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JAPANESE POLICY FOR EAST ASIA
An enlightening statement of Japanese policy is contained in an article entitled; "The present stage of our great continental policy," written by Takehiko Okuhira, an instructor in Keijo Imperial University and published in Tairiku ("Great Continent") Magazine for May, 1941. A summary of the English translation of this article is as follows:
1. The great continental policy of Japan originated with the Korean problem, of 1868. It has been consistent from beginning to end and has been guided by a spirit of universal concord. But it is based on the defensive point of view of wiping out any menace from the outside to our national defense.
The continental debouchment of Japan's economic power was first started in Korea. Then it was extended into China. But it was after the Russo‑German war that it made its great progress and came to hold an important position in our great continental policy. It has taken a natural course, differing essentially from the aggressions of the Western European countries.
It was necessary for Japan to conclude an alliance with Germany and Italy, countries which are facing similar critical situations, due to the political upheaval in the world, and both of whom possess a common world view.
Our great continental policy in the present stage is also our world policy, and is based on the world view harbored by us. For not only does it aim at the expansion and development of our national power, but also signifies our proposal for a world administration.
2. Japan's policy aims at the creation of a new world order and the establish meet of a greater East Asia mutual prosperity sphere. It has entered a new stage through the conclusion of the tripartite alliance. These three nations, which occupied opposite seats at the Paris Peace conference, have come to harbor the
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same historical mission, the same economic circumstances, and the same political aim. They have banded together against the serious opposition of the nations advocating the maintenance of the status quo. The creation of new orders in Europe and Asia are not only their war aims, but also the guiding principle of the creation of a new world.
The principle acting as the support for the creation of a new world order has been provided by the words, "to regard the acquisition of appropriate territories by each of the nations as the sine qua non, (necessity) for lasting peace." This principle is the correct basis for world partition, rather than the recognition of possession as legal from the fact that a nation got there first. The principle advocates the acquisition of appropriate territories by every nation of the world to enable it to exist on earth and not be shut off from space. It sets forth an idea of systematized order in place of the anarchical world order and world partition of today.
Another fundamental support for the creation of a new, world order is the mutual recognition of the right of leadership for nations. Leadership as an ideology of order has definitely taken the place of the old idea of balance of power. In Europe Germany and Italy are carrying on a war to wipe away the influence of Great Britain and put an end to her traditional policy of balance of power. Japan, who is the stabilizing power in East Asia, is showing a resolute determination and power to wipe away America's interference in the changing of the political situation. Their aims are the same.
3. The great continental policy and the Pacific policy are inseparable. It was hoped that America would understand this; but America gradually took over the receding British interests, and after the conclusion of the Tripartite alliance, America denounced the Axis as aggressors and strengthened her aid to Britain. She has been rushing headlong toward war. An agreement has been concluded between Great Britain and America for America to oppose Japan's navy, with quotations from Prof. Fieldhouse of Canada and Prof. Whitney Griswold to prove it. This has brought Japan's sea supremacy to the front. Japan's great continental policy aims to wipe away the intervention of third powers aiming to encircle Japan, dominate the China Seas, and also to terminate the clashes between the races of East Asia and their conquest by Europeans.
4. The Sino‑Japanese treaty of Oct. 30, 1940, concluded at Nanking, for the readjustment of relations, failed to bring about complete peace despite the efforts of Wang Ching‑Wei. But, as the manifestation of the pro‑Japanese centralized government's collaboration toward the establishment of a new order in China, it unfolded a new phase in East Asia. The treaty does not discriminate between the winner and the loser and is based upon equality between Japan and China. It has furthered the formation of the East Asia bloc and strengthened the axis connecting Japan, Manchukuo and China, expanding their defense industries, building up their economy by acquiring and developing natural resources, and formed a anion between Japan and China just short of military alliance. During the past half year the Chinese government has made progress by solving her financial problems, monetary system, peace and order problem, cultural problem (establishment of Nanking Central University), and is making great strides toward the resurrection of a new China. There are many obstacles in the path of the Chinese government: to overcome the feeling of dependence upon Britain and America. But the penetration of the great Asiatic principle, proclaimed by Wang Ching‑Wei, and the withdrawal of British and American influences, which actually can be seen, will make the people of China realize that they are the descendents of a great and free people.
