August 26, 1945
New York Times.
The praesidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic,
Desiring to strengthen the friendly relations existing between the Soviet Union and the Chinese Republic by means of an alliance of good neighborliness following military cooperation,
Having decided to render each other assistance in the struggle against aggression on the part of enemies of the United Nations in this world war and cooperation in the war against Japan until its unconditional surrender,
Expressing unswerving desire to cooperate in upholding peace and security for the good of the peoples of both countries and all freedom-loving nations,
Acting in accordance with the principles affirmed in the common Declaration of the United Nations on the First of January, 1942, the Declaration of the four Powers signed in Moscow on Oct. 30, 1943, and in formation of the International Organization of United Nations,
Have decided to conclude with this aim the present treaty and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:
Praesidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics-Vyacheslaff Mikhailovitch Molotov, Peoples Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union;
President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic-Wang Shih-tse (Wang Shih-chien), Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Republic.
These, after the exchange of their credentials in complete and due form, have agreed as below:
The high contracting parties have agreed together with the United Nations to wage war against Japan until final victory. The high contracting parties have promised to give each other all indispensable military and other assistance and support in this war.
The high contracting parties have pledged themselves not to enter into separate negotiations with Japan and not to conclude a peace agreement or armistice without mutual agreement with either the present Japanese Government or with any other Government or organ in power in Japan which will not clearly repudiate all aggressive intentions.
The high contracting powers have pledged themselves after the conclusion of the war against Japan to undertake mutually all existing measures in order to make it impossible to repeat the aggression and breach of peace by Japan. If one of the high contracting powers finds herself involved in military operations against Japan as a result of the aggression and breach of peace by contracting party, the other high contracting party will give the first contracting party involved in the military operations military and other assistance and support with the means at its disposal. This article remains in force until such time as, following the demand of the two high contracting parties, the responsibility shall be laid on the organization of the United Nations for the prevention of further aggression on the part of Japan.
Each of the high contracting parties pledges itself not to conclude any alliance whatsoever and not to take part in any coalition whatsoever directed against the other contracting party.
The high contracting parties, taking into consideration the interests of security and economic development of both parties, agree to work together in close and friendly cooperation after the conclusion of peace and to act according to the principles of mutual respect for their sovereignty and territorial entity and noninterference in the internal affairs of both contracting parties.
The high contracting parties agree to give each other all possible economic assistance in the post-war period in view of the lightening and speeding up of the national rehabilitation of both countries in order to make their contribution to the prosperity of the world.
Nothing in this treaty should be interpreted in a way which would prejudice the rights and duties of both high contracting parties as members of the organization of the United Nations.
The above treaty shall be ratified within the shortest possible time. The exchange of ratification documents will take place in Chungking as soon as possible.
The treaty comes into force immediately upon ratification and remains in force for a period of thirty years. Unless one of the high contracting parties should make before expiration of the treaty a declaration of its desire to denounce the agreement, the agreement will remain valid for an unlimited period. Each of the high contracting parties can terminate this agreement by giving one year's notice to the other high contracting party.
In confirmation of the above the plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed this treaty.
Drawn up in Moscow on the 14th of August, 1945, which corresponds to the 14th day of August of the thirty-fourth year of the Chinese Republic, in two copies, each in the Russian and Chinese languages, both texts being equally valid.
As plenipotentiary of the Praesidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
As plenipotentiary of the National Government of the Chinese Republic.
WANG SHIH-TSE (WANG SHIH-CHIEN)
The text of an agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Chinese Republic on the Changchun Railway line as broadcast by the Moscow radio:
The Praesidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic, desiring to strengthen friendly relations and economic ties between the two countries on a basis of full equality and rights and interests of both parties, have agreed as to the following:
After expulsion of the Japanese armed forces from the three eastern Provinces of China the main trunk lines of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the South Manchuria Railway leading from a station in Manchuria (Manchouli [Lupin]) to the station of Pogranichnaya and from Harbin to Dalny [Dairen] and Port Arthur shall be joined into one railway system under the name of the Chinese Changchun Railway. This railway system will become the joint property of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Republic and will be jointly exploited by them. Only that land and those branch lines will be the joint property and will be jointly exploited which have been constructed by the Chinese Eastern Railway line in the period of Russian and joint Soviet and Chinese administration as well as the South Manchuria Railway during the period of Russian administration, which are intended for the direct requirements of these railways as well as subsidiary undertakings servicing these rail ways and constructed in the periods of time mentioned above. All other railways and subsidiary undertakings will be the full property of the Chinese Government. The joint exploitation of the above mentioned railways will be carried out by one single administration under Chinese sovereignty as a purely commercial transport undertaking.
