been placed before the Department of State and Department of Justice so that we are proceeding openly in this expression of our constitutional rights.
Those who started this movement are Christians and it is our belief that the Peace Now Movement can be a channel through which all the Christian forces may once more take their stand for the principles of the Christ. Those teachings are well known to all of us. The amazing thing is that out of the Far East should rise up the truest follower of these teachings. We have been given many centuries to learn the lessons the Christ taught and unless we can prove now that we have to some extent learned these lessons there is good reason to foresee the decline of the white race.
This is a direct invitation to ask you in your high office, and those in authority in your denomination, to publicly request all the followers of Christ under your banner at once to lay down their arms and cease supporting this war. The church is strong enough to stop the war if it exert itself. Yours for Peace Now,
______ ______, Secretary.
The first salience of the last paragraph of the foregoing letter clearly brands the Peace Now Movement as an un-American group, at least one of whose officers has been guilty of sedition.
Within very broad and generous limits, the supreme law of the United States recognizes and provides for bona fide cases of conscientious objection to participation in war on the part of individual
citizens. These limits are clearly transgressed by those who go beyond private conscientious objection and advocate treason. The laying down of arms, such as was advocated in the letters sent out from the national office of the Peace Now Movement, would, of course, be treason and would subject all those who were guilty thereof to the supreme penalty. In the solemn judgment of this committee, the mailing of each and every one of these letters from the office of the Peace Now Movement was a seditious act deliberately designed to lead toward wholesale treason on the part of the armed forces of the United States.
In the foregoing judgment, we have chosen our words with the greatest care. The phrase, "deliberately designed to lead toward wholesale treason," has been used advisedly and is justified by the evidence before us. On October 29, 1943, the secretary of the Peace Now Movement sent a follow-up letter to a religious leader who rejected the organization's request for him to advocate a treasonable course of conduct for his followers. In this follow-up letter, the secretary declared:
And we are putting it to you straight from the shoulder. We would so much rather Christians would be guilty of treason to this administration than guilty of treason to the Christ.
The serious nature of the Peace Now Movement's advocacy of our troops' laying down their arms is thus explicitly recognized by one of the officers of the organization. This advocacy of the supreme crime is not made less serious by the author's phrase, "guilty of treason to this administration." As the author must know, the course of conduct advocated for our troops would not constitute "treason to this administration" but treason against the United States.
The declaration of war, by virtue of which the armed forces of the United States are now engaged in a global struggle with the Axis Powers, was an act of the American people expressed through their Representatives in the Congress of the United States, which is the only method under our form of government by which the people of this country may express their will.
The request of Peace Now that certain outstanding religious leaders of the country invite their followers to lay down their arms immediately involved a plan for mass treason which was truly colossal in its conception. For example, all of the cardinals of the Holy See who are resident in the United States were among those invited to participate in this act of treason.
The following religious leaders are those to whom the national headquarters of the Peace Now Movement addressed its letter in which these leaders were requested to call upon their followers in uniform to lay down their arms at once:
Charles P. Morlan, clerk, Ohio Yearly Meeting, Route 1, Salem, Ohio,
Mahlon Newlin, clerk, North Carolina Yearly Meeting, George, N. C.
Henry H. Perry, clerk, New England Yearly Meeting, 31 Milk Street, Boston, Mass.
Rev. Joseph C. Robbins, president, Northern Baptist Convention, Newton Theological Seminary, Newton Centre, Mass.
L. K. Conner, president, General Conference of Church of God, Seventh and Franklin, Oregon, Ill.
Dr. Lee Elmore Baker, president. General Conference of Advent Christian Church, 305 Calumet Avenue, Aurora, Ill.
John S. Stamm, General Conference of Evangelical Church, Third and Reily Streets, Harrisburg, Pa.
Bliss Forbush, chairman, Friends General Conference, 510a York Road, Baltimore, Md.
William Wistar Comfort, clerk, Yearly Meeting of Friends, Walton Road, Haverford, Pa.
