September 3, 1945
Chinese News Service
At this important turning point, when war is giving way to peace, when we are-together with our Allies-putting an end to a dangerous situation created by fifty years of Japanese aggression, and seeking to build a universal, permanent peace and security in East Asia and the world, we should with friendliness toward our neighbors and with peace assured at home, conclude our war effort, restore order, relieve the suffering in the recovered areas grant aid to families of the bereaved and provide recuperation and rehabilitation for the whole nation.
To make the past sacrifices truly meaningful we should at this time introduce democracy and constitutionalism and consolidate national unity. Our people have united in the war effort. Let them now unite to bring in democracy and carry out the principle of the people's livelihood in an environment of social security and peace. I wish, therefore, to make known to our people on this occasion of nationwide rejoicing the most important and fundamental domestic policies of the national government.
First, the fundamental object of our national revolution and war of resistance is not only the defeat of the enemy but also the establishment of a new China based on the Three People's Principles.
[The Three People's Principles of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Father of the Chinese Republic, are nationalism, people's rights and people's livelihood. Under these China is to be free, independent and equal in her relations with other countries; the people will have a constitutional form of government and there will be an equitable distribution of wealth through equalization of land ownership, the development of state capital and the control of private capital.]
In eight years of war our armies and peoples have gone through tremendous hardships. Now that the war has been concluded our people should be given ample opportunity to rest and recuperate. * * * The heavy load on the shoulders of the farmers and workers should be reduced at once.
The National Government has on this day decreed that conscription be suspended for one year throughout the country. Those on active duty should be relieved by stages according to the demobilization plans made by responsible military organizations. The National Government has also completed plans to allot land to soldiers in accordance with the program adopted by the Sixth National Congress of the Kuomintang. The project will be completed within a time limit.
The land tax will not be collected for one year in the provinces that were occupied by the enemy. Provinces in Free China will be exempted from paying the land tax in the following year. * * *
Measures to carry out the principle of the peoples' livelihood are regarded by the National Government as prerequisites to the complete realization of the Three People's Principles, and the planning and execution of these measures as the most important function of the Government in the days to come.
Second, now that the war is over we shall brook no further delay in the inauguration of constitutional democracy. The highest ideal of the national revolution is the participation of all the people in national politics. The most important measure for the realization of this ideal is to return the power of government to the people. The convocation of the National Assembly is an indispensable procedure whereby the National Government may return such power to the people and is also an important program that must be accomplished in the national revolution. * * *
I earnestly hope that the people as a whole and leaders of all walks of life will give sincere support to the Government for the early convocation of the National Assembly and attainment of democracy. No hindrance should be allowed.
The successful conclusion of the prolonged war is the time to begin the task of national reconstruction. The Government's administrative policy will be guided by impartiality and sincerity. A rational and reasonable solution of all problems will be sought through sincere and honest discussion in so far as they do not undermine the Three Peoples' Principles-the highest principles of national revolution and reconstruction-and the position of the National Government. * * * The Government is prepared to consult all leaders before the convocation of the National Assembly. The Government is also ready to consider a reasonable increase in the number of delegates to the National Assembly and seek a rational settlement of other related problems.
As a safeguard to the freedoms of the people, the National Government has, besides the enforcement of the law for the protection of the freedom of the person, decided to abolish within a specific time limit the wartime press censorship so that the people may have freedom of speech.
The Government will promulgate a law to facilitate political assembly and organization so that the people may have the freedom of association and all political parties may abide by the same rule and enjoy the same legalized status. Only thus can we tread the path of democracy traversed by the United States and Great Britain and establish a model democratic state in the Far East.
In one word, if we want to attain democracy, we must have the rule of law as the foundation of constitutional government and the Constitution as the safeguard of the people. Disreputable practices like the employment of armed force in political controversy and the seizure of territory in defiance of Government orders are relics of the days of war lords. They should not be found in a modern democratic state and could not be tolerated in national rebuilding.
Only when domestic problems are peacefully solved by political means and all shades of opinion observe the law of the country can we avoid the mistakes made in the early days of the republic and establish a great charter worthy of the heroic efforts of our revolutionary martyrs and the freedom-loving people during the past fifty years. This is the only policy for our Government and represents the most urgent need of the nation.
Third, national unity is the absolute requirement of a modern state. After the war our national unity will have a strong guarantee in the support of the entire people. We know that national unity insured victory in war. We must realize also that national unity is the prerequisite of democracy and constitutionalism.
Only a united nation can reap fully the fruits of victory. Only a united nation can safeguard democracy, mobilize the people's will and strength and protect its independence and integrity. Only a united nation can accomplish the task of national reconstruction and contribute to international peace and world prosperity.
The most important condition for national unity is the nationalization of all armed forces in the country. There should be no private army within the country's boundary, nor should armed forces be kept by any political party. Only when armed forces are no longer guided by the private wishes of a political party can national unity be secured.
On behalf of the Government, I solemnly state today that all armed forces, if they submit to recognition by the Government, shall receive the same treatment without discrimination. The Kuomintang branch headquarters, which existed in the armed units during the past twenty years, have been entirely abolished as the first step toward the nationalization of the armed forces.
We hope that the whole nation will realize that the unity of military command and integrity of political authority is a factor that determines the survival or extinction of a country. We hope that they will, with concerted effort, bring about and safeguard this integrity. With the greatest sincerity I make this appeal for the future of our country and our people.
The three points above mentioned are the least that we should accomplish at present. They are very important requisites * * * our task in the future is not only to return from a war footing to a peace footing but also to replace unemployment with employment. Our foundation as a modern state is the weakest among the United Nations. Our war of resistance was the longest compared with that of any other member of the United Nations.
It is not only necessary for us to unite with one soul and one heart in order to build a modern state on the ruins of war but also to increase our national strength in order to shoulder the responsibility jointly with the other United Nations in promoting international peace and world prosperity.