The contracting parties agree that the rights of common property of the above railway line belong to both parties equally and must not be infringed upon by either in full or in part.
The contracting parties with the aim of joint exploitation of the above rail way agree to set up a Sino-Soviet company of the Chinese Changchun Railway Company. An administration of ten members is being constituted for this company, five of them being appointed by the Chinese and five by the Russians. The administration will have its seat in the town of Changchun.
The Chinese Government out of the members of the administration of the Chinese citizens appoints a chairman of administration and assistant of administration.
The Soviet Government out of the Soviet citizens members of the administration appoints a deputy chairman of administration and deputy assistant chairman of administration.
In decisions concerning administration, the chairman's vote counts as two. The legal quorum of administration is seven people.
All important questions which the administration agrees to defer must be handed over to the decision of the Governments of the contracting parties for just and friendly solution.
A commission of revision will be attached to the administration consisting of six members, of which three are appointed by the Chinese Government and three by the Russian Government. The president of the revision committee will be elected from among the Soviet members. The deputy chairman will be elected from among the Chinese members. The deputy chairman's vote counts as two. The quorum of the commission is five members.
For current matters the administration will appoint a managing director of the Chinese Changchun Railway from among the Soviet members and a deputy managing director from among the Chinese members.
The revision commission will appoint a chief controller and his deputy. The chief controller will be appointed from among the Chinese citizens and the deputy chief controller from among the Soviet citizens.
The directors and deputy directors of services and departments of the railway as well as station masters of the more important stations are to be appointed by the administrator. The administration has the right to suggest candidates for these posts. Single members of the administration can also suggest candidates, following the consent of the administrator of the railway.
Should the chief of a service or department be a Chinese citizen, the deputy chief must be a Soviet citizen. Should the chief of a service or department be a Soviet citizen, his deputy must be a Chinese citizen. Chiefs of service and departments will be appointed from among Soviet and Chinese citizens on a 50-50 basis.
The Chinese Government has the responsibility of guarding the railway. For the guarding of the railway premises, equipment and other installations and in order that goods in transit should not be liable to destruction or loss or theft the Chinese Government will set up and control a railway police force. The railway police must at the same time maintain normal order on the railway. As to the duties of the police in carrying out the requirements of this article, these will be drawn up by the Chinese Government after consultation with the Soviet Government.
Only in a period of war against Japan can the railway be used for the transport of Soviet troops. The Soviet Government has the right to transport on this railway by transit without customs administration military equipment in sealed carriages guarded by the railway police force, and the Soviet Union will not have its own armed escort.
Goods transported on the railway by transit from one Soviet station to another and also from Soviet territory to the port of Dalny [Dairen] and Port Arthur or vice versa will not be subject to customs or any other duties by Chinese authorities. Such goods on arrival in Chinese territory are liable to customs examination.
The Chinese Government pledges to supply the railway with coal according to a special agreement.
The railway line is subject to taxes in the same way as other Chinese State railways.
The contracting parties have agreed to supply the Chinese Changchun Rail way administration with working capital in sums agreed upon in the Statutes of Railway. Profits and loss from the exploitation of the line shall be divided between the two parties.
The contracting parties within one month from the signing of the above agreement will appoint a representative each, who, in Changchun, will work out a statute on the joint exploitation of the road. This statute must be drawn up within two months and will then be submitted to confirmation by both Governments.
The property which will go over to joint possession of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Chinese Republic and will be liable to joint exploitation according to Article I of the present agreement must be defined by a commission which must consist of three representatives of each Government. This commission must be set up in Changchun within one month of the signature of the present agreement. This commission must end its work within three months of the beginning of joint exploitation of the signature of the present agreement. This commission must end its work within three months of the beginning of joint exploitation of the railway and present its finding for confirmation by both Governments.
The present agreement has been concluded for a period of thirty years. After expiration of this period the Chinese Changchun Railway with all its property will revert to the full possession of the Chinese Government at free cost.
The present agreement comes in force from the day of ratification Drawn up in Moscow the 14th of August, 1945, which corresponds to the 14th of August, the thirty-fourth year of the Chinese Republic, in two copies of each the Russian and Chinese languages, both texts being equally valid.
for the Soviet Union.
WANG SHIH-TSE (WANG-SHIH-CHIEN),
for the Chinese Republic.
The text of the Russian-Chinese agreement on Port Arthur, as broadcast by the Moscow radio:
Both contracting parties, in accordance with the Soviet-Chinese treaty on friendship and alliance, and as a supplementary section to it, have agreed upon the following:
(1) With the aim of strengthening the security of China and the U.S.S.R. and the preventing of aggression again by Japan, the Government of the Chinese Republic agrees to joint utilization by both of the contracting parties of Port Arthur as a naval base.