Mont Reverend John T. McNicholas O. P., 5540 Moeller Avenue, Norwood, Ohio.
Most Reverend Samuel A. Stritch, 1555 North State Street, Chicago. Ill.
Most Reverend William Cardinal O'Connell, 2101 Commonwealth Avenue, Brighton, Mass.
Most Reverend Michael J. Curley, 408 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Md.
His Eminence William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston, Boston. Mass.
His Eminence Dennis J. Dougherty, archbishop of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dr. T. C. Pollock, United Presbyterian Church of North America, 5034 Hazel Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dr. Donald W. Richardson, Presbyterian Church in the United States, Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va.
Bishop J. S. Flipper, African Methodist Episcopal Church, 488 Houston Street, Atlanta, Ga.
Prof. L. Fuerbringer, president, Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, 801 DeMun Avenue, St. Louis, Mo.
Rev. H. L. Yoehum, president, American Lutheran Conference, 4835 Three Mile Drive, Detroit, Mich.
Rev. Ferdinand Q. Blanchard, Congregational Christian Churches, 287 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Wilson T. Emmons, clerk, Iowa Yearly Meeting, What Cheer, Iowa.
Robt. D. Kohn, president, American Ethical Union, 2 West Sixty-fourth Street, New York, N. Y.
Archbishop William Ernest Robertson, African Orthodox Church, 122 West One Hundred Twenty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y.
Most Reverend Archbishop Athenagoras, Greek Archdiocese of North and South America, 25-19 Thirtieth Drive, Astoria, N. Y.
Most Reverend Francis J. Spellman, 425 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.
Rt. Rev. Henry St. George Tucker, president, Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, 297 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Mildred A. Hooper, secretary, Life and Advent Union, 125 Kelsey Street, New Britain, Conn.
J. L. McElhany, president, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C.
Rev. C. H. Hewitt, executive secretary, General Conference of Advent Christian Church, 305 Calumet Avenue, Aurora, Ill.
Dr. Henry Sloane Coflin, Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Union Theological Seminary, New York, N. Y.
Most Reverend Dennis Cardinal Dougherty, 1723 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Most Reverend Thomas J. Walsh, 552 South Orange Avenue, South Orange, N. J.
Most Reverend Moses E. Kiley, 2000 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis.
Most Reverend John A. Floersh, 1118 South Third St., Louisville, Ky.
Most Reverend Edward Mooney, 1880 Wellesley Drive, Detroit, Mich.
Most Reverend Joseph Schrembs, 18401 Shaker Boulevard, Shaker Heights. Cleveland, Ohio.
Nathan H. Knorr, president, Jehovah's Witnesses, 124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Ralph S. Coppock, clerk, Ohio Yearly Meeting, 711 Wright Avenue, Alliance, Ohio.
Milo Kauffman, Mennonite Church, Hesston, Kans.
Most Reverend Francis J. L. Beckman, 140 Fremont Avenue, Dubuque, Iowa.
Most Reverend John Gregory Murray, 239 Selby Avenue, St. Paul, Minn.
Frank C. Brown, Kansas Yearly Meeting, Haviland, Kans.
Most Reverend John J. Glennon, 4510 Lindell Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo.
C. E. Lemmon, president, International Convention, Disciples of Christ. First Christian Church, Columbia, Mo.
Hon. Pat M. Neff, president, Southern Baptist Convention, Baylor University, Waco, Tex.
Rev. D. V. Jemison, president, National Baptist Convention, U. S. A.. Inc., 1605 Lapsley Street, Selma, Ala.
Dr. G. L. Prince, president, National Baptist Convention of America, 2610 Avenue L, Galveston, Tex.
W. W. Peters, Church of the Brethren, McPherson, Kans.
Allen U. Tomlinson, president, Five Years Meeting of Friends, Whittier, Calif.
Edward Mott, Oregon Yearly Meeting, 6527 North Kerby Avenue, Portland, Oreg.
Lud H. Estes, secretary, General Conference of Methodists, 1120 Faxton Avenue, Memphis, Tenn.