Chungking has been continuing her resistance, hoping for America's support. But President Roosevelt's special envoy, Carey, must have detected that conditions in Chungking are very different from propaganda sent to America. Her economic power is exhausted, transportation routes are deficient, is in conflict with Chinese Red Army, and estranged from her emigrants abroad. She is being made to dance to the tune of the dying embers of the mistaken nationalism of the intellectual class and America's political expediency of regarding her as a stone of the anti‑Japanese cordon.
5. In August of last autumn, the landing of our troops in French Indo‑China wrote a new page in the annals of the history of Asia. Loss of French influence led to demands by Thailand for the return of Laos and Cambodia territory. Behind the scene of Thailand and French Indo‑China were Britain and America, with threats and warnings, siding with French Indo‑China. Their attempts at reconciliation were rejected and America stopped the shipment of airplanes ordered by Thailand. A friendly neutrality agreement was signed between Japan and
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Thailand, since which relations have drawn closer, with the opening up of an airway, trade agreements, and use of Japanese technicians. Our country, which is determined to maintain the peace and tranquility of the greater East Asia sphere at all cost, proposed to arbitrate and mediate the clash between Thailand and French Indo‑China, and when this was accepted, held the peace conference at Tokyo. After about a month, this resulted in the acceptance of an impartial peace on March 11. This had profound significance, strengthening the tie among the three nations and making Japan's position of leadership in greater East Asia firmer and unshakable. Moreover, it enhanced the racial consciousness of the oppressed races of Southern Asia and installed in them hope. Thailand was able to push aside Britain's influence. Thailand is the spear to stab at Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, which are embraced within Japan's greater East Asia policy, and to the north of Thailand lies Burma, which is the gateway of India, while to the east lies Indo‑China, which as an undeveloped treasure house and embraces Camranh Bay. All of the races of southern Asia have been robbed of their real eyes by the propaganda of Britain and America. But since they commonly entertain a righteous indignation against the conquerors and oppressors, it is expected that a time will come when they eventually will revolt.
6. The conclusion of the Sino‑Japanese agreement and mediation of the Thailand‑French Indo‑China border clash, which occurred during the past half year, after the conclusion of the tripartite agreement, have made a great stride toward the creation of a new world order. Our relations with the Dutch East Indies are still being negotiated. Our country has decided to break with the status quo of Britain and America and fight resolutely against their antagonistic interference. The most urgent matter for us is, to pay strictest attention to changing, phases of the International situation and not take out ekes away from the political, economic, and military attacks against the Axis nations. America's anti‑Japanese policy is of an unprecedented positive nature, and is changing from economic oppression to military coercion. Our continental policy should be made the core of our national defense. So long as the execution of our peaceful southward expansion is not threatened, our country will leave their military bases (such as Singapore) alone. More important than anything else is making the western Pacific and the South China sea "our waters", impregnable to the enemies. We should be aware of the fact that not only does the supremacy of the seas depend upon the actual strength of our feet, but upon the number of natal bases and their position, our merchant fleet, our production power, and our strategic raw materials. Since that which would likely happen in the event of an emergency is protracted blockade warfare, it is an urgent matter to include the south in the generalized economy plan of Japan, Manchukuo, and China. The first work should be to awaken within the races of East Asia,, who are suffering from the exploitation and oppression of the American and Englishman, their racial consciousness as Asiatics and encourage them to combine and unite.
The consummation of the Sino‑Japanese treaty is to Wang Ching‑wei like the discovery of a lighthouse. He is advancing along these brilliant rays toward lasting peace. But there are several hundred million people of Asia still wandering about in darkness. But their eyes are fixed, on our moves to bring about the creation of a new order in East Asia, even through the smoke screen spread by the Englishman and the American. If a light to which they can really turn is not hung out today, our mission of resurrection of East Asia will become exceedingly difficult. Foreign Minister Komura's diplomatic plan embraced the resurrection of the races of East Asia. I think the arousing into action of a leader burning with the spirit of an adventurer from the races under bonds is not far away, and I cannot help, but look forward to the glorious day of welcoming him.