(2) The exact frontiers of the area of the naval base noted in the point above are defined in the description and map appended.
(3) The contracting parties have agreed to turn Port Arthur into a purely naval base at the disposal of the battleships and merchant ships of China and the U.S.S.R. alone. A Chinese-Soviet military commission will be established on questions of the joint use of the above-named naval base. It is to consist of two Chinese and three Soviet representatives. The chairman of the commission is appointed by the Soviet side and the vice chairman by the Chinese side.
(4) The defense of the above-noted naval base is given the Government of the U.S.S.R. by the Chinese Government, The Government of the U.S.S.R., with the aim of the defense of the naval base, establishes the necessary equipment, and the cost is borne by the Government of the U.S.S.R.
(5) Civil administration in the given area belongs to China, and in making appointments for responsible leading posts the Chinese Government shall take into account the interests of the U.S.S.R. in the given area. The civil administration in the town of Port Arthur is appointed and dismissed by the Chinese Government by agreement with the Soviet military command.
Suggestions which the Soviet military command in this area makes to the Chinese civil administration with the aim of securing defense will be carried out by the Chinese administration. In disputable cases the question will be put for examination and decision by a Chinese-Soviet military commission.
(6) The Government of the U.S.S.R. has a right to maintain in the area noted in Point 2 its Army, Naval and Air Forces and determine their location.
(7) The Soviet Government has also the task of establishing a maintenance of lighthouses, signals and other equipment necessary for the security of navigation in the given area.
(8) When the agreement comes to an end all the equipment and public equipment put up by the U.S.S.R. in the given area is handed over without compensation and becomes the property of the Chinese Government.
(9) The period of the present agreement is for thirty years. The agreement comes into force from the day of its ratification. The plenipotentiaries signed the above agreement and put their seals upon it.
Done in Moscow Aug. 14, 1945, which is equivalent to Aug. 14, 1934, of the Chinese Republic.
In two copies each in the Russian and Chinese languages and both texts have equal validity.
On behalf of the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
On behalf of the President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic,
In view of the fact that the treaty of friendship and alliance has been concluded between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Chinese Republic, also of the fact that the U.S.S.R. has guaranteed respect for Chinese sovereignty of the three eastern Provinces as an inseparable part of China, in order to insure the interests of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Dairen as an import and export port of commodities, the Chinese Republic hereby expresses its consent:
(1) To proclaim Dairen a free port open to trade and shipping of all countries.
(2) To set aside for leasing to the U.S.S.R. piers and warehouses in the said free port on the basis of separate agreement.
(3) Administration in Dairen will be exercised by China.
The chief of the port shall be appointed from among Soviet citizens by the manager of the Chinese-Changchun Railway by agreement with the Mayor of the town of Dairen. The assistant chief of the port shall be appointed in the above way from among Chinese citizens.
During peacetime Dairen shall not be included in the sphere of operations of regulations on naval base contained in the agreement on Port Arthur of Aug. 14, 1945, and will become subject to the military regime established in this port only in event of war with Japan. Goods coming from abroad to this free port and transported over the Chinese-Changchun Railway directly to the U.S.S.R., also goods coming from the U.S.S.R. over the above railways through the free port for export, or materials and equipments for the port installation coming from the U.S.S.R., are exempted from customs duties.
The above goods must be transmitted in sealed cars. Chinese import duties shall be levied on goods entering China through the free port. Goods exported from other parts of China to the free port are subject to export duties during the period while such continue to be levied in China.
The present agreement has been concluded for a term of thirty years. The present agreement comes into force as from the day of its ratification.
In testimony of which plenipotentiaries signed the present agreements and have fixed their seals thereto.
Done in Moscow Aug. 14, 1945, which corresponds to Aug. 14, 1934, in the Chinese Republic. In two copies each in Russian and Chinese languages, both texts having equal force.
Signed on the authorization of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic,
Agreement on relations between the Soviet commander in chief and the Chinese administration after the entry of Soviet troops into the territory of the three eastern Provinces of China in connection with the present joint war against Japan.
Relations between the Soviet commander in chief and the Chinese administration should correspond to the spirit of friendship and Allied relations existing between the two countries.
Agreed on the following:
(1) After the entry of Soviet troops as a result of hostilities into the territory of the three eastern Provinces of China, supreme authority and responsibility in the zone of hostilities in all questions relating to the prosecution of the war for the period necessary for operations shall rest with the commander in chief of the Soviet armed forces.