Most Reverend Urban J. Vehr, 777 Pear Street, Denver, Colo.
Most Reverend John J. Cantwell, 100 Fremont Place, Los Angeles, Calif.
Most Reverend Joseph F. Rummell, 2809 South Carrollton Avenue, New Orleans, La.
Most Reverend Edward D. Howard, 2053 Southwest Sixth Avenue, Portland, Oreg.
Most Reverend John J. Mitty, 1000 Fulton Street, San Francisco, Calif.
Archbishop Beckman, Dubuque, Iowa.
Robert W. Searle, 71 West Twenty-third Street, New York 10, N. Y.
PEACE NOW'S APPEAL TO FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS
The Peace Now Movement had the brazen audacity to go over the head of its own Government in an appeal for certain neutral governments to use their "good offices for facilitating negotiations between the warring nations now or in the immediate future." We reproduce below the letter which Peace Now addressed to France's Ambassador in the United States:
Peace Now Movement,
Box 4 W, 336 East Fifty-third Street,
New York, 22, N. Y., July 27, 1943.
Mr. Don Juan Francisco de Cardenas,
Ambassador, Spanish Embassy,
2700 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Dear Mr. de Cardenas: I send you enclosed two copies of a manual stating reasons for a cessation of hostilities and start of negotiations now.
I hope you will send a copy to your Government with your own comments. Our hope is that your Government may see its way, either by itself of together with other neutral governments, to offer its good offices for facilitating negotiations between the warring nations now or in the immediate future.
John A. Collett.
P. S.: I am aware that the manual needs many improvements, and we are now working on alterations. I feel, however, that even in its present state that you will find the material to be of value.
OPEN LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT
The seditious nature of Peace Now is further illustrated in "an open letter to the President of the United States" which was found in the files of the organization. This open letter closes with a threat that the sender's "sanction and support of any Allied invasion of Europe involving the armed forces of the United States" will be withheld under specified circumstances. The text of this letter is as follows:
An Open Letter to the President of the United States
Dear Mr. Roosevelt: Believing that you have not made proper efforts to find common ground with the peopled of the enemy countries in order to bring about the cessation of hostilities, I wish to put myself on record as being opposed to an Allied invasion of the continent of Europe—at least until such a public attempt to reach a reasonable basis of agreement is made.
Reports have repeatedly reached this country that Germany is willing to negotiate a decent and honorable peace; but to the best of my belief and, knowledge Your administration has not made the slightest gesture to meet such proposals half way or stated precisely what is unacceptable about them.
It is my belief that a peace offensive should be made before the order to attack is given. It is wrong to continue the slaughter of thousands of young Americans until we have made an honest attempt to adjust grievances and come to terms with all our adversaries.
Unless such an offer of a democratic peace conference is made, I withhold my sanction and support of any Allied invasion of Europe involving the armed forces of the United States.
The Printed Material Of Peace Now
Obviously in the light of its small budget, Peace Now has not been able to flood the country with its printed propaganda, Most of its material consists of single mimeographed pages. This committee has copies of the following (titles and brief explanations of each):
"Was the United States Tricked into War?" The implication of this two-page mimeographed document is that the administration and the British Government together tricked the American people into a war to protect the "white empires."
"Actions Speak Louder Than Words in International Affairs." In this single-page mimeographed document, the charge is made that "America threw more economic weight into the side of war than any other nation." The document further states that "there is nothing whatever to fight about."
"Answers to Some Common Questions and Objections to a Negotiated Peace Now." This single-page printed document is credited to George W. Hartman, Chairman of the Peace Now Movement. Professor Hartman declares that "our refusal to negotiate is an act of tyranny," and that "if the United States won't 'bargain,' that means we are continuing the conflict to avoid making a just peace."
"General Statement of the Peace Now Movements." This single-page printed document declares that "it is conceit which keeps the war going."