(2) Representatives of the National Government of the Chinese Republic and the personnel shall be appointed for the restored territories who shall:
(A) Establish and direct in accordance with Chinese laws the administration on the territory clear of the enemy;
(B) Render assistance in establishing cooperation in the restored territories between the Chinese armed forces both regular and irregular and the Soviet armed forces;
(C) Insure active collaboration between the Chinese administration and the Soviet commander in chief and in particular issue instructions to local organs to this effect being guided by the requirements and wishes of the Soviet commander in chief.
(3) To insure contact between the Soviet commander in chief and the representatives of the National Government of the Chinese Republic a Chinese military mission will be appointed with the headquarters of the Soviet commander in chief.
(4) In the zones under the supreme authority of the Soviet commander in chief the administration of the National Government of the Chinese Republic for the restored territory shall maintain contact with the Soviet commander in chief, through the representative of the National Government of the Chinese Republic.
(5) As soon as any part of the restored territory ceases to be a zone of direct hostilities the National Government of the Chinese Republic shall assume full authority as regards civilian affairs and shall render the Soviet commander in chief every assistance and support through its civil and military organ.
(6) All persons belonging to the Soviet armed forces on Chinese territory shall be under the jurisdiction of the Soviet commander in chief. All Chinese nationals, both civilian and military, shall be under Chinese jurisdiction. This jurisdiction shall also extend to the civilian population on Chinese territory, even in the event of crimes and offenses against the Soviet armed forces, with the exception of crimes and offenses committed in the zone of hostilities which are subject to jurisdiction of the Soviet commander in chief. In disputable cases questions shall be decided in agreements between the Soviet commander in chief and the representative of the National Government of the Chinese Republic.
(7) A separate agreement shall be concluded concerning financial questions involved in the entry of Soviet troops to the territory of the three eastern Provinces of China.
(8) The present agreement comes into force immediately upon ratification of the treaty of friendship and alliance between the U.S.S.R. and China signed on this date. Done in Moscow on Aug. 14, 1945, which corresponds to Aug. 14. 1934, of the Chinese Republic.
In two copies, each in Russian and Chinese languages, both the texts having equal force.
On behalf of the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
On behalf of the President of the National Government of the Chinese Republic,
Agreement on the rendering of assistance to the Central Government of China, on China's sovereignty over Manchuria and on the events in Sinkiang: Honorable Mr. Minister, in connection with the signing on this date of the treaty of friendship and alliance between China and the U.S.S.R. I have the honor of placing on record that the following provisions are understood by both contracting parties in the following way:
(1) In accordance with the spirit of the above treaty and for the implementation of its general ideas and purposes the Soviet Government is ready to render China moral support and assistance with military equipment and other material resources, this support and assistance given fully to the National Government as the Central Government of China.
(2) In the course of negotiations on the ports of Dairen and Port Arthur, also on the joint operation of the Chinese-Changchun Railway, the Soviet Government regarded the three eastern Provinces as part of China and again confirmed its respect for China's full sovereignty over the three eastern Provinces and recognition of their territorial and administrative integrity.
(3) As to latest events in Sinkiang, the Soviet Government confirms that, as stated in Article V of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, it has no intention to interfere with China's internal affairs. In the event that you, Mr. Minister, confirm your agreement with such understanding of the above points, the present note and your answer to it shall constitute a part of the above Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. Accept, Mr. Minister, the assurances of my very high respects.
In his note of reply Minister of Foreign Affairs of China Wang Shih-tse declared his complete agreement with such understanding of the above stated points on the independence of the Mongolian Peoples Republic.
The note from the Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Shih-tse to Peoples Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. Molotov:
Moscow, Aug. 14, 1945
Mr. Peoples Commissar:
In view of the desire for independence repeatedly expressed by the people of Outer Mongolia, the Chinese Government declares that after Japan's defeat, if a plebiscite of the people of Outer Mongolia confirms this desire, the Chinese Government will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia in her existing boundaries.
The above statement will be binding after the ratification of the treaty of friendship and alliance signed by the Chinese Republic and the U.S.S.R., on Aug. 14, 1945.
I beg you, Mr. Peoples Commissar, to accept the assurances of my very high respect.
The note from Peoples Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. Molotov to Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Republic Wang Shih-tse:
Hereby I confirm receipt of your note in which you state that "in view of the desire for independence repeatedly expressed by the people of Outer Mongolia the Chinese Government declares after Japan's defeat, if a plebiscite of peoples of Outer Mongolia confirms this desire, the Chinese Government will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia. The above statement will be binding after the ratification of the treaty of friendship and alliance signed by the Chinese Republic and the U.S.S.R. on Aug. 14, 1945."
The Soviet Government, with satisfaction, has taken note of the above note of the Government of the Chinese Republic and declares on its part that it will respect the state of independence and territorial integrity of the Mongolian Peoples Republic [Outer Mongolia]. I beg you, Mr. Minister, to accept the assurances of my very high respect.