"Appeal for Uncommon Sense." This single-page printed document calls for "a negotiated peace now, between all the peoples of the earth which would use the conference and discussion method to correct injustices and to promote the general welfare of the world."
"Is the Atlantic Charter Adequate?" This three-page mimeographed document states that "the strangulation of German and Japanese trade by our tariffs and import quotas gave Hitler and the Japanese military clique their toehold."
"Peace Now Without Victory Will Save the Jews." This single-page mimeographed document is a report of a speech by Jessie Wallace Hughen.
"Suggested Activities for Local Peace Now Committees." This single-page mimeographed document, which outlines some methods by which Peace Now works, is included in this report as appendix 1.
"America Faces the Great Decision."- This two-page printed document is a speech delivered by George W. Hartman at Carnegie Hall, Now York City, on December 30, 1943. Professor Hartman declares that "because all the warring nations have been selfish and stupid in roughly equal measure, we must now spend one-half of our incomes murdering one another."
"If We Were in Japan's Place." This mimeographed document, as its title indicates, is an implied justification for the Japanese course of conduct which eventuated in Pearl Harbor.
The method by which the foregoing propaganda is distributed is well illustrated by the following excerpts from a letter sent by Leo Charles Donnelly, of Detroit, to Bessie Simon of Peace Now headquarters in New York.
All of your Peace Now literature is good. To the degree that you can see your way to express packages of any of it gratis, I will enclose it with my mailings. As I almost entirely pay all of expenses with the work here, I do not see my way clear to buy your literature.
We try to mail out monthly to all commissioners of schools in the 1,400 Michigan towns, also to all ladies aid societies in the 1,400 Michigan towns. We also try to mail to Wayne County ministers, priests, rabbis. Wayne County takes in Detroit and several small towns. At times we try to mail to 7,000 Detroit school teachers. We also try to mail to Detroit osteopaths, optometrists, chiropractors, chiropodists, believing they are close to poor people.
We try to mail to 154 Detroit newspapers (small and foreign press) to a couple hundred Detroit labor unions, social workers, societies, and about 1,800 leading businessmen. In other words, we try to mail to formers of public opinion.
We load our envelopes hoping that the literature will be spread among employees. Have mailed as many as 7 separate sheets, printed both sides carrying 14 messages. We know it is not good advertising, but we believe in God, we believe in spreading seed, hoping that some will fall on good ground.
(For an outline of the Peace Now Movement's activities in local communities, see its suggestions in appendix 2.)
PEACE NOW DISAVOWED
Early in the life of the Peace Now Movement, various pacifist groups disavowed all formal connections with the movement. Included in this report, as appendix 3, is a letter in which it is stated—
that neither the Fellowship of Reconciliation, nor the National Council for the Prevention of War, nor the War Resistors League, nor the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, nor the Friends are supporting or endorsing the Peace Now Movement above referred to.
The main reason given in this letter for the repudiation of Peace Now was the grave concern "over Mr. Collett's statement that he is willing to accept money from any source."
This committee finds that the Peace Now Movement is an un-American group whose activities are calculated to interfere with the successful prosecution of the war.
The committee finds that in specific instances the so-called movement has been guilty of acts whose nature is clearly seditious and which tend toward the encouragement of treason,
The committee finds that Peace Now's propaganda is of such a nature that it will serve the interests of Goebbels' Nazi propaganda machine. It should be noted that the Nazi drive for a "negotiated peace" coincides almost exactly with the setting up of the Peace Now Movement. When the war took a definite turn in favor of the Allied Nations, the Nazis finally realized that the best they could hope for was a "negotiated peace." At about that time, the Peace Now Movement took up the same theme. Goebbels is undoubtedly using the fact of such an organization's existence in America to bolster the morale of the Germans.
The committee also finds that Peace Now's propaganda can do incalculable harm by its dissemination in neutral countries, to which the organization has addressed it. Even though Peace Now be small and without significant influence in the United States, there is no doubt that enemy and certain neutral countries will seize upon its
propaganda to try to show that American morale is disintegrating and that the Nazis and the Japanese still have a chance of salvaging something from the war.
The committee further finds that Peace Now's propaganda will have the effect, if it is believed, of undermining the morale of the American people who are guarding the home front and of the armed forces on foreign fronts who may not be correctly informed concerning the full facts of the organization.
Fortunately for America, the Peace Now Movement has not been as successful in winning recruits as its founders and officers have desired. Its propaganda has not been effective in turning aside the American people, or any substantial number of them, from giving to the utmost for the decisive defeat of the Axis Powers. The movement's claim of some 2,000 members may or may not bo correct. Even if the number were only 200, Peace Now would not be less un-American in its designs.
The committee recognizes the right of individuals to their own opinions concerning the nature and necessity of war in general or the roots and blame for the present war in particular. When, however, such opinions run counter to the position which the American people as a whole, speaking through the Congress of the United States, have taken, there is no reasonable ground for permitting individuals or groups of individuals to translate their dissenting opinions into sabotage of the Nation's war effort. It is the latter which Peace Now has done, and to the extent that it has exercised any influence whatever, even in limited circles, it has contributed to the cause of the enemy.
If organized government is to prevail, both citizens and aliens who are resident in America must be compelled to desist from sedition, sabotage, and treason.
Appendix 1. Statement
An informal group of concerned individuals met at the Whittier Hotel in Philadelphia July 10 and 11 to discuss and map out an adequate campaign on a national scale for a peace-by-consultation now or at the very earliest date possible.
We agreed that we wanted to sot up a temporary organizing committee that would cooperate with the existing peace organizations as far as possible for the promotion of a Nation-wide Peace Now Movement.
Among the tasks before us this summer are as many as possible of the following: To establish a complete office staff in New York and to start Peace Now groups in other key cities.
To build up a volunteer corps in each of these cities.
To start immediately a concerted effort for funds.
To build up a representative group of supporters and backers and an influential sponsoring committee.
To create appropriate and striking literature—fliers, folders, leaflets, pledge cards, posters, etc.
To line up good speakers for mass meetings and radio broadcasts.
To cultivate friendly cooperation with the press.
To hold regular meetings of the organizing committee.
The following are continuing as active working members on the committee: George W. Hartmann, chairman; Dorothy Hutchinson, treasurer; John A. Collett, field secretary; and Bessie Simon, corresponding secretary.
We agreed upon the following as a tentative statement of principles which adherents to the movement might be asked to sign and which could be used as a petition and as a basic form of card membership:
We believe in Peace Now because—
(1) We want to save our country and the world from the multiplying sufferings and waste of a war to military victory;
(2) We want to prevent a dictated punitive peace which would inevitably lead to future wars;
(3) Negotiations for stopping the war are possible as soon as the United Nations publish to the world fair and reasonable peace aims.
Our summer activities will be preparatory to a more active and extended campaign to start in the fall.
Since our conference, the Peace Strategy Board (an informal coordinating council of representatives from many of the peace organizations); has set up a special committee, including some of our members, to work for Peace Now. We propose to work in close coordination with this group,
The task before us is tremendous, and it is obvious that concerted efforts of a great number of groups and individuals are needed. While the subcommittee of the Peace Strategy Board may place its main emphasis in the beginning on a peace-aims campaign, our own organizing committee intends to start a Nationwide movement for Peace Now and an armistice now. This will be parallel to the strong British movements now under way and will attempt to enlighten the American public on the forgotten causes of this war, to correct current interpretations of war guilt, to struggle for a peace policy which will be fair to all peoples, and to awaken a popular demand for a peace by negotiation.
Both approaches, ours and that of the Peace Strategy Board, seem important and we intend to supplement rather than to compete with the special committee of the Peace Strategy Board.
As time is short and as work with the various sections and groups of the population must be started at the earliest possible moment, it seems important that we begin our preparatory work immediately, while at the same time duplication and overlapping of effort will be avoided to the greatest possible extent.
Appendix 2. Suggested Activities for Local Peace Now Committee
1. Set a day for weekly committee meetings.
2. Set aside certain evenings a week for the executive members of the committee to do preparatory and active work.
3. By telephone, mail, and personal contacts—
(a) Line up new members for the committee.
(b) Form a large volunteer corps and try to find the right people for the right jobs.
(c) Raise funds.
(d) Contact influential people for support and sponsorship.
4. Secure appropriate and striking literature, such as leaflets for mass distribution. We shall be glad to supply you with our literature at cost. The name of your committee can be placed on ft. If you publish your own literature, try to have it clear, brief, and convincing, with illustrations if possible. We would appreciate receiving samples of your publications.
5. Organize distribution of leaflets outside churches, factories, movies, or combine the distribution with poster walks.
6. Pass petitions for signature from house to house and forward at once to your Congressman and Senators.
7. Arrange open meetings. If possible, put an ad in the paper announcing them. Speakers should be helped with points, or outlines for their speeches, charts, maps, etc. (We shall be glad to help with suggestions for this purpose.) Open meetings might also be held in neighboring communities and towns, and new local committees should be started in them.
(a) Petitions should be passed around to be signed with names and addresses of interested persons. (See attached copy.1)
(b) Take up collection at each meeting.
(c) Encourage the people present to contact personally, if possible, or by mail, their Congressmen, Senators, newspaper editors, and others about the urgent need for Peace Now.
8. After your committee has a good solid start, arrange a mass meeting.
9. Cultivate friendly cooperation with your local press and your radio stations. Prepare special news releases for them when this seems appropriate.
10. As soon as sufficient funds are raised, employ a full time secretary and later increase the staff if possible in order to expand the above and other activities.
11. Keep in constant touch with our office for the sake of mutual support and cooperation. We shall always be glad to be of the greatest possible assistance in every way.
Appendix 3. The Fellowship of Reconciliation, 2929 Broadway, New York City, August 20, 1943
Dear Friend: Recently an organization called the Peace Now Movement, address, Box 4, 336 East Fifty-third Street, New York City, has been set up by a few individuals. John A. Collett is the moving spirit and field secretary pro tern. It has been announced that he contemplates a trip to the Middle West in a few days. In response to inquiries, we point out that neither the Fellowship of Reconciliation, nor the National Council for the Prevention of War, nor the War Resistors, League, nor the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, nor the Friends are supporting or endorsing the Peace Now Movement above referred to. The first three of these organizations have for several weeks been planning through the Peace Strategy Board a "Wage Peace Now Campaign" for the fall. The first step in arousing public interest in formulation of specific peace terms by the United States and making them known to the governments and peoples of all lands with a view to ending the war honorably at the earliest possible moment is the circulation of the leaflet and petition, copy of which is enclosed herewith.1 Cooperation of all who are interested in promoting this objective is welcomed.
The Fellowship of Reconciliation national secretaries regard it as most unfortunate that with the Peace Strategy Board for coordinating the activities of the pacifist organizations already in existence, another organization should be set up having ostensibly the same objectives and necessarily appealing chiefly to the same people for contributions of time and money.
We are gravely concerned also over the fact that the Peace Now Movement has announced an ambitious tentative budget of over $100,000, and over Mr. Collett's statement that he is willing to accept money from any source. We believe that there is great danger that persons and organizations with ulterior motives will take advantage of this policy and this in turn may lead to the whole pacifist movement for bringing the war to an end through peace by consultation being discredited. The fact that one New York paper, PM, is already carrying on a systematic campaign to link pacifists interested in bringing the war to an end with Nazis and Fascists in the minds of the public, proves that the danger is not an imaginary one.
Without, therefore, on the one hand impugning anyone's motives or on the other hand attempting to dictate any individual's actions, we wish to emphasize that the Fellowship of Reconciliation has no connection with the Peace Now Movement or with Mr. Collett's present activities.
Yours in fellowship,
A. J. Muste,
J. N. Sayre,
John M. Swomley, Jr.,